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SAP NetWeaver Application Server SAP
NetWeaver Application Server is a component of the NetWeaver solution which works as a web application server to SAP solutions. From the SAP point of view the Web AS is the foundation on which most of their product range runs.
OVERVIEW Its basic function is to allow web development based on SAP standard solutions (usually developed under the ABAP programming language, but in the newer versions also in Java programming language). With Web AS, it is possible - for example - to publish queries, programs and ABAP applications in a web environment but linked to and based in a SAP solution infrastructure. Since 2003 the newer versions of the (WAS or WEB AS) also support open standards like Java programming language. From the versions 6.20 and higher it is possible to create ABAP only, Java Platform, Standard Edition only or mixed environments. Version: Web AS 6.20, Web AS 6.40, Web AS 7.00 ARCHITECTURE
The architecture of SAP Web Application Server can be separated into five areas: Presentation layer In the presentation layer, the user interface can be developed with Java Server Pages (JSP), Business Server Pages (BSP), or with Web Dynpro technology. The underlying business layer provides the business content in Java or ABAP. Business layer The business layer consists of a J2EE certified run-time environment that processes the requests passed from the ICM and dynamically generates the responses. The business logic can be written either in ABAP or in Java based on the J2EE standard. Developers can implement business logic and persistence with Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB) using the J2EE environment. Developers can also access the business objects of applications running in the ABAP environment to benefit from their business logic and persistence. Integration layer The local integration engine is an integral part of SAP Web AS and allows instant connection to SAP XI. The local integration engine provides messaging services that exchange messages between the components that are connected in SAP XI. Connectivity layer The Internet Communication Manager (ICM) dispatches user interface requests to the presentation layer and provides a single framework for connectivity using various communication protocols. Currently, modules are available for Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), HTTPS (extension of HTTP running under the 2
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP), and Fast Common Gateway Interface (FastCGI). Persistence layer The persistence layer supports database independence and scalable transaction handling. Business logic can be developed completely independent of the underlying database and operating system. Database independence is also made possible by support for open standards. The database interface ensures optimized data access from within the ABAP environment through Open SQL. SAP propagates the outstanding capabilities of Open SQL for ABAP to Open SQL for Java and offers a variety of standard Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) to application programmers, such as SQLJ. Other technologies, such as Java Data Objects (JDO) and container managed persistence (CMP) for EJB, or the direct use of the Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) API, are also supported
SAP R/3 System Architecture
The SAP system
is software which is composed of different software and a server as a whole and has the ability to perform standard business functions for corporations. The system has become so popular because it can serve a wide range of functionality from manufacturing to finishing products. There is one simple reason behind the popularity of this system; it can be tuned to any level for any industry. It has the concepts of enterprise resource planning (ERP) and business process reengineering (BPR) which is integrated in the system.
“Sap stands for System, Andwendungen, and Produkte in Der Datanverarbeitung, which when translated to English means System, Application, Products in Data Processing.” The name of the parent Company is SAP AG. The company SAP is based on Walldorf in Germany and is the world’s largest enterprise software company
. Its foundation is built upon the concept of integration.
Originally, dating back to the 1970s, it took the then controversial approach of combining various business functions into one application and database. Dietmar Hopp, Hans-Werner Hector, Hasso Planttner, Klaus Tschira, and Claus Wellenreuther, former IBM employees, launched SAP in order to turn the real business processing vision into reality. After a year, the first financial accounting software formed the basis for the continuous development of other software components which later came to be known as the "R/1 system;" "R" stands for real time data processing. By the end of the decade, intensive examination of SAP’s IBM database and dialog control system led to the birth of SAP R/2, designed to handle different languages and currencies. The SAP R/2 system attained high level of stability of the previous generation of programs. With this and other innovations in SAP R/2, SAP saw a very rapid growth. By the 1990's, when SAP R/3 was unleashed into the market, the client-server concept, uniform appearance of graphical interfaces, consistent use of relational databases and the ability to run on computers from different vendors met with an overwhelming approval. The client-server architecture moved to a more flexible and scalable architecture. Going by this technology, the processing of an application could be split between the server and workstations – the server handling the 4
centralized functionality, while the client workstation maximized for users. The data management was separate from the server. SAP ushered in a new generation of enterprise software – from mainframe computing to the three-tier architecture consisting of the Database layer, Application (business logic) layer, and user interface layer. Today is the day for client-server architecture, where one can make changes or scale on layer without having to retool the whole system. The term SAP R/3 stands for runtime system three and the client-server environment provides a set of business application for the system. The R/3 architecture allows distribution of the workload to multiple PC's connecting in a network
The SAP runtime system is designed in such a way that it distributes the presentation, application logic and the data management to different computers
For all R/3 applications, kernel and basis are there to provide the runtime environment, such as hardware, operating system and database-specific. The run time environment is written principally in C and C++. However, some portions are also written in ABAP. The tasks of the kernel and basis services component are as follows. Running Application: All R/3 application run on software processors (virtual machine) within this component. User and Process Administrator: An R/3 system
is a multi-user environment and each user can run several independent applications. This component is responsible for the tasks that usually belong to an operating system. Users simply log
onto the R/3 System and run the application within the system that is the only user of the host operating system.
Database Access: Each R/3 system is linked to a database system, consisting of a database management system (DBMS) and the database
itself. The application use basis services to communicate with the database. They do not communicate directly.
Communication: R/3 system can communicate with other R/3 systems and with non-SAP Systems. It is also possible to access R/3 applications from external system using a BAPI interface. The service required for communication are all part of the kernel and basis services component. System Monitoring and Administration: The component contains programs that allow you to monitor and control the R/3 system while it is running and change its runtime parameters.
Component Service – ABAP Workbench
The Advance Business Application Programming (ABAP) Workbench component, a full-fledged development environment for applications in the ABAP language, helps you to create, edit, test, and organize application developments. It is fully integrated in the R/3 Basis system and, like other R/3 applications, is itself written in ABAP.
DATA EXCHANGE VIA IDOC WITH ALE OR EDI
IDoc or Intermediate Document is a standard SAP document exchange format. IDocs allow different application systems to be linked via a message-based interface. The IDoc interface consists of the definition of a data structure (where the data structure is the IDoc) and a processing logic for this data structure. There are three main aims behind the use of IDocs:
The structured exchange of business documents so that they can be processed automatically. The various degrees of structural complexity as displayed by different application systems can be reduced to a structure which is as simple as possible. Example: The structure of an SAP application document and the structure of the corresponding EDI message under the UN/EDIFACT standard. IDocs allow for extensive exception handling before the data is posted to the application.
The following techniques use the IDoc interface to exchange business data between different systems:
Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) was the first form of data transfer to use IDocs. In EDI application scenarios, the processes, by definition, involve two partners: The sender and the recipient of an EDI message. EDI is a bilateral, document-oriented form of data transfer. Application Link Enabling (ALE) enables integration of business processes that are developed across several SAP systems or non-SAP systems. Thus, ALE is oriented to connect different applications on different systems. System-wide ALE message flows are modeled in a so called 'distribution model'. A typical scenario is the system data administration, where material master records have to be distributed from one central to several satellite systems. Nowadays, pure EDI scenarios are more and more executed on the basis of ALE technology, only that the system connection is 'just' bilateral.
You find detailed information on ALE under the following links
Application Link Enabling (ALE) is a mechanism for the exchange of business data between loosely-coupled R/3 applications built by customers of SAP, the enterprise resource management program. ALE provides SAP customers with a program distribution model and technology that enables them to interconnect programs across various platforms and systems. There are three layers in the ALE system: application services, distribution services, and communication services. The vehicle for data transfer is called an IDoc (intermediate document), which is a container for the 7
application data to be transmitted. After a user performs an SAP transaction, one or more IDocs are generated in the sending database and passed to the ALE communication layer. The communication layer performs a Remote Function Call (RFC), using the port definition and RFC destination specified by the customer model. The IDoc is transmitted to the receiver, which may be an R/3, R/2, or some external system. If the data is distributed from a master system, the same transaction performed by the sender will be performed by the receiving system, using the information contained in the IDoc. Changes made to fields in master data tables can be set to trigger distribution of the changes to slave systems, so that multiple database servers can update the same information simultaneously. IDocs carry information directly between SAP systems. In order to communicate with a non-SAP system, an IDoc is first transmitted to an intermediary system that translates the data to a format that will be understood by the receiver. Return data also passes through the translating system, where it is again encapsulated into an IDoc. ALE ALE is SAP proprietary technology that enables data communications between two or more SAP R/3 systems and/or R/3 and external systems. When a new enterprise resource planning (ERP) solution such as R/3 is implemented, companies have to interface the ERP system with legacy systems or other ERP systems. ALE provides intelligent mechanisms where by clients can achieve integration as well as distribution of applications and data.
ALE technology facilitates rapid application prototyping and application interface development, thus reducing implementation time. The ALE components are inherently integrated with SAP applications and are robust, leading to a highly reliable system. ALE comes with application distribution/integration scenarios as well as a set of tools, programs, data definitions, and methodologies that you can easily configure to get an interface up and running. BAPI BAPIs provide a stable, standardized method for thirdparty applications and components to integrate into the Business Framework. These interfaces are being specified as part of SAP's initiative with customers, partners and leading standards organizations. Also, SAP has implemented the emerging Object Application Group (OAG) specifications with BAPIs The interface concept of the classic R/3 is based on two different strategies: Remote Function Calls (RFC) and data exchange through IDoc message documents. RFC makes direct and synchronous calls of a program in the remote system. If the caller is an external program it will call an RFC-enabled function in R/3 and if the calling program is the R/3 system it will call an RFC-function in another R/3-system or it will call a nonR/3 program through a gateway-proxy (usually rfcexec.exe). BAPIs are a subset of the RFC-enabled function modules, especially designed as Application Programming Interface (API) to the SAP business object, or in other words: are function modules officially released by SAP to be called from external programs. 9
IDocs are text encoded documents with a rigid structure that are used to exchange data between R/3 and a foreign system. Instead of calling a program in the destination system directly, the data is first packed into an IDoc and then sent to the receiving system, where it is analyzed and properly processed. Therefore an IDoc data exchange is always an asynchronous process. The significant difference between simple RFC-calls and IDoc data exchange is the fact, that every action performed on IDocs are protocolled by R/3 and IDocs can be reprocessed if an error occurred in one of the message steps. While IDocs have to be understood as a data exchange protocol, EDI and ALE are typical use cases for IDocs. R/3 uses IDocs for both EDI and ALE to deliver data to the receiving system. ALE is basically the scheduling mechanism that defines when and between which partners and what kind of data will be exchanged on a regular or event triggered basis. Such a set-up is called an ALE-scenario. The philosophical difference between EDI and ALE can be pinned as follows: If we send data to an external partner, we generally speak of EDI, while ALE is a mechanism to reliable replicate data between trusting systems to store a redundant copy of the IDoc data. The difference is made clear, when we think of a purchase order that is sent as an IDoc. If we send the purchase order to a supplier then the supplier will store the purchase order as a sales order. However, if we send the purchase order via ALE to another R/3 system, then the receiving system will store the purchase order also as a purchase order.
BUSINESS PROCESS CYCLE: IMPLEMENT PHASE
TASKS OF THE IMPLEMENT PHASE
In this phase, the business process expert oversees the activities needed to document the project and prepare the team that has been organized to implement the process. This phase includes the following tasks: Prepare the project The business process expert oversees the creation of the project in SAP Solution Manager, using SAP best practices and business configuration sets. Create the business blueprint The business process expert works with the implementation team to define and document the planned processes, and/or their functional enhancements, using ARIS for SAP NetWeaver. The blueprint includes business scenarios, business processes, and process steps. Realize the project by configuring it in SAP Solution Manager The business process expert models each of the process steps in SAP Solution Manager and selects the configuration content for SAP implementation, using the business blueprint created in the previous task. Make final preparations The business process expert creates and executes test cases, in conjunction with computer-aided test tools. Go live and provide support The business process expert uses the SAP GoingLive Check services to ensure that all business and technical issues have been identified and solved. The results are stored in SAP Solution Manager.
SAP Project Implementation is one of the components of Project Management and required a great degree of project related Knowledge such as Project Management, Change Management, Risk Analysis and Review Programs. Accelerated SAP (ASAP) is not only a SAP implementation solution but it also supports a comprehensive project plan. Like Project Management, ASAP Methodology also integrates several components and comprises of MS Project templates providing complete work breakdown structures and resource assignments. SAP Implementation Phases
Project Preparation Phase – As per Accelerated SAP (ASAP)
methodology it is the First Phase of SAP Implementation. During this phase, following components are discussed and documented: • • • • • • Initial Project Planning Project Procedures Project Team Members & their Training Project Kickoff Technical Requirements Quality Check
Business Blueprint Phase - In this phase, a detailed study of business processes and business requirements are undertaken by the Project Team members. This is the phase where Project Team Members interact with respective Core Team Members or Process Owners. The entire requirements gathered during this phase are documented as Business Blueprint. During this phase, following components are discussed and documented: • • • • • • • • Project Management Organizational Change Management Training Develop System Environment Organizational Structure Definition Business Process Analysis Business Process Definition Quality Check
Realization Phase - In this phase, all the business and process requirements are implemented as documented in Business Blueprint. SAP R/3 system is configured step by step in two work packages, Baseline and Final configuration. How these configurations will be done and how it will be tested. • • • • • • • • • Baseline Configuration and Confirmation System Management Final Configuration and Confirmation Development of external Programs & Interfaces Unit Testing & Documentation Final Integration Test Business Scenarios & Process Documentation End User Training & Documentation Quality Check
Final Preparation Phase - During this phase, following activities are discussed, completed and documented, successful completion of these activities leads to transition of all configurations settings to live R/3 System • • • • • System Management Stress & Volume Tests Cutover Strategies & Plans End User Training Quality Check
Go Live and Support Phase – This is phase where all configurations/customizations are transported to live production operation and business starts all its activities in the SAP R/3. During this phase, all the problems/issues related to hardware, network, operating system, database, training, and application system are addressed by the project team members and they help the end users in achieving their day to day task/assignments. This phase is further divided as: • Application Production Support and Maintenance • Project Implementation End
Continuous Improvement Phase – Towards continuous improvement and to overcome the organizational, business & technology changes the followings are covered under this phase: • Post go-Live Support Improve System performance
Chapter II Real Time SAP Business Scenario
VALUE SCENARIOS: INSIGHT TO YOUR KEY BUSINESS PROCESSES
Industries across the board are facing every type of challenge for global businesses. Without a clear understanding of how business systems can provide critical insight into your business processes, you won't have the tools you need to stay competitive, profitable, and grow your business. Business process integration and related education is a key element of SAP Business Suite applications. The following value-based processes, or value scenarios, offer you, the business process expert, insight to SAP Business Suite applications that will help you expand and innovate while supporting your end-to-end industry processes. Because these business processes are flexible, you can implement SAP modular software without expensive upgrades. Built on an open, service-oriented architecture (SOA) - and powered by SAP NetWeaver technology - SAP Business Suite offers you the opportunity to transform your processes efficiently and without disruption. The SAP Business Suite 7 modular enterprise software supports end-to-end industry processes and helps companies to effectively coordinate business and IT strategies at the same time. The SAP Business Suite 7 partner playbook is a comprehensive, intuitive and easy-to-use partner enablement tool that provides a one-stop shop for 14
marketing, sales and technical information on the Business Suite 7 solution. Partners can expect to find role-based information including marketing industry materials, demos, sales success stories, presentations, services and technical SAP best practices knowledge to help them successfully market, sell and implement this solution. We have had a great response to this new tool - the feedback tells us partners are finding this a valuable resource to stay up-to-date. Encourage your partners to visit the playbook on the partner portal today so they can maximize their opportunities and generate more revenue. Read more.
SAP BUSINESS SUITE THEMES AND VALUE SCENARIOS
With Business Suite 7, SAP is delivering packaged
process-oriented solutions targeted at achieving business value through best practices.
