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FORMALIZED MATHEMATICS

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Volume
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University of Białystok

2004

Some Properties of Fibonacci Numbers
Adam Grabowski1
University of Białystok

Magdalena Jastrz¸ebska
University of Białystok

Summary. We formalized some basic properties of the Fibonacci numbers using definitions and lemmas from [7] and [23], e.g. Cassini’s and Catalan’s
identities. We also showed the connections between Fibonacci numbers and Pythagorean triples as defined in [31]. The main result of this article is a proof of
Carmichael’s Theorem on prime divisors of prime-generated Fibonacci numbers.
According to it, if we look at the prime factors of a Fibonacci number generated
by a prime number, none of them have appeared as a factor in any earlier Fibonacci number. We plan to develop the full proof of the Carmichael Theorem
following [33].

MML Identifier: FIB NUM2.

The papers [26], [3], [4], [30], [24], [1], [28], [29], [2], [18], [13], [27], [32], [9], [10],
[7], [12], [8], [17], [21], [19], [22], [25], [6], [20], [11], [23], [15], [31], [14], [16], and
[5] provide the terminology and notation for this paper.
1. Preliminaries
In this paper n, k, r, m, i, j denote natural numbers.
We now state a number of propositions:
(1) For every non empty natural number n holds (n −′ 1) + 2 = n + 1.
(2) For every odd integer n and for every non empty real number m holds
(−m)n = −mn .
(3) For every odd integer n holds (−1)n = −1.
(4) For every even integer n and for every non empty real number m holds
(−m)n = mn .
1

This work has been partially supported by the CALCULEMUS grant HPRN-CT-200000102.

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2004 University of Białystok
ISSN 1426–2630

(11) (−1)−2·n = 1. Let f be a function from N into N and let A be a finite natural-membered set with non empty elements. y such that 0 < i and i < j holds {hhi. (14) For all natural numbers k. 2. One can prove the following proposition (15) For every finite subsequence p holds rng Seq p ⊆ rng p. (12) For every non empty real number a holds ak · a−k = 1. then m < n. Let n be an odd integer. n1 such that k | m and k | n holds k | m · m1 + n · n 1 . 2. The functor Prefix(f. Let us mention that {1. (8) For every non empty real number k and for every odd integer m holds (k m )n = k m·n . A) = Seq(f ↾A). The following proposition is true (16) For every natural number k such that k 6= 0 holds if k + m ¬ n. (10) For every non empty real number a holds a−k · a−m = a−k−m . A) yields a finite sequence of elements of N and is defined as follows: (Def. (6) For every non empty real number m and for every integer n holds ((−1) · m)n = (−1)n · mn . . Note that f ↾A is finite subsequence-like. Let us mention that N is lower bounded. y and for every finite subsequence q such that i < j and q = {hhi. (7) For every non empty real number a holds ak+m = ak · am . xii. (9) ((−1)−n )2 = 1. One can verify that −n is odd. h j. m. yii} is a finite subsequence. xii. Let f be a function from N into N and let A be a finite natural-membered set with non empty elements. 4} is natural-membered and has non empty elements. 3. h j. yi. non empty. Let n be an even integer. 1) Prefix(f. and naturalmembered and has non empty elements. One can check that there exists a set which is finite. (18) For all sets x. m1 . Note that −n is even. Let us note that {1. yii} holds Seq q = hx. One can prove the following two propositions: (13) (−1)−n = (−1)n . The following propositions are true: (17) For all sets x.308 magdalena jastrze ¸ bska and adam grabowski (5) For every even integer n holds (−1)n = 1. 3} is natural-membered and has non empty elements.

(24) Fib(3) = 2. y be a set. yii}. (26) Fib(n + 2) = Fib(n) + Fib(n + 1). If f = {hh1. yii}. The scheme Fib Ind 1 concerns a unary predicate P. Fibonacci Numbers In this article we present several logical schemes. Then there exists a finite sequence p such that q ⊆ p and dom p = Seg n. Next we state a number of propositions: (23) Fib(2) = 1.some properties of fibonacci numbers 309 Let n be a natural number. then Shifti f = {hh1 + i. Observe that A ∩ B has non empty elements and B ∩ A has non empty elements. . and • For every non trivial natural number k such that P[k] and P[k+1] holds P[k + 2]. Suppose dom q ⊆ Seg k and n > k. (25) Fib(4) = 3. We now state four propositions: (19) For every natural number k and for every set a such that k ­ 1 holds {hhk. • P[3]. and states that: For every non empty natural number k holds P[k] provided the parameters have the following properties: • P[1]. n be natural numbers. The scheme Fib Ind 2 concerns a unary predicate P. Observe that Seg n has non empty elements. (22) For every finite subsequence q there exists a finite sequence p such that q ⊆ p. Let A be a set with non empty elements and let B be a set. (27) Fib(n + 3) = Fib(n + 2) + Fib(n + 1). aii} is a finite subsequence. • P[2]. (20) Let i. (21) Let q be a finite subsequence and k. Note that every subset of A has non empty elements. (28) Fib(n + 4) = Fib(n + 2) + Fib(n + 3). and f be a finite subsequence. and states that: For every non trivial natural number k holds P[k] provided the parameters meet the following conditions: • P[2]. and • For every non empty natural number k such that P[k] and P[k+1] holds P[k + 2]. Let A be a set with non empty elements. 2. k be natural numbers.

