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You are on page 1of 28

PROCESS ENGINEERING LABORATORY II

(CHE 523)

NAME

STUDENT NO

GROUP

EXPERIMENT

DATE PERFORMED

SEMESTER

PROGRAMME / CODE

SUBMIT TO

NO

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

: 2014275914

: EH2203B

: DISTILLATION COLOUM

: 13 OCTOBER 2015

:3

: EH220

: MADAM NOOR FAZLIANA BINTI SHOPARWE

Title

Abstract/Summary

Introduction

Aims

Theory

Apparatus

Methodology/Procedure

Results

Calculations

Discussion

Conclusion

Recommendations

Reference

Appendix

TOTAL MARKS

Remarks :

5

5

5

5

5

10

10

10

20

10

5

5

5

100

Marks

Checked by :

Rechecked by:

------------------------------

------------------------------

Date:

Date:

ABSTRACT/SUMMARY

Heat exchanger is a device that allows heat from a fluid (a liquid or a gas) to

pass to a second fluid (another liquid or gas) without the two fluids having to mix

together or come into direct contact. Thus, a device named Heat Exchanger Training

Apparatus (Model; HE 158C) was used to conduct Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

experiment. The objectives of this experiment are to evaluate and study the heat load

and head balance, LMTD and overall heat transfer coefficient, to calculate the Reynolds

numbers at the shell and tubes sides and to measure and determine the shell and tube

sides pressure drop. To do that, we vary the hot water and cold water flow rates and

record the inlet and outlet temperatures of both the hot water and cold water streams at

steady state. The flow of hot and cold water is co-current flow. This experiment consists

of 10 runs. For each of the run, two sets of data are obtained.

INTRODUCTION

Heat exchanger is a device that transfers heat from one fluid to another or from

or to a fluid and the environment. These are a few types of shell and tube heat

exchanger.

Figure 1: Heat exchanger with fixed tube plates (four tubes, one shell-pass)

Figure 2: Heat exchanger with floating head (two tube-pass, one shell pass)

Shells in the device are used to transport cold water while tubes are used to

transport hot water across the device. Baffles are used in the heat exchanger to support

the tubes and allow water to flow across the tubes other than providing a higher transfer

rate due to increase of turbulence. Shell and tube heat exchangers have the ability to

transfer large amounts of heat in relatively low cost, serviceable designs. They can

provide large amounts of effective tube surface while minimizing the requirements of

floor space, liquid volume and weight.

exchanger need to be made. This is important because different arrangement gives

different efficiency and practicality. The four basic considerations are:

1. Methods of controlling fluid flow through the shell.

2. Consideration for differential thermal expansion of tube and shell.

3. Consideration for ease of maintenance and servicing.

4. Means of directing fluid through the tubes.

Shell and tube heat exchangers represent the most widely used vehicle for the transfer

of heat in industrial process applications. They are frequently selected for such duties

as:

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7.

8.

Process or refrigerant vapor or steam condensing

Process liquid, steam or refrigerant evaporation

Process heat removal and preheating of feed water

Thermal energy conservation efforts, heat recovery

Compressor, turbine and engine cooling, oil and jacket water

Hydraulic and lube oil cooling

Many other industrial applications

The

main

advantages

of

shell-and-tube

heat

exchangers

are:

or the shell, and the orientation can be horizontal or vertical.

2. The pressures and pressure drops can be varied over a wide range.

3. Thermal stresses can be accommodated inexpensively.

4. There

is

substantial

flexibility

regarding

materials

of

construction

to

accommodate corrosion and other concerns. The shell and the tubes can be

made of different materials.

5. Extended heat transfer surfaces (fins) can be used to enhance heat transfer.

6. Cleaning and repair are relatively straightforward, because the equipment can be

dismantled for this purpose.

objectives

1. To evaluate and study the heat load and head balance, LMTD and overall

heat transfer coefficient.