SAP Business Suite Themes represent key business
value-generation models. For example, a company may focus on a strategy, or theme, such as Operational Excellence, Superior Customer Value or achieving Product and Service Leadership to differentiate themselves in the market. Grouped by Theme, SAP Business Suite Value Scenarios are extended, cross-application business processes. These Scenarios have been defined, configured, validated, and documented in order to accelerate implementation in achieving time-to-value. Organized by theme, these value scenarios are designed to leverage information from across the 15
Business Suite (including ERP, PLM, SCM, etc.) to engage multiple roles and lines of business into crossfunctional processes that is intended to deliver business value. These Value Scenarios can provide the foundation for creating and delivering additional differentiating processes and capabilities.
SAP Supply Chain Management (SAP SCM) can boost your profitability by keeping you in sync with the needs of your customers. It can help you develop and sustain ongoing relationships with both your customers and partners. And thanks to the SAP Business Maps, you can see the benefits and advantages of SAP SCM before you buy: The Solution Map – Outlines all your business processes so you can visualize, plan, and implement a coherent, integrated, and comprehensive solution The Business Scenario Map – Gives you a detailed view of end-to-end processes and defines the activities, roles, system interfaces, and business documents that will enhance collaboration Ultimately, Business Maps enable you to focus on your core business processes. They help you become more marketand customer-oriented, which can translate into stronger partner relationships and real competitive advantages.
Representation of the task-related, functional structure of your enterprise, created using tools from the Organizational Management component. This functional organizational plan differs from the administrative enterprise structure and the personnel structure whose elements are relevant to Payroll Accounting (company code, personnel subarea or employee
group, for example). These structures are found in their corresponding components. Use You can create several organizational plans in different plan versions, this provides you with the following options in Organizational Management:
in one plan version, you depict your current valid organizational plan which you use for your current business processes (evaluations, Workflow, personnel planning, for example). In additional plan versions, you can depict organizational plans as planning scenarios (for Business Process Re-Engineering, for example).
You can compare the current organizational plan with the planning scenarios and transfer data from the simulated structures into the current organizational plan.
Organizational plans are normally created by assigning objects of the following types to each other:
• • • •
Organizational Unit Position Job Task
If you are using your organizational plan for Workflow, the following object types are also available:
• • •
Standard task Workflow template Task group
In order to carry out numerous business and human resources processes, you need an organizational plan, that is, a functional structure representing your enterprise based on tasks. You need to, for example:
evaluate headcount, current division of tasks, reporting structures in your enterprise according to department (for example)
Evaluations of unoccupied positions
allocate agents responsible for carrying out SAP Business Workflow tasks
Forward leave requests to agents in the personnel department
plan possible new functional structures in Business Process (Re-) Engineering as well as your personnel requirements or personnel costs
Planning a Department Structure
gather information for creating the task related, functional structure, in particular for other Human Resources components
Default values for personnel actions in Personnel Administration
assign structural, that is task-oriented authorizations in the R/3 System
Combination of the relevant R/3 transactions for an administrator in Purchasing Tools from the Organizational Management component also enable you to create:
your current valid Organizational Plan , changes to which are archived additional organizational plans in other Plan Versions as planning scenarios
Organizational Management is the basis for additional Human Resources components and functions as well as for SAP Business Workflow. The fact that these components can be integrated should be taken into account when you are installing them. Integration
Installing Organizational Management enables you to use the following Human Resources components effectively:
o o o
Personnel Development Recruitment Compensation Management
o o o •
Personnel Cost Planning Training and Event Management Manager's Desktop
Organizational Management also has interfaces to the following Human Resources components:
o o o o
Shift Planning Capacity Requirements Planning Personnel Administration Human Resources Information System
Organizational Management also forms the basis for SAP Business Workflow. The organizational plan you create forms the framework for a routing structure that SAP Business Workflow uses to assign tasks to an employee. Both Organizational Management and SAP Business Workflow are components of Business Management.
Finally, Organizational Management can also be used with the Controlling component to create an enterprise organization.
Features The Organizational Management component includes various user group-specific modes and views with which to edit organizational plans:
The Organizational Plan mode includes views for administrators in the Personnel or organizational department:
The Organization and Staffing view provides an intuitive interface for creating and editing organizational plans. The General Structures view allows you to edit organizational plans with any structure
including object types which you have defined yourself (teams, for example).
The Matrix view is for creating and editing matrix structures.
The Organizational Plan mode also includes a view for workflow administrators:
Organization and Staffing (Workflow) provides you with an interface that you can use intuitively to create and edit organizational plans. This interface can be used for SAP Business Workflow.
Expert mode enables experienced experts objectoriented editing of organizational plans.
Expert mode allows you to edit the characteristics of various objects and their relationships via infotypes. The Simple Maintenance view in Expert Mode provides an overview of object and structure editing.
For more information, see the documentation on Expert Mode. The Manager’s Desktop component provides managers with data on the organizational plan of their area of responsibility and enables them to edit this information.
The main elements of an organizational plan are
an organizational structure , with which the reporting structure and task distribution are created using organizational units (departments, for example) Staff assignments for each organizational unit, in which the current persons (employees), users and vacancies are listed
Integration Organizational plans are generally related to objects from other components.
If Integration with Personnel Administration is active, the personal data for the staff assignments comes from the Personnel Administration component. These functional (organizational plan) and administrative (personnel and enterprise structures) structures come into contact if a person is assigned
to an organizational plan (as the holder of a position) as well as an enterprise or personnel structure (that is, to a personnel subarea etc.).
If the enterprise structure is active, account assignment data can be obtained from Controlling.
Enterprise Organization (CO) Structure
The enterprise organization is a uniform, integrated user interface for the different organizational units in the SAP system. The structure of your enterprise is represented in the SAP system by means of different organizational units (controlling area, company code, cost center and so on). In the Human Resources (HR) organizational structure for example, a company is broken down into departments, each of which is responsible for performing particular tasks. By way of contrast, in the standard hierarchy for cost center accounting, companies are broken down with regard to responsibilities for costs. The enterprise organization helps you process your organizational structures so that: • • • • These structures can be changed to reflect organizational changes within the enterprise. A company's organizational structure is more transparent since the links between the organizational units are visible and can be evaluated. The different business processes can be integrated optimally, and thus are more economical with resources. The data is for internal and external reporting
You need to activate the enterprise organization to be able to use it. You do this in Customizing for the application component in question by choosing Enterprise Organization Enter Settings for the Enterprise Organization.
Enterprise organization is based on the organizational plan in HR, and contains additional functions and organizational units specific to accounting. The following areas are currently integrated in enterprise organization: • • • HR organizational plan Cost center standard hierarchy Profit center standard hierarchy
If the enterprise organization is active for a controlling area, you can no longer assign the organizational units (controlling area, company code, and cost center) in the HR organizational structure. Instead, use the functions in the enterprise organization. Enterprise organization therefore provides an overview of the enterprise in terms of responsibilities for: • • • Personnel Costs Revenues
Representing the structure of an enterprise • • The structure of an enterprise is displayed in a simple tree structure. You can change the enterprise organization per specific date.
This facility enables you to create past, present, and future organizational structures for your enterprise (see also Time-Dependency of Enterprise Organizations). • • The single maintenance screen for several organizational units or structures enables you to display and evaluate the links between the organizational units. Using the search function, you select the organizational units and then assign these to the organizational structure using drag-and-drop (see Searching for Organizational Units).
Processing organizational structures • In the enterprise organization, you can create new organizational units (see Creating Organizational Units). In so doing, the system transfers the data in accordance with the inheritance principle (see the Inheritance Principle). •
Using drag-and-drop, you can copy organizational units from the selection area into the tree structure (see Assigning, Reassigning, or Moving Organizational Units). Using drag-and-drop, you can copy organizational units from the selection area into the tree structure (see Assigning, Reassigning, or Moving Organizational Units). You can maintain the master data for the individual objects directly from the tree structure (see Displaying or Changing Organizational Units). You can activate or delete inactive master record versions from cost centers and profit centers (see: Activating Inactive Master Data or Deleting Inactive Master Data). Enterprise organization is a logical development of the HR organizational plan. An enterprise structure is more detailed in HR than in CO. Therefore all CO objects (such as controlling area, cost center) are assigned to the HROrganizational Unit.
Note, however, that you can only assign one object type to a single HR organizational unit each time you are processing. • When processing the enterprise organization, the system carries out a number of checks on consistency. For example, you can enter a cost center in the enterprise organization only if you have already assigned a controlling area to this enterprise organization.
You can make checks on a particular key date. To do so, choose Enterprise organization Check. You can make the following checks online or in a background job. o Check that the enterprise organization is complete (see TimeDependency of Enterprise Organizations). o Consistency checks • From the enterprise organization you go to the web form to request a cost center change by choosing Extras -> Change request for cost centers (see Requesting a Change to Master Data in the Intranet/Internet). Data from the detail area is also transferred to the form.
From the enterprise organization you can only currently display master data for controlling areas and company codes. Making mass changes to master data simultaneously as under Change Management is currently not possible.
For more information, see the SAP Library under Human Resources PA - Personnel Management Organizational Management.
Tree structure representing all cost centers belonging to a controlling area from a Controlling perspective.
You can combine cost centers into cost center groups. You can then create cost center hierarchies from these groups by combining the groups according to decision-making area, area of responsibility, or management area. A cost center hierarchy comprises all cost centers for a given period and therefore represents the whole enterprise. This hierarchy is known as the standard hierarchy.
You can make changes to the standard hierarchy: • In the maintenance interface of the Enterprise Organization (see Editing the Standard Hierarchy) In group maintenance (see Editing the Standard Hierarchy Using Group Maintenance)
If you have activated the enterprise organization (see Enter Settings for the Enterprise Organization) you cannot edit the standard hierarchy directly; it is shown in display mode only. You should therefore change the enterprise
organization and then generate the current standard hierarchy from here (see Enterprise Organization, Generating a Standard or Alternative Hierarchy from the Enterprise Organization). The only exception here is master data for cost center groups that are needed for reporting. If you process the standard hierarchy using the maintenance interface for the enterprise organization, you can change the data shown in the detail area on the Report information tab strip.
If you process the standard hierarchy from the enterprise organization, you can also generate alternative hierarchies in addition to the standard hierarchy. You may need these alternative hierarchies for reporting processes for example (see Time-Dependency of Enterprise Organizations). The alternative hierarchies display the status of the standard hierarchy at a given moment.
Cost elements classify an organization’s valuated consumption of production factors within a controlling area. A cost element corresponds to a cost-relevant item in the chart of accounts.
We distinguish between primary cost and revenue elements and secondary cost elements.
Primary Cost/Revenue Elements 29
A primary cost or revenue element is a cost or revenue-relevant item in the chart of accounts, for which a corresponding general ledger (G/L) account exists in Financial Accounting (FI). You can only create the cost or revenue element if you have first defined it as a G/L account in the chart of accounts and created it as an account in Financial Accounting. The SAP System checks whether a corresponding account exists in Financial Accounting.
Examples of primary cost elements include: Material costs Personnel costs Energy costs
Secondary Cost Elements
Secondary cost elements can only be created and administrated in cost accounting (CO). They portray internal value flows, such as those found in internal activity allocation, overhead calculations and settlement transactions. When you create a secondary cost element, the SAP System checks whether a corresponding account already exists in Financial Accounting. If one exists, you can not create the secondary cost element in cost accounting.
Examples of secondary cost elements include: Assessment cost elements Cost elements for Internal Activity Allocation Cost elements for Order Settlement
Cost elements in Controlling (CO) are closely related to the general ledger accounts used in Financial Accounting (FI). This is because the SAP System is structured as an Integrated Accounting System: Cost elements document which costs (differentiated by category) are incurred within a settlement period, and in which amount. They provide information concerning the value flow and the value consumption within the organization. Cost Element Accounting and Cost Center Accounting/Internal Orders are closely linked in the SAP System. Each posting to an account that is also a cost element, is assigned either to a cost center or order. This ensures that at period-end the data is subdivided by cost elements and cost centers/internal orders for analysis purposes. The following section describes how you can subdivide and characterize cost elements in the SAP System.
Cost element characteristics depend on the controlling area and the allocation methods used in your organization.
Organizational unit within a controlling area that represents a clearly delimited location where costs occur. You can make organizational divisions on the basis of functional, settlementrelated, activity-related, spatial, and/or responsibility-related standpoints.
Cost centers are grouped together into decision, control, and responsibility units. You use cost centers for differentiated assignment of overhead costs to organizational activities, based on utilization of the relevant areas (cost determination function) and for differentiated controlling of costs arising in an organization (cost controlling function).
You can assign activity types to a cost center. These activity types divide the specific activities that can be produced in a cost center.
Before you create cost centers, you define a hierarchical cost center structure (see: Standard Hierarchies).
Cost center structures and characteristics depend on the accounting objective you are following and the cost accounting system you decide to employ.
Activity types classify the activities produced in the cost centers within a controlling area.
To plan and allocate the activities, the system records quantities that are measured in activity units. Activity quantities are valuated using a price (allocation price). In Overhead Cost Controlling, costs based on the activity quantity of an activity type are posted separately in fixed and variable portions. When you divide the activities of a cost center into activity types, you should consider whether the costs can be allocated effectively to the activity types. The prices of the activity types of a cost center can be either entered manually, or calculated by the system based on the costs allocated to the activities. Prices can be calculated either using plan costs or actual costs. You can plan, allocate, and control costs either at the activity type level of a cost center, or at the cost center level. You can enter
actual costs at the cost center level. Costs entered at the cost center level are assigned using splitting. You can also assign the activity type of a cost center directly. This use was designed for certain application areas (such as personnel costs and depreciation postings). For more information, see Actual Postings to Activity Types.
When the activities produced by a cost center are used by other cost centers, orders, processes, and so on, this means that the resources of the sending cost center are being used by the other objects.
You can assign one activity type, multiple activity types, or no activity types to a cost center.
Typical examples of activity types for cost centers are machine hours, administrator hours, CPU minutes or units produced.
Actual Postings to Activity Types
When you execute actual postings you can assign directly to the activity type of a cost center. You can use an activity type as an account assignment object in the following application areas:
Personnel costs for Payroll Accounting You can use the sender activity type specified in the time sheet, or in Time Management to further assign personnel costs to Payroll Accounting
Depreciation postings on the activity type in Asset Accounting (see: Depreciations). For periodic postings of depreciation costs in the general ledger you can, in addition to cost centers and orders, also assign costs to the activity type stored in the asset master data.
In the same way, you can also assign costs directly to activity types for G/L account postings in Financial Accounting (see: Posting Documents). In Controlling you can execute repostings of line items for activity types (see: Reposting Line Items).
Note that the R/3 System ignores the costs assigned to activity types during a later Distribution. To allocate activity, you can use either direct activity allocation or indirect activity allocation.
To ensure an exact assignment of the costs to the activity types, you assign costs in the actual just as in the plan. You should therefore post either in the actual and in the plan to the cost center, or in the actual and in the plan to the activity types of the cost center.
Direct account assignment of activity types has an effect on actual cost splitting (see: Actual Cost Splitting). The R/3 System requires that the costs assigned directly to the activity
types are assigned correctly, and in full, to the activity types. Directly assigned activity types do not therefore take part in the first splitting step. The R/3 System simply splits the cost into fixed and variable. In the second splitting step, the R/3 System also splits the activityindependent costs on the directly assigned activity types (see: Example of Splitting After Account Assignment to an Activity Type).
To assign costs to an activity type, go to Customizing for General Controlling and choose the IMG activity for creating a controlling area, under Organization Maintain Controlling Area). Select AA: Activity Type under Activate components (see: Control Indicators). If you want to assign costs to activity types for G/L postings in Financial Accounting you should select Activity Type as an entry field in the field selection lists for the corresponding General Ledgers and posting keys. To do this, see Customizing for Financial Accounting, under Financial Accounting Global Settings Basic Settings Document Line item Controls Define Posting Keys and Maintain Field Status Variants).
