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12

3

Volume

,

Number ,

University of Białystok

2004

**Some Properties of Fibonacci Numbers
**

Adam Grabowski1

University of Białystok

Magdalena Jastrz¸ebska

University of Białystok

Summary. We formalized some basic properties of the Fibonacci numbers using deﬁnitions and lemmas from [7] and [23], e.g. Cassini’s and Catalan’s

identities. We also showed the connections between Fibonacci numbers and Pythagorean triples as deﬁned in [31]. The main result of this article is a proof of

Carmichael’s Theorem on prime divisors of prime-generated Fibonacci numbers.

According to it, if we look at the prime factors of a Fibonacci number generated

by a prime number, none of them have appeared as a factor in any earlier Fibonacci number. We plan to develop the full proof of the Carmichael Theorem

following [33].

MML Identiﬁer: FIB NUM2.

The papers [26], [3], [4], [30], [24], [1], [28], [29], [2], [18], [13], [27], [32], [9], [10],

[7], [12], [8], [17], [21], [19], [22], [25], [6], [20], [11], [23], [15], [31], [14], [16], and

[5] provide the terminology and notation for this paper.

1. Preliminaries

In this paper n, k, r, m, i, j denote natural numbers.

We now state a number of propositions:

(1) For every non empty natural number n holds (n −′ 1) + 2 = n + 1.

(2) For every odd integer n and for every non empty real number m holds

(−m)n = −mn .

(3) For every odd integer n holds (−1)n = −1.

(4) For every even integer n and for every non empty real number m holds

(−m)n = mn .

1

This work has been partially supported by the CALCULEMUS grant HPRN-CT-200000102.

307

c

°

**2004 University of Białystok
**

ISSN 1426–2630

(11) (−1)−2·n = 1. Let f be a function from N into N and let A be a finite natural-membered set with non empty elements. y such that 0 < i and i < j holds {hhi. (14) For all natural numbers k. 2. One can prove the following proposition (15) For every finite subsequence p holds rng Seq p ⊆ rng p. (12) For every non empty real number a holds ak · a−k = 1. then m < n. Let n be an odd integer. n1 such that k | m and k | n holds k | m · m1 + n · n 1 . 2. The functor Prefix(f. Let us mention that {1. (8) For every non empty real number k and for every odd integer m holds (k m )n = k m·n . A) = Seq(f ↾A). The following proposition is true (16) For every natural number k such that k 6= 0 holds if k + m ¬ n. (10) For every non empty real number a holds a−k · a−m = a−k−m . A) yields a finite sequence of elements of N and is defined as follows: (Def. (6) For every non empty real number m and for every integer n holds ((−1) · m)n = (−1)n · mn . . Note that f ↾A is finite subsequence-like. Let us mention that N is lower bounded. y and for every finite subsequence q such that i < j and q = {hhi. (7) For every non empty real number a holds ak+m = ak · am . xii. (9) ((−1)−n )2 = 1. One can verify that −n is odd. h j. m. yii} is a finite subsequence. xii. Let f be a function from N into N and let A be a finite natural-membered set with non empty elements. 4} is natural-membered and has non empty elements. 3. h j. yi. non empty. Let n be an even integer. 1) Prefix(f. and naturalmembered and has non empty elements. One can check that there exists a set which is finite. (18) For all sets x. m1 . Note that −n is even. Let us note that {1. yii} holds Seq q = hx. One can prove the following two propositions: (13) (−1)−n = (−1)n . The following propositions are true: (17) For all sets x.308 magdalena jastrze ¸ bska and adam grabowski (5) For every even integer n holds (−1)n = 1. 3} is natural-membered and has non empty elements.