2. To calculate the Reynolds numbers at the shell and tubes sides.

3. To measure and determine the shell and tube sides pressure drop.

THEORY

The main function of heat exchanger is to either remove heat from a hot fluid or

to add heat to the cold fluid. The direction of fluid motion inside the heat exchanger can

normally categorized as parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow. In this experiment, we

study only co-current flow. For co-current flow, both the hot and cold fluids flow in the

same direction. Both the fluids enter and exit the heat exchanger on the same ends. In

this experiment, we focused on the shell and tube heat exchanger.

This part of the calculation is to use the data in Table 1 to check the heat load

QC

QC

and

is closest to

HW

Hot water flow rate (

)

QH

FH Cp H (t1 t 2 )

CW

Hot water flow rate (

FC CpC (T2 T1 )

QC

=

Where:

QH

QC

= Heat load for cold water flow rate

FH

QH

QH

FC

Cold water mass flow rate

t1

t2

T1

T2

LMTD

LMTD

(t1 T 2) (t 2 T1 )

(t T2 )

ln 1

(t 2 T1 )

(t1 T2 )

(t2 t1 )

(t2 t1 )

(T1 t1 )

and

FT

. Practically,

FT

value

factor would apply to enhance the LMTD value. So, equation below show the corrected

LMTD can be determined.

LMTD FT LMTD

UD

equation below. In this case, the value of total heat transfer area

equal to 31.0 ft2

Where:

Q

A LMTD FT

Q

Heat rate with respect to the average head load

FT

Correction factor

CW

Re(s )

Shell-side

for

Re( s )

De.Gs

Where:

De

de

12

do

4(1 / 2 PT 0.86 PT 1 / 2 .

)

4

de

1 / 2 .do

At which:

PT

Pitch = 0.81inch

do

Gs

Ws

As

Ws

As

(lbmft-2hr-1)

0.029 ft2

HW

Re(t )

Tube-side

for

Re( t )

D.Gt

Where:

D

Tube ID = 0.04125 ft

Gt

Wt

At

Wt

At

(lbmft-2hr-1)

0.02139 ft2

Pressure drop

This part would determine the following:

H w : The measured tube-inside pressure drop DP (tube) which will be corrected and

is expected

CW

:

The measured shell-inside pressure drop DP (shell) which will be corrected and

Notice that, both calculated pressure and also measured pressure are considered in

unit mmH2O. In this case, since calculated pressure drop in both of shell and tube side

have been obtained during the experiment, so its only required conversion factor to

change the value into unit of mmH2O.

Conversion factor:

x.bar

1 105 Pa 1mmH2O

1bar

(9.81) Pa

.

APPARATUS

PROCEDURE

General start-up procedures

A quick inspection was performed to make sure that the equipment is in a proper

working condition.All valve are initially closed, except V1 and V12.Hot water tank is

filled up via a water supply hose connected to valve V27. The valve is closed after the

tank is full.The cold water tank is filled up by opening valve V28 and leave the valve

opened for continuous water supply.A drain hose is connected to the cold water drain

point.Main power is switched on and heater for the hot water also switched on and set the

temperature controller to 50C.The water temperature in the hot water tank is allowed to

reach the set point.The equilibrium is already set up.

General Shut-down

The heater is switched off. The hot water temperature drops is wait until below 40.The

pump P1 and P2 is switched off.Main power is switched.All the water in process lines is

drain off. All valves is closed.

The general start-up procedure is performed.The valve is switched to co-current flow shell and

tube Heat Exchanger arrangement.The pumps P1 and P2 is switched on.The valve V3 and V14 is

opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flowrates for hot water and cold water stream.The

system is allowed to reach steady state for 10 minutes.FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 is

recorded.The pressure drop measurement for shell-side and tube side also recorded for pressure

drop studies.The steps 4 to 7 is repeated for different combination of flowrates FT1 and FT2 as

in the result sheet.The pumps P1 and P2 is switched off after the experiment is completed.The

next experiment is proceed.

