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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN KIMIA


PROCESS ENGINEERING LABORATORY II
(CHE 523)
NAME
STUDENT NO
GROUP
EXPERIMENT
DATE PERFORMED
SEMESTER
PROGRAMME / CODE
SUBMIT TO
NO
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

: HAZIRAH BINTI ALI SABRI


: 2014275914
: EH2203B
: DISTILLATION COLOUM
: 13 OCTOBER 2015
:3
: EH220
: MADAM NOOR FAZLIANA BINTI SHOPARWE

Title
Abstract/Summary
Introduction
Aims
Theory
Apparatus
Methodology/Procedure
Results
Calculations
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendations
Reference
Appendix
TOTAL MARKS
Remarks :

Allocated Marks (%)


5
5
5
5
5
10
10
10
20
10
5
5
5
100

Marks

Checked by :

Rechecked by:

------------------------------

------------------------------

Date:

Date:

ABSTRACT/SUMMARY
Heat exchanger is a device that allows heat from a fluid (a liquid or a gas) to
pass to a second fluid (another liquid or gas) without the two fluids having to mix
together or come into direct contact. Thus, a device named Heat Exchanger Training
Apparatus (Model; HE 158C) was used to conduct Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger
experiment. The objectives of this experiment are to evaluate and study the heat load
and head balance, LMTD and overall heat transfer coefficient, to calculate the Reynolds
numbers at the shell and tubes sides and to measure and determine the shell and tube
sides pressure drop. To do that, we vary the hot water and cold water flow rates and
record the inlet and outlet temperatures of both the hot water and cold water streams at
steady state. The flow of hot and cold water is co-current flow. This experiment consists
of 10 runs. For each of the run, two sets of data are obtained.
INTRODUCTION
Heat exchanger is a device that transfers heat from one fluid to another or from
or to a fluid and the environment. These are a few types of shell and tube heat
exchanger.

Figure 1: Heat exchanger with fixed tube plates (four tubes, one shell-pass)

Figure 2: Heat exchanger with floating head (two tube-pass, one shell pass)

Figure 3: Heat exchanger with hairpin tubes

Shells in the device are used to transport cold water while tubes are used to
transport hot water across the device. Baffles are used in the heat exchanger to support
the tubes and allow water to flow across the tubes other than providing a higher transfer
rate due to increase of turbulence. Shell and tube heat exchangers have the ability to
transfer large amounts of heat in relatively low cost, serviceable designs. They can
provide large amounts of effective tube surface while minimizing the requirements of
floor space, liquid volume and weight.

There are a few considerations of mechanical arrangement in the heat


exchanger need to be made. This is important because different arrangement gives
different efficiency and practicality. The four basic considerations are:
1. Methods of controlling fluid flow through the shell.
2. Consideration for differential thermal expansion of tube and shell.
3. Consideration for ease of maintenance and servicing.
4. Means of directing fluid through the tubes.

Applications of Heat Exchanger


Shell and tube heat exchangers represent the most widely used vehicle for the transfer
of heat in industrial process applications. They are frequently selected for such duties
as:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Process liquid or gas cooling


Process or refrigerant vapor or steam condensing
Process liquid, steam or refrigerant evaporation
Process heat removal and preheating of feed water
Thermal energy conservation efforts, heat recovery
Compressor, turbine and engine cooling, oil and jacket water
Hydraulic and lube oil cooling
Many other industrial applications

Advantages of Heat Exchanger


The

main

advantages

of

shell-and-tube

heat

exchangers

are:

1. Condensation or boiling heat transfer can be accommodated in either the tubes


or the shell, and the orientation can be horizontal or vertical.
2. The pressures and pressure drops can be varied over a wide range.
3. Thermal stresses can be accommodated inexpensively.
4. There

is

substantial

flexibility

regarding

materials

of

construction

to

accommodate corrosion and other concerns. The shell and the tubes can be
made of different materials.
5. Extended heat transfer surfaces (fins) can be used to enhance heat transfer.

6. Cleaning and repair are relatively straightforward, because the equipment can be
dismantled for this purpose.

objectives
1. To evaluate and study the heat load and head balance, LMTD and overall
heat transfer coefficient.
2. To calculate the Reynolds numbers at the shell and tubes sides.
3. To measure and determine the shell and tube sides pressure drop.
THEORY
The main function of heat exchanger is to either remove heat from a hot fluid or
to add heat to the cold fluid. The direction of fluid motion inside the heat exchanger can
normally categorized as parallel flow, counter flow and cross flow. In this experiment, we
study only co-current flow. For co-current flow, both the hot and cold fluids flow in the

same direction. Both the fluids enter and exit the heat exchanger on the same ends. In
this experiment, we focused on the shell and tube heat exchanger.

