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Sensors

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Versie: 28 mei 2015
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Table of contents
1 What are transducers and sensors? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5
Sensor-control-action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .7 Sensor nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Sensor types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Overview of transducers and sensors .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17
2 Signalling and operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19
Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .21 Signalling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Actuating elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23
3 Digital sensor types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25
Digital sensor
types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27 Characteristics of a digital
sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Principle
structure of a digital sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . .30 Mechanical sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 Reed contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33 Proximity switches and photocells . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Photocell technical
specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38 The
inductive sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . .46 The capacitive sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47 Sensor operated by pressure, temperature or
level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .48 The float level
sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49 The membrane
sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51
Electrode level
transducers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52
Pressure sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .53 Connecting a digital
sensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55
Logbook on sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . .59 Proximity switch features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Digital sensors
summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65 Faults commonly found in sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . .66 Sensor technical data
summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67
4 Project: Sensors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83
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Chapter 1
What are transducers and sensors?

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Sensor-control- action
Sensing is a daily activity of practically any living being. As people, we continually
use our senses to ascertain where and what happens in our environment. Burning
our fingers is a
good example. Grabbing hold of a very hot pan is determined (sensed) and quickly
sent to the brain (control), which then releases the hands from the pan (action).
Figure 1
In the world of industry, sensors and trans- ducers are the senses of technology.
Machines are not human, but in some ways they work in a similar manner. For
example, a
sensor sees the presence of a product within a process. A process can be a
conveyor belt, a filling machine, etc.
Figure 2 Process + sensing
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The sensing is forwarded to the process control. This control then initiates actions.
Figure 3 Process, sensing, control and action
The action may consist of controlling a motor or a hydraulic cylinder that sees to it
that a product follows a certain route. A sensor can ‘see’ the presence of a product,
or, for example, detect that a maximum level has been reached.
Figure 4 Process, control and action
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Sensor nomenclature
Within the electrical engineering and mechanical engineering industries, transducers and sensors are an important part of the entire automation process. The
majority of faults (80%) in automated installations are caused by sensors. This is not
because they are qualitatively unsound, but because they are right in the (not
always clean) middle of the process. There are constantly activated and subject to
mechanical load. Consequently, they become dirty, loose because of vibrations or
simply malfunction. Sensors are highly sensitive.
Various names are applied for sensors, like transducer, probe, detector, tracer,
feeler, etc. Just look at the title transducers and sensors. They are in fact all the one
and the same. From now on, we will call all digital sensors a transducer in this
module. We call all analogue sensors a transducer, while a sensor with a complex
data signal for output is called an intelligent sensor. The terms analogue and digital
are addressed in the next chapter. Some examples of sensors and transducers,
which will be explained later on, are shown below.
Figure 5 Control panel of an installation
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and 20 mA. lower pressure reached/not reached. which is passed on to a regulator. e.that the temperature receives and maintains a certain value. The analogue sensor is also referred to by the term ‘transducer’.: end point reached/not reached. &21752/ SKRWRFHOO VLJQDO &211(&7. the transducer measures the value of a certain volume (for example.by opening/closing a burner further . maximum temperature reached/not reached. An example of a digital sensor is given below. Examples: a temperature between 20. etc. etc. a pressure between 10 and 80 bar corresponds with a voltage of 0 to 24 Volt. temperature).and 50 degrees Celsius corresponds with a current between 4.. An example is given below. A sensor is usually applied in control loops. This sees to it . No product means no signal (the signal symbol is therefore also missing in the drawing).21 SKRWRFHOO QRSURGXFW SURGXFW 14 . To that end. Only two conditions are therefore possible. Figure 11 Link between photocell and control Analogue sensors convert a natural volume like temperature or pressure into an electrical signal that can assume more than two values.g. we distinguish three main groups: • Digital sensors • Analogue sensors • Intelligent sensors A digital sensor emits an on/off signal.Figure 6 Detection of bottles by means of a photocell Figure 7 Mechanically operated sensor 11 Figure 8 Optical sensor Figure 9 Capacitive sensor 12 Figure 10 Reed contact 13 Sensor types Different sensors have been developed for various types of detection. Within this module. A photocell emits a signal when a product is in front of the photocell.