0.8

0.33

L

1 m3 1 min

m3

V =10

=1.67 104

min 1000 L 60 s

s

A=

d 2 (0.02664)

=

=0.000557 m2

4

4

4

V 1.67 10

m

v= =

=0.299

A 0.000557

s

vd

=

988.18

kg

m

0.299 0.02664 m

3

s

m

=14327 ( turbulent flow )

0.0005494 Pa s

Pr=

Cp

=

k

( 0.0005494 Pa s ) ( 4175

0.6436

0.8

Nu=0.023 Pr

h=

Nuk

=

d

0.33

J

)

kg K

W

mK

=3.564

0.8

0.33

=73.55

W

m K

W

=1776.91 2

0.02664 m

m K

73.55 0.6436

For (2 LPM)

3

L

1m 3 1 min

5 m

V =2

=3.33 10

min 1000 L 60 s

s

0.8

Nu=0.023 Pr

0.4

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)

(d 2sd 2o)

A=

=

4

V 3.33 105

m

v= =

=0.0069

A

0.0048

s

v ( d sd o )

=

955.67

kg

m

0.0069 ( 0.0850.0334 m)

3

s

m

0.0008007 Pa s

Cp

Pr=

=

k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183

W

0.6155

m K

J

)

kg K

=5.49

W

Nuk

m K

W

h=

=

=68.68 2

d

(0.085 m0.0334 m)

m K

5.76 0.6155

3

L

1m 3 1 min

5 m

V =4

=6.67 10

min 1000 L 60 s

s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)

(d 2sd 2o)

A=

=

4

5

V 6.67 10

m

v= =

=0.0139

A

0.0048

s

v ( d sd o )

955.67

=

kg

m

0.0139 ( 0.0850.0334 m)

3

s

m

0.0008007 Pa s

Cp

Pr=

=

k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183

J

)

kg K

W

0.6155

m K

0.8

0.4

0.8

=5.49

0.4

W

Nuk

m K

W

h=

=

=120.26 2

d

(0.085 m0.0334 m)

m K

10.80 0.6155

3

L

1 m3 1 min

4 m

V =6

=1 10

min 1000 L 60 s

s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)

(d 2sd 2o)

A=

=

4

V 1 104

m

v= =

=0.0208

A 0.0048

s

v ( d sd o )

955.67

=

kg

m

0.0208 ( 0.0850.0334 )

3

s

m

0.0008007 Pa s

Pr=

Cp

=

k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183

0.6155

0.8

J

)

kg K

W

m K

0.4

=5.49

0.8

0.4

W

Nuk

m K

W

h=

=

=166.03 2

d

(0.085 m0.0334 m)

m K

12.35 0.6155

L

1 m3

1 min

m3

V =8

=1.333 104

min 1000 L 60 s

s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)

(d 2sd 2o)

A=

=

4

V 1.333 104

m

v= =

=0.0278

A

0.0048

s

v ( d sd o )

=

955.67

kg

m

0.0278 ( 0.0850.0334 )

3

s

m

0.0008007 Pa s

Cp

Pr=

=

k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183

J

)

kg K

W

0.6155

m K

0.8

0.4

=5.49

0.8

0.4

W

Nuk

m K

W

h=

=

=209.38 2

d

(0.085 m0.0334 m)

m K

17.55 0.6155

1 min

L

1 m3

m3

V =10

=1.667 104

min 1000 L 60 s

s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)

(d 2sd 2o)

A=

=

4

V 1.667 104

m

v= =

=0.0347

A

0.0048

s

v ( d sd o )

=

955.67

kg

m

0.0347 ( 0.0850.0334 )

3

s

m

0.0008007 Pa s

Cp

Pr=

=

k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183

W

0.6155

m K

J

)

kg K

=5.49

W

Nuk

m K

W

h=

=

=250.02 2

d

(0.085 m0.0334 m)

m K

20.96 0.6155

1.

U=

Qhot

1237.7 W

W

=

=2236.08 2

A T lm 0.05 m 2 11.12

m K

2.