Editing Manual Actual Postings
In Controlling, all manual actual postings are structured according to the same principle. You can enter data using either individual entry (for complex allocations) or list entry, where large quantities of data are involved. The R/3 System assists you in making manual actual postings, through the provision of Entry, Display, and Reversal functions. You can use these functions for the following postings:
• • • • •
Reposting Costs Manually Reposting Revenues Manually Direct Activity Allocation Manual Cost Allocation Entering Statistical Key Figures
Reposting Costs and Revenues Manually
You can repost primary costs manually using transaction-based repostings, whereby the original cost element is always retained. This function is designed mainly to adjust posting errors. You should always adjust posting errors in the application component where they occurred. This ensures that external and internal accounting are always reconciled. You can only adjust posting errors involving one cost accounting object (a cost center or internal order for example) using a transaction-based reposting in Controlling (CO). To repost collective postings from one cost center to other cost centers at period end, you can use periodic repostings (see: Periodic Repostings).
In Activity-Based Costing, you can only repost costs.
You can only post revenues as statistical items to cost centers - these revenues cannot be included in periodic allocations.
You mistakenly assigned the amount of 10,000 USD for the cost element External services to cost center 4210. The costs should have been posted to cost center 4220. In transaction-based reposting, you can repost the full amount to the correct cost center under the same cost element. This transaction affects only CO, since the costs are debited (to cost center 4220) and credited (to cost center 4210) using the same cost element.
If you are working with transfer prices (parallel value flows), you cannot repost costs or revenues for parallel valuations. You need to use the function for reposting line items (see: Reposting Line Items). For more information on transfer prices, see Multiple Valuation Approaches in Overhead Cost Controlling, and the SAP Library under Financials EC Enterprise Controlling EC Profit Center Accounting Transfer Prices Multiple Valuation Approaches/Transfer Prices.
• To repost costs, from the area menu of the relevant application component, choose Actual postings Manual reposting of costs Enter. To display repostings of costs, from the relevant application component menu, choose Actual postings Manual reposting of costs Display.
To reverse repostings of costs, from the relevant application component menu, choose Actual postings Manual reposting of costs Reverse. To repost revenues, from the area menu of the relevant application component, choose Actual postings Manual reposting of revenues Enter. To display revenues that have been reposted, from the relevant application component menu, choose Actual postings Manual reposting of revenues Display. To reverse repostings of revenues, from the relevant application component menu, choose Actual postings Manual reposting of revenues Reverse.
Direct Activity Allocation
Direct activity allocation involves the measuring, recording, and allocating of business services performed. To do this, you must create the relevant (measurable) tracing factors (allocation bases which can be used as cost drivers). In Cost Center Accounting these are known as activity types. Activity allocation occurs, for example, when business transactions are confirmed or when posting activity quantities to accounts. The system multiplies the activity produced by the price of the activity type.
To do so, for the cost centers or business processes involved, you must plan activity types either using prices set manually or using subsequent iterative price calculation ( see also: Plan Price Calculation).
If the receiver of the activity allocation is not a cost object (such as, cost center, business process, or internal order), then the following applies: If no price was set manually, then the plan price is used. If you have not executed an iterative price calculation, then the manually set price for the activity type is used for direct activity allocation (the price in the plan/actual (000) version). If the receiver of the activity allocation is a cost object (such as, a production order or a product cost collector), then the price used for valuation is determined according to the valuation variant (which is linked to the cost object for the simultaneous costing via the costing variant). If the receiving cost object is not linked to a costing variant for the simultaneous costing, then the plan price for the valuation period is used.
The service cost center "Plumbers" (4110) performs 1 hour of the activity type "Repairs" for production cost center HFI (4210). The plan price for the repairs activity type is 35 USD per hour. In direct activity allocation, this price is valuated as follows: 1 hr X 35 USD/hr = 35 USD
The "Plumbers" cost center is credited with this amount and the HI production cost center is debited correspondingly.
Direct activity allocation is most often used with the following cost controlling methods:
Static standard costing Flexible standard costing
Activity-Based Costing Direct costing
If you implement internal activity allocation with predistribution of fixed costs (see Predistribution of Fixed Costs) and the sender is involved in predistribution of fixed costs, it depends on the receiver as to whether, under
internal activity allocation, the system allocates total costs or only the variable costs.
If the senders and receivers participate in the predistribution of fixed costs and you post true costs to the receiver, the system only allocates variable costs during the internal activity allocation. The fixed portion is ignored. If the sender participates in the predistribution of fixed costs, but the receiver (to which you are to post true costs) does not, the system allocates fixed and variable costs. If additional receivers, which are participating in the predistribution of fixed costs, are statistically posted to, the system allocates only variable costs to these receivers. If additional receivers, which are not participating in the predistribution of fixed costs, are statistically posted to, the system allocates both fixed and variable costs to these receivers. The system always displays the true value flow on the user interface for internal activity allocation.
If you are working with transfer prices (multiple value flows), the internal activity allocations are carried out in the leading valuation. The plan price used for allocation thus applies to all the valuations. For more information on transfer prices, see the SAP Library under EC Enterprise Controlling Profit Center Accounting Transfer Prices (see: Multiple Valuation
Approaches/Transfer Prices) and Multiple Valuation Approaches in Overhead Cost Controlling.
You can use the internet component Internal Activity Allocations in the Intranet to enter direct activity allocations in the internet. For more information, see: R/3 Internet Application Components Internal Activity Allocations in the Intranet (COOM-CCA) Internal Price Lists in the Intranet (CO-OM-CCA) Activities
To enter direct activity allocations, from the application component area menu, choose Actual postings Statistical key figures Enter. To enter direct activity allocations, from the application component area menu, choose Actual postings Statistical key figures Enter. To enter direct activity allocations, from the application component area menu, choose Actual postings Activity allocation Reverse.
Reversing Manual Actual Postings
1. On the upper screen area, enter the number of the document that you want to reverse.
You can locate the document number by choosing input help for the document date or by searching per document date, period or fiscal year.
2. Choose Enter.
The system automatically adds the document date and the posting date of the original document. 3. If you wish, you can display further information relating to the original document such as the user or the exchange rate type. To do so, choose the tab strip Additional information in the upper screen area.
If you wish, you can display or hide particular screen areas. To do so, use the icon Compress data areas on the left edge of the relevant screen area.
4. To display the reversal document, choose List entry
or Individual entry. a. If you choose List entry, the system displays all posting rows for the selected reversal document in a list. b. If you choose List entry, the system displays all posting rows for the reversal document on the Individual entry screen. Below the individual entry screen, the system displays a list to which you can transfer every line item. To navigate between these line items, select the line item that you want to move up to/down to. The system displays the data on the selected line item on the individual entry screen.
5. To reverse the document, choose Post. 43
Business Blue Print
Creation and Administration of a Measure Catalog
You use this function to create and group measures in Measure Builder. These measures are not the technical key figures provided by the data basis of SAP SEM, but a data layer created from a content and business viewpoint, which, in principle, is independent of the technical key figures. However, measures and key figures can be linked.
You use the measures you define and edit here in the Balanced Scorecard, Management Cockpit, Value Driver Tree and Risk Management functions (in the risk catalog, you can assign measures to risks). In addition, you can use various properties of a measure in balance sheet and investment planning in the SEM component Business Planning and Simulation (SEM-BPS).
Creating a Catalog You create catalogs in change mode using the context menu Create Catalog. Catalogs are elements at the topmost hierarchy level of the measures. You can create as many catalogs
as you wish to structure your measures in major sub-areas. For example, you can create a catalog for the measures of each subsidiary, each division (for example refrigeration engineering, plant construction) or for different balance sheet items (profit measures, sales types).
Catalogs are always created at the top-most level. The construction of a multi-level hierarchy of catalogs is not possible. To structure the measures of a catalog hierarchically, you create structure nodes in the catalog using Measure GroupCreate in the context menu.
In addition to the catalogs you create, business content delivered by SAP is available to you. You can copy the measures delivered by SAP into your own catalogs or reference them in formulas. You can hide or display the business content with . To be able to use a measure from the business content, for example in the Balanced Scorecard, you first have to add it with drag & drop to one of your own catalogs in Edit mode. Once added to one of your catalogs, the measure is available for assignment to a scorecard. The font color of the measure in the business content measure catalog indicates whether it has already been added to one of your own catalogs: measures that have not been activated appear in blue, measures that have been activated appear in gray. Create Measure Group You create measure groups in change mode using the context menu Create Measure Group. Measure groups are used to structure measures within a catalog according to content criteria. Unlike catalogs, measures groups can be structured freely with as
many hierarchy levels as you wish, and you can insert measures on every level of the hierarchy. Create Measure You create measures in change mode using the context menu MeasureCreate . You can create measures directly in a catalog or within a measure group. For more information on the many possibilities of creating measures, see Editing Measures.
Maintaining a Measure Catalog
Measure Builder offers the following functions for the administration of measure catalog elements (switch to change mode with first). • You can move measure groups and measures with drag&drop to any location in the measure catalog. You can also move elements from one catalog to another. When you move measure groups, all subordinate elements of this measure group are also moved. For example, if you move a measure from the SAP Measure Catalog to a catalog with drag&drop, which already contains the measure in another version, you can determine in a dialog box which properties of the older measure should be overwritten by the new measure, and which properties should not be overwritten. The same applies for activating a measure group from the SAP Measure Catalog.
With Application Log Log Environment , you can view the log file with a list of the activation of each individual measure. • Using Up and Down in the context menu, you can change the order of measure groups and measures within the level in which they are located. It is not possible to move an element to a different catalog with these functions.
With Locate Measure, you can find the position of the measure you are currently editing in the hierarchy of the measure catalog. This function expands the hierarchy tree down to the level of the position you are looking for and the measure you searched for. This function is particularly helpful when you had selected a measure for editing and then navigated to another location in the hierarchy. With the function , you can search for a specific measure. The search function does not distinguish upper and lower case, and it adds "*" as a wild card before and after the search text. The search results are listed in a table of the search dialog box, and you can navigate directly to the desired measure in the measure catalog using . With , you can o Set filters; here you can define numerous selection criteria. You can specify whether you want to display the owner, the industry, the catalog, or industry-independent measures, amongst others. Delete the filter you set Choose filter settings, which have been saved as variants Delete filter settings, which have been saved as variants If a filter is set, or a variant has been chosen, the symbol is displayed in the header of the measure catalog. To save a filter as a variant, choose in the filter definition and enter a technical name as the Variant Name as well as a descriptive name in Description. The text you store for Description is displayed by the system when you choose a variant. You can also set a measure catalog as a filter by selecting the measure catalog and choosing Set Catalog as Filter in the context menu.
o o o
Printing Measures and Measure Catalogs
In the context menu of a measure, you have the following choices for printing: Selection Print PreviewPrint Result
A preview is displayed, in which t for the selected measure is prese with or PrintList , you get to dialog where you can print the vi
Print with BW Measure SourcePrint
This calls up the print dialog direc where you can print the data of t selected measure, together with source information.
Print Without BW Measure SourcePrint
This calls up the print dialog direc where you can print the data of t selected measure without the da information.
In the context menu of a measure catalog or measure group, you have the following options for printing: Selection Print PreviewPrint Result
A preview is displayed, in which t hierarchy starting with the select measure catalog or measure grou presented; with or PrintList , to the print dialog where you can view.
This calls up the print dialog direc where you can print the hierarch with the selected measure catalo measure group.
Print with BW Measure Source Print Measures Print
This calls up the print dialog direc where you can print the data of a measures contained in the measu catalog or node, together with th source information.
Print Without BW Measure Source Print Measures Print
This calls up the print dialog direc where you can print the data of a measures contained in the measu catalog or node without the data information.
Changing the Display Language Normally, the language of the entries in the measure catalogs corresponds to the language you used at logon. If you maintained the measure catalogs in several languages, you can display the entries for purposes of comparison in another language without having to log on to the system again. Choose Settings Utilities Language and choose the desired language. The measure catalogs are then rebuilt using the selected language.
When you display the measure catalogs in a language other than the logon language, the entries can only be viewed but not edited. If no translation exists in the selected language, the elements of the measure catalogs appear with no text. Translating the Measure Catalog You can translate the measures of a measure catalog into other languages. You can translate the short and long texts as well as the definition of a measure. The translated texts are transported to the target system using the tools of the Workbench Organizer.
To use the translation function, you need special authorization. For more information, see Authorizations. Transporting the Measure Catalog See: Transporting Scorecards, section: Transporting measures and measure catalogs.
Updating BW Master Data The measures you maintain with the Measure Builder are also saved into the InfoObject 0MEASURE of your default BW system. The hierarchical structure of the measure catalog is also replicated in your default BW system. This is necessary to enable the mapping of measures in Measure Builder to the benchmarks defined for this purpose. The data is normally updated automatically in the SAP BW system every time a measure is changed in Measure Builder. However, in the event that this update is unsuccessful (for example, because the BW system is temporarily unavailable due to network problems), you can force synchronization of the data sets. Data from the Measure Builder always has priority. Using Measures: Update BW Master Data BW Master Data Utilities , you replicate the Measure Builder master data of the measures contained in the measure catalog using a report. This replication is performed in the master data table of the InfoObject 0MEASURE of a BW system. In the dialog, which opens up, you can select whether it concerns a test run or not; in addition, you define the measures to be replicated, the language key, the attributes to be updated, as well as the BW system to which they should be replicated in this dialog. You execute the report using . Using Measures: Update BW Hierarchy BW Master Data Utilities , you replicate the Measure Builder hierarchy of the measure catalogs contained in the Measure Builder using a report. This replication is performed in the hierarchy table of the InfoObject 0MEASURE of a BW system. In the dialog, which opens up, you can select whether it concerns a test run or not; in addition, you define the measure catalog to be replicated as well as the BW system to which it should be replicated in this dialog. You execute the report using .
When executing these two functions, you can select a system other than the default BW system for the update, if you wish. You can also select the language, in which the data is to be updated. Maintaining Characteristics
With BW Master DataUtilities , you can maintain the following characteristics directly in Measure Builder: • • • • • • • • • Benchmark version Industry Country key Company list Benchmark provider Region Size classes Type of size classes Measure
Editing Industry Sectors You can edit the industry sectors that can be assigned to a measure in Measure Builder. For more information, see Editing Measures. Editing Benchmark Selections You can call up benchmark data for the measures defined in Measure Builder. The characteristics you can use to find appropriate benchmarks for a measure can be enabled by choosing Selection Fields Benchmark ReportsUtilities , and you can edit the order in which they are displayed. Where-Used List for Measures With the Where-Used List function in the context menu of a measure, you obtain information of where the measure is used in a scorecard, cockpit, or value driver tree. You also obtain information of which other measures use the selected measure as an operand in the calculation.
In the SEM menu, choose Enterprise Measure Performance Measurement Management & Benchmarks to use the measure catalog of the Measure Builder with its measures.
Measure System: Drilldown
With this function, you obtain an overview of how a measure is defined by means of a display that shows how other measures are related to the selected measure. Depending on your previous selection, you also see various value fields, such as the actual, plan and target values of each measure.
This function is based on the definition of key figures in the SAP Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW) component.
The formula definition of the measure in the Measure Builder is not taken into consideration in a drilldown as it is exclusively based on data from the SAP BW.
Functions in the GUI version
Using the menu path RefreshMeasure Tree , you read and update the values assigned to the measures and the formulas on which the measures are based from the SAP BW. Using BW ReportMeasure Tree , you call up the related BW report.
Functions in the Web version
Using Navigation On<->Off, you can display or hide the navigation window. You can change the zoom factor by entering a number (in percent), or by dragging the pane in the navigation window up or down with the mouse. Using Legend On<->Off, you show or hide the color legend of the values displayed for the measures.
GUI Version In order to perform the drilldown of a measure, proceed as follows:
1. In the SEM menu, choose Strategic Enterprise Balanced
Scorecard Strategy Management Management . 2. Select a scorecard. 3. Choose Analysis. 4. Select a measure. 5. Choose , or Measure TreeGoto . 6. Select the value fields that are to be displayed in the drilldown of the selected measure. Web Version In order to perform the drilldown of a measure, proceed as follows: 1. In the presentation of a scorecard, you can switch to the detail view of a measure. 2. Choose Measure tree. 3. Select the value fields that are to be displayed in the drilldown of the selected measure.