The functioning and particularly the connection is usually a lot more complex than the other two groups of sensors. which uses this to make decisions and passes it on to the control.ligent sensors and providing some examples. This is why this module is limited to only mentioning intel. which can be found below. Other forms of recognition like barcode scanning and RFID (wireless identification) fall under this as well as sensors that are connected to a fieldbus system. Figure 13 Intelligent sensor block diagram 7UDQVGXFHU HJFDPHUD . Like a camera that forwards images to a PC.Figure 12 Analogue sensor Intelligent sensors are part of a separate group of sensors.

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This. These emit a broad signal in the form of a current or voltage value. Emit on/off signal • End point has been reached. Intelligent sensors. which is configured via a laptop. Figure 14 Intelligent sensor with on/off output signal (Wenglor BS-40). the control (PLC). • There are varying products in between. • End point has been reached. see also Figure 15) can be connected to a so-called bus island. All data signals go out from the island via the yellow (two-wire) cable to.20 degrees Celsius and 20 Volt with 100 degrees Celsius. Bus technology is a separate course. 18 Chapter 2 Signalling and operation . Example: temperature sensor emits a voltage between 0. Several sensors and actuators (pneumatic valve.ched Analogue sensors. for example. Depending on the value of the sensor. • Maximum temperature reached/not rea. in fact. The intelligence determines whether a flaw is sensed and will control the output. Usually emit a complex.and 20 Volt whereby 0 Volt corresponds with . The sensor itself consists of a camera and a processing unit in one. Example: a camera system that serves as eyes for the process. it is still classified under the intelligent sensor category. but then with a simple output signal. the control will start an action (by means of an actuator). LQWHOOLJHQWVHQVRUV GLJLWDOVHQVRU 16 In Figure 15 you can see a configuration with sensors (inductive) connected to AS interface fieldbus system. Digital sensors. A sensor observes and passes this on to the control. Figure 15 AS interface fieldbus system 17 Overview of transducers and sensors Transducers and sensors detect objects and passes this on to the control. is a genuine intelligent sensor. As such a sensor is adjusted by means of a laptop.15 Below please find an example of an intelligent sensor that has an on/off output signal. digital data signal. • Maximum value has been exceed.

21 Operation Figure 16 Block diagram of a machine control Electronics is applied for operating the machine. This part consists of operation. The control ensures that the commands are correctly executed from within the operation. etc. stop. the operator is informed by way of lamps or air columns whether a motor is running or is thermally overloaded. This part of the machine is also called manmachine interface (MMI) and regulates the communication between man and machine. The same applies for the signalling.) and signalling (motor on or thermal cut-out. in the form of switches. the giving of commands (start. See Figure 16. In this respect. 7 < 0 3URFHVV VHQVRUV WUDQVGXFHUV . push buttons. for example. etc. etc.).

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mitters are used.mation about the process. in this course we will focus on the electrical engineering field. For example. they include control switches. Consequently. buzzers and other elements that the machine control uses to provide the user with infor. 0RGXODUFRPSRQHQWXQLW 0RGXODUFRPSRQHQW EXWWRQV ZLWKEXLOWLQ/(' ZLWKDVVHPEOHGOHQVHV &RQQHFWLRQFRQQHFWRU &RQQHFWLRQFRQQHFWRU ZLWKQRQDVVHPEOHGOHQVHV ZW JQ \O UG EO 23 Actuating elements Actuating elements To given the machine (control) commands from the manmachine interface. The light column is used for providing operators information about the machine from some distance and from different directions. or generally speaking. These symbols can be engraved directly onto the buttons or onto a separate plate under the switch. For example. signal trans. In the past.ceivers are very similar. RI . Figure 17 Signalling: information from the control to the user Touchscreens also fall under signalling. panel and other lamps were designed with real light bulbs. actuating elements. control button. The symbols in appendix 2 are examples of engravings. Figure 18 Examples of actuating elements Standardised symbols mainly exist for push buttons. Signal push buttons Signalling can also be combined with a signal transmitter function. so that the control initiates an action. The colours are not freely choses. two functions are realised in one enclosure. Since they are directly related to the control.dardised. these have two different meanings. they are almost all LEDs. lamps. These days.22 Signalling Despite the fact that signalling and trans. In Figure 18 you will find a number of examples. It sends a signal to the control. However. In Figure 17 you can see examples of signalling. See appendix 1. These have a long service life and low current consumption. This actually works like a sensor. but stan. many control. push buttons with built-in LEDs. Computer signalling systems are not addressed in this course.