U=

Qhot

2062.8W

W

=

=3007.00 2

2

A T lm 0.05 m 13.72

m K

3.

U=

4.

Qhot

2337.9 W

W

=

=3080.24 2

A T lm 0.05 m 2 15.18

m K

U=

Qhot

2544.2W

W

=

=3374.27 2

A T lm 0.05 m 2 15.08

m K

5.

U=

Qhot

2819.2W

W

=

=3649.45 2

A T lm 0.05 m2 15.45

m K

DISCUSSION

In this experiment, the objectives are to evaluate and study the heat load and

head balance, LMTD and overall heat transfer coefficient, to calculate the Reynolds

numbers at the shell and tubes sides and to measure and determine the shell and tube

sides pressure drop. At the end of the experiments, all objectives are met although

maybe there are some errors.

It is found that the calculated values of QH and QC are not really satisfied the

theory since supposedly, the ratio of QC/QH is unity means the ideal condition is the

value of QC should be closed to the value of QH. But in the calculated results, it is

found that there are some deviations in the value but it is normal because it is

impossible to have an ideal system in real life. The most irrelevant data for QC/QH is in

run 1, set 3 where the ratio is 2.11. The margin is big when compare to the ideal

condition where QC/QH = 1.0. The irrelevant value of this ratio is maybe caused by the

unstable conditions of shell and tube heat exchanger where this phenomenon occurs at

the beginning of the experiment.

For LMTD, the calculations consist of the use of graph which called as correction

factor graph. This graph is used to obtain a more accurate LMTD as the calculated

LMTD values may deviated from the actual one. The correction factor, FT is obtained

from the graph by finding the values of R and S.

The overall heat transfer coefficients are also calculated in this experiment to

determine the total thermal resistance to heat transfer between two fluids. The

resistance can be reduced by increasing the surface area, which will lead to a more

efficient heat exchanger

The calculated Reynolds Number is to determine whether the flow of water in

shell and tube heat exchanger is turbulent flow or laminar flow. After the Reynolds

Number are obtained, we can determine whether the flow is turbulent or laminar as for

Re<2100, the flow is laminar flow and for Re>4200, the flow is turbulent flow. For this

experiment, based on the calculated results, the water flow is turbulent at the tube sides

of heat exchanger as Reynolds Number that we obtained all exceeded 4200.

0

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, shell and tube heat exchanger follows the basic law of

Thermodynamics and fulfilled the study of Heat Transfer. Every objectives of this

experiment had been achieved. Although there might be errors, the objectives of this

experiment still can be achieved. In co-current flow configuration, the exit temperature

of the hot fluid is also higher than the exit temperature of the cold fluid. The experiment

shows that the flow rate of one of the stream is directly proportional to the rate of heat

transfer since the rate of heat transfer is increases as the flow rate of fluid increases.

Furthermore, the amount of heat loss form the hot water is not equal to the heat gain by

the cold water due to the heat loss to the surrounding.

RECOMMENDATIONS

1. Make sure that the equipment is in good condition so that the flow of the

experiment does not disturb by the inconstant data.

2. Time taken to collect the data is punctually followed.

3. All the temperature and flow rate readings are taken simultaneously as CW inlet

temperature is increasing gradually and CW outlet temperature varies together

with the HW inlet/outlet temperature.

4. The last set of temperature readings should be taken when all the temperatures

are fairly steady.

5. While recording the data, make sure that the pressure and temperature is at

constant value because this can affect the calculation made.

REFERENCES

1. Yunus A.Cengel, 2006, Heat and Mass Transfer: A Practical Approach. Mc

Graw Hill,, 3rd Edition

2. Coulson and Richardson; Chemical Engineering; Volume 1, 6th edition.

3. Rase, Howard F; Chemical Reactor Design and for Process and plants;

Volume 1; 1st edition.

https://www.scribd.com/doc/27156908/CONCENTRIC-TUBE-HEATEXCHANGER

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