Trait Theories of Personality

Dr. C. George Boeree
A trait is what we call a characteristic way in which an individual perceives, feels, believes, or acts. When we casually describe someone, we are likely to use trait terms: I am, for example, somewhat of an introvert, a pretty nervous person, strongly attached to my family, frequently depressed, and awesomely intelligent. I have a good sense of humor, fond of languages, very fond of good food, not at all fond of exercise, and a little obsessive. You see: I have just given you ten traits that actually go a long way towards describing me! Psychologists, especially personologists, are very interested in traits. They are especially interested in finding which traits are broad and possibly genetically based, as opposed to ones that are rather peculiar and can change easily. Over the years, we have had a number of theories that attempt to describe the key traits of human beings. Carl Jung and the Myers-Briggs One of the earliest trait theories was introduced by a colleague of Sigmund Freud's by the name of Carl Jung. Jung was never completely sold on Freud's ideas, and soon left his circle to develop his own theory. This is not the place to go into details, but one aspect of the theory concerned traits that Jung felt were inborn. These inborn, genetically determined traits are usually called temperaments. Later, two students of Jung's theory named Myers and Briggs - mother and daughter developed a personality test based on Jung's temperaments called the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, or MBTI. It has gone on the become the most famous personality test of all time. The traits are seen as opposites, and the first set is introversion and extraversion. Introversion refers to a tendency to prefer the world inside oneself. The more obvious aspects of introversion are shyness, a distaste for social functions, and a love of privacy. Extraversion is the tendency to look to the outside world, especially people, for one's pleasures. Extraverts are usually outgoing and they enjoy social activities, but they don't like to be alone. The majority of people in the world are extraverts, so introverts often feel a bit out of it. A society like ours is very pro-extravert, even to the point of seeing introversion as

abnormal and shy people in need of therapy! There are some cultures, however, that see extraverts as the oddballs. We should note that it was Jung who first used the terms introversion and extraversion! Jung believed that introversion-extraversion was either-or. You are born one or the other and remain that way for the rest of your life. Now you could, as an introvert, learn to behave more like an extravert, or, as an extravert, learn to behave more like an introvert. But you can't really switch. If this is true, that would suggest that introversionextraversion is determined by a single gene, something that is pretty unusual even for more physical differences! Nevertheless, it seems that introversion-extraversion is a very significant and fairly stable trait. Next, we have the contrast between sensing people and intuiting people. Sensing types, as the name implies, get all their information about life from their senses. They tend to be realistic, down-to-earth people, but they tend to see everything in rather simplistic, concrete, black-or-white terms. Intuiting people tend to get their information from intuition. This means that they tend to be a little out of touch with the more solid aspects of reality - a little "flakey", you might say - but may see "the big picture" behind the details better. Intuiting people are often artistic and can be rather philosophical. Again, the majority of people are sensing, and that can make intuiters feel rather lonely and under-appreciated. Our society tends to be distrustful of dreamers, artists, and intellectuals - but other societies may be more appreciative. Next, there's the contrast between thinkers and feelers. Thinking people make their decisions on the basis of thinking - reasoning, logic, step-by-step problem solving. This works very well for physical problems, but can leave something to be desired when dealing with something as complex as people. Feeling people make their decisions based on their feelings. While this doesn't work so well when trying to fix you car or your computer, feelings are a kind of intuition that works very well when dealing with people. Half of all people are thinking and half are feeling, but the proportions differ when we start looking at gender: The majority of men are thinkers and the majority of women are feelers. This goes along well with old stereotypes as well as recent research: Men tend to do better with step-by-step problem solving, especially involving mechanical things; Women tend to do better in social situations. Some people have criticized Jung for this apparent sexism, but we should note that a good third of men are feelers, and a good third of women are thinkers, so it is not a simple "men vs. women" kind of thing. Plus, Jung said that there is no reason to value thinking over feeling - each has its strengths and weaknesses. Note also that feeling men may feel odd, as may thinking women. Stereotypes do the greatest harm when they prevent individuals from being what they in fact are!