PARAMETERS FOR WORK ITEM VISUALIZATION IN THE UWL
There are various different working environments available to SAP users, for example, SAP GUI for Windows or SAP Enterprise Portal. You can use different UI technologies in the individual environment, for example classic Dynpros, people-centric UI, WebDynpro, iViews, and so on. For Business Workflow, this means that a work item may need to be processed with different applications. When using the classic SAP 53
GUI for Windows, you might use a Dynpro-based transaction to process a work item from the Business Workplace. When using an application that is based on the SAP Enterprise Portal on the other hand, you might use a BSP-based application or an iView to process a work item from the UWL (Universal Worklist). You can support these various different execution methods with work item visualization. Besides the usual way of executing a work item (direct execution of the object method, which is defined in the task), you can also define an alternative visualization type. The individual visualization types (WebDynpro, People Centric UI, iViews) have different parameters. Workflow visualization enables you to assign an alternative visualization type and the corresponding parameters to a workflow task or an object type. Using these parameters, the UWL creates the appropriate Web application call, for example, to start a BluePrint BSP application. The system contains default settings for the visualization parameters of particular business objects. For example, Master Data Management(MDM) has default settings for the default methods for the objects Business Partner (BUS1006), MDM Business Partner (BUS1006300), Material (BUS1178001) and so on. You can add new settings to define visualization parameters for tasks, objects, or object methods that you have defined yourself. You specify the visualization parameters as a view cluster. For more information about working with view clusters, see: Creating a View Cluster.
You specify the visualization parameters for tasks, object types, or object methods in the view cluster. This gives you the option of defining the visualization parameters generically for an object method, or 54
separately for a particular task. The visualization parameters for a task override the visualization parameters for a referenced object method.
Register the work item type again in the UWL each time you change a parameter (see also: Register the Work Item Types).
Specifying Visualization Parameters for Tasks
1. To specify the visualization parameters, choose Workflow → Definition Tools → Worklist Client → Workflow Visualization Metadata (transaction SWFVISU). 2. In the Task Visualization view, specify the single-step task and choose the visualization type, for example BSP BluePrint. 3. Select the task and in the Visualization Parameters view, define the parameters for this task. The choice of parameters varies depending on the visualization type that you select. The following table shows the possible parameters and appropriate parameters of the relevant launcher for the visualization types that are supported in the UWL.
Create a View Cluster
A view cluster is a group of maintenance dialogs which are collected in one maintenance unit for business or technical reasons. They allow related data in more than one table/view to be maintained consistently.
Whereas only 1:1 relationships can be processed in maintenance views (except for language-dependent texts), key extensions and relationships of cardinality N:M can also be handled in view clusters. Maintenance dialogs with no key, or partial keydependence, can also be combined into view clusters.
Grouping dialogs into one maintenance unit has the following advantages for data maintenance: • Navigation: A view cluster contains convenient standard navigation between the individual maintenance dialogs. This simplifies the maintenance of the data in a view cluster. Consistency: The view cluster ensures data consistency when deleting, copying, saving, retrieving and manually transporting data. For example when an entry in a higherlevel view is deleted, , it automatically ensures that all dependent entries in lower-level views are also deleted.
You can first split tables with a lot of fields into various views and then collect them into a view cluster. Use tabs to format very wide tables with a lot of fields.
Navigation in a view cluster is usually based on the hierarchy of the tables/views on which the dialogs are based. A view cluster usually consists of one or more root dialogs and the at most 14 maintenance dialogs which depend on them. A view at a lower level has one or more additional fields in its key compared its higher-level view. Each data record at the higher level has several dependent data records below it. Each maintenance dialog is an independent unit consisting of an overview screen or an overview and a detail screen, depending on the dialog type. As well as the data to be maintained, the overview screen contains a navigation area, in which you can go to higher or lower level maintenance dialogs. One-level maintenance dialogs only contain one screen, the list screen, in which all existing data records are displayed in a table. In a two-level maintenance dialog, double-clicking on a data record in the list screen takes you to the detail screen, which displays all the fields in the selected data record.
Generate a maintenance dialog for each view before you call the cluster maintenance (SM34). When you generate the maintenance dialog, flag the key fields which are identical in the view and its higher-level in the cluster, with the maintenance attribute S. The system fills the key fields when you go from the upper to the lower level, with the values of the data record selected in the upper level. Go to the transaction SE54 to define a view cluster.
Create a Maintenance Dialog
The creation of table/view maintenance dialogs is described here. Maintenance dialogs can be created for SAP or customer tables or views. There are two steps:
1. Define table/view
if the table or view does not yet exist. 2. Define maintenance dialog Define table/view The table/view is defined in the Dictionary. A view comprises a primary table and secondary tables which have a foreign key relationship to the primary table. Secondary tables can be • Dependent tables: These are auxiliary primary tables and have the same key as the primary table. All fields can be maintained directly. The secondary tables are linked by a foreign key with dependency factor "ID" and cardinality 1 or C, except for text tables, which must have dependency factor TEXT. The logon language is assigned to the language key when you save. Referred tables: The primary table contains fields which belong to the referred secondary table. The secondary table can have other key fields which are not known to the primary table. The secondary table fields cannot be maintained, they can only be displayed. The referred secondary tables are linked by a foreign key with dependency factor OBL or OPT and cardinality CN or N. All
other secondary tables which depend on the referring table, are also only referred tables for the primary table. You can display the view structure graphically with the View hierarchy struct. function in the Utilities menu. To create a table/view: • • • • • • • • Choose view type Maintenance view. All primary table key fields must be in the view definition. The client field must be included for client-dependent tables/views. The field is not displayed in the maintenance dialog. The language key must not be included for secondary text tables. The logon language is automatically used in maintenance. The key fields must be defined before the function fields. Function fields and key fields must not be mixed. Fields of a referred table cannot be maintained and have the maintenance attribute 'R'. Each field can have a maintenance attribute. You can specify the maintenance status of the entire table/view with the Maintenance status option. You can: o o o o read only read, change, delete and create (default setting) read and change read and change (time-dependent views)
In time-dependent views, the key comprises a time-independent part and the validity range. Choosing read and change (timedependent views) restricts maintenance to changing and creating the validity range of existing keys.
Define maintenance dialog
You must specify the following parameters in the maintenance dialog definition:
• • •
Function group: the function group in which the tables/view-specific maintenance dialog components are generated. The function group is created if necessary. Authorization group: the users who are authorized to maintain the table/view contents. Maintenance type: one or two-step dialog. One-step dialogs comprise only an overview screen containing all fields. In two-step dialogs, only the key and text fields with a length of more than 20 characters are displayed in the overview screen. All fields are offered in the detail screen. Maintenance screens: the internal number of each maintenance screen. You can get possible values in a search function. Recording routine: Specify whether and how the table/view contents maintained with the dialog are put in a transport.
The maintenance dialog is generated after all values have been entered. If there are no errors, the dialog can be used immediately to maintain table/view contents.
Generate Table Maintenance Dialog
The Generate table maintenance dialog component creates standardized maintenance dialogs for tables and views. These dialogs can also be used to maintain table or view contents.
The component provides a standardized maintenance interface for many customizing activities. It is also useful as a customer table or view input tool. Table or view maintenance dialogs are created in the ABAP/4 Workbench under the menu path Development Other tools Gen.tab.maint.dialog. To maintain table or view contents choose Services Ext. tab.maint. at any time.
Maintenance dialogs and data which were created, changed or deleted with the maintenance dialog can be transported into other R/3 Systems.
The component creates maintenance dialogs which are standardized in their: • • • • • • functionality interface maintenance screen navigation enhancement options maintenance
The initial screen contains several processing functions. You can manage the objects which are required for the preparation and generation of a maintenance dialog, with these functions.
These are the following functions: • Edit table/view
Display or maintain the table/view and maintenance dialog definition or the authorization groups and their assignments. You can also delete either the table/view incl. maintenance dialog (Dictionary Delete) or individual generated objects (Generated objects Delete). • Edit function group
Change function group text and source texts. You can also reset the group-specific programs:
structure-spec. PAI module structure-spec. data declarations structure-spec. Form routines gen. data declarations main program function group
Dialog changes can be lost by resetting the function group general data declarations and main program. • Edit view cluster
Go to view cluster definitions. • Edit view variants
Create view variants. • Test table/view
Enter a dialog name and call the dialog.
Travel Planning (FI-TV-PL)
Travel expenses are one of the largest personnel-related cost factors and offer great cost-saving potential. The R/3 component Travel Management - Travel Planning with its connected online booking service contributes greatly towards reducing your trip process costs. Using Travel Planning you can reduce the instances involved in the planning and booking process of a trip, simplify the process itself and automatically include enterprise-specific travel policies. It also improves the transparency of the costs and the cost-incurring areas/employees.
The use of Travel Planning provides an important strategic advantage for the role of the travel manager in your enterprise. The business volume statistics and reporting tools in Travel Planning deliver concrete arguments for rate negotiations with service providers. The travel manager is relieved of routine tasks and can therefore concentrate on more strategically important tasks, such as system and quality management and the control and optimization of internal enterprise processes. Travel Planning also extends the employee responsibility. The functions are not only designed for experts who use the system on a daily basis to book travel services, they are designed particularly to assist the occasional users. Such occasional users could be, for example, the travelers themselves or the area secretaries who have to deal with the organization of trips for several travelers. Cost advantages are also made due to the link between Travel Planning and SAP Business Workflow, using which the approval processes can be defined uniquely and the complex approval procedure implemented successfully.
In order to make full use of the information and booking functions available in Travel Planning you must set up a connection to global reservation system, via which communication with the service providers can be made. The current connection is to the AMADEUS Global Travel Distribution reservation system. This system is in use world-wide and has 160,000 terminals in 37,000 travel agencies and ticket sales centers connected to it.
The following data from Travel Planning is transferred automatically to Travel Expenses in SAP Travel Management: • • • • Date and time Reason, destination Receipts with airfares, car rental prices and hotel prices Stopovers
From Travel Expenses an automatic transfer can be made to: • • • Financial Accounting (FI) Payroll (HR) Controlling (CO)
The following functions are available for you to use in Travel Planning: • • • • • • • Access to provider-independent information services for flights, hotels, car rental and rail Online booking of flights, hotel rooms and car rental Consideration of internal travel policies for queries and bookings Possibility of setting up an enterprise-specific hotel catalog Automatic consideration of agreements made with travel service providers Automatic consideration of travelers' personal preferences Statistics and reports for trips taken to analyze the trip behavior of the employees or to aid negotiations with travel service providers Full integration of data in Travel Expenses
The Overall Process of Travel Management
The goal of this process is the complete, integrated management of all processes involved in a business trip and the travel expenses incurred. The process includes the entire procedure of requesting and planning a trip, accounting the travel expenses and the correct taxation in Payroll Accounting (HR), correct posting of the travel expenses in Financial Accounting (FI), and clearing in Controlling (CO) or Funds 63
Management (FI-FM) according to the allocation-bycause principle.
The overall process can last a relatively long time, with the actual trip representing the focal point in this process. The following gives an example of the process flow in decentralized organization in which the traveler represents the central figure. Other forms of organization are, of course, also conceivable. For more information, see the unit Roles in Travel Management.
1. The traveler uses the R/3 System to submit a travel
request to the relevant superior. The travel request supplies the superior with information such as the date,
destination, and purpose of the trip, the transportation and accommodations required, the requested advance and the estimated costs for the trip. See also: Travel Request (Travel Manager), Trip Status (other entry scenarios) 2. The superior can approve the request, send it back for corrections, or reject it. See also: Approve Travel Request (Travel Manager), Approval of Trips
3. If an advance is requested and approved, there are the
following options for payment: o o o o Cash payment by cash office Payment by check Bank transfer to the employee's bank account (via DME) Forwarding of the amounts for payment to financial accounting
The paid amounts in the first three cases are, however, also forwarded for posting to financial accounting. See also: Scenarios of Advance Payment Travel planning
4. After a travel request has been approved, the traveler
determines the available travel services (flight, hotel, car rental; in Germany also: train) in a travel plan and books them online in the R/3 System. The reservation takes place via a Global Distribution System (GDS), that must be connected with the R/3 System. During selection and booking of services, the system checks the consistency of the entries with the company's travel policies, which are stored in Customizing for Travel Management. At the same time it takes any existing enterprise-specific rates and rebate agreements into consideration during booking. See also: Travel Planning, Entry Scenarios of Travel Planning
5. When the traveler has recorded the travel plan, the
booking code (PNR) is entered in the processing queue of the travel agency that is connected with the company. The travel agency checks the correctness and consistency of the booking. If changes are made to the booking outside of the R/3 System, they are transferred to the R/3 System in a synchronization process. See also: Synchronization Between SAP Travel Planning and the Reservation System 7. The travel plan is also transferred to the relevant superior for approval. As soon as the superior has approved the travel plan, the travel agency can issue the ticket and the trip documents and send them to the traveler. See also: Approval Process of Travel Planning Travel expenses
8. After the trip has been taken, the traveler completes his or
her travel expense report, including all necessary data and documents. The system takes all the statutory and enterprise-specific specifications stored in Customizing into consideration and checks the consistency of the entries with these specifications. See also: Travel Expenses, Trip Data Entry (Travel Expenses)
9. The expenses department checks the travel expense
report and the original documents and receipts. Now the travel expense report is sent to the superior for approval, who can then release it for settlement. See also: Approval of Trips 10. As soon as approval is granted, the trip is settled in the R/3 System: On the basis of the trip provisions set for the relevant traveler, the system determines the travel expense results, especially the amount for reimbursement. To determine the reimbursement amount, you can choose between per diem/flat rate reimbursement and
reimbursement according to individual receipts for meals, accommodations and travel costs; for all other categories, reimbursement on the basis of individual receipts must be used. See also: Settlement of Trips
11. The travel expense results are prepared to suit the
method of payment chosen and made available to the corresponding components (Financial Accounting, Payroll Accounting, Controlling Funds Management) with the appropriate additional information. See also: Transfer to Accounting, Transfer to HR Payroll Accounting, Transfer to Data Medium Exchange (DME)
12. The payment of reimbursement amounts can now
take place as follows: o o o o By check Via Payroll Accounting Via Financial Accounting By bank transfer to the employee's bank account (via DME)
The travel expense results are always, however, transferred for posting to Financial Accounting. Transfer of amounts to Controlling takes place via Financial Accounting.
4. The traveler receives a travel expense statement with
the relevant trip data and the corresponding settlement results. See also: Forms for Travel Expense Statements
A single, complete record of the facts of a business trip has been made in the R/3 System. The travel planning data was recorded in the system for approval or reservation purposes. The documents were issued on the basis of the reserved travel services. The R/3 System has accounted the travel expenses incurred by 67
the trip and forwarded them for further processing in Financial Accounting, Controlling, Funds Management and, if necessary, Payroll Accounting.
For more information on the interactive process of Travel Management, see the relevant ASAP documentation.
Calling Travel Management
You can call R/3 Travel Management from the SAP Easy Access menu as follows: • • Accounting Financial Accounting Travel Management Human Resources Travel Management
Roles in Travel Management
Beginning with Release 4.6 roles (single or composite roles) are available in SAP Travel Management that cover the most important tasks of the employees involved in processing trip data. By assigning a role to a user you ensure that the user can use a purely task and function based method of working in the R/3 System. The roles in SAP Travel Management support both the decentralized and central organization of the trip process, as well as a mixture of the two with the focus on decentralization. For the decentralized organization the travelers are responsible for entering their own travel requests, travel plans and travel expenses in the system. For a mixed or central organization these tasks are carried out by a travel assistant on behalf of several travelers. The role of the travel administrator allows the
settlement of travel expenses to be organized centrally, whereby the settlements are entered and checked centrally. You can adjust the roles defined as standard to meet your individual requirements. You can also create new roles. The following roles are defined as standard for SAP Travel Management: Traveler Travel assistant Travel administrator Approving manager Payer of trip advances Travel manager SAP_FI_TV_TRAVELER SAP_FI_TV_TRAVEL_ASSISTANT SAP_FI_TV_ADMINISTRATOR SAP_FI_TV_MANAGER_GENERIC SAP_FI_TV_ADVANCE_PAYER SAP_FI_TV_TRAVEL_MANAGER
To display, create or edit roles, choose from the SAP Easy Access Menu Tools Administration User maintenance Activity Groups (User Roles).
