12013
Technical Paper
ABSTRACT
This study investigates the interrelations among splitting tensile strength fspt, compressive strength fc,
and Youngs modulus Ec of early age concrete cured under different temperature histories. The
concrete of cylindrical specimens were mixed with the same water to cement ratio and with different
types of cements, OPC, BB, and LH cements. It was found that fsptfc relationship and Ecfspt
relationship of early age concrete were unique regardless of types of cements and curing temperature
histories. Accordingly, new equations of the two relationships were developed and proposed.
Key words: Early age concrete, splitting tensile strength, compressive strength, Youngs modulus,
curing temperature history
1. INTRODUCTION
Predictions of splitting tensile strength fspt and
Youngs modulus Ec of concrete at early age are
significant among other parameters for thermal stress
analysis of massive concrete. The analysis is known to
be complicated because the mechanical properties and
the thermal properties of the concrete are developing
during hydrations [1]. In terms of concrete compressive
strength fc at early age, it could be predicted by means
of a strength model based on hydration of cement
constituent mineral proposed by Kato and Kishi [2].
Therefore, the developments fspt and Ec of early age
concrete could be indirectly predicted from the heat of
hydration if the interrelations among fspt, Ec, and fc were
established. Meanwhile, based on the Guidelines for
Control of Cracking of Mass Concrete 2008 [3], the
equation to predict fc which can take into account the
age, the temperature history dependence, type of cement
and so on was also given. Then, the corresponding fsptfc and Ecfc relationships were also provided [3].
Moreover, many equations have been proposed
for fsptfc relationships [313] and Ecfc relationships [38] whose equations are generally accepted in a form of
Eqs.1 and 2, respectively.
in Table 1.
The value of n of 0.5 and 2/3 given by [4] and
[8], and by [5], [7], and [910], respectively have been
proposed for fstpfc relationships of concrete at all ages.
However, it has been reported that 0.5 and 2/3 of n gave
less accuracy in the prediction of fsct at early age, and
Oluokun et al. [11] subsequentially proposed the value
of n of 0.79 for the early age concrete. On the other
hand, it has been observed that the proposed equation of
[11] was developed based on only the test results of
150300 mm cylindrical concrete specimens with Type
I cement cured in a moist room of constant temperature
of 22oC. Based on the research results of Gardner [10],
type of cement and curing temperature effect on the
developments of both strengths and Ec, but not fsptfc
relationships. Still, only a method of constant curing
temperatures of 0, 10, 20, and 30oC until the testing age
were examined by Gardner [10].
In the real concrete structures, the temperature in
concrete after casting increase and decrease with time
respectively before and after removing the form works.
It means that the equations to predict fspt and Ec of early
fspt = k(fc)n
(1)
Ec = (fc)
(2)
where,
fspt : split tensile strength (N/mm2);
Ec : Youngs modulus (kN/mm2);
fc : compressive strength (N/mm2); and
k, n, , and : are nondimensional coefficients.
Different values of k, n, , and were previously given
by different researchers and institutions as summarized
*1
*2
JCI [3]
JSCE [4]
JSCE [5]
AIJ [6]
CEBFIB [7]
ACI31811 [8]
Raphael [9]
Gardner [10]
Oluokun et al. [11]
Oluokun [12]
Arioglu et al. [13]
0.13
0.44
0.23
0.18
0.3
0.56
0.313
0.33
0.216
0.2
0.387
0.85
0.5
2/3
0.75
2/3
0.5
2/3
2/3
0.79
0.7
0.63
Phd, Dept. of Infrastructure System Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, JCI Member
Professor, Dept. of Infrastructure System Engineering, Kochi University of Technology, JCI Member
427
6.3
4.7
9
8.56
9.5
4.73
3.24