The last contrast is judging versus perceiving. Judging people tend to be more like Freud's anal retentive types - neat, orderly, hardworking, always on time, scheduling things very carefully. College professors tend to be judging! Perceiving people are more spontaneous. They prefer to do things as the spirit moves them. They are probably more fun than the judging types but, as you can imagine, they tend not to get things done. It often seems to us college professors that college students are all perceiving. Actually, the distribution of judging and perceiving people is pretty even - 50-50. When you take the Myers-Briggs or similar tests like the Keirsey, you get a set of four letters: I for introvert or E for extravert, S for sensing or N for intuiting, T for thinking or F for feeling, and J for judging or P for perceiving. I, for example, am an INFP, which is in fact quite accurate. My wife is an ISFJ -- she is more down-to-earth and organized than I will ever be. That's why she controls the family finances! On the other hand, we are both introverted and feeling, which means that you are more likely to find us crying over a rented movie than out at some wild party! Hans Eysenck Hans Eysenck was the first psychologist to make this trait or temperament business into something more mathematical: He gave long lists of adjectives to hundreds of thousands of people and used a special statistics called factor analysis to figure out what factors trait dimensions - carry the most weight. He took the results of this work and created a test called the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Instead of making these traits either-or, like Jung did, he saw them as dimensions. His first trait dimension was, like Jung, extraversion-introversion. But rather than say you were one or the other (an I or an E), he gave you a score on extraversion-introversion: A low score meant you were introverted, a high score extraverted. Of course, this meant you could be halfway in-between - as in fact most people are! His second trait dimension he called neuroticism. If you scored high on this scale, that meant you tended to be a very nervous, emotional sort of person. While it doesn't mean you are necessarily a neurotic, it does mean you are more likely to develop neurotic problems such as phobias, obsessions, compulsions, and depression than someone who scores low. Low neuroticism is nowadays often called emotional stability. The third dimension is called psychoticism. He added this later in his research, after he had gotten more data from people who were in mental institutions. As the name implies, these are people with tendencies to psychosis, meaning that they are more likely to have problems dealing with reality. Psychotic people sometimes have hallucinations and often have delusions such as odd beliefs about being watched, perhaps by the CIA or even by creatures from other planets. A middle score on psychoticism might mean that you are a

bit eccentric or that you take risks that other people aren't as likely to take. A low score means that you are pretty normal in this regard. Eysenck's research gets a great deal of respect, and most psychologists see his theory as on the right track. The Big Five More recently, a number of researchers have been using the latest in computer technology to redo the work that Eysenck and other earlier researchers did in far more laborious ways. This has lead to what is known as the "big five" or the "five factor" theory. The first dimension is, again, extraversion-introversion. The second is usually called emotional stability, and is simply the reverse of Eysenck's neuroticism. The third is called agreeableness. A high score means that you tend to be friendly and accommodating - a nice person. You don't need to be extraverted: I am an introvert, but I score high on agreeableness. If you score low, you are likely to be more idiosyncratic and have trouble getting along with people. This is not entirely negative: Agreeable people often get their nice reputation by by conforming and compromising on their principles, while non-agreeable people are more likely to stick to what they think is right even if it's unpopular. Then again, some are just plain disagreeable! The fourth is conscientiousness. This parallels closely with Jung's judging-perceiving. People who score high on conscientiousness are orderly, get their work done, arrive on time, and care about doing things right. Score low on conscientiousness and that probably means you tend to slack off on your work, rarely worry about deadlines or neatness, and are more interested in taking it easy. The fifth has come with several different labels, such as culture, openness to experience, or just openness. If you score high on openness, you are more likely to enjoy cultural pursuits such as art, music, dance. You are more likely to go to museums, the symphony, the ballet. You are more likely to want to travel to exotic countries and meet people different from yourself. You are more open to new experiences, such as trying foods you've never tried before or listening to music from all over the world. You are more likely to be interested in reading about philosophies and religions other than your own, and so on. If you score low, you are more likely to seek out the McDonalds, even when you are in Paris or Bangkok. These five have stood up so well to research that I suspect most psychologists today accept them, at least until something even better comes along. It is also becoming clear that these are in fact strongly influenced by genetics. In other words, you are born with at