The product is then unable to activate the sensor.inductive sensor . in particular can have a major impact on the functioning of the installation. When making the contact.24 Chapter 3 Digital sensor types 27 Digital sensor types The four most commonly used types of digital sensors in a production environment are: . The other three sensors detect the product at a distance.teristics. This behaviour takes place in a few milliseconds (ms). These types of sensors are also called proximity switches.mechanical sensor .optical sensor The mechanical sensor is operated through contact with the product. The topmost signal is the ideal situation for making a contact. This usually doesn’t resolve the fault. the control does not receive a signal and the installation stops. In the event of a fault. Many faults occur because the sensor is dirty or something is bent. . 28 Characteristics of a digital sensor What are the basic characteristics of sensors? There is a lot of difference between the mechanical sensor and the proximity switches. the contact points clash together like bouncing marbles.capacitive sensor . In Figure 19 you will find a table with charac. Contact bounce only exists with the mechanical sensor. Figure 19 Sensor characteristics DWWULEXWH PHFKDQLFDOVHQVRU SUR[LPLW\VZLWFKHV ZHDU VORZ FRQWDPLQDWLRQ HOLPLQDWLRQFLUFXLW YLEUDWLRQSURQH NPWJOHQBSUT ZFT ZFT ZFT ZFT ZFT ZFT ZFT OP OP OP OP OP 29 Figure 20 Sensor signal wave forms Sensors activate an electrical circuit. But what exactly is contact bounce? In Figure 20 you can see a graphical repre. there is no current interruption and a very short delay before the contact is actually made. the first thing to do is get the gauge from the bag and measure.sentation of three signal wave forms. Contact bounce. With the proximity switch signal.

Figure 21 Fault at the beginning. So. it appears that the blade has been adjusted too low at the beginning of the belt. there are all sorts of possible causes. discovered at the end . On closer examination. The sensor appears to be pushed upwards by the vibration. P$ .A fault at the beginning of a process is sometimes only visible at the end. An example of this is a sensor that doesn’t detect the product. See Figure 21.

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The detection circuit ensures that an object or. This happens in different ways. Figure 22 Functioning of the inductive sensor A sensor’s output may: . .Contain a transistor output (NPN or PNP). PHWDO RVFLOODWRU LQGXFWLYHVHQVRU VZLWFKLQJHOHPHQWDPSOLILHU KLJKIUHTXHQF\PDJQHWLFILHOG RXWSXW B LQSXW 31 Mechanical sensor . an incoming signal is recognised.WW ]HHUNOHLQ LGHDO PHFKDQLFDOVHQVRU SUR[LPLW\VZLWFK WW KHLJKWDGMXVWDEOH EODGH VHQVRUVKLIWHG XSZDUGV 30 Principle structure of a digital sensor Digital sensors forward an ‘is/isn’t’ output signal to the control.Be a real switch contact (make. The amplifier will amplify the signal so that it can control the switching element. break or both). The functioning of a sensor (except the real switch) is mostly based on a detection circuity.Have a solid state output (fully electronic relay output without moving parts). How this is done depends on the output used. see Figure 22. . to a PLC for example. an amplifier and a switching element. The switching element will look after the actual switching action. for example.

