You are on page 1of 5

Global Illumination

:
Use global illumination when you need light to inter-reflect and bounce multiple
times over a large area in your scene. A sample application would be a long hal
lway with light entering from the doorway. The use of global illumination (out o
f the three options listed above) allows the greatest number of light reflection
s and allows light to bounce off the furthest. Global illumination also prevents
the darkening of corners and adds softness to the final render. Use global illu
mination to avoid the hard-edged CG look that lacks the softness of natural ligh
t.
Using global illumination with caustics:
Global illumination is not used for the focusing of light (that is, reflection a
nd refraction). It is generally used with diffuse materials or for simple transp
arency. If you need to add refractions, then incorporate caustics in your scene.
Using global illumination with final gather:
Use final gather to add fine details to your scene. When global illumination is
used, photons usually miss cracks and crevices in objects and therefore these ar
eas may appear artificially dark. Final gather adds details by adding light to t
he scene; brightening and softening it and making the final render more realisti
c.
If details are washed out by global illumination because your scene is too brigh
t, use ambient occlusion to add detail to your scene by subtracting light.
================================================================================
==========================================
Caustics:
Use caustics for specular reflection and refraction. If your scene consists of s
hiny surfaces that refract, reflect, and focus light, then you should use causti
cs. Caustics are generally not used for simple transparency. Some sample applica
tions of caustics are simulating the reflection of light off a disco ball or the
distortion of light at the bottom of a swimming pool.
Using caustics with global illumination
Generally, you use caustics with global illumination rather than in combination
with final gather. Often final gather is chosen because it saves rendering time.
However, since caustics require the use of photons, the addition of final gathe
r does not reduce memory requirements or rendering time. Therefore, it is more e
fficient to use global illumination in combination with caustics instead.
Final Gather
Final gather adds details to your scene by adding light. It is similar to global
illumination, but is more limited because it does not handle multiple bounces o
f light as accurately or efficiently. It does, however, require the least render
ing time out of the three techniques. Final gather is traditionally used with di
ffuse materials, for example paper, chalk, and so on. It also handles small deta
ils better than the other illumination options.
Using global illumination, caustics and final gather
Incorporate all the types of illumination (global illumination, caustics and fin
al gather) in your scene if you want to have a lot of bounced lights (from globa
l illumination), you have objects with materials that reflect or refract (causti
cs), and you want to include soft lighting to show small details (final gather).
================================================================================
==========================================
Direct & Indirect Lightning:
Direct:

These maps work best for meshes that have to defor m during animation. There s no additional resolution added to the geometr y in your scene. often just referred to as normals. they appear to be pushing into the surface. Y and Z axis in 3D space. The problem with bump maps is that they break pretty easily if the camera views them from the wrong angle. working their way to whi te. For assets that don t need to deform. That s right. They are also relatively easy to create in and edit in a 2D application like Photoshop considering you are just using grayscale values. For example por es or wrinkles on skin. details appear to pull out of the surface. When values get brighter. tell the 3D ap plication how the polygon should be shaded. No additional resolution is added to the model as a result of a bump map. Up or down. That s only 256 different colors of black. Tangent Space normal maps are great for things like characte rs. the first thing you need to understand about normal maps is that the deta il they create is also fake. . when values get darker and closer to black. The orien tation of the surface normals. A normal map uses RGB information that corresponds directly with the X. This RGB information tells the 3D application the exact direct ion of the surface normals are oriented in for each and every polygon. Since the detail they create is fake and not real res olution being added. often times an Object Space normal map i s used. The fir st thing you should understand about bump maps is that the detail they create is fake.Provides a strong illumination toward a specific task or area Creates sharp shadows and highlights The light source illuminates below the horizon surface of the luminary or fixtur e Indirect: Provides an illumination to the surrounding areas Helps prevent excessive brightness and contrast The light source illuminates above the horizon surface of the luminary or fixtur e ================================================================================ ========================================== Bump Map . there s little to no detail that comes through on the surface. When values in a bump map are close to 50% gray. These maps have a rainbow assortment of different colors as well as slig htly improved performance over Tangent Space maps. Bump maps are really great for creating tiny details on a model. better type of bump map. As with bump maps. bump maps create the illusion of depth on the surface of a mo del using a very simple lighting trick. a normal map does create the illusion of depth deta il on the surface of a model but it does it differently than a bump map. Normal Map: Normal maps can be referred to as a newer. The most commonly used is called a Tangent Space normal map and is a mixture of primarily purples and blues . gray or white. These two types look completely different when viewed in 2D space. you should know that there are two totally differ ent types. Normal Map and Displacement Map: Bump Map: A bump map is actually one of the older types of maps we ll look at today. In the end. Typically. bump maps are grayscale images that are limited to 8-bits of color in formation. To contrast that. In learning about normal maps. These values in a bump map are used to tell the 3D software basically two things.