least the general outline of your personality traits already laid out for you. That doesn't mean you can't change - it just means that it is less likely and more difficult.

© Copyright 2003, 2009, C. George Boeree

Trait Theories of Personality Sifat Theories of Personality
Dr. C. George Boeree Dr C. George Boeree
A trait is what we call a characteristic way in which an individual perceives, feels, believes, or acts. When we casually describe someone, we are likely to use trait terms: I am, for example, somewhat of an introvert, a pretty nervous person, strongly attached to my family, frequently depressed, and awesomely intelligent. I have a good sense of humor, fond of languages, very fond of good food, not at all fond of exercise, and a little obsessive. You see: I have just given you ten traits that actually go a long way towards describing me! Sebuah sifat yang kita sebut dengan cara yang khas di mana seorang individu merasakan, merasa, percaya, atau tindakan. Ketika kita santai menggambarkan

seseorang, kita cenderung menggunakan istilah sifat: Aku, misalnya, sedikit dari introver, cantik gugup orang, sangat terikat kepada keluarga saya, sering tertekan, dan awesomely cerdas. Aku punya selera humor yang baik, suka bahasa, sangat menyukai makanan yang baik, sama sekali tidak menyukai olahraga, dan sedikit obsesif. Anda lihat: Aku telah hanya memberikan sepuluh karakter yang benar-benar pergi jauh menuju menggambarkan aku! Psychologists, especially personologists, are very interested in traits. They are especially interested in finding which traits are broad and possibly genetically based, as opposed to ones that are rather peculiar and can change easily. Over the years, we have had a number of theories that attempt to describe the key traits of human beings. Psikolog, terutama personologists, sangat tertarik pada sifat. Mereka terutama tertarik dalam mencari yang ciri-ciri yang luas dan mungkin genetis berbasis, sebagai lawan yang berada agak aneh dan dapat dirubah dengan mudah. Selama bertahun-tahun, kami telah memiliki sejumlah teori yang mencoba untuk menggambarkan ciri-ciri utama manusia. Carl Jung and the Myers-Briggs Carl Jung dan Myers-Briggs One of the earliest trait theories was introduced by a colleague of Sigmund Freud's by the name of Carl Jung. Jung was never completely sold on Freud's ideas, and soon left his circle to develop his own theory. This is not the place to go into details, but one aspect of the theory concerned traits that Jung felt were inborn. These inborn, genetically determined traits are usually called temperaments . Salah satu sifat yang paling awal teori ini diperkenalkan oleh Sigmund Freud rekan's dengan nama Carl Jung. Jung tidak pernah benar-benar dijual pada ide-ide Freud, dan segera meninggalkan lingkaran untuk mengembangkan teori sendiri. Ini bukan tempat untuk mendapatkan detai , tapi satu aspek teori ciri-ciri yang bersangkutan bahwa Jung merasa sudah bawaan. ini bawaan, sifat yang ditentukan secara genetis biasanya disebut temperamen. Later, two students of Jung's theory named Myers and Briggs - mother and daughter developed a personality test based on Jung's temperaments called the Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, or MBTI. It has gone on the become the most famous personality test of all time. Belakangan, dua orang mahasiswa dari teori Jung bernama Myers dan Briggs - ibu dan anak - mengembangkan sebuah tes kepribadian berdasarkan temperamen Jung bernama Myers-Briggs Type Inventory, atau MBTI. Hal ini pergi pada menjadi tes kepribadian yang paling terkenal sepanjang masa. The traits are seen as opposites, and the first set is introversion and extraversion. Introversion refers to a tendency to prefer the world inside oneself. The more obvious aspects of introversion are shyness, a distaste for social functions, and a love of privacy. Sifat-sifat yang dipandang sebagai berlawanan, dan set pertama adalah ketertutupan dan extraversion. Introver mengacu pada kecenderungan untuk lebih menyukai dunia di dalam diri sendiri. Semakin jelas aspek introver adalah rasa malu, yang membenci fungsi sosial, dan kasih terhadap privasi.