Figure 24 Mechanical sensors Special circuits.guishes the electric arc faster. Figure 25 Cylinder position feedback based on reed contacts Reed contacts are contacts that are housed in a glass enclosure. Figure 26 Open reed contact The two contact areas of the reed contact are positioned slightly away from each other.. The alternating current extin. The contacts in the sensors are unable to switch voltage and current.The functioning of a mechanical sensor is comparable to operating a light switch. When a magnet comes into the vicinity of the reed contact. The difference in the nominal rating has to do with the electric arc that arises. The high value applies when the sensor switches in an AC circuit. It is therefore important to choose the correct contact for the control. In Figure 23 you can seen an example of a mechanical sensor. If the sensor contact has to switch too big a current. depending on the situation. like safety circuits. Figure 27 Sealed reed contact . depending on the voltage. 32 In Figure 24 you can see the versions of mechanical sensors. The low value applies in a DC current. is equipped with a make. The distance between the contacts also has to be big enough for the switching. break or changeover contact. Circuits are either made or broken by activating the contact. See Figure 26. In such cases. the current drops 100 times per second at 50 Hz. there may still be a current. The maximum nominal rating that the contact may switch is often specified in two values. both contacts may never be made or broken simultaneously. Figure 23 Mechanical sensor is going to be activated by a downward guard The sensor sends the information to the control and. The data from the sensor gives a good indication of the maximum current this can switch. 33 Reed contacts Mechanical performances can be used for detecting whether a cylinder is in the on or off state. In a safety circuit. so-called reed contacts can be used. We then get the welding effect. Both contact can be integrated into the control. Two different poles attract each other. The appropriate sensor voltage is also specified. Only the sensor is operated by the product or a component. it is difficult to install mechanical transceivers due to the compact construction of the installation. which makes the contact. this produces an N-pole at one contact area and an S-pole at the other one. then the contacts will burn out quickly. In a number of cases. If the distance is too small. have sensors with a make and a break contact.

Any sparks during switching on/off stay within the glass enclosure and therefore do not enter the environment.The glass tubes are often filled with nitrogen. The advantage of this is that the contacts do not burn out quickly. This is why reed contacts are often applied in explosive atmospheres. FRQQHFWLQJWRQJXHV VSULQJVWHHO . Reed contacts have the advantage that they are hermetically sealed.

an extremely compact position feedback of the cylinder is obtained. whereby the magnet is on the wheel and passes by once every revolution. and installing the reed contacts at side of the cylinder. see Figure 28. See for example Figure 29 for application on a bicycle. each having its own area of application. When the window is opened. Figure 28 Reed contact as limit switch for cylinders Other reed contacts applications as trans. The tyre size has to be set manually. The reed contact can be found above a window with a magnet above it. These types are: . Reed contacts are widely applied in the security industry.RSHQFRQWDFW FORVHGFRQWDFW PDJQHW 34 By equipping the piston with a powerful magnet.Inductive signal transmitters that work on the basis of a magnetic field that detect the presence of ferrous metals . The reed contacts are usually equipped with a built-in LED that is connected in series with the contact and consequently lights up when operated.ceivers for measuring speed.Capacitive signal transmitters that work on the basis of an electric field that detect both metallic and non-metallic objects. a pin. Figure 29 Determining speed with reed contact VFUHZWKUHDG FRPSUHVVHGDLU GHOLYHU\GLVFKDUJH FRPSUHVVHGDLU GHOLYHU\GLVFKDUJH PDJQHW GHWHFWLRQ UHVWPRGH GHWHFWLRQ RIIPRGH SLVWRQURGH OHG 35 Proximity switches and photocells When limit switches do not require any direct contact with any object to detect it. we speak of proximity switches. This in contrast to limit switches. These switches are almost always based on electronics. a spring or the like to facilitate switching. There are two main types. . which always need a roller. the contact breaks and the alarm is activated.

be the same. they do not fall under the proximity switches. there is also a vast area of application for optical transceivers or photocells. Figure 30 Working principle of optical signal transmitters (direct method) So. Figure 35 Direct action method In Figure 35 a direct action optical signal transmitter is being applied. The optical signal transmitters do the same with light. 36 and 37 you can see three applications for optical transceivers. Optical transceivers work on the basis of whether or not a light beam is captured.the light receiver or photocell Figure 31 Optical transceiver with transmitter and receiver ODPS OHQV WUDQVPLWWHU OHQV UHFHLYHU OLJKWVHQVLWLYHVZLWFK WUDQVPLWWHU UHFHLYHU 36 Optical transceivers have three methods of sensing. That is why an optical signal transmitter consists of two elements. however. Figure 32 Direct action (loose transmitter and receiver) Figure 33 Indirect action (transmitter receiver with reflector/mirror in one housing) Figure 34 Direct reflection (product reflection) WUDQVPLWWHU UHFHLYHU FRQYH\RUEHOW PLUURU 37 In figures 35. 33 and 34 .mitter . Despite that they are like proximity switches in that they do not make any mechanical contact with the product to be detected. light emitter or transmitter . Photocells The reed contacts work with magnetic fields as a medium for transferring information. The application can.the light source. The two elements are: .In addition to this. These methods are illustrated in figures 32. In Figure 30 you can see the principle of this. optical signal transmitters respond (switch) to light. In Figure 36 the distance between the wastepaper basket is checked using an indirect action signal trans. see Figure 31.