Heat load and heat balance

This part of the calculation is to use the data in Table 1 to check the heat load

QC

QC

and

and to select the set of values where

is closest to

HW
Hot water flow rate (

)
QH

FH Cp H (t1 t 2 )

CW
Hot water flow rate (

FC CpC (T2 T1 )

QC
=
Where:
QH

= Heat load for hot water flow rate

QC
= Heat load for cold water flow rate
FH

Hot water mass flow rate

QH

QH

FC
Cold water mass flow rate
t1

Hot water inlet temperature

t2

T1

T2

Hot water outlet temperature

Cold water inlet temperature

Cold water outlet temperature

LMTD

Calculations of log mean temperature difference (LMTD).

LMTD

(t1 T 2) (t 2 T1 )
(t T2 )
ln 1
(t 2 T1 )

Where, all variables are same with the above section:

(t1 T2 )
(t2 t1 )

(t2 t1 )
(T1 t1 )

Both equations would determine the value of correction factor

obtained from the graph with respect to

and

FT

. Practically,

FT

value

value. In this case, the correction

factor would apply to enhance the LMTD value. So, equation below show the corrected
LMTD can be determined.
LMTD FT LMTD

Overall heat transfer coefficient,

Overall heat transfer coefficient at which equivalent to

UD

can be calculated by using

equation below. In this case, the value of total heat transfer area
equal to 31.0 ft2

Where:

Q
A LMTD FT

has been given and

Q
Heat rate with respect to the average head load
FT

Correction factor

Reynolds Number Calculation

CW

Re(s )

Shell-side

for

Re( s )

De.Gs

Where:

De

de
12

do
4(1 / 2 PT 0.86 PT 1 / 2 .
)
4
de
1 / 2 .do

At which:
PT

Pitch = 0.81inch

do

Tube outside diameter, inch

Viscosity, taken at average fluid temperature in the shell, lbmft -1hr-1

Gs

Ws

As

Ws
As

(lbmft-2hr-1)

Flow rate in (lbmhr-1)

0.029 ft2

HW

Re(t )

Tube-side

for

Re( t )

D.Gt

Where:
D

Tube ID = 0.04125 ft

Viscosity, taken at average fluid temperature in the tube, lbmft -1hr-1

Gt

Wt

At

Wt
At

(lbmft-2hr-1)

Flow rate in lbmhr-1

0.02139 ft2

Pressure drop
This part would determine the following:
H w : The measured tube-inside pressure drop DP (tube) which will be corrected and
is expected

to be more than calculated tube-side pressure drop.

CW
:

The measured shell-inside pressure drop DP (shell) which will be corrected and

is expected to be more than calculated tube-side pressure drop.


Notice that, both calculated pressure and also measured pressure are considered in
unit mmH2O. In this case, since calculated pressure drop in both of shell and tube side
have been obtained during the experiment, so its only required conversion factor to
change the value into unit of mmH2O.

Conversion factor:

x.bar

1 105 Pa 1mmH2O

1bar
(9.81) Pa
.

Where x is the calculated pressure value in unit bar.

APPARATUS

Figure 2 : SOLTEQ Heat Exchanger Training Apparatus (Model HE 158C)

PROCEDURE
General start-up procedures
A quick inspection was performed to make sure that the equipment is in a proper
working condition.All valve are initially closed, except V1 and V12.Hot water tank is
filled up via a water supply hose connected to valve V27. The valve is closed after the
tank is full.The cold water tank is filled up by opening valve V28 and leave the valve
opened for continuous water supply.A drain hose is connected to the cold water drain
point.Main power is switched on and heater for the hot water also switched on and set the
temperature controller to 50C.The water temperature in the hot water tank is allowed to
reach the set point.The equilibrium is already set up.
General Shut-down
The heater is switched off. The hot water temperature drops is wait until below 40.The
pump P1 and P2 is switched off.Main power is switched.All the water in process lines is
drain off. All valves is closed.

Experiment 1: Co-current shell flow of shell and tube heat exchanger


The general start-up procedure is performed.The valve is switched to co-current flow shell and
tube Heat Exchanger arrangement.The pumps P1 and P2 is switched on.The valve V3 and V14 is
opened and adjusted to obtain the desired flowrates for hot water and cold water stream.The
system is allowed to reach steady state for 10 minutes.FT1, FT2, TT1, TT2, TT3 and TT4 is
recorded.The pressure drop measurement for shell-side and tube side also recorded for pressure
drop studies.The steps 4 to 7 is repeated for different combination of flowrates FT1 and FT2 as
in the result sheet.The pumps P1 and P2 is switched off after the experiment is completed.The
next experiment is proceed.

