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An inclinometer or clinometer is an instrument for measuring angles of slope (or

tilt), elevation or depression of an object with respect to gravity. It is also known as
a tilt meter, tilt indicator, slope alert, slope gauge, gradient meter, gradiometer,
level gauge, level meter, declinometer, and pitch & roll indicator. Clinometers
measure both inclines (positive slopes, as seen by an observer looking upwards)
and declines (negative slopes, as seen by an observer looking downward) using
three different units of measure: degrees, percent, and topo. Astrolabes are
inclinometers that were used for navigation and locating astronomical objects from
ancient times to the Renaissance.

Compass with inclinometer

Military model

Inclinometer Casing

Inclinometer Casing

An inclinometer system has two components: (1) inclinometer casing and (2) an inclinometer measurement system. They are accurate because the entire length of the casing is measured twice in each survey. and readout. Inclinometer casing provides access for subsurface measurements. buried in a trench (horizontal inclinometers). cable. It can also be embedded in fill. Portable systems are economical because they can be carried from site to site. cast into concrete. or attached to a structure. . Inclinometer casing is usually installed in a borehole. Portable Measurement Systems Digitilt Classic System Digitilt AT System Portable measurement systems include a probe. Grooves inside the casing control the orientation of the inclinometer sensor and provide a uniform surface for measurements.

compared. The tilt angle range is the range of desired linear output. Important specifications to consider when searching for tilt sensors and inclinometers are the tilt angle range and number of axes (which are usually.electronic inclinometers accuracy can typically range from . and the Digitilt AT System. accuracy Certain highly sensitive electronic inclinometer sensors can achieve an output resolution to 0. hysteresis. plotted. orthogonal). sensor linearity. an ordinary survey may generate several hundred data points.depending on the technology and angle range. it may be limited to 0. automobile security systems. is a combination of initial sets of sensor zero offset and sensitivity. which has been the world standard in precision and reliability for many years. Over time. repeatability. Inclinometers generate more data than most other types of sensors. Sensor technology Tilt sensors and inclinometers generate an artificial horizon and measure angular tilt with respect to this horizon. Subsequent surveys are compared to the initial. Slope Indicator's DigiPro2 Software is designed to speed these tasks. For example. aircraft flight controls. Changes in the profile indicate that movement has occurred. but not always. which takes advantage of newer technologies. however.01º. .0001 degrees . boom angle indication. tens of thousands of data points must be reduced. and archived. and in other applications requiring measurement of tilt.01º to ±2º depending on the sensor and situation. Slope Indicator offers the Digitilt Classic System.The first survey establishes the initial profile of the casing. and speciality switches and are also used for platform leveling. They are used in cameras. and the temperature drifts of zero and sensitivity . Typically in room ambient conditions the accuracy is limited to the sensor linearity specification. An inclinometer sensor's true or absolute accuracy (which is the combined total error).

gas bubble in liquid. which is built into the cartridge. precision levelling. those inclinometers may support the standardized CANopen profile (CiA 410). The PlayStation 3 and Wii game controllers also use tilt as a means to play video games. alignment and surface flatness profiling tasks essentially involve a 2-dimensional plane rather than two independent single-axis objects. pitch & roll). Tilt sensor technology has also been implemented in video games. The 2Axis inclinometer utilizing advanced MEMS technology provides simultaneous 2-axis and wide angle measuring range features that the traditional single-axis digital and 'bubble' levels are unable to offer. . and (iii) susceptible to cross axis error. for example to measure the inclination of land to be built upon. Some inclinometers provide an electronic interface based on CAN (Controller Area Network). these inclinometers are compatible and partly interchangeable. In this case. Yoshi's Universal Gravitation and Kirby Tilt 'n' Tumble are both built around a tilt sensor mechanism.e. and pendulum. 2-Axis Digital Inclinometer Advantages of new 2-Axis digital inclinometer over conventional single-axis leveling instruments:  2-axis technology enables simultaneous 2D (X-Y plane) tilt angles measurement (i. completely eliminates tedious trial-and-error (i. 2-Axis Digital Inclinometer Traditional spirit levels and pendulum-based digital levels are commonly constrained by (i) single axis (ii) narrow angular tilt measurement range. However. In addition.e.Common implementations of tilt sensors and inclinometers are accelerometer. Liquid Capacitive. going back-and-forth) experienced when using single-axis levels to adjust machine footings to achieve a precise leveling position. electrolytic. Inclinometers are also used in civil engineering. angle measurement.

accelerating. and that adjacent buildings are not affected by ground movements. . Typical applications include:  Detecting zones of movement and establish whether movement is constant. i. or responding to remedial measures. 2-axis MEMS inclinometer effectively eradicates constraints experienced when using conventional single-axis instrument that requires leveling tasks to be conducted one axis at a time with tedious alignment iterations. 2-axis MEMS driven inclinometers can be digitally compensated and precisely calibrated for non-linearity and operating temperature variation resulting higher angular accuracy and stability performance over wider angular measurement range. and the numerical display prevents parallax error when reading ‘bubble’ vial position from a distance.  Checking that deformations are within design limits.  Digital graphical bull’s eye with numerical data and a built-in vibrometer enable machine installer to track alignment in real-time and verify positional stability by comparing machine's leveling profiles before and after setting up. 2-Axis Digital Inclinometer Applications Inclinometers are used to monitor subsurface movements and deformations.e. accountability & quality works. that struts and anchors are performing as expected.

 n-Place Measurement Systems In-Place Inclinometer Sensors    In-place measurement systems are installed when continuous monitoring is required for construction control or safety. and other structures (horizontal inclinometer). and upstream slopes during and after impoundment. The in-place system consist of one or more dedicated sensors connected to a data logger. or when difficulties were experienced during installation. Slope Indicator's Atlas webbased monitoring performs this task. Verifying stability of dams. Spiral surveys are recommended when the installation is very deep. and generating graphs and reports. dam abutments. automatically processing the readings. In-place inclinometer systems generate even more data than portable systems.   Spiral Checking   A spiral sensor provides readings that can be used to correct inclinometer data obtained from spiraled casing. The sensors are positioned to span the zones where deformation is likely to occur.  Monitoring settlement profiles of embankments. checking for alarms. when inclinometer readings indicate movement in unlikely directions. foundations. . and often the data must be processed and distributed immediately.