Be careful with the positive and the negative connection. is greater. Figure 38 Fibre optic transceivers Optical sensors transmit light. The object is therefore right in front of the lens (y=0) and the switching distance is maximum. and therefore the operating range as well. This technology makes it possible to realise highly flexible setups. Connecting photocell equipment incorrectly usually leads to defect. the dispersal of light. Figure 37 Direct reflection method Figure 38 lastly. shows a modern version of an optical transceiver with an application. the side of the standard object depends on the dimensions of the photocell. The manufacturer guarantees to which extent contamination has no impact on the sensor’s functioning. Figure 39 Photocell switching distance Specific maximum switching distances are measures with a switching distance of 0 mm with respect to the so-called optical axis. 38 Photocell technical specifications Figure 39 provides an overview of how the switching distance is represented for the various photocell versions.Figure 36 Indirect action method In Figure 37 two direct reflection transceivers are used to check that the cut off products are being rolled up correctly. But light can be blocked by dirt on the lens. Note that the sensor and transmitter of Figure 38 operate with fibre optic cables that pass light. VZLWFKLQJGLVWDQFH OLFKWVRXUFH UHFHLYHU VZLWFKLQJGLVWDQFH OLJKVRXUFHUHFHLYHU UHIOHFWRU VZLWFKLQJGLVWDQFH REMHFW OLJKWVRXUFHUHFHLYHU VZLWFKLQJGLVWDQFH REMHFW UHFHLYHU . With photocells. For a larger photocell.

then the photocell switches as soon as the light beam is interrupted. This in contrast to an object reflection type. the maximum switching distance is much greater. see Figure 41 Figure 41 Operating mode REMHFWUHIOHFWLRQ UHWURUHIOHFWLRQ VHSDUDWHGOLJKWVRXUFH DQGUHFHLYHU VZLWFKLQJGLVWDQFH FP P P REMHFW [ ZKLWHPDWWSDSHU RSDTXH RSDTXH GLUHFWLRQDQJOH VHQVRUWRƒ UHIOHFWRUWRƒ 6HSDUDWHGWUDQVPLWWHUUHFHLYHUDQGUHWURUHIOHFWLRQ 2EMHFWUHIOHFWLRQ 2SHUDWLYHZKHQWKHOLJKW LVLQWHUUXSWHG 'DUNRQ .on. you increase (double) the maximum switching distance again. usually white matt paper. That’s why it is possible to switch the photocell over from dark-on or light. Figure 40 shows part of a table with the technical data of one type of photocell. When a reflector is used for the same photocell. Figure 40 Switching distance of one type of photocell When you apply a photocell with reflector or with separated transmitter/receiver. But when you apply the same type of photocell with a separated transmitter/ receiver.OLJKW VRXUFH OLJKWVRXUFH UHFHLYHU VZLWFKLQJGLVWDQFH 0HWKRG 'HVFULSWLRQ 6HSDUDWHGWUDQVPLWWHUUHFHLYHU 5HWURUHIOHFWLYHW\SH 2EMHFWUHIOHFWLRQW\SH REMHFWUHIOHFWLRQZLWK EDFNJURXQGVXSSUHVVLRQ )RUNSKRWRFHOO 39 For the maximum switching distance of a photocell with object reflection. the colour of the object is specified.

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A white object reflects the light well. Figure 43 Correction factors for a photocell For photocells with object reflection. that the direction angle is 0 degrees. This has an impact on the maximum switching distance. Accurate adjustment is very important and increases the maximum switching distance. the table for Figure 40 specifies that the standard object consists of white matt paper. see Figure 42. Any other colour reflects more or less. when you work with reflector and transmitter/ receiver. When the photocell is installed this way. The switching distance specified in the table applies for a photocell that is installed within the margins of the direction angle.LQRSHUDWLRQ LQRSHUDWLRQ LQRSHUDWLRQ LQRSHUDWLRQ 40 Figure 42 Direction angle On the bottom line of the table for Figure 40 you can see the specified direction angle. the switching distance becomes three times bigger. OLJKWVRXUFH GLUHFWLRQDQJOH UHFHLYHU . In the table for Figure 43 the multiplication factors of other surfaces are specified. which has to be multiplied by a factor.