Travel Manager: Cross-Process Entry
The Travel Manager, with its simple and intuitive handling, is directed at occasional users who want to process their own trips or those for the few travelers assigned to them. The Travel Manager covers all the process steps in Travel Management in a single transaction with a uniform interface design.
You can use the Travel Manager (depending on your enterprisespecific Customizing settings) to: • • • make a travel request plan a business trip and book travel services online settle travel expenses
• As the Travel Manager supports the whole process of the Travel Management component, the data is fully integrated in Payroll (HR), Financial Accounting (FI) and Cost Accounting (CO) or Funds Management (FM). You can obtain reporting data via the Business Information Warehouse (BW) or the reports of the R/3 Travel Management component. The reporting data covers both pre-trip and post-trip reports.
Travel Manager Screen Areas
The screen is divided up into three functional areas: Description Menu area Overview area Function Here you can navigate using the menu bar, standard toolbar and application toolbar. Here all the general trip data and status of the travel requests, travel plans and travel expenses statements created for a personnel number are listed in table form. To view the trip details you can expand the overview area using the mouse or the blue arrow at the top border. You can navigate to the individual trips with a single mouse-click in the overview tree. Processing area Here you can select the processing function (create travel request/travel plan/travel expenses
statement) or enter the trip data for the respective processing function.
Working with the Travel Manager
In each section of the Travel Manager (travel request, travel planning and travel expenses) you can work through the screen from top to bottom (as you are used to doing with printed forms). You carry out these actions in the processing area. You do not have to switch between tab pages or screens, all the data is available at all times in the overview. In the processing area you can open ( ) or close ( ) the individual data areas using pushbuttons. This allows you to choose between displaying all your data or displaying data from selected data areas.
The travel request is an information unit containing all the data that a traveler wants to forward for approval/advance payment/booking or that a superior needs to know before approving a trip. The travel request is part of the travel manager entry scenario that accompanies the whole process of a business trip from the request, planning and booking, through to its settlement.
The travel request in SAP Travel Management includes the system-aided handling of the request and approval process of business trips. Paper forms are replaced by an electronic request that can be sent from the R/3 System to the respective superior for approval. You can call the travel request object at any time from the overview area of the Travel Manager. You can therefore always keep track of the approval status and the approved trip details and view them at a later date (for example, to compare the facts with the corresponding travel expenses statement). As you can enter the type and number of transportation and accommodations required for the trip in the travel request, this can (if the travel does not have the authorization for booking) be used as a reference for booking a trip. The travel agency or area secretary responsible, with the necessary booking authorization, can, based on the travel request, arrange the necessary travel services using Travel Planning in SAP Travel Management.
The travel request covers the following entries: • • • • • • trip date and time trip destination and reason any other destinations during the trip (itinerary) required trip advances different cost center to the master cost center, to which the travel expenses are to be assigned additional notes to the trip
number of travel services required (flight, hotel room, car rental, rail trip) estimated total cost of trip
Due to the integration with Travel Expenses the travel request data is forwarded directly to Travel Expenses. The corresponding object Travel Expenses then automatically contains, for example, the general data of the trip (such as date and reason), any stopovers or requested trip advances and the assignment of the costs to a cost center other than the master cost center. The use of the travel request is thus linked to the use of Travel Expenses. In addition to the travel request you can also use Travel Planning to determine available flights, hotels, car rentals and trains and for the online booking of these services.
You activate the travel request object in the Customizing for SAP Travel Management under Integration of Travel Planning and Travel Expenses Activate request/plan/expense report in travel manager.
Travel Management and System Infrastructure
Possible System Combinations
R/3 Travel Management (TRV) can be used 1. in combination with R/3 Human Resources (HR) and R/3 Accounting (AC) 2. in combination with HR and separate from AC 3. in combination with AC and separate from HR 4. separate from HR and AC
Depending on the configuration Support Packages (SP) and HR Support Packages (HR SP) have to be imported into the respective systems.
Advantages/Disadvantages of Cases 1 - 4
Case 1: Travel Management, HR and Accounting are in one system Advantages: • No need for distribution of: . HR master data Travel expense results to Payroll CO receivers
Validation of CO receivers is carried out locally Synchronous posting of travel expense results to Accounting
Disadvantages: • • • Human Resources, Accounting and Travel Management have to have the same release status Lack of flexibility Possible capacity problems
Case 2: Travel Management and HR in a system separate from AC Advantages: • • • No distribution of travel expense results for Payroll Travel Management and Accounting can have a different release status Existing accounting systems can be connected
Disadvantages: • • • Remote validation of CO receivers in Accounting via ALE CO receivers have to be replicated in the Travel Management system to provide a correct input help for CO receivers To create person-related vendors automatically, the HR master data (Infotypes 0000, 0001, 0002, 0003, 0006, 0009, 0017, 0105) has to be replicated in the Accounting system via ALE. Asynchronous posting of travel expense results to Accounting via ALE. To guarantee a successful posting to the Accounting system in this case, the posting run has to be validated before it is sent.
Case 3: Travel Management and AC in a system separate from HR
Advantages: • • • • No distribution of CO receivers is required CO receivers are validated locally Human Resources and Travel Management can have a different release status Synchronous posting of travel expense results to Accounting. In this case documents in a posting run containing errors can be rejected
Disadvantages: • • • HR master data (Infotypes 0000, 0001, 0002, 0003, 0006, 0009, 0017, 0105) has to be replicated via ALE Travel expense results for Payroll have to be replicated via ALE Both the Support Packages and the HR Support Packages have to be imported into the Travel Management/Accounting systems.
Case 4: Travel Management, AC and HR are in separate systems Advantages: • • • Human Resources, Travel Management and Accounting can all have a different release status Maximum flexibility Existing Accounting and HR systems can be connected
Disadvantages: • • HR master data (infotypes 0000, 0001, 0002, 0003, 0006, 0009, 0017, 0105) has to be replicated in the Travel Management system via ALE To create person-related vendor master records in Accounting automatically, the HR master data (infotypes 0000, 0001, 0002, 0003, 0006, 0009, 0017, 0105) has to be replicated in the Accounting system via ALE. Travel expense results for Payroll have to be replicated via ALE Remote validation of CO receivers
CO receivers have to be replicated in the Travel Management system to provide a correct input help for CO receivers Asynchronous posting of travel expense results to Accounting via ALE. To guarantee a successful posting to the Accounting system in this case, the posting run has to be validated before it is sent.
See also: Criteria for Selecting a System Infrastructure Transfer to Accounting Transfer to HR Payroll For more information on setting up ALE scenarios, see, for example, the implementation guide (IMG) for Basis under Application Link Enabling (ALE) Predefined ALE BusinessModeling and Implementing Business Processes Processes • • • Human HRResources <-> Accounting ResultsHR Human HRResources <-> TransferAC Human HRResources <-> Management andAC Funds Set Distribution of Trip Set up Trip Costs Set Up Integration of Travel Management
Criteria for Selecting a System Infrastructure
Note that a validation of the posting run must always be made before an asynchronous transfer of the travel expense results to Accounting. This is the only way to guarantee that the dataset to be posted can always be posted to Accounting. * Only required if the person-related vendor master records are to be created or maintained automatically.
Transfer to Accounting
To use the travel expenses results for external accounting processes (Financial Accounting) and internal accounting (Controlling), you can transfer them to R/3 Accounting. The goal
of the entire business process is to attain correct posting of travel expenses to Financial Accounting and source-related cost accounting in Controlling. In this process, R/3 Travel Management prepares settlement results so that Accounting can interpret them directly and create posting documents.
General Process of Transfer of Travel Expenses Results to Accounting
The transfer of settlement results to Accounting requires extensive system settings. You can specify them via Customizing for Travel Management.
The process is based on the Management of Posting Runs. It begins with the creation of a posting run, includes (repeated) checks and ends with the posting of a posting run.
The system has • • • Collected the settlement results as trip transfer documents in a posting run Checked the posting run to see if all addressed accounts and account assignment objects may be posted to Transferred the data to Accounting for further processing
Transfer to HR Payroll
If Travel Management is integrated with HR Payroll, the travel expense results can be transferred from Travel Management and taken into consideration in Payroll. The transfer makes it possible to carry out payment of travel expenses via payroll. Regardless of whether payment is to be performed via payroll, transfer is necessary if an enterprise gives its employees payment in kind in the form of meals, for example, or reimbursement rates that are higher than the statutory tax-free rates that must be entered in payroll for taxation.
General Requirements for Integration of Travel Expenses in HR Payroll
The integration of Travel Expenses in HR Payroll is set up in Customizing for Travel Management. In the feature for settlement control (TRVPA), you specify whether integration with Payroll is to be set up and how the payroll period is to be checked against the payroll period from the personnel control record (PA03). To be able to process the travel expenses results in Payroll, the country-specific travel expenses subschemas must be activated in
the country-specific payroll schemas. You can activate these subschemas via Travel Management Customizing.
For German Payroll, subschema DREI (transfer of travel expenses to payroll) must be inserted and activated after subschema DT00 (gross pay) in settlement schema D000 (settlement schema for Germany).
Scenario 1: Transfer of travel expenses results within one logical system
If Payroll and Travel Management are installed in the same logical system (same R/3 System and same client), the payroll program can import the travel expenses results directly from Travel Management and process them.
The integration of Travel Expenses in HR Payroll must be set up. To transfer travel expenses results to HR Payroll, these must have first been created in Travel Expenses of Travel Management.
The payroll program RPRCALCx0 is started in Human Resources Management. For each selected personnel number, the program checks to see if there are settled trips in Travel Expenses that can be included and processed in this payroll run.
The travel expenses results have been calculated for taxation via payroll. The travel expenses are paid via payroll if the wage types for travel expenses have been set accordingly.
Scenario 2: Transfer of travel expenses results between separate logical systems
If Travel Management and Payroll are installed in different logical systems, transfer of travel expenses results to Payroll is asynchronous.
Travel Management is installed in a different R/3 System than Payroll. Travel Management and Payroll are installed in the same R/3 System but in different clients.
Technical details regarding transfer between separate logical systems
During transfer via program RPRPAY00, the relevant data is transported from the cluster TE of each trip in the Travel Management logical system to the logical system of Payroll and stored there in the local clusters TE. Payroll accesses these local cluster TE copies. During transfer of travel expenses results, retroactive settlement data and correction indicators may be set (in infotype 0003) for the corresponding personnel numbers.
Travel Management function lock in Payroll
To prevent data inconsistencies between the logical systems of Payroll and Travel Management, the Travel Management functions and processes should be locked in the logical system of Payroll. Locking via the report RPRTLOCK can only take place at the transaction level and therefore applies for all clients of an R/3 System. Locking can be reversed using report RPRTULOC. If the logical systems of Payroll and Travel Management are only installed in different clients but within one R/3 System, this lock can not be effected at the transaction level and, therefore, not with report RPRTLOCK. The Travel Management functions and processes must in this case be locked in the client in which Payroll is installed by means of authorization checks to prevent them from being performed.
The integration of Travel Expenses in HR Payroll must be set up. To transfer travel expenses results to Payroll, these must have
first been created in Travel Expenses of Travel Management. Feature TRVPA must be coded identically in the Payroll and Travel Management systems.
1. Transfer of travel expenses results takes place via the program RPRPAY00 in Travel Management. In the process, the relevant trip data is copied to the logical system of Payroll. The program can be started manually by an employee or directly by the travel expenses program. 2. After the payroll program is started, the travel expenses results are read locally in the logical system of Payroll.
The additional amounts for trips have been calculated for taxation via payroll. The travel expenses are paid via payroll if the wage types for travel expenses have been set accordingly.
Posting of Travel Expenses with Payment via HR Payroll
Scenario 1: Direct posting of travel expenses via HR Payroll
If you do not require posting of travel expenses per employee or trip in your company, the travel expenses wage types can be posted with the payroll results to Financial Accounting. Beginning with Release 4.0 the settlement results can be prepared for posting to Financial Accounting in the HR system by starting the program RPCIPE00. This creates a document in HR. This document can then (possibly as an IDoc) be transferred to Financial Accounting.
However, with this procedure, the personnel number and the trip number are not transferred with the posting document. Thus the line items can not be assigned to individual employees or trips. This scenario can only be used if only the input tax code, and no further information, is required for the tax calculation. This means, for example, that this scenario cannot be used in the USA or in Canada.
Scenario 2: Indirect posting of travel expenses via own clearing account
If, in your company, travel expenses are to be posted to expense accounts per individual employee and trip, this is the only method you can use. Beginning with Release 4.0 the settlement results can be prepared for posting to Financial Accounting in the HR system by starting the program RPCIPE00. This creates a document in HR. This document can then (possibly as an IDoc) be transferred to Financial Accounting. The travel expenses are then first posted by HR to a clearing account in Financial Accounting. This clearing account must not allow an input tax code or account assignment entry but must expect a personnel number. In table T52EK (symbolic accounts HR) code the wage types to a symbolic account with the account assignment type 'Q' (balance sheet account with personnel number). You make the assignment between the symbolic wage type and the wage type in the HR table T52EL.
You have to have coded the assignment of wage type to symbolic account and the conversion of symbolic account to expense account in Customizing so that the travel expenses wage types supply the travel expense accounts and, as the offsetting entry, the clearing account that has already been posted to from HR Payroll (the
number of the clearing account is in transaction HRP). In the Travel Expenses system start the program RPRFIN00 (release < 4.5; batch input) or RPRFIN00_40 (release >= 4.5; Posting Run). This clears the clearing account and the travel expenses accounts can be posted to per individual employee or trip.
Posting via a Clearing Account
Assume the symbolic account of the travel expense account is X1. The wage type to be transferred directly is MJ10. You must already have stored the following keys in Travel Management Customizing:
1. In the activity: Define wage type - symbolic account
assignment Wage type 1. Posting 2. Posting MJ10 +X1
2. In the activity: Conversion of symbolic account to expense
account: a. In the procedure HRT (Travel expense postings to expense account) General modification Account 1X1 474210 (Travel expense account)
b. In the procedure HRP (Travel expense postings to
clearing account) General modification Account 1RR 474240 (Clearing account)
Make sure that you have entered the posting keys correctly.
Overview of Postings
With this coding, for example, the system posts the amount 10 as follows:
Note So that the wage type is posted to the travel clearing account by RPCIPE00 with the personnel number, you must code the wage type for the posting of settlement results appropriately. You make this coding in the Customizing of Payroll for the respective country under Reporting for Posting Payroll Results to Accounting. • • Activities in the HR section Maintain Wage Types Activities in the AC section Assign Accounts
Chapter iv Realisation of Projects REALIZATION
In this project phase, settings are made and tested for the master data, organizational units and business processes selected in the Business Blueprint phase.
The Business Blueprint has been completely created and approved. The development system (DEV) is available.
The following Realization phase project steps are supported by the SAP Solution Manager:
Customizing Distribution Configuration Consistency Check Set-Up Project Systems Test Organization
You have made and tested all required system settings. CUSTOMIZING DISTRIBUTION
You often have to make selected customizing settings match in various systems within a system landscape. You can use the Customizing Distribution to synchronize selected customizing settings in a source system (e.g. SAP R/3) with the customizing settings in the target systems (e.g. an SAP CRM system). 87
The system which is the reference for the Customizing Distribution is also referred to below as the source system. All other systems in your system landscape are referred to as target systems and are synchronized with the source system.
The Customizing Distribution synchronizes the customizing settings when implementing or updating a system landscape. Before you synchronize customizing settings, you can compare them with another tool, the Customizing Scout,.
You have made all necessary System Settings for the Customizing Distribution. You have ensured that the Customizing ID Mapping Framework is not used in more than one customizing object and system at the same time.
Automatic distribution of customizing
You can perform the following functions on customizing settings in a development landscape with the Customizing Distribution:
initial download from a source system into a target system (initial distribution) timed distribution distribute automatically after each transport release or customizing change (from SAP R/3 4.6C) distribute manually.