3. Calculate of the tube and shell heat transfer coefficient

0.8

At tube side (hot water-cooling process): Nu=0.023 Pr

0.33

L
1 m3 1 min
m3
V =10

=1.67 104
min 1000 L 60 s
s

A=

d 2 (0.02664)
=
=0.000557 m2
4
4

4
V 1.67 10
m
v= =
=0.299
A 0.000557
s

vd
=

988.18

kg
m
0.299 0.02664 m
3
s
m
=14327 ( turbulent flow )
0.0005494 Pa s

Pr=

Cp
=
k

( 0.0005494 Pa s ) ( 4175
0.6436

0.8

Nu=0.023 Pr

h=

Nuk
=
d

0.33

J
)
kg K

W
mK

=3.564

0.8

=0.023 14327 3.564

0.33

=73.55

W
m K
W
=1776.91 2
0.02664 m
m K

73.55 0.6436

At shell side (cold water-heating process):

For (2 LPM)

3
L
1m 3 1 min
5 m
V =2

=3.33 10
min 1000 L 60 s
s

0.8

Nu=0.023 Pr

0.4

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A=
=
4

V 3.33 105
m
v= =
=0.0069
A
0.0048
s

v ( d sd o )
=

955.67

kg
m
0.0069 ( 0.0850.0334 m)
3
s
m
0.0008007 Pa s

425 ( laminar flow )

Cp
Pr=
=
k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183
W
0.6155
m K

J
)
kg K

=5.49

Nu=0.023 0.8 Pr0.4 =0.023 4250.8 5.490.4 =5.76

W
Nuk
m K
W
h=
=
=68.68 2
d
(0.085 m0.0334 m)
m K
5.76 0.6155

At shell side : ( 4 LPM )

3
L
1m 3 1 min
5 m
V =4

=6.67 10
min 1000 L 60 s
s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A=
=
4

5
V 6.67 10
m
v= =
=0.0139
A
0.0048
s

v ( d sd o )

955.67
=

kg
m
0.0139 ( 0.0850.0334 m)
3
s
m
0.0008007 Pa s

856 ( laminar flow )

Cp
Pr=
=
k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183

J
)
kg K

W
0.6155
m K

0.8

0.4

0.8

=5.49

0.4

Nu=0.023 Pr =0.023 856 5.49 =10.80

W
Nuk
m K
W
h=
=
=120.26 2
d
(0.085 m0.0334 m)
m K
10.80 0.6155

At shell side : ( 6 LPM)

3
L
1 m3 1 min
4 m
V =6

=1 10
min 1000 L 60 s
s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A=
=
4

V 1 104
m
v= =
=0.0208
A 0.0048
s

v ( d sd o )

955.67
=

1281 ( laminar flow )

kg
m
0.0208 ( 0.0850.0334 )
3
s
m
0.0008007 Pa s

Pr=

Cp
=
k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183
0.6155

0.8

J
)
kg K

W
m K

0.4

=5.49

0.8

0.4

Nu=0.023 Pr =0.023 1281 5.49 =13.91

W
Nuk
m K
W
h=
=
=166.03 2
d
(0.085 m0.0334 m)
m K
12.35 0.6155

At shell side : ( 8 LPM)


L
1 m3
1 min
m3
V =8

=1.333 104
min 1000 L 60 s
s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A=
=
4

V 1.333 104
m
v= =
=0.0278
A
0.0048
s

v ( d sd o )
=

955.67

kg
m
0.0278 ( 0.0850.0334 )
3
s
m
0.0008007 Pa s

1712 ( laminar flow )

Cp
Pr=
=
k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183

J
)
kg K

W
0.6155
m K

0.8

0.4

=5.49

0.8

0.4

Nu=0.023 Pr =0.023 1712 5.49 =17.55

W
Nuk
m K
W
h=
=
=209.38 2
d
(0.085 m0.0334 m)
m K
17.55 0.6155

At shell side : ( 10 LPM)


1 min
L
1 m3
m3
V =10

=1.667 104
min 1000 L 60 s
s

0.085

( 2( 0.0334 )2)


(d 2sd 2o)
A=
=
4

V 1.667 104
m
v= =
=0.0347
A
0.0048
s

v ( d sd o )
=

955.67

kg
m
0.0347 ( 0.0850.0334 )
3
s
m
0.0008007 Pa s

2137 ( laminar flow )

Cp
Pr=
=
k

( 0.0008007 Pa s ) (4183
W
0.6155
m K

J
)
kg K

=5.49

Nu=0.023 0.8 Pr0.4 =0.023 2137 0.8 5.490.4 =20.96

W
Nuk
m K
W
h=
=
=250.02 2
d
(0.085 m0.0334 m)
m K
20.96 0.6155

Overall heat transfer coefficient:

Total exchange area , A= tube od length= 0.02664 m 0.5 m=0.05 m2

1.

