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**Stability Based on Bifurcation Theory
**

Zhiyuan Zeng, Xianqi Li, Jianzhong Zhou, Yongchuan Zhang

School of Hydropower and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China

**Abstract—Voltage stability has been well investigated for the
**

traditional power system using bifurcation theory since two

decades ago. This paper studies the impact of wind farm on

voltage stability of power system with and without reactive power

compensation devices. The static reactive compensation devices

including static capacitor banks and static var compensators

(SVC) are used to improve the maximum loadability. The

continuation method for power flow is used to obtain the system

PV curves and determine the maximum loadability. The type of

instability could possibly be of either Hopf. bifurcation or saddle

node bifurcation. The equivalent wind farm model is established

to replace the whole wind farm with a high number of wind

turbines. The IEEE 14 bus benchmark system is used to

demonstrate the reactive power compensation devices to support

the voltage stability after wind farm integration into a power

grid.

Keywords-Voltage Stability ˗ Hopf Bifurcation Wind Farm ˗

Static Reactive Compensation

I.

INTRODUCTION

**The ability to maintain voltage stability has become a growing
**

concern for the planning and operating today’s stresses power

systems. It has been lengthy studied using bifurcation theory

for the traditional power systems in the past two decades

[1][2]. Wind energy has become one of the most important

and promising sources of renewable energy all over the world,

mainly because it is considered to be nonpolluting and

economically viable with the rapid development of related

wind turbine technology. With wind farms capacities

continuously increasing, the impact of wind farm integration

on voltage stability has attracted more concerns.

The dynamic of a large class of power systems can be

represented by parameter dependent differential-algebraic

models of the form

•

x = f ( x, y , λ , p )

0 = g ( x, y , λ , p )

(1)

**When the parameters Ȝ and/or p (such as load of the system)
**

vary, the stable equilibrium points may lose its dynamic

stability at local bifurcation points. These equilibrium points

are asymptotically stable if all the eigenvalues of the system

state matrix have negative real parts. As the parameters

change, the eigenvalues associated with the corresponding

equilibrium point change as well. Upon parameters variation,

local bifurcation analysis of equilibria of the DAE model often

**results in three major bifurcations, saddle node (SN), Hopf and
**

singularity induced (SI) bifurcations. The point where a

complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues reach the imaginary

axis with respect to the changes in (Ȝ, p), say (x0, y0, Ȝ0, p0), is

known as a Hopf bifurcation point. More detailed discussions

about the stability of power systems DAE model are in [3].

The fast growth of wind generation has led to concern about

the effect of wind power on the voltage stability of the power

grid. Compared to the conventional power plants, wind parks

exhibit certain singular characteristics, especially for variable

speed wind turbines, which not only produce reactive power

but also absorb it. The reactive power supporting capability

directly changes the voltage stability of power grid. In [4], an

aggregate model of a grid-connected wind farm for power

stability has been studied. It concentrated on the shaft systems

of the wind turbines when a simplified aggregate model of the

wind farm is used in voltage stability investigations. In [5], it

analyzed the voltage stability in a weak connection wind farm.

The possibility of network voltage drop and instability are

investigated by the detailed electromagnetic transient

simulation program.

This paper is structured as follows: the foundation of power

system stability and bifurcation analysis is described in section

II. In section III, wind farm model is established. Simulation

results are presented which illustrate various effects on the

power system voltage stability bifurcations theory in Section

IV. In section V, a summary is given and the conclusion of

this paper is presented.

II.

BASIC BACKGROUND

**Static and dynamic approaches were presented in [6] to
**

analyze voltage stability. Static approaches like sensitivity

analysis, modal analysis and P-V and Q-V methods for

voltage stability assessment use a system condition or

snapshot for voltage stability evaluation. They usually solve

power flow equations of the network with specific load

increments until the point of voltage collapse is reached.

These techniques allow examination of a wide range of system

conditions and can provide much insight into the nature of this

phenomenon by computation of the contributing factors. For

small disturbance analysis, the dynamic approach is based on

the eigenvalue computation of the linearized system, while for

large disturbance analysis a complete time domain simulation

is required.

