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LECTURE NOTES

REPUBLIC ACT 9372
HUMAN SECURITY ACT OF 2007
WHAT IS HUMAN SECURITY ACT?
The Human Security Act of 2007, or Republic Act
9372, is law that the Philippine Congress enacted to
protect life, liberty and property from acts of terrorism.
To condemn terrorism as inimical and dangerous to the
national security of the country and to make terrorism a
crime against the Filipino people, against humanity and
against the law of nations.
The HSA, is a consolidation of Senate Bill No. 2137
and House Bill No. 4839, passed by the Senate and the
House of Representative on February 8, 2007 and
February 19, 2007 respectively. The law with the full title,
“ AN ACT TO SECURE THE STATE AND PROTECT OUR
PEOPLE FROM TERRORISM” became RA 9372 when
President GMA signed it on March 6, 2007.
The law took effect on July 15, 2007, this is a result
of the provision in the Act saying that the law shall take
effect two months after the elections are held in May
2007.
WHAT ARE THE MAIN FEATURES OF THE LAW?
a. It describes what comprises terrorist acts.
b. It provides for the process or procedures to be
followed to proscribe terrorist organizations, associations
and group of persons.

RA 6969 (Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Waste Control Act of 1990). Dealing in.1.  Examine bank deposits. Art 134 (Rebellion or Insurrection). 6. RA 5207.4. Art 267 (Kidnapping and Serious Illegal Detention). Art 134-a (Coup d’Etat). 1866 as Amended (Decree Codifying the laws on Illegal and Unlawful Possession. 4. 6.. 3. accounts and records  Seizure and Sequestration of assets  Arrest without warrants d.2.c. .5.6. and 6. (Atomic energy Regulatory and Liability Act of 1968). 6. It provides for the establishment of the AntiTerrorism Council. HOW DOES THE HSA DEFINE TERRORISM? SEC 3 of the Act defines Terrorism as. RA 6235 (Anti-Hijacking Law). Art 248 (Murder) 5.Any person who commits an act punishable under any of the following provisions of the Revised Penal Code: 1. It allows the police and other law enforcement agencies. PD 1613 (The Law on Arson). including acts committed by private persons. Manufacture. after going through a prescribed procedure  Conduct surveillance of suspects. 2. interception and recording of Communications.3. Art 324 (Crimes Involving Destruction) 6. Presidential Decree No. PD 532 (Anti-piracy and Anti-Highway Robbery Law of 1974. 6. Art 122 (Piracy in General and Mutiny in the High Seas on in the Philippine Waters). 6.

forty (40) years of imprisonment. Ammunitions or Explosives) Thereby sowing and creating a condition of widespread and extraordinary fear and panic among the populace. 1 day to 20 years  Accessory – 10 yrs and 1 day to 20 years WHEN IS THERE TERRORISM” “CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT There is conspiracy to commit terrorism when two or more persons come to an agreement concerning the commission of the crime as defined in the law and decide to commit the same. AND INTERCEPTION AND RECORDING OF COMMUNICATIONS HOW DOES THE HSA ALLOW THE SURVEILLANCE OF SUSPECTS AND INTERCEPTION AND RECORDING OF COMMUNICATIONS? SEC 7 OF HSA PROVIDES THAT: . WHAT IS THE PENALTY FOR “TERRORISM”?  Terrorism.. without parole  Conspiracy to Commit Terrorism. SURVEILLACE. 4mos. in order to coerce the government to give in to an unlawful demand shall be guilty of the crime of terrorism.Acquisition or Disposition of Firearms.forty (40) yrs of imprisonment  Accomplice-17 yrs.

message. HOW CAN A STATE AGENT BE AUTHORIZED TO CONDUCT SURVEILLANCE AND RECORDING OF COMMICATIONS? Under the HSA  A written order or surveillance and recording of communications shall only be granted by the Court of Appeals’  Upon an ex-parte written application of a police or of a law enforcement official who has been duly authorized in writing by the Anti-Terrorism Council  And upon examination under oath or affirmation of the applicant and the witnesses he may produce . interception and recording of communications between lawyers and clients. WHO ARE THE TARGETS FOR SURVEILLANCE?  Members of a judicially declared and outlawed terrorist organization. discussion. association. doctors and patients. conversation. or group of persons  Any person charged with or suspected of the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism ARE THERE ANY EXCEPTION TO THIS? The HSA specifically excludes the surveillance. intercept and record Upon a written order of the Court of Appeals Any communication. journalist and their sources and confidential business correspondence. or spoken or written words. A police or law enforcement official and the members of his team may listen to.