The Customizing Distribution starts a process which transfers the customizing into the target systems. The Customizing Distribution writes all distributed customizing changes in transport requests, so that you 88
can transport the customizing changes from the development systems into the quality assurance and production systems.
You can only select one distribution type per Solution Manager project and source client, i.e. you must decide whether you use timed Customizing Distribution, or distribute after transport release or after customizing changes. Only one distribution type per source client is also allowed for non-projectspecific Customizing Distribution.
Predefined objects for Customizing Distribution
Certain customizing objects which must be synchronized in a development landscape are predefined in the system (Synchronization Objects). You can select synchronization objects and other customizing objects for the distribution with the Synchronization Group Editor.
For further information about which customizing objects can be distributed, see Suitable Objects for Customizing Synchronization.
Display Customizing Distribution in the Implementation Guide
An icon in the component system Implementation Guide (IMG) indicates whether the customizing of an IMG activity was changed by the distribution. To display this icon in the IMG, the component systems must contain the software component SAP_BASIS with the following Basis Support Packages:
Basis support packages required to display the icons in the IMG SAP_BASIS 6.10 Basis support package 24
6.20 6.30 and higher
Lock distribution-relevant customizing objects in the target systems
You can automatically lock the customizing objects or key areas which are to be changed by the Customizing Distribution. The entire customizing object is locked. You can filter the locks to specified key entries, which lets you add other, for example target system-specific entries, in the target system. You can only lock standard customizing objects, i.e. objects of type View (V), View Cluster (C) and Table with Text Table (S). You can only lock other customizing objects organizationally. CONFIGURATION
This project step configures the process requirements specified in the Business Blueprint phase, in the system. If you use objects from the Business Process Repository in your structures, they may already be assigned to transactions and BC Sets. If you create structures without objects from the Business Process Repository, you can assign transactions yourself in the transaction Business Blueprint, and BC Sets, IMG objects and test cases in the transaction Configuration.
You have selected scenarios and processes, or created your own processes using the Business Process Repository, in the Business Blueprint phase. You are now in the Realization phase and have called the Configuration transaction. 90
This project task comprises the following steps:
Assign Transactions/Programs You can call assigned transactions, add new ones or remove superfluous ones from the project scope, in the Transactions tab. Assign/Edit BC Sets You can assign BC Sets to project steps, display the contents of the assigned BC Sets and delete superfluous BC Sets from the project scope, in the Configuration tab. You can activate one BC Set or all BC Sets assigned to a process. You can create new BC Sets for project or companyspecific settings, which you e.g. want to use in a group rollout or to create your own solution, in the application system, and assign them in the Solution Manager. Assign IMG You can assign IMG objects to the project steps. You can display and edit these settings, and the settings made by BC Sets, in the Implementation Guide. Edit Test Cases You can make initial function tests after the configuration. You can also run CATTs to see how a transaction works. You can also create test cases. You document the settings relevant for the configuration along the project structure, in the Project Documentation tab or in the IMG. Create/Change Problem Messages
1. Cross-Scenario Configuration:
a. Create a configuration structure for the basic settings of your solutions, e.g. for SAP CRM 3.1, under Configuration in the business process structure. 91
Configure these basic settings.
2. Configure your business scenarios under Business Scenarios in the business process structure, e.g. for the scenario E-Selling.
COMPARE CROSS-COMPONENT CUSTOMIZING
When you have implemented and configured a mySAP.com system landscape, you have customized various mySAP.com application components. Your mySAP.com system landscape comprises various components which have their own (independent) customizing tables (technical view). The components also need joint customizing (for practical reasons). For example, when you implement e-Business software, you use a system landscape in which an SAP R/3 System works with an SAP CRM. Ideally, the CRM system uses data in the SAP R/3 System. In particular, the configuration of the two systems must match in certain areas. Joint customizing must be synchronized. In particular, changes in SAP R/3 can require changes in an SAP application component. So you must check the consistency of your customizing regularly, i.e. check whether the SAP R/3 customizing is still synchronous with the application component customizing. The Solution Manager contains a tool which compares customizing in mySAP.com, the Customizing Scout.
You have configured your business processes in the Realization phase of your project. You may also have used the Customizing Distribution to distribute and synchronize customizing in your system landscape. 92
1. You use the Customizing Scout to compare customizing objects in selected mySAP.com system landscape components, with customizing objects in SAP R/3. 2. You can use the comparison to eliminate differences in the customizing of the systems, for example by using the Implementation Guide (IMG), or the customizing distribution again, after the comparison.
Business Process Reengineering and ASAP : Side-by-side
Business Process Reengineering (BPR) is often referred as as-is and to-be modelling. This is because the main characteristic of BPR is analysing of current business system before ERP implementation and what the new business process be after implementing ERP. Some distinctive characteristic of BPR approaches (BPRC, 1996)
View company as “open socio-technical systems” which has to be more concern in customer satisfaction rather than business-only oriented. It has been over a decade concern where with most their
production strategy on how to produce a product 93
or provide a service in the most economical way. Came out of this method they were ended up by producing in volume most of their products which in turn, high competition and price cutting as well as stocking and devaluation became a significant issues for companies. This has been a huge lost throughout the business. Companies now are enforced to accurately measure their production capacity and market demands as well as trends. They are expected to be able to produce a product which suits and satisfy each customer and yet delivering their products in the right time with the right strategy.
Production can be examine more from process oriented and not individual tasks. Rather than concentrating in each individual tasks, through BPR companies are now obligated to put their attention in group of processes which consist of several consecutive tasks. By doing so, the production strategy can be easily adjusted when the trend or marked demand changes. Individual tasks will be handled more in teamwork level of production where different skilled of personnel will have their own authority and power to make decisions which in turn will 94
result a better product and more efficient processes.
Attempting to rebuild the whole company policy from the scratch. ERP is such a huge system which its existence requires radical and thorough change throughout company processes. For such major tasks, company will be required to develop policies from scratch as their existing policy is nowhere near to suit the ERP system. Attempting to use the existing policies will make the whole processes longer than what expected.
Thinking in a completely new way in doing business. ERP implementation bringing completely new ideas in doing business. Because of its integrity of the system, companies are capable doing things which they had never done before. Also with this capabilities, most of business process theories have to be reviewed and adjusted to match the current business practices.
Assume stability as stagnate of business and continuously instead. making a significant progress
ERP born as a dynamic system which expects dynamic approaches in its implementation. Many people said that ERP implementation will never end and it requires constant adjustment and upgrades. Change is constant. Stable business is considered as dead and because of extreme competition, business required to make a significant progress to survive.
Establish company wins in “measurable benefits in competitive performance, such as increased revenue, enhanced quality, shorter cycle times and an improved cost base”. Through BPR companies are expected to
underline their wins in measurable benefits to compete in the market. Some of the aspects which may be considered products are increasing and revenue, enhancing quality
producing in shorter times.
Change company from centralised command by assigning autonomy”. One of the critical of methods in BPR is is “more local empowerment and
enforced to spread its power throughout the systems to increase the efficiency and reduce 96
time wasted for information flows between components of production process.
member are qualified and skilled to produce the best outcomes. The key success of BPR is a solid teamwork which consist of qualified, skilled, dedicated and trustworthy members in order to be able to produce the best possible products in a highly efficient ways.
Reengineering is analysing current company system and planning the new system in which the company ideally will be moved forward to. The existing business processes and system will be thoroughly examined and documented so that when the major changes happening, the company will be able to measure any movements throughout its system. This can be a lengthy and costly process and in most cases this reengineering process will never end as everyday the company may implement a new thing. Just documenting those existing system can be a painful moment for the company even though the new system only require minor changes. 97
ERP implementation is undoubted requires major changes throughout the company. In many cases, the company needs to restructure the whole business processes and its system. As any other new system, ERP implementation requires Business Process Reengineering. But, can BPR cope up with such a huge system implementation? How long will BPR process be before ERP can be implemented, go-live and ultimately giving Return On Investment (ROI)? Or, will it finish ever?
ASAP & BLUEPRINT
In order to overcome the needs of BPR which remarkably require a long process, SAP has developed an implementation methodology to speed-up the whole process by instantly implementing principals which has been underlined by SAP business process recipes. SAP as a major ERP developer providing a considerable solid collaborated system has came up with an instant process to simplify its implementation. Accelerated SAP as a part of TeamSAP which and SAP’s is a comprehensive solution capable to handle
continuous change by optimising time, quality and efficient use of resources (Ciudad Futura). 98
Three main components of ASAP
ASAP’s Roadmap Roadmap is consist of project plan, detailed description on what to do, how to do, why doing it and ultimately underline the level of urgency of each individual processes (Ciudad Futura). In here, detailed project management and individual roles of each business component are clearly identified and finalised (General SAP Roadmap).
Five stages of ASAP’s Roadmap are (General SAP Roadmap): o Project Preparation In this phase, will project define leader clear or key
objectives and the whole decision making Documentation plays extremely important role in this phase; every predicted or unpredicted tasks and 99
events will be documented as well as uncompleted tasks which require more attention. Both internal and external issues need to be documented as well. o Business Blueprint In this phase scope of the SAP
is clearly decided and
defined. Selection of business module or function which need to be implemented and all business requirements are detailed and documented as Business Blueprint. There are various tools which may be used in this phase including:
• • • • •
ASAP Implementation Assistant Q&A Database Business Process Master List (BPML) SAP R/3 Structure Modeller and Business Navigator.
Another critical activity described in this phase of implementation is Project Management which include:
Conduct meeting for project team and committee meeting 100
General project management Describe any issues related to
business change management o Realisation This is the phase where the actual SAP R/3 is installed and configured. The configuration is consist of two steps:
Baseline configuration At this step, the company requires to clearly identify, plan, schedule and monitor the R/3 configuration including monitoring and testing the whole installation process.
Final configuration At this step, project manager is checking the status of system, completeness and readiness of the system by conducting independent quality audit both internally and externally.
o Final Preparation The aim of this phase is final preparation of SAP R/3 system before going live in real 101
production area. Included in this phase are testing, end user training, overall system management and finalising company readiness to go live. All the processes during this phase will be monitored by project manager. Also in this phase, the R/3 system will be handed over to the individual user who will actually run the system in day-by-day basis. Those users will be prepared by providing adequate training specifically design for their job. Manuals and user documentation are also prepared to help the end user in operating the new system plans as are well as disaster and recovery prepared
implemented. o Go Live & Support This is the phase where the whole system go live in production processes and will be supported by SAP experts who will analyse the system performance (EarlyWatch) and monitor thoroughly the progress of all activities.
ASAP’s tools 102
There are various tools provided by SAP to help company to “implement effectively and cost efficiently” (Ciudad Futura). Some of the packages listed below are used for configuration of business processes. o Project Estimator: tools to estimate
required resources, costs and time frame. o Concept Check Tool
ASAP’s services and training SAP services and training includes all training, consultation and support service i.e. EarlyWatch, remote upgrade and backup.
BPR & ASAP INTERACTION
BPR and ASAP are built for a similar purpose, that is as a method to implement a new system, however, they are based on completely different approaches. While BPR requires deep analysis on the existing system as well as the new system, ASAP is mainly ignoring the current system. All ASAP does is enforcing the business to use SAP’s own methodologies. ASAP assumes that the company Futura). ASAP main concern is to prevent companies from developing their own “reengineering” whilst thousands of other companies worldwide had already done so. By providing what so called “the best business practice”, SAP expects no more time and resource wastage during its system implementation and all negative affects can be minimised. Even though both BPR and ASAP system interact differently, the main concept of ASAP is still based on BPR. ASAP itself is a the best of business process engineering which has been clearly documented and fulfil universal rules of business practice. By using ASAP, company is no longer need its own major BPR, however some minor issues throughout SAP 104 is working on an extremely tight timeframe and there is no major BPR required (Ciudad
reengineering in some sort.
This paper clearly described that any new business system implementation will require deep analysis and business process reengineering (BPR), however there are ways of overcome this lengthy process. ASAP as in Accelerated SAP implementation has brought us a great example on how the needs of BPR can be eliminated or minimised by providing the business templates ready to be implemented and instantly run. The only drawback with this system is its enforcement to company to implement a complete new business processes underlined by SAP. This may sometimes cause negative impacts to the company as many of the personnel may resistant toward changes and losing its own unique production processes. This is where a good solid change management will be needed to handle such major change throughout the company in order successfully implement a big system such as SAP in the business smoothly
Some dialog steps and functions are required frequently during the realization of application development dialogs. These are available as function modules in self-contained modules. Their use standardizes application dialogs, which in turn simplifies use.
The function modules provide a standardized dialog box with function keys which are tested at the end of the dialog. Depending on the function module, texts for information, for choices and/or for the available function keys can be passed.
No preparatory steps are necessary for the use of the function modules for standardized dialog boxes, with the exception of the text display function modules (function group SP06). In this case, the texts must be created previously. To use standardized dialog boxes, perform the following steps:
1. Determine dialog type
If you want to use a function module from the function group SPO6: Create dialog text Document 2. Choose the appropriate function module in the function group found in step 1. 3. Call this function module in the application.
Determine dialog type
Determine what information you want to provide the user, and the decision logic you require. Then choose the appropriate function group from the following table. Situation The user is to be warned of potential data loss The user should answer a question about further processing with Yes or No Function group SPO1 SPO1
The user is to be warned about potential data loss, SPO1 and decide whether he or she wants to continue with the action The user must choose between further processing alternatives The user must continue the current action or cancel The user is to input data (with or without check against a value table) Data are to be displayed to the user The user is to receive detailed information The user is to be able to scroll in a displayed list The user is to print data from a table or a table view SPO2 SPO2 SPO4 SPO4 SPO6 STAB STRP
Create dialog text Document
To create a "Dialog text" (for function modules in the function group SP06), proceed as follows:
1. In the initial screen choose the function Tools Abap/4
Workbench Environment Documentation. 2. Position the cursor on the document class output field and press F4. 3. Choose the class Dialog text. 4. Enter a document name and choose Create. 5. Enter the text and save it. Saving via the icon creates a raw document. Raw versions can not be transported or translated. The document must be a final version for these actions to be possible. You achieve this with the function Save final version. You must be authorized to save final versions of documents in this development class.
Transport Management System (BC-CTS-TMS)
You can organize, perform, and monitor transports between your SAP Systems using the Transport Management System (TMS). User actions at the operating system level are no longer necessary, since all the necessary information and functions are mapped in the SAP System. The Transport Management System provides the following functions: • • • • • • • • Configuring the transport routes using a graphical editor Displaying the import queues for all SAP Systems in the transport domain Importing all the requests in an import queue Importing all the requests in a project Importing individual requests TMS Quality Assurance Transport Workflow Special features when using multiple transport directories
You can use the following transactions to access the TMS: Transaction code STMS STMS_QUEUES STMS_IMPORT STMS_INBOX STMS_QA STMS_DOM STMS_PATH Function Initial screen of the Transport Management System Displays the import queue Import queue of the current SAP System TMS worklist (transport workflow) QA worklist (TMS quality assurance) TMS system overview TMS transport routes
STMS_ALERT STMS_TCRI STMS_FSYS
CCMS Alert Monitor Display/change critical transport objects Create/change TMS system list
Using the Graphical Editor
The graphical editor is divided into several areas: • Insertable objects All SAP Systems and target groups not connected via transport routes • Display area Graphical representation of the SAP Systems and target groups with their transport routes. • Navigation area Positioning on the display area.
To configure the transport routes with the graphical editor: 1. Log on in client 000 in the SAP System serving as the transport domain controller. 2. Choose Overview Transport routes. The screen Display Transport Routes appears. 3. Choose Goto Graphical editor. 4. To switch to change mode, choose Configuration Display Change.
In your User-Specific Settings, you can set the system so that when you choose Transport routesOverview takes you directly to the graphical editor.