U=

Qhot
1237.7 W
W
=
=2236.08 2
A T lm 0.05 m 2 11.12
m K

2.

U=

Qhot
2062.8W
W
=
=3007.00 2
2
A T lm 0.05 m 13.72
m K

3.

U=

4.

Qhot
2337.9 W
W
=
=3080.24 2
A T lm 0.05 m 2 15.18
m K

U=

Qhot
2544.2W
W
=
=3374.27 2
A T lm 0.05 m 2 15.08
m K

5.

U=

Qhot
2819.2W
W
=
=3649.45 2
A T lm 0.05 m2 15.45
m K

DISCUSSION
In this experiment, the objectives are to evaluate and study the heat load and
head balance, LMTD and overall heat transfer coefficient, to calculate the Reynolds
numbers at the shell and tubes sides and to measure and determine the shell and tube
sides pressure drop. At the end of the experiments, all objectives are met although
maybe there are some errors.
It is found that the calculated values of QH and QC are not really satisfied the
theory since supposedly, the ratio of QC/QH is unity means the ideal condition is the
value of QC should be closed to the value of QH. But in the calculated results, it is
found that there are some deviations in the value but it is normal because it is
impossible to have an ideal system in real life. The most irrelevant data for QC/QH is in
run 1, set 3 where the ratio is 2.11. The margin is big when compare to the ideal
condition where QC/QH = 1.0. The irrelevant value of this ratio is maybe caused by the
unstable conditions of shell and tube heat exchanger where this phenomenon occurs at
the beginning of the experiment.

For LMTD, the calculations consist of the use of graph which called as correction
factor graph. This graph is used to obtain a more accurate LMTD as the calculated
LMTD values may deviated from the actual one. The correction factor, FT is obtained
from the graph by finding the values of R and S.
The overall heat transfer coefficients are also calculated in this experiment to
determine the total thermal resistance to heat transfer between two fluids. The
resistance can be reduced by increasing the surface area, which will lead to a more
efficient heat exchanger
The calculated Reynolds Number is to determine whether the flow of water in
shell and tube heat exchanger is turbulent flow or laminar flow. After the Reynolds
Number are obtained, we can determine whether the flow is turbulent or laminar as for
Re<2100, the flow is laminar flow and for Re>4200, the flow is turbulent flow. For this
experiment, based on the calculated results, the water flow is turbulent at the tube sides
of heat exchanger as Reynolds Number that we obtained all exceeded 4200.
0

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, shell and tube heat exchanger follows the basic law of
Thermodynamics and fulfilled the study of Heat Transfer. Every objectives of this
experiment had been achieved. Although there might be errors, the objectives of this
experiment still can be achieved. In co-current flow configuration, the exit temperature

of the hot fluid is also higher than the exit temperature of the cold fluid. The experiment
shows that the flow rate of one of the stream is directly proportional to the rate of heat
transfer since the rate of heat transfer is increases as the flow rate of fluid increases.
Furthermore, the amount of heat loss form the hot water is not equal to the heat gain by
the cold water due to the heat loss to the surrounding.

RECOMMENDATIONS
1. Make sure that the equipment is in good condition so that the flow of the
experiment does not disturb by the inconstant data.
2. Time taken to collect the data is punctually followed.
3. All the temperature and flow rate readings are taken simultaneously as CW inlet
temperature is increasing gradually and CW outlet temperature varies together
with the HW inlet/outlet temperature.
4. The last set of temperature readings should be taken when all the temperatures
are fairly steady.
5. While recording the data, make sure that the pressure and temperature is at
constant value because this can affect the calculation made.

REFERENCES
1. Yunus A.Cengel, 2006, Heat and Mass Transfer: A Practical Approach. Mc
Graw Hill,, 3rd Edition
2. Coulson and Richardson; Chemical Engineering; Volume 1, 6th edition.
3. Rase, Howard F; Chemical Reactor Design and for Process and plants;
Volume 1; 1st edition.

4. CONCENTRIC TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER, by amirhazwan, Retrieved from


https://www.scribd.com/doc/27156908/CONCENTRIC-TUBE-HEATEXCHANGER
APPENDIX