Extraversion is the tendency to look to the outside world, especially people, for one's pleasures. Extraverts are usually outgoing and they enjoy social activities, but they don't like to be alone. Extraversion adalah kecenderungan untuk melihat ke dunia luar, terutama orang, untuk satu kesenangan. Extraverts biasanya keluar dan mereka menikmati kegiatan-kegiatan sosial, tetapi mereka tidak suka sendirian. The majority of people in the world are extraverts, so introverts often feel a bit out of it. A society like ours is very pro-extravert, even to the point of seeing introversion as abnormal and shy people in need of therapy! There are some cultures, however, that see extraverts as the oddballs. Mayoritas orang di dunia adalah extraverts, jadi introvert sering merasa sedikit keluar dari sana. Sebuah masyarakat seperti kita yang sangat proextravert, bahkan sampai melihat ketertutupan sebagai abnormal dan pemalu orang yang membutuhkan terapi! Ada beberapa budaya, Namun, yang melihat extraverts sebagai oddballs. We should note that it was Jung who first used the terms introversion and extraversion! Kita harus mencatat bahwa itu Jung yang pertama kali menggunakan istilah ketertutupan dan extraversion! Jung believed that introversion-extraversion was either-or. Jung percaya bahwa ketertutupan-extraversion ini atau itu. You are born one or the other and remain that way for the rest of your life. Now you could, as an introvert, learn to behave more like an extravert, or, as an extravert, learn to behave more like an introvert. But you can't really switch. If this is true, that would suggest that introversion-extraversion is determined by a single gene, something that is pretty unusual even for more physical differences! Nevertheless, it seems that introversion-extraversion is a very significant and fairly stable trait. Anda lahir satu atau yang lain dan tetap demikian selama sisa hidup Anda. Sekarang Anda dapat, sebagai seorang introvert, belajar untuk bersikap lebih seperti extravert, atau, sebagai extravert, belajar untuk bersikap lebih seperti introvert. Tapi kau tidak bisa benarbenar beralih. Jika ini benar, yang akan menyarankan bahwa ketertutupan-extraversion ditentukan oleh satu gen, sesuatu yang sangat tidak biasa, bahkan untuk lebih perbedaan fisik! Namun demikian, tampak bahwa ketertutupan-extraversion ini sangat signifikan dan cukup sifat stabil. Next, we have the contrast between sensing people and intuiting people. Sensing types, as the name implies, get all their information about life from their senses. They tend to be realistic, down-to-earth people, but they tend to see everything in rather simplistic, concrete, black-or-white terms. Selanjutnya, kami telah merasakan kontras antara orang dan intuisi orang. Penginderaan jenis, seperti namanya, dapatkan segala informasi tentang kehidupan dari indra mereka. Mereka cenderung bersikap realistis, turun-ke-bumi orang, tetapi mereka cenderung melihat segalanya di agak sederhana, beton, hitam-putih atau istilah. Intuiting people tend to get their information from intuition. This means that they tend to be a little out of touch with the more solid aspects of reality - a little "flakey", you might say - but may see "the big picture" behind the details better. Intuiting people are often artistic and can be rather philosophical. Intuisi orang cenderung untuk mendapatkan informasi dari intuisi mereka. Hal ini berarti bahwa mereka cenderung sedikit tidak

