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Year 3

Summary

1

Chapter 3 Energy

3

Chapter 5 Expansion

5

Chapter 8 Measuring heat

6

Chapter 11 Pushes & Pulls

7

Chapter 13 Pressure

9

Chapter 14 Forces

10

Chapter 15 Turning Forces

11

Chapter 16 Work, Energy and Power

12

Chapter 17 Machines

13

Chapter 23 Reflection

14

Chapter 24 Curved mirrors

17

2

Chapter 25 Refraction 18 Chapter 26 Lenses 19 Chapter 30 Static electricity 20 Chapter 31 circuits 20 Chapter 3 Energy Energy can exists in different forms: Chemical energy (food) Thermal energy (heat) Light energy Sound energy Elastic potential energy Gravitational potential energy Kinetic energy (movement) Electrical energy Nuclear energy 3 .

You need 20km of floats to equal the amount of energy produced by a modern power station. 4 .Renewable sources of energy are : Solar energy Biomass Wind energy Wave energy Hydro-electric energy Tidal energy Geothermal energy You need 40km2 of solar panels to equal the amount of energy produced by a modern power station.

When objects cool down they get smaller. A bi-metallic strip is made of two metal strips with different expansion coefficients (often brass and iron) which are placed side by side and then riveted or welded together.You need 2000 windmills to equal the amount of energy produced by a modern power station. 5 . Chapter 5 Expansion When objects get hotter they grow bigger. We say they contract. We say the expand.

A math produces 2000J = 2KJ to burn up completely.000J=1KJ .A bimetallic strip is used in a fire alarm or as an Electrical thermostat. 1. Chapter 8 Measuring Heat All moving molecules of an object have internal energy. 1. 6 .000. internal energy is measured in a unit called joule (J).000J=1MJ. While sleeping you use about 4KJ every minute. Its internal energy increases. Like all other forms of energy. Bi-metalic strip Fire alarm contact When it gets too hot the bi-metallic strip will bend and make contact with the contact and completes the circuit causing a current to flow and the alarm to sound. Your body needs a total of 10 MJ per day.

lifting or bending. we are exerting a force.The specific heat capacity of a substance is the amount of energy that is used to raise the temperature of 1Kg of the substance by 1 ℃ . Energy needed=specific heat capacity × mass× change∈themperature joules J /kg ℃ kg ℃ Material Water Meths Paraffin Ice Aluminium Sand Copper Mercury Specific heat capacity J/Kg ̊C 4200 2500 2200 2100 880 800 380 140 Chapter 11 Pushes and Pulls Pushes and pulls are forces. Forces can : Change the speed of an object 7 . Whenever we are pushing or pulling.

Forces are measured in units called newtons (N) A mass of 1kg (here on Earth) weights almost 10 newtons. it weighs about onesixth as much. If an object is taken to the Moon. Weight is the force of gravity due to the pull of the Earth. Hooke’s Law : The extension of a spring is proportional to the force pulling it (up to the limit of proportionality). because the Moon is smaller than the Earth. 8 . Change the direction of an object Change the shape of an object Weight is a very common force. In outer space objects become weightless.

Newton’s First Law : Every mass stays at rest or moves at constant speed in a straight line unless a resultant force acts on it. We say masses have inertia.Weight on Earth=mass × 10 newtons kg N /kg The mass of an object is the amount of matter in it. It is measured in kilograms (kg). Chapter 13 Pressure 9 . the mass of a book is around 1kg. a reluctance to start moving.

The pressure exerted on us by the atmosphere is 100.Pressure(N /m2)= force (¿ newtons) area(¿ square metres) A force acting over a small area gives a larger pressure. A mercury barometer : 10 .000 newtons per square metre.

Chapter 14 Forces Friction is a very common force. Whenever one surface slides over another. friction always tries to oppose the movement. Forces are shown in a Free-body force diagram : 11 . Ways to reduce friction : Polishing the surface Lubricating with oil Separate by air Rolling instead of sliding Streamlining Newton’s 3rd Law : The action force and the reaction force are equal and opposite. because it wastes energy. Friction is often nuisance.

Chapter 15 Turning forces Moment of a force = force(N) x perpendicular In equilibrium : total anti-clockwise moment = total clockwise moment. 12 .

To be more stable an object needs a low centre of mass and a wide base. work done=force ×distance moved ( joules)( newtons)(metres) The principle of Conservation of energy : energy can be changed from one form to another. but it cannot be created or destroyed. 13 . An object can be stable. Chapter 16 Work.The centre of gravity is the point through which the whole weight of the object seem to act. unstable or neutral equilibrium depending on the position of its centre of gravity. Power and Energy 1 joule is the power needed to move a force of 1 newton through a distance of 1 metre.

Work done=Energy transfered Efficiency= usefull energy output ×100 total energy input Change∈E potential ( J )=weight(N )× ∆ height (m) Change∈E gravity ( J )=mass ( kg ) × g × ∆ height ( m ) ( g=10 on earth ) Eelastic =average force ×distance 1 2 Ekinetic = × mass × speed 2 Power= work done time taken Chapter 17 Machines Some machines are : Levers ramps 14 .

Chapter 23 Reflection Angle I normal Angle R The angle with which the ray hits the object is called the angle of incidence The middle dotted line is the normal 15 .pulleys Machines are less than 100% efficient because of friction.

The angle with which the ray reflects from the object is called the angle of Refraction If an object reflects light the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection. 3 draw angle R the same amount of degrees as angle I. 16 . A periscope : A pheriscope are 2 mirrors at an angle of 90 degrres wich let you look straight but than at an higher level. If you want to draw the outgoing ray : 1 draw an normal . 2 measure angle I .

An image in a plane mirror Draw the reflection of an object in a mirror : 1 draw the image of the object 2 make 2 rays from the eye to the imaged object (behind the mirror dotted lines) 17 .

3 finish it by connecting the not dotted lines with the non-mirrored object Chapter 24 Curved mirrors There are two kind of curved mirrors : A mirror that curves in called a concave mirror. Parallel rays of light are reflected through the focal point of a concaved mirror. 18 .

Parallel rays of light are reflected so that they seem to come from the focal point of a convex mirror. Refractive index = sin ( angle I ) sin(angle R) 19 . Chapter 25 refraction If a ray of air goes in to another substance it is refracted. A mirror that curves outwards called a convex mirror.

20 .43 Chapter 26 Lenses There are two kind of lenses : A lens that curves in called a concave mirror.45 Refractive index diamond = 2.Refractive index petrol = 1.

Chapter 30 Static energy Like electric charges repel whereas unlike electric charges repel. A lens that curves outwards called a convex mirror.Parallel rays of light are refracted so that they seem to come from the focal point of a concaved lens. 21 . Parallel rays of light are refracted through the focal point of a convex lens.

there must be a complete circuit. d . with no gaps.(V ) current ( I ) 22 . The symbols for components of a simple circuit : Th ere are series and parallel circuits : resistance= p .Chapter 31 For an electric current to flow.

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