Displaying and Changing the Import Queue
The import queue display shows all change requests flagged for import for this SAP System. The basic setting of the import queue display provides the following information: • • • • Order in which the requests are imported Name of the change request Change request owner Change request short text
The owner and short text can only be displayed if: o the transport request exists in the logon system o the source system of the change request is contained in the transport domain. o this change request has already been imported into an SAP System in the transport domain, and this system is located on the transport route before the SAP System for which the import queue is displayed.
Import status of the request
You can also show the following additional information (see also Displaying Information on Requests): • • • Request type Source client Return code
The import queue shows you only the highest return code for the request-specific import steps. Non-request-specific import steps are not included. • • • • • Import flag Unconditional mode Project name Target client (if you use Extended Transport Control) Active flag
To adjust the import queue in an SAP System: 1. Call transaction STMS. 2. Choose . The import overview appears. 3. Position the cursor on the SAP System whose import queue you want to display. 4. Choose . The import queue of the selected SAP System appears.
You can display the import queue of an SAP System from each SAP System that belongs to the transport domain. If you are working with several transport directories or with external systems, you may need to adjust the transport directories before you can see all the marked requests.
You can go straight to the import queue of the system you are logged on to by entering the transaction code STMS_IMPORT.
Starting the Import of All Requests in an Import Queue
Requests that are released in the development system are marked for import into the target system, for example into the QA system (see System Landscape). They are placed in the import queue of this system. The function Start import of all requests in import queue lets you import the objects of this request into the target system, or you can schedule the import to occur at a specific time. After importing the objects into the target system, the requests are placed corresponding to the transport routes in the import queues of the delivery systems (for example, in the production system). You can start the import into these systems using this function after performing quality assurance tests (See TMS Quality Assurance).
You have chosen mass transports as your transport strategy.
To import all the ready requests, you need the authorization S_CTS_IMPALL. This authorization is in the profile S_A.SYSTEM.
To prevent change requests from being placed in the import queue shortly before the import, and perhaps being imported unintentionally, we recommend closing the import queue before the import. Also read the notes on Precautionary Measures in the Target System.
To import all the requests in the import queue:
1. Call Transaction STMS. 2. Choose . The import overview appears.
3. Position the cursor on the SAP System for which you want to start the import. 4. Choose . The import queue of the selected SAP System appears.
5. If you have activated extended transport control, and
requests are waiting to be imported into different target clients, you can restrict the import to a single target client by choosing . If you want to ensure that only the displayed requests are imported, close the import queue. This prevents any other requests that are released, or that are forwarded to this transport route from being placed after the end of the import queue.
Only requests with the import status Request waiting to be imported or the status Request is ready for import again are imported.
You cannot import requests that have the status Request must still be approved (see TMS Quality
Assurance). If you still want to import them, for example if the QA system is not available, you must activate the requests. You cannot start the import of requests that are currently being imported, or for which an import is already scheduled.
7. Choose . The dialog box Start Import appears. 8. In this dialog box, you see the target system and the
target client for the import. If extended transport control is not activated, you can define the target client for the import. (For more information, see Handling Target Clients.) On the tab Date/deadline, you can specify when you want the import to start. On the tab page Execution, you can specify how you want the transport control program tp to start. On the tab page Options, you can specify options for the import. You do not usually need to change the defaults.
9. After you have made your settings in the Start Import
dialog box, choose Continue. 10. Check and confirm the information on the next dialog box. The dialog box shows you in which system and which target client the import is to be started or is scheduled for. 11. If you are logged on to system A in the transport domain and start an import into system B in this domain, a logon screen for the target system appears (in this case system B). Your user name is already entered by default. Enter your password.
The target client and the logon language are irrelevant here.
The system checks if you are allowed to import these requests (see Project Status Switch). Even if the import is not allowed for just one project, the import does not start and an error message appears. If this is the case, ask the project manager when you should start the import.
TMS starts or schedules the import in the target system. • As long as the import is running or is scheduled, you see this status is displayed in the Import Overview with either or . After the import, the import queue is opened again automatically by the transport control program. You can use the TMS Job Monitor and the Import Monitor to monitor the import.
After the import has finished, you can view the import history to check the return codes for all import steps. You can also go to the corresponding transport logs from the import history.
Starting the Import of All Requests in a Project
The import queue shows which requests belong to which projects. You can filter requests by project. You can display the requests of one or more projects and then start the import for these requests. For more information, see Using Projects to Control Transports.
You need the authorization S_CTS_IMPALL to import all requests in a project. This authorization is in the profile S_A.SYSTEM (see Authorizations in CTS).
To prevent change requests from still being placed in the import queue shortly before the import, and perhaps being imported unintentionally, we recommend closing the import queue before the import. Also read the notes on Precautionary Measures in the Target System.
To import all the requests in one or more projects: 1. Enter transaction STMS. 2. Choose . The Import Overview appears. 3. Position the cursor on the SAP System where you want to import the requests of one or more projects. 4. Choose . The import queue of the selected SAP System appears. 5. Position the cursor on the column Project and choose . The dialog box Set filter appears. The column Project does not appear if there are no requests in the import queue that are assigned to a project.
6. Select the projects that you want to import (see Filtering 7.
and Multiple Selection). If you have activated extended transport control, and requests are waiting to be imported into different target clients, you can restrict the import to one target client by choosing . If you want to ensure that only the displayed requests are imported, close the import queue. This prevents any other requests that are released, or that are forwarded to this transport route from being placed after the end of the import queue.
Only requests with the import status Request waiting to be imported or the status Request is ready for import again are imported.
You cannot import requests that have the status Request must still be approved (see TMS Quality Assurance). If you still want to import them, for example if the QA system is not available, you must activate the requests. You cannot start the import of requests that are currently being imported, or for which an import is already scheduled.
9. Choose . The dialog box Start Import appears. 10. This dialog box shows your selected projects and the
target of the import. If extended transport control is not activated, you can define the target client for the import. (For more information, see Handling Target Clients.) On the tab Date/deadline, you can specify when you want the import to start. On the tab page Execution, you can specify how you want the transport control program tp to start. On the tab page Options, you can specify options for the import. You do not usually need to change the defaults.
11. After you have made your settings in the Start Import
dialog box, choose Continue. The system now checks if it can import the requests from the projects you have selected without conflicting with predecessor relationships with other requests.
This check is not made if you have chosen the import option Ignore predecessor relations.
If the system finds out that the import would conflict with predecessor relationships, it displays the requests involved. If necessary, stop the import and import all projects that are linked together in one import. If you want to ignore the relationships, continue the import with Continue. The import is started automatically with the option Ignore predecessor relations. 12. Check and confirm the information on the next dialog box. This box displays the system, clients and options for your project. 13. If you are logged on to system A in the transport domain and start an import into system B in this domain, a logon screen for the target system appears (in this case system B). Your user name is already entered by default. Enter your password.
The target client and the logon language are irrelevant here.
The system checks if you are allowed to import requests from the selected projects (see Project Status Switch). Even if the import is not allowed for just one project, the whole import stops and an error message appears. If this is the case, ask the project manager when you should start the import.
TMS starts or schedules the import in the target system. • • • The requests belonging to the selected projects are locked against any other imports. These requests have the status Import running or Import is scheduled in the import queue display. You can use the TMS Job Monitor and the Import Monitor to monitor the import. Double-click the import status to go straight from the import queue display to the Job Monitor
or Import Monitor, depending on whether the import has already been started, or just been scheduled. The display is restricted to the selected request. After the import has finished, you can view the import history to check the return codes for all import steps. You can also go to the corresponding transport logs from the import history.
Starting the Import for Single Requests
As well as giving you the option of importing all requests in the import queue, or all requests in a project, TMS also lets you import one or more single requests. The requests are imported in the order in which they are placed in the import queue. This import method is best used for a few individual requests; it is less suitable for large numbers of requests.
Importing single requests can either be an exception, if you usually use mass transports or the rule if you usually use single transports.
To find out about the requirements you need to meet, we recommend that you read the following information: Transport Strategy in the CTS Transport Strategy for Single Transports
To import your own requests, you need the authorization S_CTS_IMPSGL. This authorization is in the profile S_A.SYSTEM.
Note for the system administrator: If you want to give members of your development team the authorization to import their own requests into a certain system, then you should create an authorization profile for these users and the system. This profile must then contain the authorization S_CTS_IMPSGL. The profile S_A.SYSTEM usually contains too many authorizations. To import individual requests from more than one user into a system, you need the authorizations S_CTS_IMPSGL and S_CTS_IMPALL. These authorizations are in the profile S_A.SYSTEM. Also read the notes on Precautionary Measures in the Target System.
To import single change requests:
1. Call Transaction STMS. 2. Choose . The import overview appears.
3. Position the cursor on the SAP System for which you want to import requests. 4. Choose . The import queue of the selected SAP System appears. 5. Position the cursor on the request that you want to import, or select the requests that you want to import (see Filtering and Multiple Selection .
You cannot import requests that have the status Request must still be approved (see TMS Quality Assurance). If
you still want to import them, for example if the QA system is not available, you must activate the requests.
Note that you cannot import requests with the import status Request was rejected, Import is running or Request is already imported. For more information, see the long text of the corresponding error message.
. The dialog box Import Transport Request
The box displays the requests you chose, and the import target. If extended transport control is not activated, you can define the import client here. (For more information, see Handling Target Clients.) On the tab Date/deadline, you can specify when you want the import to start. On the tab Execution, you can specify how you want the transport control program tp to start. On the tab page Options, you can specify options for the import.
The option Leave transport request in queue for later import is activated as a default; this means that individual imports will be handled as preliminary transports.
7. After you have made your settings, choose Continue. The
dialog box Start Import appears. 8. Check and confirm the information on this dialog box. The box shows you which system and which target client you have chosen for the import.
9. If you are logged on to system A in the transport domain and start an import into system B in this domain, a logon screen for the target system appears (in this case system B). Your user name is already entered by default. Enter your password.
The target client and the logon language are irrelevant here.
TMS starts or schedules the import in the target system. • • • The requests you have chosen are locked against any subsequent imports. These requests have the status Import running or Import is scheduled in the import queue display. You can use the TMS Job Monitor and the Import Monitor to monitor the import. Double-click the import status to go straight from the import queue display to the Job Monitor or Import Monitor, depending on whether the import has already been started, or just been scheduled. The display is restricted to the selected request.
After the import has finished, you can view the import history to check the return codes for all import steps. You can also go to the corresponding transport logs from the import history.
TMS Quality Assurance
TMS Quality Assurance increases the quality and the availability of the production systems by letting you check requests in the QA system before they are delivered to subsequent systems. The system for which the QA approval procedure is activated is called the QA system. When the QA approval procedure is activated, transport requests are only forwarded to the delivery systems if all the QA approval steps are processed for each request in the QA system and each request has been approved.
(When you configure the QA system, you determine how many QA approval steps have to be processed for each request.) If a check for an approval step is not successful, the entire request cannot be approved.
Rejected requests are not imported into the delivery systems of the QA system.
If you reject requests, there is the risk that errors may occur when they are imported into the delivery systems. This is a result of the requests containing objects that are referenced from other requests. It is safer to correct an error using a subsequent transport (see Transport Strategy in the CTS).
In the TMS transport route configuration, you determine which system is the QA system, and which approval steps should apply to this system. You configure the QA approval procedure by performing these two steps. All the requests that are then imported into the QA system are included in the QA worklist. You can go from the TMS Import Overview to the QA Worklist where you have to check the requests for each approval step. You can only import all requests into the delivery systems if all the requests ready for import have been checked (which means approved or rejected). If all the requests for a project and target clients are checked, you can import them even if requests for other projects and target clients have not been checked yet.
Your system landscape contains at least one QA system from which there are configured delivery routes into other systems.
In a 3-system landscape, the requests from the development system are imported into the QA system. There, the requests are checked and the approved requests are forwarded to the production system.
• Configuring the QA approval procedure (determining the QA system and the approval steps) You determine which system is the QA system, switch on the option Forward after confirmation for this system, and define which approval steps are valid for this system. • Processing the QA worklist After a system has been configured as the QA system, the QA worklist is built. You then have to check the requests in these views for the individual approval steps. • Displaying the QA history Using this history you can display the QA activities for a specific period.
1. When you configure the
QA approval procedure, you determine the QA system, switch on the option Forward after confirmation, and define the approval steps for that system. You approve or reject requests. You display the QA history for a selected period.
The transport workflow provides a framework for transporting enhancements or new developments of existing business functions in a system landscape. It provides a direct connection between development and transport administration. The transport workflow manages the transport process, determines the user for each individual step automatically, and then displays an interface which they can use to perform the task directly. It is an efficient method of transporting a selected number of requests into a group of transport targets, and uses clearly defined approval steps to ensure the quality of your target systems. The requests can be transportable change requests, Customizing requests, relocation transports or transports of copies. The transport targets do not need to be located on defined transport routes. However, the transport workflow can involve some risks, caused by the dependencies between transport requests: • Import sequence It is important that you import requests in the correct order, so that development work is up-to-date in the target system. • Incompleteness It is important that the functions transported in the transport proposal are complete; otherwise errors may occur in the import system.
A request is not imported, but it contains an important data element. You use another request to transport a table that references this data element. Since the referenced data element does not exist in the target system, activation errors will occur when you import the second request. The transport workflow is a generic workflow. Its ability to process the transport route configuration in TMS enables it to adapt itself to any system landscape. This means you can transport multiple requests into multiple targets, even if these targets are not located on the transport routes.
This reduces the amount of work for the transport administrator significantly. The automated nature of the workflow also reduces the likelihood of errors during transports. You can use the transport workflow in two different ways. • Transport workflow as a transport strategy If you have production systems in your landscape that can only accept approved transports, we recommend that you use the transport workflow to organize and coordinate the transport process. To do this, set Workflow-controlled transports as your transport strategy and configure the transport workflow.
When you release a transport request, the transport workflow starts automatically and the screen Create Transport Proposal appears. The requests are then released implicitly when the transport proposal is sent to the transport administrator. • Special transport workflow (mass transports) You can use the special transport workflow to make transports that do not follow the defined transport routes or that take place outside the normal transport schedule (part of the mass transport strategy). These transports may be corrections made in the development system that have to be transported into the production system without delay. To use the special transport workflow, set Mass transports as your transport strategy and configure the transport workflow.
• You have system. configured the transport workflow for your
The users involved in the transport workflow have a user in the Workflow Engine system/client. One or more users have transport administration authorization.
The developer creates a transport proposal in the Transport Organizer. This proposal contains the required transport requests. The transport proposal then appears in the TMS worklist of the transport administrator. The administrator can then approve or reject the transport proposal. The transport administrator can also make changes to the transport proposal, for example change its contents and the transport target. After a transport proposal has been approved, the TMS imports the transport requests automatically into the specified target systems. If the proposal is rejected, it is sent back to the transport proposal inbox for revision by the responsible developer. If the import is successful, the proposal is sent back to the transport proposal inbox to be confirmed by the creator of the proposal. The developer can complete the proposal by confirming it, or apply to have it transported into other systems. We recommend that you only use the transport workflow to transport into those target systems defined by the direct transport routes. Only in the next step should you work out which are the next direct target systems, and then apply to transport into them. This is the best way to keep the transport landscape consistent and complete.
The transport administrator can also set the transport workflow so that only the direct target systems defined on the transport routes can be selected in the Create Transport Proposal step, and not the whole transport landscape. (See also Setting Direct Target Systems.) The transport workflow writes an action log for each transport proposal. This log contains all development and transport activities, allowing you to check on the entire process.
Developers and transport administrators can communicate directly by writing notes. For more information on transport administration, see Transport Workflow (Administration). For more information on the development team, see Workflow (Development). Transport
Special Features when Using Multiple Transport Directories
The Transport Management System supports transports between transport groups. After a change request has been released with the Transport Organizer, the requests are flagged for import into the target system. They are flagged in the local transport directory of the source system. Before the import into the target system, you must adjust the import queue of the target system if the source and target systems are in different transport groups. If you have configured transport routes between systems in different transport groups, the requests to which the transport files are to be transferred are displayed in the import queue of the target system. Before you can import these requests, you have to transfer the data files and cofiles belonging to the requests (see Adjusting the Import Queue). If you want to transport requests between systems from different transport groups that are not linked by transport routes, these requests are not displayed in the import queue of the target system. Before the import, you must explicitly find these requests from the other group (see Finding Requests from Other Groups).