berhubungan dengan aspek-aspek yang lebih padat realitas - sedikit "flakey", Anda mungkin berkata - tetapi mungkin melihat "gambaran besar" di belakang rincian lebih baik. intuisi orang-orang sering artistik dan dapat agak filosofis. Again, the majority of people are sensing, and that can make intuiters feel rather lonely and under-appreciated. Our society tends to be distrustful of dreamers, artists, and intellectuals - but other societies may be more appreciative. Sekali lagi, mayoritas orang yang merasakan, dan yang dapat membuat intuiters merasa agak kesepian dan kurang dihargai. Masyarakat kita cenderung tidak percaya kepada pemimpi, seniman, dan cendekiawan - namun masyarakat lain mungkin lebih menghargai. Next, there's the contrast between thinkers and feelers. Thinking people make their decisions on the basis of thinking - reasoning, logic, step-by-step problem solving. Selanjutnya, ada perbedaan antara pemikir dan antena. Berpikir orang membuat keputusan mereka atas dasar pemikiran - penalaran, logika, langkah-demi-langkah pemecahan masalah. This works very well for physical problems, but can leave something to be desired when dealing with something as complex as people. Ini bekerja sangat baik untuk masalah fisik, tapi dapat meninggalkan hal yang diinginkan ketika berhadapan dengan sesuatu yang rumit seperti orang. Feeling people make their decisions based on their feelings. While this doesn't work so well when trying to fix you car or your computer, feelings are a kind of intuition that works very well when dealing with people. Merasa orang membuat keputusan-keputusan mereka berdasarkan perasaan mereka. Walaupun hal ini tidak bekerja dengan baik ketika Anda mencoba untuk memperbaiki mobil atau komputer Anda, perasaan adalah semacam intuisi yang bekerja dengan baik ketika berhadapan dengan orang-orang. Half of all people are thinking and half are feeling, but the proportions differ when we start looking at gender: The majority of men are thinkers and the majority of women are feelers. This goes along well with old stereotypes as well as recent research: Men tend to do better with step-by-step problem solving, especially involving mechanical things; Women tend to do better in social situations. Some people have criticized Jung for this apparent sexism, but we should note that a good third of men are feelers, and a good third of women are thinkers, so it is not a simple "men vs. women" kind of thing. Plus, Jung said that there is no reason to value thinking over feeling - each has its strengths and weaknesses. Note also that feeling men may feel odd, as may thinking women. Stereotypes do the greatest harm when they prevent individuals from being what they in fact are! Separuh dari semua orang berpikir dan setengah merasa, tetapi proporsi berbeda ketika kita mulai melihat jenis kelamin: Sebagian besar pria pemikir dan mayoritas wanita antena. Hal ini juga sejalan dengan stereotip tua serta penelitian baru-baru ini: Pria cenderung untuk berbuat lebih baik dengan langkah-demi-langkah pemecahan masalah, khususnya yang melibatkan hal-hal mekanis; Perempuan cenderung untuk berbuat lebih baik dalam situasi sosial. Beberapa orang telah mengkritik Jung jelas ini seksisme, tetapi kita harus mencatat bahwa baik pria sepertiga dari antena, dan sepertiga dari wanita yang baik adalah pemikir, sehingga tidak yang sederhana "pria vs wanita" semacam itu. Plus, Jung mengatakan bahwa tidak ada alasan untuk memikirkan nilai perasaan - masing-