The period is renewable for another non-extendable period . the longest the maximum period shall be sixty (60) days.  That there is a probable cause to believe based on personal knowledge of facts or circumstances that evidence. (Sec 8) FOR HOW LONG CAN THE SURVEILLANCE AND RECORDING OF COMMUNICATIONS BE DONE? The surveillance and recording of communications shall not exceed a period of 30 days from the date of receipt of the written order of the authorizing division of the Court of Appeals by the applicant police or law enforcement official. which shall not exceed (30) days from the expiration date of the original period. is being committed. which is essential for the conviction of any charged or suspected person form or to the solution or prevention of any such crimes.WHAT SHOULD AN APPLICANT AUTHORIZATION PROVE? FOR JUDICIAL An applicant must establish:  That there is probable cause to believe based on personal knowledge of facts or circumstances that the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism has been committed. Hence. or is about to be committed. will be obtained. (Sec 10) . and  That there is no other effective means readily available for acquiring such evidence.

the applicant police or law enforcement official shall immediately notify the person subject of the surveillance. nor during the period of surveillance. the notification will come later. as follows:  The applicant police or law enforcement official shall have 30 days after the termination of the period granted by Court of Appeals within which to file the appropriate case before the Public Prosecutor’s Office for Terrorism. WHAT IF THE POLICE OR LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER FAILS TO DO THE POST-SURVEILLANCE NOTIFICATION? The penalty of ten (10) yrs and one (1) day to twelve (12) yrs of imprisonment shall be imposed upon the applicant police or law enforcement official who fails to notify the person subject of the surveillance.  If no case is filed within the thirty (30) day period. interception and recording. (Sec 10) ARE THERE OTHER OBLIGATIONS IMPOSED ON THE POLICE OR LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS IN .WHEN WILL THE PERSON WHO IS THE SUBJECT OF SURVEILLACE AND RECORDING OF COMMICATIONS BE NOTIFIED OF SUCH SURVEILLANCE AND RECORDING OF COMMUNICATIONS? Since the application for judicial authorization in done ex-parte (without the participation of the target person). Under the HSA. the person will not be notified at that stage. interception and recording of the of the said surveillance.

and records in whatever manner or form any communication. and recordings made pursuant to the authorization shall be deposited with the authorizing Division of the Court of Appeals in a sealed envelope or sealed package. all tapes. The documents and evidence obtained shall be accompanied by a joint affidavit of the applicant police or law enforcement official and the members of his team. (Sec 11-12) IS THERE A SURVEILLANCE? PENALTY FOR UNAUTHORIZED YES. discussion. Any police or law enforcement officer who fails to do these acts shall suffer the penalty of not less than ten (10) years and one day to twelve (12) years of imprisonment. that all such duplicates and copies are included in the sealed envelope or sealed package. Any police or law enforcement personnel who. discs.CONNECTION CONDUCTED? WITH THE SURVEILLANCE Within forty eight (48) hours after the expiration of the period. message. conversation. taps. or . intercepts. listens to. not being authorized to do so by the authorizing Division of the Court of Appeals. or if made. tracks down.  Listing in detail the items submitted to the CA  Certifying that no duplicates or copies have been made.

assets and records in a bank or financial institution and  Gather or cause the gathering of any relevant information about such deposits. assets and records from a bank or financial institution. the justices of the Special Division of Court of Appeals to handle anti-terrorism cases may authorize in writing any police or law enforcement officer and the member of his/her team duly authorized in writing by the ATC to:  Examine. WHO ARE THE TARGETS OF THIS ACTION? The following are the targets for examination of deposits:  A person charge with or suspected of the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism  Any judicially declared and outlawed terrorist organization.spoken or written word of a person suspected of the crime of terrorism conspiracy to commit terrorism shall offense and shall suffer the penalty of imprisonment. trust accounts. association or group of persons (Sec 28) . placements. or cause the examination of the deposits. placements. (Sec 16) charged with or or the crime of be guilty of an ten (10) years of EXAMINATION OF BANK DEPOSIT. trust accounts. association or group of persons  Any member of such organization. ACCOUNTS AND RECORDS Under the HSA.