978-1-4244-2487-0/09/$25.00 ©2009 IEEE

3.6 0. Fig.3 0. and the nominal power is increased up to the sum of the nominal power of the whole set of turbines to obtain the parameters of the aggregated turbine [12]. Wind generator and controller are used the simplified models.9 operating point HB HB 0.7 0. 2. Fig.u. The size of the wind farm model may be reduced by aggregating several wind turbines with similar incoming wind into a bigger turbine called aggregated model. as shown in Fig. WIND FARM MODEL 3. Wind farm detailed and aggregated model 0. which is the necessary condition of saddle-node bifurcation. PV curve for the system with detailed and aggregated wind farm model under the normal and contingency conditions . In this paper. wind generator model. Implementing a predictor---corrector scheme.5 0. and corresponding controller model. Mathematically.1. which is given in detail in [11]. the Jacobian matrix has a zero eigenvalue when evaluated at the SNB point. which has been demonstrated accuracy and efficiency.8 Bus 14 voltage (p. and therefore a rated power equal to n-times the rated power of individual wind turbines. If a constant power load is used as the bifurcation parameter. the wind farm equivalent model includes an aggregated model of the generation systems and a dynamic simplified model of each individual wind turbine approximating the operation points of each wind turbine according to the corresponding incoming wind speed[13] Meanwhile the equivalent wind turbine presents n-times the size of individual wind turbines. the composite wind model presented in [10] is used. When Hopf bifurcation occurs. Bifurcation analysis is appropriate for voltage stability since it is observed that the instability that may occur usually coincides with the singularity of system state Jacobian. the SNB point corresponds to the nose point of the P−V or Q−V curve.1 wind turbine model A complete wind turbine model includes wind speed model.4 30 DFIGs pre-contingency PV curve 3 DFIGs pre-contingency PV curve 30 DFIGs post-contingency PV curve 3 DFIGs post-contingency PV curve 0. where n is the number of aggregated wind turbines. Continuation Power Flow (CPF) presents a way to plot complete PV curves by automatically changing the value of the loading parameter ( ). may lead to compute an excessive and impractical number of equations. the system suddenly starts oscillating. Therefore. thirty wind turbines are equivalent into three wind turbines under the three typical wind speeds conditions and three aggregated rated powers. For example. sometimes a large wind farm will cover several square kilometers.2 259 272 285 298 Total System Load (MW ) 311 324 Fig. a continuation algorithm can trace the path of an already established solution as the parameters are varied [8].2 Aggregated model A complete model of a wind farm with a high number of wind turbines. and then it may keep on periodic oscillating or lose stability at last by increasing the amplitude continuously [9]. 3. PV curve analysis is widely used in the industry for analyzing voltage stability problems [7]. IEEE 14 bus benchmark system 1 0. 1.) III. The mechanical and electric parameters per unit are preserved. The physical explanation is that the load power reaches its maximum which can be transmitted through the network.Typically. The principle of continuation is a mathematical technique in which the path of an established solution of a system of equations is followed around parameter space when a control parameter is varied. Due to the wide range of distribution and geographically variations.