masing memiliki kekuatan dan kelemahan. Perhatikan juga bahwa perasaan pria mungkin merasa aneh, karena mungkin berpikir perempuan. Stereotip melakukan bahaya terbesar ketika mereka mencegah individu dari menjadi apa yang mereka sebenarnya adalah! The last contrast is judging versus perceiving. Judging people tend to be more like Freud's anal retentive types - neat, orderly, hardworking, always on time, scheduling things very carefully. College professors tend to be judging! Kontras terakhir versus menilai mempersepsi. Menilai orang cenderung lebih seperti Freud's anus dpt menyimpan jenis - rapi, tertib, pekerja keras, selalu tepat waktu, penjadwalan hal-hal yang sangat hati-hati. College profesor cenderung menghakimi! Perceiving people are more spontaneous. They prefer to do things as the spirit moves them. They are probably more fun than the judging types but, as you can imagine, they tend not to get things done. Memahami orang lebih spontan. Mereka lebih suka melakukan hal-hal sebagai roh bergerak mereka. Mereka mungkin lebih menyenangkan daripada jenis menghakimi tetapi, seperti yang dapat Anda bayangkan, mereka cenderung untuk tidak menyelesaikan sesuatu. It often seems to us college professors that college students are all perceiving. Sering tampaknya kita dosen bahwa mahasiswa adalah mencerap. Actually, the distribution of judging and perceiving people is pretty even - 50-50. Sebenarnya, distribusi menilai dan memahami orang cukup bahkan - 50-50. When you take the Myers-Briggs or similar tests like the Keirsey, you get a set of four letters: I for introvert or E for extravert, S for sensing or N for intuiting, T for thinking or F for feeling, and J for judging or P for perceiving. I, for example, am an INFP, which is in fact quite accurate. My wife is an ISFJ -- she is more down-to-earth and organized than I will ever be. That's why she controls the family finances! On the other hand, we are both introverted and feeling, which means that you are more likely to find us crying over a rented movie than out at some wild party! Ketika Anda mengambil Myers-Briggs atau tes serupa seperti Keirsey, Anda akan mendapatkan satu set dari empat huruf: I untuk introvert atau E untuk extravert, S untuk sensing atau N untuk intuisi, T untuk berpikir atau F untuk perasaan, dan J untuk menilai atau P untuk mencerap. Saya, misalnya, am an INFP, yang sebenarnya cukup akurat. Istri saya adalah ISFJ - ia lebih turun-ke-bumi dan terorganisir daripada aku akan pernah menjadi. Itu sebabnya dia kontrol keluarga keuangan! Di sisi lain, kami berdua introver dan perasaan, yang berarti bahwa Anda lebih mungkin untuk menemukan kita menangis di film sewaan daripada keluar pada suatu pesta liar! Hans Eysenck Hans Eysenck Hans Eysenck was the first psychologist to make this trait or temperament business into something more mathematical: He gave long lists of adjectives to hundreds of thousands of people and used a special statistics called factor analysis to figure out what factors trait dimensions - carry the most weight. He took the results of this work and created a

