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# Investigation of Wind Farm on Power System Voltage

Stability Based on Bifurcation Theory
Zhiyuan Zeng, Xianqi Li, Jianzhong Zhou, Yongchuan Zhang
School of Hydropower and Information Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China

Abstract—Voltage stability has been well investigated for the
traditional power system using bifurcation theory since two
decades ago. This paper studies the impact of wind farm on
voltage stability of power system with and without reactive power
compensation devices. The static reactive compensation devices
including static capacitor banks and static var compensators
(SVC) are used to improve the maximum loadability. The
continuation method for power flow is used to obtain the system
PV curves and determine the maximum loadability. The type of
instability could possibly be of either Hopf. bifurcation or saddle
node bifurcation. The equivalent wind farm model is established
to replace the whole wind farm with a high number of wind
turbines. The IEEE 14 bus benchmark system is used to
demonstrate the reactive power compensation devices to support
the voltage stability after wind farm integration into a power
grid.
Keywords-Voltage Stability ˗ Hopf Bifurcation Wind Farm ˗
Static Reactive Compensation

I.

INTRODUCTION

The ability to maintain voltage stability has become a growing
concern for the planning and operating today’s stresses power
systems. It has been lengthy studied using bifurcation theory
[1][2]. Wind energy has become one of the most important
and promising sources of renewable energy all over the world,
mainly because it is considered to be nonpolluting and
economically viable with the rapid development of related
wind turbine technology. With wind farms capacities
continuously increasing, the impact of wind farm integration
on voltage stability has attracted more concerns.
The dynamic of a large class of power systems can be
represented by parameter dependent differential-algebraic
models of the form

x = f ( x, y , λ , p )
0 = g ( x, y , λ , p )

(1)

When the parameters Ȝ and/or p (such as load of the system)
vary, the stable equilibrium points may lose its dynamic
stability at local bifurcation points. These equilibrium points
are asymptotically stable if all the eigenvalues of the system
state matrix have negative real parts. As the parameters
change, the eigenvalues associated with the corresponding
equilibrium point change as well. Upon parameters variation,
local bifurcation analysis of equilibria of the DAE model often

results in three major bifurcations, saddle node (SN), Hopf and
singularity induced (SI) bifurcations. The point where a
complex conjugate pair of eigenvalues reach the imaginary
axis with respect to the changes in (Ȝ, p), say (x0, y0, Ȝ0, p0), is
known as a Hopf bifurcation point. More detailed discussions
about the stability of power systems DAE model are in [3].
The fast growth of wind generation has led to concern about
the effect of wind power on the voltage stability of the power
grid. Compared to the conventional power plants, wind parks
exhibit certain singular characteristics, especially for variable
speed wind turbines, which not only produce reactive power
but also absorb it. The reactive power supporting capability
directly changes the voltage stability of power grid. In [4], an
aggregate model of a grid-connected wind farm for power
stability has been studied. It concentrated on the shaft systems
of the wind turbines when a simplified aggregate model of the
wind farm is used in voltage stability investigations. In [5], it
analyzed the voltage stability in a weak connection wind farm.
The possibility of network voltage drop and instability are
investigated by the detailed electromagnetic transient
simulation program.
This paper is structured as follows: the foundation of power
system stability and bifurcation analysis is described in section
II. In section III, wind farm model is established. Simulation
results are presented which illustrate various effects on the
power system voltage stability bifurcations theory in Section
IV. In section V, a summary is given and the conclusion of
this paper is presented.
II.

BASIC BACKGROUND

Static and dynamic approaches were presented in [6] to
analyze voltage stability. Static approaches like sensitivity
analysis, modal analysis and P-V and Q-V methods for
voltage stability assessment use a system condition or
snapshot for voltage stability evaluation. They usually solve
power flow equations of the network with specific load
increments until the point of voltage collapse is reached.
These techniques allow examination of a wide range of system
conditions and can provide much insight into the nature of this
phenomenon by computation of the contributing factors. For
small disturbance analysis, the dynamic approach is based on
the eigenvalue computation of the linearized system, while for
large disturbance analysis a complete time domain simulation
is required.