(24) Fib(3) = 2. y be a set. yii}. (26) Fib(n + 2) = Fib(n) + Fib(n + 1). If f = {hh1. yii}. The scheme Fib Ind 1 concerns a unary predicate P. Fibonacci Numbers In this article we present several logical schemes. Then there exists a finite sequence p such that q ⊆ p and dom p = Seg n. Next we state a number of propositions: (23) Fib(2) = 1.some properties of fibonacci numbers 309 Let n be a natural number. then Shifti f = {hh1 + i. Observe that A ∩ B has non empty elements and B ∩ A has non empty elements. . and • For every non trivial natural number k such that P[k] and P[k+1] holds P[k + 2]. Suppose dom q ⊆ Seg k and n > k. (25) Fib(4) = 3. We now state four propositions: (19) For every natural number k and for every set a such that k 1 holds {hhk. • P[3]. and states that: For every non empty natural number k holds P[k] provided the parameters have the following properties: • P[1]. n be natural numbers. The scheme Fib Ind 2 concerns a unary predicate P. Observe that Seg n has non empty elements. (22) For every finite subsequence q there exists a finite sequence p such that q ⊆ p. Let A be a set with non empty elements and let B be a set. (27) Fib(n + 3) = Fib(n + 2) + Fib(n + 1). aii} is a finite subsequence. • P[2]. (20) Let i. (21) Let q be a finite subsequence and k. Note that every subset of A has non empty elements. (28) Fib(n + 4) = Fib(n + 2) + Fib(n + 3). and f be a finite subsequence. and states that: For every non trivial natural number k holds P[k] provided the parameters meet the following conditions: • P[2]. and • For every non empty natural number k such that P[k] and P[k+1] holds P[k + 2]. Let A be a set with non empty elements. 2. k be natural numbers.

Fib(n) = Fib(n + 2) − Fib(n + 1). Then there exists a non empty natural number k such that k 6= 1 and k 6= 2 and k 6= n and k | n. (35) τ > 0. (38) − τ1 = τ . (51) Let n be a natural number. n such that m n holds Fib(m) Fib(n). (49) Fib(k) = 1 iff k = 1 or k = 2. (45) Fib(n) ¬ Fib(n + 1). Fib(n + 1) = Fib(n + 2) − Fib(n).310 (29) (30) (31) (32) magdalena jastrze ¸ bska and adam grabowski Fib(n + 5) = Fib(n + 3) + Fib(n + 4). Fib(n + 2) = Fib(n + 3) − Fib(n + 1). . Suppose n > 1 and k 6= 0 and k 6= 1 and k 6= 1 and n 6= 2 or k 6= 2 and n 6= 1. (42) For every non empty natural number k holds Fib(n + k) = Fib(k) · Fib(n + 1) + Fib(k −′ 1) · Fib(n). (47) For all natural numbers m. Cassini’s and Catalan’s Identities The following propositions are true: (33) Fib(n) · Fib(n + 2) − Fib(n + 1)2 = (−1)n+1 . then n is prime. (34) For every non empty natural number n holds Fib(n −′ 1) · Fib(n + 1) − Fib(n)2 = (−1)n . (41) Fib(n)2 + Fib(n + 1)2 = Fib(2 · n + 1). (44) For every non empty natural number k such that k | n holds Fib(k) | Fib(n). 3. Suppose n > 1 and n 6= 4. (50) Let k. (48) For every natural number k such that k > 1 holds if k < n. Suppose n is non prime. (39) ((τ r )2 − 2 · (−1)r ) + (τ −r )2 = (τ r − τ r )2 . (36) τ = (−τ )−1 . then Fib(k) < Fib(n). (43) For every non empty natural number n holds Fib(n) | Fib(n · k). (46) For every natural number n such that n > 1 holds Fib(n) < Fib(n + 1). (40) For all non empty natural numbers n. n be natural numbers. (37) (−τ )(−1)·n = ((−τ )−1 )n . r such that r ¬ n holds Fib(n)2 − ′ Fib(n + r) · Fib(n −′ r) = (−1)n− r · Fib(r)2 . Then Fib(k) = Fib(n) if and only if k = n. (52) For every natural number n such that n > 1 and n 6= 4 holds if Fib(n) is prime.