The photocell captures sufficient light and then exceeds the switching threshold. The in operation indication lights up if the photocell is connected to the correct voltage and the operating indicator lights up when the output becomes active.0DWHULDO &RUUHFWLRQIDFWRU ZKLWHSDSHU .RGDNWHVWFDUG QHZVSDSHUZLWKLPSULQW WLVVXHSDSHU FDUGERDUG ZRRGUDZ URXJKSDOOHW EHHUIRDP FOHDUSODVWLFERWWOH EODFNUXEEHUWDS VWDLQOHVVVWHOO EODQN SROLVKHGDOXPLQLXP 41 The majority of photocells are equipped with a number of LEDs. which the photocell uses to indicate whether there has been a change in the environment or that the photocell is still working properly. There is not enough light when the photocell slowly becomes dirty and too much if light comes from an external light source. Figure 44 gives an overview of the so. In addition to these two LEDs. these days the majority of photocells have two more LEDs (green and red). The switching threshold is the light value to which the photocell is set.called self-diagnosis of the photocell. Figure 44 Self-diagnosis 6FDWWHUHGOLJKWFDSWXUH QRLVH GLUHFWLRQDQJOH WRRELJGXHWR YLEUDWLRQ GXVW ([DPSOHRIVHOIGLDJQRVLV . The green LED lights up when there is more than 20% too little or too much volume of light. The red LED lights up if there is sufficient incidence of light (equal to or higher than the switching threshold).

Adjust the optical axis according to the following steps: 1. Adjust the optical axis of the light source in the same way as with the receiver.9ROXPHRI OLJKWFDSWXUHG /LJKWLQGLFDWRU UHG LQGLFDWRUV WLPHV VZLWFKLQJWKUHVKROG RUPRUH VXIILFLHQW LQGHQFHRIOLJKW JUHHQRQ UHGRII JUHHQRII UHGRQ WRWLPHV VZLWFKLQJWKUHVKROG LQVXIILFLHQW LQGHQFHRIOLJKW JUHHQRII UHGRII WLPHV VZLWFKLQJWKUHVKROG RUOHVV JUHHQRQ UHGRII WRWLPHV VZLWFKLQJWKUHVKROG 42 Tips for installing photocells When the optical axis is optimally (see Figure 45) adjusted. Adjust the optical axis of the light source in the same way as with the receiver. OLJKWVRXUFH GLUHFWLRQDQJOH UHFHLYHU OHQV PRUHWKDQ' . 2. so that the incoming light scatters on the lens. Figure 45 Alight the optical axis Figure 46 Checking a stable operation To guarantee stable operation of the separated transmitter/receiver and the retroreflection photocells. Confirm the light source and the receiver temporarily and adjust the optical axis as a whole. Move the receiver horizontally and verti. you should align the optical axis such that the indicator lights up. it is necessary to ensure that the object takes up at least half of the lens surface of the light source. 4. the operating range of the separated transmitter/receiver and the retroreflection photocells improves by up to three times the nominal level. Determine and install the receiver in the middle of this area.cally to find the area in which the indicator lights up. 3. see Figure 46. In the case of a model that is equipped with a stability indicator (green LED).