test called the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ). Hans Eysenck adalah psikolog pertama untuk membuat sifat atau temperamen ini bisnis menjadi sesuatu yang lebih matematis: Dia memberikan daftar panjang kata sifat untuk ratusan ribu orang dan menggunakan statistik khusus yang disebut analisis faktor untuk mengetahui faktorfaktor apa - sifat dimensi - membawa paling berat badan. Dia mengambil hasil karya ini dan menciptakan sebuah tes disebut Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (ePq). Instead of making these traits either-or, like Jung did, he saw them as dimensions. His first trait dimension was, like Jung, extraversion-introversion . But rather than say you were one or the other (an I or an E), he gave you a score on extraversion-introversion: A low score meant you were introverted, a high score extraverted. Of course, this meant you could be halfway in-between - as in fact most people are! Bukannya membuat sifatsifat ini baik-atau, seperti Jung itu, ia melihat mereka sebagai dimensi. Nya dimensi ciri pertama adalah, seperti Jung, extraversion-introver. Namun, bukannya mengatakan Anda adalah salah satu atau yang lain (yang saya atau E), dia memberimu skor extraversion-introver: skor rendah berarti Anda tertutup, extraverted skor tinggi. Tentu saja, ini berarti Anda bisa setengah jalan di antara - seperti dalam kenyataannya kebanyakan orang! His second trait dimension he called neuroticism . If you scored high on this scale, that meant you tended to be a very nervous, emotional sort of person. While it doesn't mean you are necessarily a neurotic, it does mean you are more likely to develop neurotic problems such as phobias, obsessions, compulsions, and depression than someone who scores low. Low neuroticism is nowadays often called emotional stability . Sifat kedua dimensi yang disebutnya neurotisisme. Jika skor Anda tinggi di skala ini, itu berarti Anda cenderung menjadi sangat gugup, tipe orang emosional. Sementara itu tidak berarti Anda harus menjadi neurotik, itu berarti Anda lebih mungkin untuk mengembangkan masalah-masalah neurotik seperti fobia, obsesi, dorongan, dan depresi daripada seseorang yang skor rendah. neurotisisme rendah kini sering disebut kestabilan emosi. The third dimension is called psychoticism . He added this later in his research, after he had gotten more data from people who were in mental institutions. As the name implies, these are people with tendencies to psychosis, meaning that they are more likely to have problems dealing with reality. Psychotic people sometimes have hallucinations and often have delusions such as odd beliefs about being watched, perhaps by the CIA or even by creatures from other planets. A middle score on psychoticism might mean that you are a bit eccentric or that you take risks that other people aren't as likely to take. A low score means that you are pretty normal in this regard. Dimensi ketiga disebut psychoticism. Dia menambahkan ini nanti dalam penelitiannya, setelah ia mendapat lebih banyak data dari orang-orang yang berada di institusi mental. Seperti namanya, ini adalah orang-orang dengan kecenderungan untuk psikosis, yang berarti bahwa mereka lebih cenderung memiliki masalah berurusan dengan kenyataan. Psychotic orang kadang-kadang mengalami halusinasi dan sering mempunyai aneh delusi seperti keyakinan tentang diawasi, barangkali oleh CIA atau bahkan oleh makhluk-makhluk dari planet lain. Sebuah skor tengah psychoticism mungkin berarti bahwa Anda sedikit eksentrik atau

bahwa Anda mengambil risiko bahwa orang lain tidak mungkin untuk mengambil. skor rendah berarti bahwa Anda sangat normal dalam hal ini. Eysenck's research gets a great deal of respect, and most psychologists see his theory as on the right track. Penelitian Eysenck mendapatkan banyak hormat, dan sebagian besar psikolog melihat teori di jalur yang benar. The Big Five Lima Besar More recently, a number of researchers have been using the latest in computer technology to redo the work that Eysenck and other earlier researchers did in far more laborious ways. This has lead to what is known as the "big five" or the "five factor" theory. Barubaru ini, sejumlah peneliti telah menggunakan teknologi komputer terbaru untuk mengulang pekerjaan yang sebelumnya Eysenck dan lain peneliti lakukan dalam cara yang jauh lebih melelahkan. Hal ini telah menyebabkan apa yang dikenal sebagai "lima besar" atau "lima faktor "teori. The first dimension is, again, extraversion-introversion . Dimensi pertama adalah, lagilagi, extraversion-introver. The second is usually called emotional stability , and is simply the reverse of Eysenck's neuroticism. Kedua biasanya disebut kestabilan emosi, dan hanyalah kebalikan dari Eysenck's neurotisisme. The third is called agreeableness . A high score means that you tend to be friendly and accommodating - a nice person. You don't need to be extraverted: I am an introvert, but I score high on agreeableness. If you score low, you are likely to be more idiosyncratic and have trouble getting along with people. This is not entirely negative: Agreeable people often get their nice reputation by by conforming and compromising on their principles, while non-agreeable people are more likely to stick to what they think is right even if it's unpopular. Then again, some are just plain disagreeable! Yang ketiga disebut keramahan. Skor tinggi berarti Anda cenderung bersikap ramah dan akomodatif - orang baik. Anda tidak perlu extraverted: Saya adalah seorang introvert, tapi aku skor tinggi dalam keramahan. Jika nilai Anda rendah, Anda cenderung lebih istimewa dan mengalami kesulitan bergaul dengan orang-orang. Hal ini tidak sepenuhnya negatif: menyenangkan orang sering mendapatkan reputasi baik oleh oleh sesuai dan mengkompromikan prinsip-prinsip mereka, sementara non-menyenangkan orang lebih cenderung tetap untuk apa yang mereka pikirkan benar meskipun tidak populer. Kemudian lagi, ada yang sekadar menyenangkan! The fourth is conscientiousness . This parallels closely with Jung's judging-perceiving. People who score high on conscientiousness are orderly, get their work done, arrive on time, and care about doing things right. Score low on conscientiousness and that probably means you tend to slack off on your work, rarely worry about deadlines or neatness, and are more interested in taking it easy. Yang keempat adalah kesadaran. Hal