0.45
1/2
1/3
1/3
1/3
1/2
0.63

fc28
Slump
(N/mm2) (cm)
30
12
28.9
12
27.5
12
w/c
(%)
67
67
67
s/a
(%)
43.5
43.5
43.5
Gravel(kg/m3)
0515mm 1520mm
536
536
539
539
532
532
Cement Water
Sand
(kg/m3) (kg/m3) (kg/m3)
244
163
824
244
163
821
244
163
820
WA
(kg/m3)
2.44
2.44
2.44
AE
(kg/m3)
1.72
1.72
1.72
Note: OPC: Ordinary Portland Cement (3.15g/cm3); BB: Blast Furnace Cement type B (3.04g/cm3); LH: Low Heat Cement (3.24g/cm3). The
difference among the mixes 1, 2, 3 and 4 is the curing temperature histories given in Fig.1.
50
40
30
20
OPC 1
OPC 3
BB 3
LH 4
10
0
0
3
4
5
Age t (days)
OPC 2
BB 2
BB 4
428
OPC2
BB2
fc
Ec
fspt
fc
Ec
fspt
fc
Ec
fspt
0.20
0.59
0.85
1.13
1.46
1.85
2.10
2.16
2.36
2.40
2.46
2.57
0.64
3.08
5.61
8.11
11.73
15.28
18.82
19.55
21.41
22.92
23.83
23.46
3
8
14
16
23
27
29
31
32
34
36
34
0.19
0.46
0.74
1.15
1.74
2.15
2.20
2.48
2.49
2.47
0.81
2.25
5.00
7.92
14.18
19.25
19.55
22.08
23.46
23.60
10
14
25
28
32
33
32
35
0.08
0.32
0.55
0.95
1.44
1.77
1.96
2.09
2.16
2.29
0.30
1.31
3.50
6.16
11.52
14.92
17.35
20.08
20.46
21.10
6
14
18
25
28
29
30
31
0.02
0.18
0.45
0.57
0.86
1.21
1.49
1.71
1.73
1.74
1.81
3.0
25
2.5
20
15
5
0
OPC3
f c E c
0.19
0.72
4.0
5.12
7.82
10.1
14.0
15.1
18.2
21.3
23.4
fspt
OPC 1
OPC 3
BB4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Age t (days)
Fig.2 Compressive strength fc
1.0
OPC 2
BB 2
BB 3
0.5
0.0
OPC 1
OPC 3
LH 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Age t (days)
Fig.3 Splitting tensile strength fspt
Ec
fspt
fc
LH4
Ec
fspt
 0.12 0.82 0.9 0.02 0.09 4 0.31 2.34 6.1 0.06 0.55  0.21
8 0.66 5.07 10.5 0.17 1.14  0.57
 0.71 6.41  0.38 3.26 7.55 0.61
 1.20 9.72 23.9  0.64
 1.17 10.4 16.1 0.78 6.77 14.1 0.75
18 1.54 13.5 25.5 1.15 9.50 20.7 1.12
 1.69 15.6 21.7 1.6 12.8 25.7 1.46
25 1.89 17.7 29.3 1.81 14.1 28.4 1.72
29 2.14 19.9 29.4 2.08 17.4  1.68
 2.4 23.0 31
 1.98 22.0 35.9 2.62 25.9 
1.5
OPC 2
BB 2
BB 3
BB4
fc
2.0
fspt (N/mm2)
fc' (N/mm2)
30
10
BB3
fspt
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
Ec (kN/mm2)
Age
(days)
0.3
0.5
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
7.0
OPC 2
BB 2
BB 3
LH 4
fc
Ec
0.83
3.92
4.66
5.5
6.62
10.71
15.06