3) Neven = {2 · k : k ranges over natural numbers}. (54) For every natural number k holds 2 · k + 1 ∈ Nodd and 2 · k ∈ / Nodd . We now state a number of propositions: (55) EvenFibs(0) = ∅. P (67) For every natural number n holds EvenFibs(2·n+2) = Fib(2·n+3)−1. (65) For every natural number k holds FIB ↾(Nodd ∩ Seg(2 · k + 3)) ∪ {hh2 · k + 5. Let n be a natural number. FIB(2 · k + 5)ii} = FIB ↾(Nodd ∩ Seg(2 · k + 5)). Nodd ∩ Seg n). Neven ∩ Seg n). 4) Nodd = {2 · k + 1 : k ranges over natural numbers}. (56) Seq(FIB ↾{2}) = h1i. FIB(2 · k + 4)ii} = FIB ↾(Neven ∩ Seg(2 · k + 4)). (64) For every natural number k holds Nodd ∩ Seg(2 · k + 3) ∪ {2 · k + 5} = Nodd ∩ Seg(2 · k + 5). 2) For every natural number k holds FIB(k) = Fib(k). Sequence of Fibonacci Numbers The function FIB from N into N is defined as follows: (Def. (66) For every natural number n holds OddFibs(2 · n + 3) = OddFibs(2 · n + 1) a hFib(2 · n + 3)i.some properties of fibonacci numbers 311 4. 5) EvenFibs(n) = Prefix(FIB. The functor EvenFibs(n) yielding a finite sequence of elements of N is defined by: (Def. 6) OddFibs(n) = Prefix(FIB. 2i. One can prove the following two propositions: (53) For every natural number k holds 2 · k ∈ Neven and 2 · k + 1 ∈ / Neven . (63) OddFibs(3) = h1. (59) For every natural number k holds Neven ∩ Seg(2 · k + 2) ∪ {2 · k + 4} = Neven ∩ Seg(2 · k + 4). (57) EvenFibs(2) = h1i. (58) EvenFibs(4) = h1. The functor OddFibs(n) yields a finite sequence of elements of N and is defined by: (Def. 3i. (60) For every natural number k holds FIB ↾(Neven ∩Seg(2·k +2))∪{hh2·k +4. (61) For every natural number n holds EvenFibs(2 · n + 2) = EvenFibs(2 · n) a hFib(2 · n + 2)i. . (62) OddFibs(1) = h1i. P (68) For every natural number n holds OddFibs(2 · n + 1) = Fib(2 · n + 2). The subset Neven of N is defined by: (Def. The subset Nodd of N is defined as follows: (Def.