or conveyance for purposes that are inimical to the safety and security of the people or injurious to the interest of the state. any police or law enforcement personnel who. (Sec 39) DETENTION WITHOUT WARRANT OF ARREST: Under Sec 18 of HSA. Under the HAS. placements. sequestered and frozen in order to prevent their use. However. the deposits and their outstanding balances. supplies and other implements and property of whatever kind. the accused or a person suspected of x x x may withdraw such sum as may be reasonably needed by his/her family including the services of his or her counsel and his or her family’s medical needs upon approval of the court. money. transportation and communication equipment. He may also use any of his property that is under seizure or sequestration or frozen upon permission of the court for any legitimate reason. trust accounts. and nature. assets and records in any bank or financial institution. having been duly authorized in writing by the Anti-Terrorism Council has taken custody of a person charged with or suspected of the crime of terrorism or the crime of conspiracy to commit terrorism shall without incurring criminal liability for delay in the delivery of detained person(s) to the proper judicial authority with in a period of three (3) days counted from the moment said charged or suspected person has been arrested. belonging to the targets shall be seized. transfer.DOES THE HSA ALSO AUTHORIZE THE SEIZURE AND SEQUESTRATION OF DEPOSITS? YES. detained . businesses.

present him or her before any judge at the latter’s residence or office nearest the place where the arrest took place. NOTE: The arrest of those charged with or suspected of the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism must result from the surveillance and examination of bank deposits. WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF THE POLICE OR LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICER WHO HAS TAKEN CUSTODY OF A PERSON CHARGE WITH OR SUSPECTED OF THE CRIME OF TERRORISM OR THE CRIME OF CONSPIRACY TO COMMIT TERRORISM? The police or law enforcement personnel concerned shall before detaining the person suspected of the crime of terrorism. the police or law enforcement personnel shall notify in writing the judge of the court nearest the place of apprehension or arrest. the written notice shall be served at the residence of the judge nearest the place where the accused was arrested. Sunday or holidays or after office hours. Penalty of ten (10) years and one (1) day to 12 yrs shall be imposed upon the police or law enforcement personnel who fails to comply with the requirements of the law (Sec 18) . Immediately after taking custody of a person charged with or suspected of the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism.and taken into custody by the said police or law enforcement personnel. If the arrest is made during Saturday.

The judge shall forthwith submit his/her report within three (3) days from the time the suspect was brought to his/her residence or office. to inquire of them the reasons why they have arrested the person and determine by questioning and personal observation whether or not the suspect has been subjected to any physical. The judge shall then submit a written report of what he/she had observed when the subject was brought before him to the proper court that has jurisdiction over the case of the person thus arrested. detained and taken custody of a person charged with or suspected of the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism and fails to deliver such charged or suspected person the proper judicial authority within the period of three (3) days.WHAT ARE THE DUTIES OF THE JUDGE IN SUCH CASES? It shall be the duty of the judge to ascertain the identity of the police or law enforcement personnel and the person or person they have arrested and presented before him or her. (Sec 18) IS THERE A PENALTY IMPOSED FOR FAILURE TO DELIVER SUSPECT TO THE PROPER JUDICIAL AUTHORITY WITHIN THREE (3) DAYS? YES. (Sec 20) . the penalty of 10 yrs and one day to 12 yrs of imprisonment shall be imposed upon any police or law enforcement personnel who has apprehended or arrested. moral or psychological torture by whom and why.

regional trial court. provincial or regional official of the Human Rights Commission or judge of the municipal. shall be released immediately.DOES THE HSA ALLOWS A PERIOD OF DETENTION WITHOUT WARRANT OF ARREST LONGER THAN THREE (3) DAYS? YES. he/she or they shall be forthwith be informed by the arresting police or law enforcement officer or by the police or law enforcement officers to whose custody the person concerned is brought of his right:  To be informed of the nature and cause of his arrest  To remain silent and to have a competent counsel preferable of his choice . The approval in writing of any of the aforementioned officials shall be secured by the police or law enforcement personnel concerned within five (5) days after the date of detention. (Sec 19) INVESTIGATION CUSTODIAL RIGHTS OF A PERSON UNDER Sec 21 provides that when the person(s) charged with or suspected of the crime of terrorism or the crime of conspiracy to commit terrorism is/are apprehended or arrested and detained. the suspects whose connection with the terror attack or threat is not established. the Sandigan Bayan or a justice of the Court of Appeals nearest the place of the arrest. city. in case of actual or imminent terrorist attack suspects may be detained for more than three (3) days with the written approval of a municipal.