Fib(n) = Fib(n + 2) − Fib(n + 1). Then there exists a non empty natural number k such that k 6= 1 and k 6= 2 and k 6= n and k | n. (35) τ > 0. (38) − τ1 = τ . (51) Let n be a natural number. n such that m ­ n holds Fib(m) ­ Fib(n). (49) Fib(k) = 1 iff k = 1 or k = 2. (45) Fib(n) ¬ Fib(n + 1). Fib(n + 1) = Fib(n + 2) − Fib(n).310 (29) (30) (31) (32) magdalena jastrze ¸ bska and adam grabowski Fib(n + 5) = Fib(n + 3) + Fib(n + 4). Fib(n + 2) = Fib(n + 3) − Fib(n + 1). . Suppose n > 1 and k 6= 0 and k 6= 1 and k 6= 1 and n 6= 2 or k 6= 2 and n 6= 1. (42) For every non empty natural number k holds Fib(n + k) = Fib(k) · Fib(n + 1) + Fib(k −′ 1) · Fib(n). (47) For all natural numbers m. Cassini’s and Catalan’s Identities The following propositions are true: (33) Fib(n) · Fib(n + 2) − Fib(n + 1)2 = (−1)n+1 . then n is prime. (34) For every non empty natural number n holds Fib(n −′ 1) · Fib(n + 1) − Fib(n)2 = (−1)n . (41) Fib(n)2 + Fib(n + 1)2 = Fib(2 · n + 1). (44) For every non empty natural number k such that k | n holds Fib(k) | Fib(n). 3. Suppose n > 1 and n 6= 4. (50) Let k. (48) For every natural number k such that k > 1 holds if k < n. Suppose n is non prime. (39) ((τ r )2 − 2 · (−1)r ) + (τ −r )2 = (τ r − τ r )2 . (36) τ = (−τ )−1 . then Fib(k) < Fib(n). (43) For every non empty natural number n holds Fib(n) | Fib(n · k). (46) For every natural number n such that n > 1 holds Fib(n) < Fib(n + 1). (40) For all non empty natural numbers n. n be natural numbers. (37) (−τ )(−1)·n = ((−τ )−1 )n . r such that r ¬ n holds Fib(n)2 − ′ Fib(n + r) · Fib(n −′ r) = (−1)n− r · Fib(r)2 . Then Fib(k) = Fib(n) if and only if k = n. (52) For every natural number n such that n > 1 and n 6= 4 holds if Fib(n) is prime.

3) Neven = {2 · k : k ranges over natural numbers}. (54) For every natural number k holds 2 · k + 1 ∈ Nodd and 2 · k ∈ / Nodd . We now state a number of propositions: (55) EvenFibs(0) = ∅. P (67) For every natural number n holds EvenFibs(2·n+2) = Fib(2·n+3)−1. (65) For every natural number k holds FIB ↾(Nodd ∩ Seg(2 · k + 3)) ∪ {hh2 · k + 5. Let n be a natural number. FIB(2 · k + 5)ii} = FIB ↾(Nodd ∩ Seg(2 · k + 5)). Nodd ∩ Seg n). Neven ∩ Seg n). 4) Nodd = {2 · k + 1 : k ranges over natural numbers}. (56) Seq(FIB ↾{2}) = h1i. FIB(2 · k + 4)ii} = FIB ↾(Neven ∩ Seg(2 · k + 4)). (64) For every natural number k holds Nodd ∩ Seg(2 · k + 3) ∪ {2 · k + 5} = Nodd ∩ Seg(2 · k + 5). 2) For every natural number k holds FIB(k) = Fib(k). Sequence of Fibonacci Numbers The function FIB from N into N is defined as follows: (Def. (66) For every natural number n holds OddFibs(2 · n + 3) = OddFibs(2 · n + 1) a hFib(2 · n + 3)i.some properties of fibonacci numbers 311 4. 5) EvenFibs(n) = Prefix(FIB. The functor EvenFibs(n) yielding a finite sequence of elements of N is defined by: (Def. 6) OddFibs(n) = Prefix(FIB. 2i. One can prove the following two propositions: (53) For every natural number k holds 2 · k ∈ Neven and 2 · k + 1 ∈ / Neven . (63) OddFibs(3) = h1. (59) For every natural number k holds Neven ∩ Seg(2 · k + 2) ∪ {2 · k + 4} = Neven ∩ Seg(2 · k + 4). (57) EvenFibs(2) = h1i. (58) EvenFibs(4) = h1. The functor OddFibs(n) yields a finite sequence of elements of N and is defined by: (Def. 3i. (60) For every natural number k holds FIB ↾(Neven ∩Seg(2·k +2))∪{hh2·k +4. (61) For every natural number n holds EvenFibs(2 · n + 2) = EvenFibs(2 · n) a hFib(2 · n + 2)i. . (62) OddFibs(1) = h1i. P (68) For every natural number n holds OddFibs(2 · n + 1) = Fib(2 · n + 2). The subset Neven of N is defined by: (Def. The subset Nodd of N is defined as follows: (Def.

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