The parameters of modified transmission lines and equivalent wind turbine are given in Appendix. SNB 0. either the Hopf. The system consists of five synchronous machines.5 0. bifurcation (HB) will decrease due to wind farm replacing the synchronous generator at bus 2. The comparative results of PV curves between detailed and aggregated wind model are shown in Fig.RESULTS 1 HB 0. The wind farm reactive power includes wind turbine and wind electric field of reactive power compensation device.5. To examine the wind farm effect. can be used for regulating the SVC or other more advanced reactive power compensation device.7 SNB 0.3 0. 4. PV curves for the system with wind farm under the various wind speeds 1 Original System HB 0. 5. and the result is shown in Fig. The one-line diagram of the system can be seen in Fig. bifurcations or saddle node bifurcations. The internal network parameters for the step-up transformer and transmission lines are changed to verify it. if necessary.4 0.) IV. The dynamic behavior of the power system has been changed after the wind farm integration. and it is depicted in Fig. three of which are synchronous compensators used only for reactive power support. the aggregated wind farm model can be approximately used to replace the whole wind farm to save time computation and improve efficiency. represented with subtransient models and with IEEE type-1 exciters. we need to consider the installation of wind power reactive power compensation device. under the limit of wind turbines. represented as constant power loads (PQ loads). There are 11 loads in the system. if only the wind turbine reactive power capacity can not meet the needs of system voltage regulator.7 V14 (p. The original system of this reference was modified to include a wind farm composed of 30 turbines of 2 MW each.5 0. the loadability will be improved.) 0. 2.u.u. 4.3 259 272 285 298 Total System Load (MW ) 311 324 Fig.6 High W ind Speed PV Curve 0. First of all. Wind power reactive power compensation devices division can be switched capacitors or reactor group and.6 0. thus.8 0.8 Internal Network Parameters Decreased System PV Curve(*0.8 SNB 0.3 259 272 285 298 Total System Load (MW ) 311 324 Fig.6 0. PV curves for the system with wind farm after changing parameters Normal Operation ----. which was described in detail [14].4 0. the loadability will increase. PV curves for the system with reactive compensation devices .u. the loadability will decrease.) All results presented in this section are obtained from a slight modified of the IEEE 14 bus benchmark system.8 0. 6. totaling 259 MW and 81.9 HB 0.7 V 14(p.5 Medium W ind Speed PV Curve 0.3 0. With the parameters increasing.9 HB after DFIG with SVC HB after DFIG with Capacitor Bank 0. With wind speed increasing.6 0.Line 2-4 removing Contingency 0.9 0. On the contrary.4 Low W ind Speed PV Curve 0. the transmission lines in the IEEE 14 bus test system were modified appropriately to achieve a realistic wind penetration level.2 259 272 285 298 311 Total System Load (MW ) 324 337 Fig. an equivalent wind generator at 2 MW is considered.u. The wind farm is connected to the grid through 25kV/69kV transformers.9 Original System PV Curve DFIG System PV Curve HB V14 (p. PV curves for the system with synchronous generator and wind farm Origianl System PV Curve Internal Network Parameters Increased System PV Curve(*5) 0. The dynamic model of the wind farm includes an equivalent model of its internal electric network. 7. With the wind speed various. the output power of wind farm will change correspondingly. The cause is the wind farm internal network decreasing the voltage margin.) 0.2 259 272 285 298 311 Total System Load (MW ) 324 337 Fig.4 0. should make full use of wind power generating units of reactive power capacity and its ability to regulate. The dynamic behavior of three wind speed conditions is shown in Fig.3 Mvar.5 0.01) V14 (p.7 0. Therefore.3. A static capacitor bank to compensate for the reactive power drawn by the induction generator is connected at the bus. The maximum loadability and Hopf. The simulation results are very similar under the normal and contingency operating conditions. SNB 0.6.