 If the person cannot afford the services of counsel. If the police or law enforcement personnel cannot be identified. ASSOCIATION.  Informed of the cause or causes of his detention in the presence of his counsel  Allowed to communicate freely with his counsel and to confer with them at any time without restriction  Allowed to communicate freely without restriction with the members of his family or with his nearest relatives and to be visited by them. Any violations of the rights of the detainee the police or law enforcement personnel or any personnel of the police or other law enforcement custodial unit shall suffer the penalty of ten years and one day to 12 years of imprisonment. (Sec 24) PROSCRIPTION OF TERRORIST ORGANIZATION. No torture or coercion in investigation and interrogation whether physical or psychological shall be allowed. OR GROUP OF PERSONS . This right cannot be waived except in writing and in the presence of the counsel of choice. the head or leader of the law enforcement unit having custody of the detainee at the time the violation was done shall suffer the same penalty. the police or the law enforcement officers concerned shall immediately contact the free legal assistance unit of the IBP or the PAO.  Allowed freely to avail of the service of a physician or physicians of choice.

upon application of the Department of Justice before a competent RTC with due notice and opportunity to be heard given to the organization. association. WHAT ARE THE REMEDIES GIVEN TO A PERSON AFTER ACQUITAL? Under Sec 41 and 50 – upon acquittal (after the person has been charged and tried in court) the following remedies shall be applied.Sec 17 provides that any organization. ANTI-TERRORISM COUNCIL .  Five hundred thousand pesos per day for the period in which properties. or group of persons organized for the purpose of engaging in terrorism or which. assets or funds were seized shall be paid to the accused on the concept of liquidated damages  Five hundred thousand pesos per day that the accused has been detained or deprived of liberty or arrested without warrant as a result of such accusation. association or group of persons by the said RTC. association or group of persons concerned shall be declared as a terrorist and outlawed organization. although not organized for that purpose. actually uses the acts to terrorize as mentioned in the Act or to sow and create a condition of widespread and extraordinary fear and panic among the populace in order to coerce the government to give in to an unlawful demand.

Establish and maintain comprehensive database information system on terrorism. trust accounts. placements. assets and records belonging to a person suspected of or charged with the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism. Freeze the funds. .Sec 53 of HSA provides for the creation of the AntiTerrorism Council composed of the Executive Secretary. Specifically the HSA identifies the following as the functions of the Council: 1. pursuant to the anti-money laundering act of 2001. programs and counter-measures against terrorism and acts of terrorism in the country. who serves as the Chairperson of the Council. Coordinate all efforts to suppress and eradicate acts of terrorism in the country and mobilize the entire nation against terrorism as proscribed in this Act. Formulate and adopt plans. 5. bank deposits. 4. with the Secretary of Justice as Vice Chairperson and the Secretaries of Foreign Affairs. Direct the speedy investigation and prosecution of all persons accused or detained for the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism and other offenses punishable under this Act and monitor the progress of the their cases. Finance and the National Security Adviser as members. Interior and Local Government. 2. The ATC is responsible for implementing the HSA and assumes the responsibility for the proper and effective implementation of the antiterrorism policy of the government. 3. property. National Defense. terrorist activities and counter terrorism operation.

THE ATC SECRETARIAT As earlier mentioned. they are the National Bureau of Investigation. The Bureau of Immigration.6. 7. The Intelligence Service of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. and 8. Furthermore the law identifies the support agencies to the Council. The Secretariat has two (2) components: The Secretary to the Council and the ATC Coordinating Center or the Loop Center. The Anti-Money Laundering Council . Grant monetary rewards and other incentives to informers who give vital information leading to the apprehension. Section 53 of the HSA also provides that the National Intelligence Coordinating Agency (NICA) shall be the Secretariat of the Anti-Terrorism Council. the Philippine Center on Transnational Crime and the Philippine National Police Intelligence and Investigative elements. Request the Supreme Court to designate specific division of the Court of Appeals and Regional Trial Courts in Manila. Establish and maintain coordination with and the cooperation and assistance of other nations in the struggle against international terrorism. . prosecution and conviction of person or persons who are liable for the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism. as the case may be to handle all cases involving the crime of terrorism or conspiracy to commit terrorism and all matters incident to said crimes. the NICA serves as the Secretariat of the Council. The Office of Civil Defense. Cebu City and Cagayan de Oro City. arrest. detention.

.The Secretary to the council performs conference management and records-keeping for the Council.