ini paralel erat dengan menilai Jung-mempersepsi. Orang-orang yang mendapat skor tinggi pada kesadaran yang teratur, mendapatkan pekerjaan mereka selesai, tiba tepat waktu, dan peduli dengan melakukan hal-hal yang benar. Skor rendah pada kesadaran dan itu berarti Anda mungkin cenderung mengendur pada pekerjaan Anda, jarang khawatir tentang tenggat waktu atau kerapian, dan lebih tertarik untuk mengambil mudah. The fifth has come with several different labels, such as culture , openness to experience , or just openness . If you score high on openness, you are more likely to enjoy cultural pursuits such as art, music, dance. You are more likely to go to museums, the symphony, the ballet. You are more likely to want to travel to exotic countries and meet people different from yourself. You are more open to new experiences, such as trying foods you've never tried before or listening to music from all over the world. You are more likely to be interested in reading about philosophies and religions other than your own, and so on. If you score low, you are more likely to seek out the McDonalds, even when you are in Paris or Bangkok. Kelima telah datang dengan beberapa label yang berbeda, seperti budaya, keterbukaan terhadap pengalaman, atau hanya keterbukaan. Jika Anda memperoleh skor tinggi keterbukaan, Anda lebih mungkin untuk menikmati kegiatan budaya seperti seni, musik, tari. Kamu akan pergi ke museum, simfoni, balet. Anda lebih cenderung ingin bepergian ke negara-negara eksotis dan bertemu orang-orang yang berbeda dari diri sendiri. Anda lebih terbuka terhadap pengalaman baru, seperti mencoba makanan yang Anda belum pernah mencoba sebelum atau mendengarkan musik dari seluruh dunia. Anda akan lebih tertarik untuk membaca tentang filsafat dan agama lain selain Anda sendiri, dan seterusnya. Jika nilai Anda rendah, Anda lebih mungkin untuk mencari McDonalds, bahkan ketika Anda berada di Paris atau Bangkok . These five have stood up so well to research that I suspect most psychologists today accept them, at least until something even better comes along. It is also becoming clear that these are in fact strongly influenced by genetics. In other words, you are born with at least the general outline of your personality traits already laid out for you. That doesn't mean you can't change - it just means that it is less likely and more difficult. Kelima telah bangkit begitu baik untuk penelitian yang saya duga kebanyakan psikolog saat ini menerima mereka, setidaknya sampai sesuatu yang lebih baik datang. Hal ini juga menjadi jelas bahwa ini sebenarnya sangat dipengaruhi oleh genetika. Dengan kata lain, Anda dilahirkan dengan setidaknya garis besar umum ciri-ciri kepribadian Anda telah diletakkan itu untuk Anda. Itu tidak berarti Anda tidak dapat mengubah - itu hanya berarti bahwa kecil kemungkinan dan lebih sulit.

© Copyright 2003, 2009, C. George Boeree © Copyright 2003, 2009, C. George Boeree

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