05403 2*0. electronic semiconductors are used thus achieving fast and continuouslyvariable reactive power output. pp. Aug. 24.u. large scale. and J. “The continuation power flow: a tool for steady state voltage stability analysis. the SVC is installed on the common bus of wind farm. on Power Systems. Mar. and P. Mar. Nov. Hill and I. However.0 Susceptance (p. Jun.u. Feb.Morison. P.” IEEE Trans. for his excellent simulation software PSAT and many valuable discussions. Bose.) APPENDIX [2] [3] [4] [6] [7] [8] The parameters of those transmission lines near to wind farm will be modified as follows. Cañizares.u. . ON.1159-1171.225 1. Moreover.) Reference voltage (p. Ajjarapu. Joos. Mareels. Ontario. Saenz.Van Cutsem and C.The internal parameters are not changed.225 Filter time constant tau(s) [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] 4. F. 2005. Knudsen. 37. Waterloo. Meanwhile.. 1992. [Online] Available: http://www. vol.power. B. A static var compensator (SVC) is a much better solution..Vournas. Waterloo.8 0. T. 2002. Dec.1.88 14. pp. Fernandez. “An aggregate model of a grid-connected.Gao. Ed. Resistance Reactance Susceptance (p. Canada.W.0. but the reactive compensation devices are added to improve the system voltage margin./p.1993 C.Kundur. “Stability simulation of wind turbine systems.) 0. Power Systems Laboratory.00 REFERENCES [1] [5] The authors gratefully acknowledge Professor Claudio Cañizares in the University of Waterloo.0 4. Voltage Stability of Electric Power Systems. M. no. F. Power System Analysis Toolbox: Documentation for PSAT version 2.423. Kluwer Academic Publishers. No. Christy. Syst.. Ajjarapu and C.8 0. offshore wind farm for power stability investigationsImportance of windmill mechanical system. Milano.R.u. Circuits and Systems.424-431. [9] Constant wind speed parameters.3 5 1000 1.Y. 2006 [Online]. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Static Capacitor Bank parameters Voltage Power rating rating (kV) (MW) SC 1 22 25 SC 2 20 25 SC 3 18 25 SVC parameters Parameters Type Power (MVA) Regulator time constant--Tr (s) Regulator gain--Kr (p.667 Normal wind speed (m/s) 14. McGraw-Hill. 1998 D. Anderson and A. vol.1983. the aggregated model can be used to study the voltage stability with reducing calculation complexity.) Bmax (p. 1990.’’ Special Publication of IEEE Power System Stability Subcommittee. V.667 0.u. Available: http://thunderbox. pp. K.05695 2*0.8 values 1 59. 11. 2002.33. since these devices are only designed to correct slowly-changing voltages that naturally occur as load cycles over 24 hours. Finally.. “Stability theory for Differential/Algebraic systems with application to power systems.2003.129–140.0 4.0528 Line 7 2*0. no. pp.00 1. G. Taylor. This device is similar to a switched capacitor bank.M. 102.1483---1488. J. 1416-1423.0. A. “Modeling and simulation of IEEE 14 bus system with Facts controllers.) Line 1 2*0. Lee.” Renewable Energy. Vol.7.1. V. Power App.” IEEE Trans. 7. 1992.J.3. PWRS8. a power stability stabilizer (PSS) is used to remove the HB and improve the stability. Tech.M.” IEEE Trans. although the loadability is increased. the SVC will improve the HB at the same time to increase the loadability.uwaterloo.50 14. A. but instead of mechanical switches. M. Cañizares. V.no. Frequency rating (HZ) 60 60 60 C.17388 2*0.” IEEE Trans. The result shows that the discrepancy is very small under the condition of either normal or contingency operation.’’ Int.225 1. pp. Rep. pp. But the phenomenon can be found that static capacitor will decrease the HB. L. Vol. 2003. Therefore.u. New York. “Voltage Stability Assessment: Concepts.. on Power Systems. B. V.22304 2*0. pp. The aggregated model is used to replace the whole wind farm. Power Energy Syst. vol. Power System Voltage Stability. on Power Systems. and C. 2. 709---717. Jurado. 2008. “Bifurcation theory and its application to nonlinear dynamical phenomena in an electrical power system. vol. modelling and impact on power system dynamics.) (p. Delft University of Technology. Feb. Aug. “Aggregated dynamic model for wind farms with doubly fed induction generator wind turbines. traditional switched capacitor banks cannot easily follow voltage swings caused by a wind farm. vol. Tech. F.ca/-fmilano J G Slootweg.667 0. Rep. 1994.05917 2*0. "Voltage Stability analysis using static and dynamic approaches.ca.u. Canada and Dr. G.” PhD Thesis.01938 2*0. CONCLUSIONS This paper investigates that using bifurcation theory to study the impact of wind power on the system voltage stability. Zhou. 3791–3795. Nov.” Univ. Elect." IEEE Trans. vol.10 Air density rho (kg/m3 ) 1.K.u. Kodsi and C. Abbey.034 Line 3 2*0. “Voltage stability in weak connection wind farms.00 -1.) Bmin (p.) WT 1 WT 2 WT 3 22 20 18 0.’’ in Power Engineering Society General Meeting. Practicesand Tools. S.u. Federico Milano. “Wind power.) (p. pp.0492 (*The parameters about wind speed without being listed will be zero) Wind turbine parameters Rated Active power power (MW) (p.uwaterloo.u. Akhmatov and H. 416 . San Francisco. SP101PSS.

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