Figure 48 Influence of the installation surface on object reflection When a retro-reflection photocell is installed directly onto rough surface. When a background object is present behind the object to be detected. The lens should also be kept clean. it can be determined whether the photocell is operating stably by keeping track of when the indicator lights up. In this case. When a separated transmitter/receiver photocell is placed directly onto a flat (in. parti. In this case. level) surface. the photocell can be installed higher above the installation surface (seeFigure 48b) or the direction angle can be changed. see OLJKWVRXUFH REMHFW UHFHLYHU OLJKWVRXUFH OJKWEDUULHU UHFHLYHU D E OLJKWVRXUFHUHFHLYHU PRXQWKLJKHU P OLJKWVRXUFHUHFHLYHU D . This assumes that there are few fluctuations in the ambient temperature and ambient light. and the photocell can be used.cularly. the light beam can reflect onto the installation surface and have an adverse impact (see Figure 47a). it can be determined whether the photocell is operating stably by keeping track of when the indicator lights up. even if the stability indicator does not light up. the photocell can be installed higher above the installation surface or a light barrier can be applied (see Figure 47b). the light beam can reflect onto the surface to the sensor head and have an adverse impact on the functioning (see Figure 48a). Note that this is not an absolute rule. When a model is equipped with a stability indicator (green LED. the photocell should be installed such that this indicator lights up when the light is captured.' 43 Figure 47 Influence of the installation surface on separated transmitter/receiver and retro-reflection In the case of a model that is equipped with a stability indicator (green LED). When a model is equipped with a stability indicator (green LED. an object reflection photocell can be influenced by the light reflecting from this background object.

Figure 49 Influence of a background object Figure 50 Reciprocal influence with separated transmitter/receiver When two or more separated transmitter/ receiver photocells are set up next to each other. If this happens. The happens because the light that is emitted onto the object by one of the photocells may reflect and irradiate onto the receiver of the other photocell (see Figure 51a). This occurs. This is reciprocal influence. When the colour of the background object is similar to that of the object to be detected. A black background does not generally affect the functioning of the photocell. If this happens. The photocell will be affected the most when the background object has a high reflection value. the receiver of the one photocell can be affected by the light source from the other photocell or vice versa. or create enough distance between the photocells.E 44 Figure 49. when the surface of the detection object or the background has a high reflection value. in particular. either the photocells have to be placed closer to the object or enough distance has to be created between the photocells (see Figure 51b). it can be determined whether the photocell is operating stably by keeping track of when the indicator lights up. set up the light sources alternately opposite each other (see Figure 50). make sure that the photocell only reacts when the object to be detected is present. Figure 51 Reciprocal influence with object reflection . It is therefore advisable to use an object reflection photocell with background suppression when a background object is present. reciprocal influence may occur. When a model is equipped with a stability indicator (green LED. OLJKWVRXUFHUHFHLYHU EDFNJURXQGREMHFW ZLWKORZUHIOHFWLRQ REMHFW UHPRYHWKH EDFNJURXQGREMHFW OLJKWVRXUFH UHFHLYHU UHFHLYHU OLJKWVRXUFH 45 When two or more object reflection photocells are set up next to each other.

The oscillator has to supply this energy. for example. As a result of this. This. For detecting cylindrical objects. There is an area with magnetic field lines in front of the probe. is used for sorting screws and nuts. a change in current occurs in . The photocell with a filter for specular reflection does not have to be tilted. The functioning of the inductive sensor is based on the changing of an electromagnetic field. like steel and aluminium. the reflect and the photocell should be installed beneath a small horizontal angle (10° tot 20°) of the specular surface. Figure 53 Functioning of the inductive sensor Figure 54 Functioning of the inductive sensor A high frequency magnetic field is generated in the oscillator . See Figure 53. LQVWDOODWLRQFOHDUDQFH VWDEOH XQVWDEOH VZLWFKLQJGLVWDQFH VZLWFKLQJGLVWDQFH OLJKWVRXUFHUHFHLYHU OLJKWVRXUFHUHFHLYHU LQVWDOODWLRQ FOHDUDQFH D E OLJKWVRXUFHUHFHLYHU DQJOHƒ WR ƒ VKLQ\ REMHFW UHIOHFWRU 46 The inductive sensor Inductive sensor Inductive sensors can distinguish different conductive materials. the reflector and the photocell should be tilted the vertical direction. This is explained in Figure 54 in simple terms. When the conductive material cuts through these field lines. like a rod.Figure 52 Reflector installation When a retro-reflection photocell is applied for detecting an object with a high reflection value (Figure 52). the material absorbs part of the magnetic field.

The distances within which an inductive sensor can detect the object are relatively short. P . This change in current is converted by the amplifier into a control signal to the output transistor (electronic switch). The vary from a few millimetres to approximately 2 centimetres.the oscillator. The sensitivity for most inductive sensors cannot be adjusted. This switches the output of the inductive sensor.