If you use multiple transport groups, the display of the transports and repairs in the Transport Organizer is only valid within one transport group.
Reporting in Make-to-Order Production
In profitability analysis reporting you can collect information about the costs and revenues on sales orders allocated to profitability analysis. When you create the report, you must define the sales order as a criterion. For more detailed information about reporting in profitability analysis, see CO Profitability Analysis.
Make-to-Order Production: Cost Management Using the Sales Order
For make-to-order production with cost management using a sales order, all costs and revenues involved for an order item are assigned collectively to the item. The costs are allocated to profitability analysis using a particular settlement rule which the system automatically proposes. You can change the proposal manually.
Make-to-order production is controlled by the requirements type. The requirements type is determined on the basis of the MRP group and the strategy group in the material master record. Up to Release 3.0, the requirements type is determined on the basis of the item category. For this reason, special item categories are used up to Release 3.0 for controlling make-toorder production. To make a material to order with cost management using a sales order, you must maintain the following fields in the material master: Screen MRP 1 MRP 2 Field MRP Group Strategy Group
In addition, a plant must be assigned for make-to-order items in the sales order.
Working With Object Statuses in Make-to-Order Production
See also: Order items made to order have an object status which can be divided up into the following phases: 1. Released The system sets this status automatically when the item is created. It indicates that production can be initiated. 2. Revenue posted The system sets this status automatically, as soon as revenue was posted for the item for the first time. 3. Fully invoiced This status must be set manually, as soon as all revenues have been posted for the item. 4. Completed This status must be set manually when the procedure is completed.
The status affects accrual so once the fully invoiced status has been set, for example, no more revenues can be posted. If the status "completed" is set, no further costs can be posted.
Displaying the Current Stock Situation
In make-to-order production, sales order stock is set up for each order item. This means that stock is assigned to the sales order and item number in inventory management. To display the sales order stock, proceed as follows:
1. Choose Logistics Materials management Inventory
management on the main menu screen.
2. Choose Environment Stock Stock overview. 3. Enter the required selection data, select the special stock 4. 5.
indicator E , and select all fields in the screen section Select display levels. Choose Program Execute. Position the cursor on the sales order line and then choose Edit Choose
Settling a Make-to-Order Transaction
To settle an make-to-order item, that is, to assign the costs incurred to the appropriate receiving accounts, proceed as follows:
1. On the Sales screen, choose Sales order Subsequent
functions Settlement. 2. Enter the sales order and the item number and carry out the settlement. You can carry out a selection of sales orders to be settled by entering a range of values. For more detailed information on settlements, see the CO documentation on Cost Object Controlling. You can carry out the settlement after the whole process of make-to-order production has been completed. However, you can also carry out settlements during the process, if you want to keep up more closely with the cost development.
You can also carry out the settlement as a background task.
Working With Sales Order Stock
Sales order stock is inventory that results from a make-toproduction sales order. Products are made or assembled in response to the customer’s order. The resulting stock is assigned specifically to the customer’s sales order and becomes part of sales order stock. The stock components can only be used for the production of the make-to-order items ordered by the customer.Finished products can only be delivered to the customer by means of the assigned sales orders.
If sales order stock has already been assigned to a quotation, the stock of the resulting orders is also managed under the quotation number.
Sales order stock is not valuated but is instead subject to cost collection.
Special Stock Data
In order to manage sales order stock of a material for different sales orders, special stock data is required in the material master record. Special stock data for a material is managed at the storage location level. If the material must be managed in batches, special stock data must be created for each batch. The system automatically creates special stock data during the first inward movement of sales order stock. The data cannot be maintained manually but instead is automatically updated with every goods movement (or taking of physical inventory).
Special Stock Types
The following stock types are available for use with sales order stock: • • • Unrestricted use quality inspection Blocked stock
Sales order stock is not available for material requirements planning (MRP).
The following movement types are available for sales order stock (in each case, including cancellation and returns): • Inward movement of goods o o o o o • Goods receipt on the basis of a purchase order, provided that the purchase order item is assigned to an account Goods receipt for a production order, provided that the production order is assigned to a sales order Goods receipt without a purchase order Goods receipt without a production order Initial entry of stock balances
Outward movement of goods o o o o Goods issue for a sales order Goods issue for an order Taking a sample of stock Scrapping stock
Transfer posting o o o Transfer into customer's own stock Transfer from one storage location to another Transfer between stocks which have the status unrestricted use, quality inspection, and blocked.
When you carry out a goods movement for sales order stock, please take the following points into account: • If you carry out a goods movement based on a purchase order or production order, the sales order number and items are copied from the reference document. If you change a goods movement, you must enter the sales order number and the item.
Reporting in Human Resources Management
Efficient Human Resources Management constantly requires complete, up-to-the-minute information on employees at the enterprise. The R/3 System’s Human Resources (HR) component contains all relevant employee data. With its multitude of reporting and analysis options, HR helps you process data quickly. This provides you with the information you require, and supports your decision-making processes. As well as more than 200 standard reports, SAP HR provides you with a reporting tool (HIS) that enables you to report on data along hierarchical structures, and access standard reports easily. Cross-application SAP reporting tools enable you to create your own reports (InfoSet Query and SAP Query), and format and analyze HR data from SAP and non-SAP systems (Business Information Warehouse), without having to spend time on programming. For many enterprises, the sheer wealth of standard reports and reporting options is the real challenge to reporting on HR data. That is the reason why SAP provides the HR Reporting manual, which • • • • Helps you find standard reports Gives you an overview of standard reports in HR Helps you decide which reporting tool to use Includes complete instructions on how to use the reporting tools
Finding Standard Reports
You can search for standard reports in individual applications, or across several applications. Application-specific standard reports are available in the info systems of individual HR components. In addition, standard HR reports are grouped together in comprehensive info systems in the SAP Easy Access menu. • Info systems for components All of the reports for a specific HR component are grouped together by content in that component’s info system. For example, Recruitment reports are arranged in groups according to whether they report on applicant, vacancy, or advertisement data. To access the info system of individual HR components, choose the following: Human Resources ® <component> ® Info system ® Reports Human Resources ® Payroll ® <continent> ® <country> ® Info system Human Resources ® Time Management ® <component> ® Info system • HR Information System The HR Information System contains the reporting tools and all HR-specific reports. Its structure is determined by the components in HR. To make it easier for you to find individual reports, they are grouped together within the components according to their content. For example, the reports in Organizational Management are sorted according to the objects for which they report on data. To access the HR Information System, choose the following:
Human Resources ® Information system ® Reports • SAP info system By far the largest collection of standard reports is contained in the SAP info system. The standard HR reports can be accessed in one of two ways: Info systems ® Human Resources ® Reports ® <component> Info systems ® General report selection ® Human Resources ® <component> In both cases, the reports are arranged according to the components in which they are used.
Depending on your role as user in the R/3 System, you might only be able to view specific sections of the SAP menu. Different roles, therefore, might require you to search for existing standard reports in different places.
And If The Required Report Does Not Exist?
• If you require a report that is not included in the standard system, you can use the HR reporting tools to create reports yourself. Depending on the data you want to report on, you can use the following reporting tools in Human Resources: o o o • InfoSet Query SAP Query The Business Information Warehouse
If the HR reporting tools do not enable you to create the report you require without having to program, you can consider undertaking your own customer development.
If you want to develop a report yourself, you can use a similar standard SAP report as a programming template, which considerably reduces the amount of time and money involved.
Selecting a Reporting Tool
To enable you to report on HR data, the R/3 System provides you with numerous standard reports and, in addition, reporting tools that give you easy access to existing reports (HIS) or enable you to create your own reports, even if you have no programming skills (InfoSet Query, SAP Query). • HIS HIS is used to report on HR data along hierarchical structures (organizational structure, business event hierarchy, or customer hierarchies). You can select the structure you want to report on, and the objects you want to display. The structure is displayed in SAP Structural Graphics. In the standard system, a separate window lists all of the reports that exist for the root object. They correspond to the standard reports in Human Resources. Customizing also enables you to add your own reports. Use HIS to report on HR data along hierarchical structures. HIS is particularly useful if you want to report on data from different HR components because you can start all reports from HIS, which means you do not have to switch from one component to another. Another advantage of HIS is that you are not required to enter data in a selection screen when a report is started because HIS uses the parameters that are most frequently set in practice. See HIS • InfoSet Query InfoSet Query is a general SAP reporting tool that is particularly easy to use and intuitive. By selecting selection fields and output fields directly, you can access data stored anywhere within the Human Resources
System. You do not require programming skills to create reports using InfoSet Query. Provided that you have the appropriate authorizations, you can save and reuse reports defined in InfoSet Query.
When InfoSet Query is accessed from Human Resources (HR), the Query area and User group parameters already contain values and you can only perform ad hoc reporting. If InfoSet Query is accessed this way, it is called Ad Hoc Query in HR. Use InfoSet Query if the system does not include a suitable standard report. InfoSet Query is particularly suitable for o o Defining specific or seldom required reports on an ad-hoc basis Defining specific reports that need to be reused
InfoSet Query is also suitable for cross-component reporting within HR because it can access data from Personnel Administration and person-related data from Payroll, Time Management, and Personnel Planning, for example. Furthermore, you can use InfoSet Query to report on data for objects in Personnel Planning. See InfoSet Query and HR in InfoSet Query. • SAP Query SAP Query is a cross-application reporting tool in the R/3 System. Just like InfoSet Query, it is used to create reports that are not included in the standard system. You do not require programming skills to work with SAP Query. In the context of HR reporting, SAP Query has the following functions: o It provides additional options for reporting on data and formatting output. You can Use control levels. Use this output option if you want to put different infotype fields into
groups; for example, all of the addresses pertaining to one person. This is particularly relevant to infotypes with subtypes and/or time constraint 3. See Output Options for Control Levels Define one basic list, up to nine statistics, and up to nine ranked lists per report (query). This enables you to prepare data for the output list in a number of different ways. Format output lists using colors. Define and use local fields.
It is used to manage the user groups and InfoSets that are required for InfoSet Query, assuming you do not use the InfoSets included in the standard system.
Use SAP Query if you cannot use InfoSet Query to meet your requirements, or to refine queries from InfoSet Query. You could, for example, enhance a query by outputting control levels. See SAP Query. • Business Information Warehouse The Business Information Warehouse (SAP BW) is an independent Data Warehouse solution that can be used to retrieve data from SAP systems and the vast majority of external systems. BW provides you with specialized reporting technology and HR Business Content, which means it contains business content, reports, and key figures from all areas of Human Resources. An important BW focus is on the retrieval of key figures and time series comparisons (for example, headcount with regard to organizational characteristics during the past three years). Operational data from various areas within an enterprise is prepared using predefined standard queries and report templates. You can break comparative key figures down to individual employees. BW also enables you to create different views of queries by exchanging free characteristics.
BW can provide data in an intranet/Internet environment, where it can be viewed at any time by persons with the appropriate authorizations. It supplies you with data for decision-making and information purposes. Standard calculation of key figures also facilitates benchmarking. If you require further information on BW Queries for Human Resources Management, refer to the documentation on the Business Information Warehouse and see the section on queries with HR Business Content.
When deciding which tool to use, refer to the following schema.
You’re still unsure? See Overview: HR Reporting, which contains a table summarizing the purposes, advantages, and limitations of standard reports and reporting tools in HR.
Standard HR Reports
SAP Human Resources provides you with more than 200 standard reports. They enable you to perform standard reporting simply, and without you having to spend time and money on development. This section gives you an overview of the standard
reports that are available in the following areas of Human Resources Management: Personnel Management Time Management Payroll Training and Event Management Organizational Management The term report is used in the HR Reporting manual to mean executable programs that read data from the database and then report on the data without changes being written to the database. Reports in HR can be ABAP reports or queries.
A report is usually executed as follows: 1. You start the report from the SAP Easy Access menu, an info system, an application, or the ABAP Editor, for example. 2. This takes you to the selection screen, in which you enter the required selection parameters. By doing so, you determine the conditions that apply when the report is executed. If you only want to report on a specific group of employees, for example, you enter an organizational unit. 3. You start the report. 4. The system reads data from the database, processes it in accordance with the report you specified, and outputs the result. 5. Depending on how the data is output, you can continue processing, print, and export the data. If you require further information on how reports are executed, access the introduction to the R/3 System and see Reports. If you require further information on the report selection screen and its functions, see Report Selection Screen in Human Resources Management.
HR Reporting Tools
To enable you to report on HR data, the R/3 System provides you with numerous standard reports and, in addition, reporting tools that give you easy access to existing reports (HIS) or enable you to create your own reports, even if you have no programming skills (InfoSet Query, SAP Query).
When InfoSet Query is accessed from Human Resources (HR), the Query area and User group parameters already contain values and you can only perform ad hoc reporting. If InfoSet Query is accessed this way, it is called Ad Hoc Query in HR. This section provides you with documentation on the following reporting tools: HIS InfoSet Query SAP Query If you require information on BW Queries for Human Resources Management, refer to the documentation on the Business Information Warehouse and see the section on queries with HR Business Content.
Overview: HR Reporting
This section contains a table that gives you an overview of the purposes, advantages, and limitations of the various reporting options in HR. Reporting Purpose Advantages Limitations
tool Standard reports Provide solutions Can be used for your most immediately frequent reporting requirements No developments required Hierarchies are displayed as graphics Reports are executed using selected structures or substructures, that is, using preselected sets of objects User-friendly method of displaying hierarchical structures Limited flexibility Output fields cannot be selected as required Limited flexibility
Tool is used to execute standard reports and customer Integration with reports InfoSet Query and standard It cannot be reports used to create reports No need to switch from one HR application to another if you want to execute reports from different applications Little training required
Intuitive, general User-friendly SAP reporting tool interface used to create customer reports Very easy to use Enables you to create reports for No all areas of HR programming required When InfoSet Query is accessed If integrated from Human with SAP Query, Resources (HR), you can the Query area
InfoSets and user groups must be defined in SAP Query before you can use InfoSet Query Multiline lists cannot be displayed
and User group parameters already contain values and you can only perform ad hoc reporting. If InfoSet Query is accessed this way, it is called Ad Hoc Query in HR (see HR in InfoSet Query).
continue processing queries using SAP Query Set operations enable you to create sets of objects as required for which data must be output Can be included in roles using a suitable InfoSet
General SAP reporting tool used to create customer reports Individual definition of user groups, InfoSets, and queries
Extremely flexible No programming required Queries can be provided in the SAP Easy Access menu Includes numerous options for aggregating data, performing calculations, and displaying graphics
Restricted to data from the R/3 System Each HR query can process data from just one HR logical database: PNP: Administration, Time Management, and Payroll PCH: Generally for all areas, but particularly suitable for reporting on data from Personnel Planning
Enables you to display multiline lists PAP: Recruitment Enables you to
define one basic list and several statistics and ranked lists for each query Business Analytical Information reporting tool Warehouse used for information and decision-making For more information purposes , see the BW documenta tion Extremely flexible Facilitates complex calculations (calculation of averages, time series comparisons) Enables you to access non-SAP data Easy to use Uses OLAP technology Includes detailed Business Content (HR extractors, InfoCubes, key figures, and standard queries)
Requires much more training than other options Data is extracted from OLTP systems, that is, real-time data is not accessed
References ; http://help.sap.com/saphelp_46C/helpdata/EN/e1/ 8e51341a06084de10000009b38f83b/frameset.ht m 146
o http://help.sap.com/saphelp_45b/helpdata/en/e1/8e 51341a06084de10000009b38f83b/frameset.htm o http://help.sap.com/saphelp_46b/helpdata/en/e1/8e 51341a06084de10000009b38f83b/frameset.htm o https://cw.sdn.sap.com/cw/docs/DOC-41071 o http://www.sdn.sap.com/irj/sdn/bi-sdklibrary o http://www.sapdb.org/htmhelp/e2/55683ab81fd846 e10000000a11402f/frameset.htm
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