There are definitely some things you need to be aware of when considering using a normal map. Raytracing is capable of supporting soft. most 3D applications calculate final displacement results at rende r time.or 32-bit displacement map. ================================================================================ ========================================== Ray Tracing: When it comes to creating additional detail for your low-resolution meshes. blurry shadows from area light sources . ================================================================================ . usually the mesh must be subdivided or tessellated so r eal geometry is created. Creating all that addi tional geometry in real time is extremely difficult and hard on your system. Likely. Creating all that addi tional geometry in real time is extremely difficult and hard on your system. a displaceme nt map consists of grayscale values. Bec ause of this. a displaceme nt map consists of grayscale values. a displacement map will also add s ignificant time to your renders. While you c an use an 8-bit displacement map. you will bake a normal map out using a high resolution version of your mesh. these types of maps can be very difficult to cr eate or edit in a 2D software like Photoshop. These types of maps physically displace (as the name imp lies) the mesh to which they are applied. There are however some except ions for editing these types of maps. The great thing about displacement maps is that they can actually be either bake d from a high resolution model or painted by hand. Now. when brought into 3D they can sometimes cause banding or other artifa cts as a result of the insufficient range in value. Bec ause of this. a displacement map will also add s ignificant time to your renders. here s the not so great thing about displacement maps. Like a bump map. Calculating very accurate shadows by evaluating whether any objects exist betwee n a point and a light source. In comparison to bump or normal maps. you will almost always experience better resul ts by using a 16. Raytracing is capable of creating semi-transparent or translucent shadows (for e xample. Displacement Map: When it comes to creating additional detail for your low-resolution meshes. Some applications of raytracing: Calculating reflections and refractions. usually the mesh must be subdivided or tessellated so r eal geometry is created. are less accurate. While you c an use an 8-bit displacement map. when brought into 3D they can sometimes cause banding or other artifa cts as a result of the insufficient range in value. In comparison to bump or normal maps. disp lacement maps are king. most 3D applications calculate final displacement results at rende r time. Shadows can also be calculated by other methods. In order for detail to be created base d on a displacement map. In order for detail to be created base d on a displacement map. Unlike a bump map. these methods. h owever. While 8-bit files may look good in 2D space.or 32-bit displacement map. These types of maps physically displace (as the name imp lies) the mesh to which they are applied. Now. disp lacement maps are king. Here is the real kicker though. Here is the real kicker though. although faster. While 8-bit files may look good in 2D space. here s the not so great thing about displacement maps. The great thing about displacement maps is that they can actually be either bake d from a high resolution model or painted by hand. shadows cast by colored glass). Like a bump map. you will almost always experience better resul ts by using a 16.

it does have several limitations. The rasterizer does have its limitation. These images are usually signified by the . the baked color is re-used for every pixel the triangle moves across without having to re-evaluate its new color. Turn on 'Limit Dynamic Ra nge' in the Processing panel HDR images can represent a greater range of luminance levels than can be achieve d using more 'traditional' methods. Because the reflection s calculations are performed at the time of shading (and shading is only calcula ted once and re-used). This technique requires less rendering time than raytracing since it does not involve repeated searching in 3D scene data to find the next contribut ing object. The two primary types of HDR images are computer renderings and images resulting from merging multiple low-dynamic-range (LDR) or standard-dynamic-range (SDR) p hotographs. When reflection or refraction is involved. The rasterizer algorithm accelerates the render of a) m otion blur and b) scenes with high depth complexity. when you render with HDRI.hdr extension. HDR images can also be acquired using special image sensors. its reflections and refractions do not change along with the object but instead remain constant throughout. scanline rendering is used throughout (ray does n ot undergo a change in direction). The method of rendering an HDR image to a standard monitor or printing device i . when an object moves.========================================== Raytracing VS scanline: When the scanline algorithm is enabled. th en scanline is used until the ray begins to bend.2 the rasterizer (forme rly named Rapid Motion). like an oversampled binary image sensor. Objects are then sorted according to their vertical and horizo ntal order. When a triangle moves. resulting in the loss of detail in highlights or shadows. and cannot be used for distorting lens shaders such as a fisheye lens or depth of field distortion. with colours that go brighter than 255. direct sunlight to extreme shade. Also. or very faint nebulae. acquiring an HDR image is only half the story. you might find extra bright spots appearing in reflections and such. such as many real-world scenes containing ve ry bright. and thes e can be loaded into LW as normal Images. all objects in your scene are projected onto a 2-D plane. The scanline algorithm can only be used if a pinhole camera is used. ================================================================================ ========================================== HDRI: HDRI is high dynamic range lighting. if enabled. in which case mental ray switc hes to raytracing. To make these images you either need a a HDRI camera. and what this means is instead of a fixed r ange of colours (0-255 for each channel) the image is stored with higher precisi on. or use an image processing program to boost the range of ordin ary pictures. Limitations of the scanline algorithm: Although the scanline algorithm is more efficient that raytracing. Rapid Scanline (also known as Rapid Motion): A faster scanline algorithm was introduced in mental ray 3. one must also develop methods of displaying the results. Due to the limitations of printing and display contrast. It speeds up motion blur by baking colors into triangles. which don't anti alias properly. This is ofte n achieved by capturing and then combining several different narrower range expo sures of the same subject matter. When an object is transparent. Non-HDR cameras take photographs with a limite d exposure range. however.

and can be applied to produce images with preserved or exaggerated local contrast for ar tistic effect. ================================================================================ ========================================== . This method reduces the overall contrast of an HDR image to facilitate display on devices or printouts with lower dynamic range.s called tone mapping.