Formalized Mathematics. Group and ﬁeld deﬁnitions. 1(2):377–382. 2 · Fib(n + 1) · Fib(n + 2). Formalized Mathematics. Formalized Mathematics. 1(4):661–668. [14] Yoshinori Fujisawa. 1(5):887–890. The ordinal numbers. [11] Czesław Byliński. 4(1):69–72. 1997. 1(3):433–439. [2] Grzegorz Bancerek. Fib(n + 1)2 + Fib(n + 2)2 } is a Pythagorean triple. 6(4):573–577. then m ∤ Fib(n −′ 1). [3] Grzegorz Bancerek. Mitsuru Aoki. 1990. Formalized Mathematics. (71) Let n be a non empty natural number. The sum and product of ﬁnite sequences of real numbers. If r < n and r 6= 0. Finite sets. 7(2):317–321. 1(3):521–527. Segments of natural numbers and ﬁnite sequences. Processes in Petri nets. Fibonacci Numbers and Pythagorean Triples We now state the proposition (72) For every non empty natural number n holds {Fib(n) · Fib(n + 3). [12] Czesław Byliński. Carmichael’s Theorem on Prime Divisors One can prove the following three propositions: (69) For every natural number n holds Fib(n) and Fib(n + 1) are relative prime. Two programs for scm. Formalized Mathematics. Yasushi Fuwa. 1990. 1990. 1990. [8] Józef Białas. Convergent real sequences. and Yasunari Shidama. [17] Rafał Kwiatek. 1993. Formalized Mathematics. 1990. and Hidetaka Shimizu. Functions from a set to a set. Suppose m is prime and n is prime and m | Fib(n).preliminaries. 2003. [5] Grzegorz Bancerek.312 magdalena jastrze ¸ bska and adam grabowski 5. 1990. The modiﬁcation of a function by a function and the iteration of the composition of a function. 1990. Let r be a natural number. The Chinese Remainder Theorem. Part I . [6] Grzegorz Bancerek and Krzysztof Hryniewiecki. 1990. Sequences of ordinal numbers. Functions and their basic properties. Formalized Mathematics. [13] Agata Darmochwał. 1(1):41–46. [9] Czesław Byliński. 1990. . 1(1):153–164. Formalized Mathematics. 1(3):477–481. 1(1):165–167. 1(1):107–114. 1990. Cardinal numbers. 1(1):91–96. 1990. Formalized Mathematics. Formalized Mathematics. Formalized Mathematics. 1990. 1(1):55– 65. [4] Grzegorz Bancerek. Formalized Mathematics. 6. Formalized Mathematics. 1(2):281– 290. then m ∤ Fib(r). References [1] Grzegorz Bancerek. Formalized Mathematics. (70) For every non empty natural number n and for every natural number m such that m 6= 1 holds if m | Fib(n). Public-key cryptography and Pepin’s test for the primality of Fermat numbers. Formalized Mathematics. [15] Andrzej Kondracki. [16] Jarosław Kotowicz. 11(1):125–132. Factorial and Newton coeﬃcients. Akio Matsumoto. [7] Grzegorz Bancerek and Piotr Rudnicki. 1998. Upper and lower bound of sets of real numbers. [10] Czesław Byliński. The fundamental properties of natural numbers. Formalized Mathematics. Formalized Mathematics. 1990.

The divisibility of integers and integer relative primes. 1990. [33] Minoru Yabuta. 2002. 10(2):81–83. 3(2):151–160. [22] Piotr Rudnicki and Andrzej Trybulec. 1(3):501–505. [23] Robert M. [19] Yatsuka Nakamura and Andrzej Trybulec. 1990. Formalized Mathematics. Formalized Mathematics. Formalized Mathematics. 1990. A simple proof of Carmichael’s theorem of primitive divisors. 39(5):439–443. 1997. [31] Freek Wiedijk. [21] Konrad Raczkowski and Andrzej Nędzusiak. [30] Zinaida Trybulec. [26] Andrzej Trybulec. 1990. Tarski Grothendieck set theory. Received May 10. Subsets of complex numbers. 2004 313 . Formalized Mathematics. Formalized Mathematics. 6(3):335–338. 1(1):67–71. 1(3):445–449. Some properties of real numbers. Integers. On the sets inhabited by numbers. 4(1):83–86. 1992. 11(4):341– 347. A mathematical model of CPU. Binary arithmetics.some properties of fibonacci numbers [18] Rafał Kwiatek and Grzegorz Zwara. Domains and their Cartesian products. 9(4):809–812. Trybulec. 2001. Formalized Mathematics. 1990. [25] Andrzej Trybulec. 2001. Solovay. Formalized Mathematics. [20] Takaya Nishiyama and Yasuho Mizuhara. [24] Andrzej Trybulec. 1990. Formalized Mathematics. Properties of subsets. 1993. Formalized Mathematics. 1(1):115–122. 1(1):73–83. 1(1):9–11. Formalized Mathematics. To appear in Formalized Mathematics. 2003. The Fibonacci Quarterly. [27] Andrzej Trybulec. [28] Andrzej Trybulec and Czesław Byliński. Formalized Mathematics. Formalized Mathematics. Relations and their basic properties. Abian’s ﬁxed point theorem. Formalized Mathematics. 1(5):829–832. Formalized Mathematics. Fibonacci numbers. Real exponents and logarithms. [32] Edmund Woronowicz. 2(2):213–216. 1991. 1990. Pythagorean triples. [29] Michał J.

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