10.43
11.62
13.06
13.79

OPC 1
OPC 3
BB 4
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Age t (days)
Fig.4 Youngs modulus Ec
429
OPC 1
OPC 2
OPC 3
BB 2
BB 3
BB 4
LH 4
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
Eq.3
3.0
fspt (N/mm2)
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0
3.5
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45
fc' (N/mm2)
(a)
10 15 20 25 30 35 40
fc' (N/mm2)
(b)
5.0
5
[11] 22 oC
[10] 0 oC
[10] 10 oC
[10] 20 oC
[10] 30 oC
[21] 20 oC
JCI [3]
JSCE[5]
AIJ[6]
Eq.3
4.0
3.0
2.0
1.0
3
2
1
0
0.0
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
JCI [3]
JSCE[5]
AIJ[6]
Eq.3
fspt (N/mm2)
fspt (N/mm2)
OPC 1
OPC 2
OPC 3
BB 2
BB 3
BB 4
LH 4
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
Eq.3
3.0
fspt (N/mm2)
3.5
70
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
fc' (N/mm2)
fc' (N/mm2)
(a)
(b)
Fig.6 Verifications of Eq.3 with previous test results
2
Table 4 Test results of fspt (N/mm ) and fc (N/mm ) from [9] (cylinder size 150300mm)
Source
Curing
Temp.
0 oC
10 oC
[10]
20 oC
30 oC
Age
(days)
1
3
7
1
3
7
1
3
7
1
3
7
Mix1
(w/c = 0.55)
Cement type
I/fly ash
Mix 2
(w/c = 0.35)
Cement type
I/fly ash
Mix 3
(w/c = 0.55)
Cement type
I
Mix 4
(w/c = 0.35)
Cement type
I
Mix 5
(w/c = 0.55)
Cement type
III
Mix 6
(w/c = 0.35)
Cement type
III
fc'
fspt
fc'
fspt
fc'
fspt
fc'
fspt
fc'
fspt
fc'
fspt
5.12
10.27
21.65
6.53
17.58
25.33
10.12
20.17
24.9
14.29
21.87
28.8
0.86
1.48
2.58
0.98
2.20
2.73
1.72
2.67
3.23
2.17
2.76
3.04
4.51
17.73
33.5
10.19
25.07
30.87
11.97
28.19
34.6
18.68
28.59
35.8
0.93
2.33
3.43
1.82
3.01
3.07
1.92
2.99
3.47
1.86
2.85
3.12
3.95
12.24
20.14
7.71
17.36
24.92
10.22
19.99
27.72
14.31
20.02
24.21
0.63
1.16
1.95
1.04
1.64
3.01
1.73
2.87
2.91
2.07
2.58
2.82
11.83
26.38
32.33
17.39
27.04
34.04
20.65
29.31
39.06
20.21
28.92
34.87
1.77
2.95
3.58
2.16
3.06
3.5
2.36
3.29
3.55
2.39
2.95
3.01
7.17
32.24
40.16
23.34
33.11
39.11
27.94
35.65
39.09
29.7
33.65
37.36
1.21
3.57
4.11
3.00
3.55
3.81
3.21
3.59
3.84
3.06
3.08
3.57
5.02
31.65
36.33
18.78
30.34
34.14
22.14
31.6
34.33
24.63
28.58
32.75
1.16
3.57
3.53
2.57
3.33
3.45
2.77
3.37
3.43
2.78
3.09
3.35
Table 5 Test results of fspt (N/mm ), and fc(N/mm ) from [1420] (cylinder size 100200mm)
Source Age (days)
Remarks
fspt
fc'
fspt
fc'
fspt
fc'
fspt
fc'
[16]
[17]
[18]
7
7
2.67
3.01
2.55
1.81
30.2
48.7
[19]
2.86
25.01
3
7
3
7
3
7
3
7
3
7
1.7
2.2
1.54
2.24
1.10
1.76
1.57
2.12
1.97
2.28
13.6
19.1
11.53
18.67
9.21
15.42
11.77
16.16
16.79
22.98
3.3
2.88
3.18
2.88
3.01
2.24
2.82
3.39
2.79
40.9
25.96
32.11
22.87
28.09
18.67
24.52
32.62
31.38
4.7
2.50
2.76
1.74
1.97
2.25
4.19
51
22.49
29.98
14.24
19.65
26.52
41.85
3.45
3.48
2.78
3.33
2.66
3.70

33.15
37.44
26.72
33.64
23.98
37.71

[15]
[20]
[21]
32.95
37.56
19.27
18.6
2.65
3.91
3.13
3.98
2.75
1.24
34.2
45.1
38.12
45.19
34.3
12.29
2.95
3.5
2.67
4.27
3.26

32.95
47.68
56.27

3.37
1.4
45.8
40.75
13.5
4.28
430
Table 6 Test results of fspt (N/mm ) and fc (N/mm ) from [10] (cylinder size 150300mm)
Ec (kN/mm2)
Mix B
(w/c=0.763)
Cement type I
Mix C
(w/c=0.534)
Cement type I
Eq.3
Eq.3
Mix D
(w/c=0.329)
Cement type I
Eq.3
fc'
fspt
fspt.cal
fc'
fspt
fspt.cal
fc'
fspt
fspt.cal
fc'
fspt
fspt.cal
10.67
20.28
24.79
27.43
29.92
35.69
1.22
1.99
2.52
2.79
2.90
3.50
1.33
2.22
2.61
2.83
3.03
3.49
1.30
4.82
7.82
12.19
14.31
18.57
0.11
0.48
1.07
1.25
1.91
2.10
0.25
0.70
1.04
1.48
1.68
2.07
2.63
12.22
18.68
23.90
26.48
35.44
0.21
1.33
1.94
2.86
3.08
3.88
0.43
1.48
2.08
2.53
2.75
3.47
10.07
26.77
35.93
44.22
46.21
50.11
0.83
2.49
3.32
4.02
4.19
4.34
1.27
2.77
3.51
4.14
4.29
4.58
40
OPC 2
OPC 1
BB 2
OPC 3
BB 3
LH 4
BB 4
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
30
20
10
0
0
Eq.3
10
20
30
fc' (N/mm2)
40
40
40
30
30
OPC 2
OPC 1
BB 2
OPC 3
BB 3
LH 4
BB 4
20
10
0
0
0.5
1.5
2.5
Ec (kN/mm2)
22 oC
[11]
0.3
0.6
1
2
3
7
Mix A
(w/c=0.388)
Cement type I
Ec (kN/mm2)
Curing Age
Source
Temp. (days)
10
0
fspt (N/mm2)
Fig.8 Ecfspt relationship
OPC 1
OPC 2
OPC 3
BB 2
BB 3
BB 4
LH 4
20
10
20
30
40
Eq. 4 (N/mm2)
Fig.9 Verification of Eq.4
et al. [27] and Pane and Hansen [28] found that Ec and
Ect of early age concrete t>18 hours (0.75day) are
almost the same. Therefore, the research results of [2428] are the supportive proofs showing that Ec is
equivalent to Ect.
Accordingly, the relationship between Ec and fspt
of early age concrete were examined as illustrated in
Fig.8. The test results suggested that Ecfspt relationship
of early age concrete is linear and unique regardless of
type of cement and curing temperature. Meanwhile, the
relationships fitted best with the following equation:
Ec = 14.5fspt
(4)
where,
Ec : Youngs modulus (kN/mm2), which is
equivalent to Ect; and
fspt : Splitting tensile strength of concrete
(N/mm2) with (t< 7days).
As shown in Fig.9, good agreement between test
results of Ec and the calculation results by means of
Eq.4 was observed. These agreements implied that
prediction of Ec of early age concrete (t< 7days) from
fspt gives more accuracy than from fc using the existing
equations given by [310]. Meanwhile, since Ect is
equivalent to Ec, it also implied that Ect could be also
predicted from fspt by means of Eq. 4.
Moreover, the unique equation of Ecfspt
relationships (Eq.4) and fsptfc relationships (Eq.3)
regardless of type of cement, temperature history, and
curing conditions of the concrete found in this study
could allow Ec, fspt and Ect to be indirectly and precisely
calculated from the total heat of cement hydration of
early age concrete through fc. It was because fc at early
age could be predicted by means of a strength model
based on hydration of constituent mineral proposed by
Kato and Kishi [2].
431
5. CONCLUSIONS
The following conclusions can be derived from
this study.
(1)
Splitting tensile strength and compressive
strength relationship of concrete at early age (t<7
days) was found to be unique regardless of type
of cement and temperature history of the
concrete.
(2)
The relationship between splitting tensile
strength and compressive strength of concrete at
early age (t< 7 days) is proposed as follows:
fspt = 0.2(fc)0.8
(3)
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432