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UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA

FAKULTAS MIPA JURUSAN FISIKA
PRODI GEOFISIKA
Lab. Geofisika, Jurusan Fisika, Sekip Utara BLS 21 Yogyakarta 55281

RKPM
KEWIRAUSAHAAN DAN MANAJEMEN
PROYEK
Rencana Kegiatan Pembelajaran Mingguan
Modul Pembelajaran Pertemuan ke IV
Semester 4/2 sks/Kode MFG 2915
oleh
Sismanto

BAB IV MOTIVASI

Didanai dengan dana BOPTN P3-UGM
Tahun Anggaran 2013
Nopember 2013

IV-0

feedback and so on. Then think about someone else who seemed highly motivated. Think about the behaviors you and the other person were displaying – they probably included some of the following: • Showed enthusiasm for the work • Took initiative in solving problems • Worked extra time if required • Came to work even if not 100 % fit • Sought feedback on performance of self or the job • Put in high effort level • Did “more than the minimum” • Encouraged others • Expressed satisfaction with achievements IV-1 . Pendahuluan A high level of motivation in ourselves and others is essential to support an effective performance. delegation. • You cannot measure motivational level directly. only provide the conditions under which they will be motivated • Motivation is just one element of performance management and needs to be considered along with setting objectives. Some important points need making up front: • You cannot motivate someone directly.BAB IV MOTIVASI LO: Diharapkan mahasiswa dapat menjelaskan bagaimana cara-cara memotivasi seseorang untuk dapat bekerja di dalam suatu akivitas. Pengenalan Motivasi Think about times when you were really motivated in your job. only draw conclusions about it from the individual’s behaviour • What motivates one person will be different from what motivates another MOTIVATION IS NOT WHAT YOU DO TO SOMEONE –IT’S WHAT YOU DO FOR SOMEONE 2. 1.

make decisions. allocate resources and set priorities. More recent theories on empowerment recognise the importance of these motivators. recognition. Motivators are such things as the work itself (i. taking no account of human differences. job security. high levels of motivation cannot be attained merely by paying a high salary to an employee. such as Herzberg’s. For example.3. Whilst some classic theories. IV-2 .) that is normally accorded to a certain position would demotivate the individual in question. Whilst these factors are not enough on their own to provide continuous motivation. This is a much stronger motivator than the “carrot and stick” method of giving or withholding such things as bonuses or promotion. working conditions. On the other hand not receiving the salary or the status (in terms of job title. advocating that employees should be given the opportunity to take responsibility for their own projects. Such models are based on the premise that all people are the same. their absence would probably provoke serious demotivation. office space. possibilities for learning and growth. Hygiene factors on the other hand are such things as salary. Apa yang Memotivasi Orang Research carried out by Herzberg in the early 1970’s distinguished factors which are “motivators” and those which are potential demotivators (what Herzberg calls “Hygiene Factors”). are still very valuable guidelines on basic human motivational needs. status. but would not be motivated to exceed those expectations.e. The employee may at best feel a sense of responsibility to fulfil the minimum expectations of the job. responsibility and a sense of achievement. etc. In this way employees see what impact they are making in the organisation and have opportunities for personal development. company policy and administration and interpersonal relationships. The effective people manager has to realise that even two people doing the same job may be motivated by different things and has to be able to adapt his/her management style to suit individual preferences. whether a person feels it is purposeful or not). they do not explain everything. company car.

Beberapa faktor yang mempengaruhi motivasi seseorang.1. What the model summarizes is that someone will put in effort to deliver the performance you (or the organisation) require if they value the outcomes they expect to receive. Looking first at the effort – performance link.1).As a way of extending Herzberg’s ideas to accommodate individual differences. three things need to be right for the effort to be turned into effective performance: IV-3 . The model is based around outcomes (what people expect to get out of working) and is summarised in the accompanying diagram (Gambar 4. Gambar 4. we would like to develop a model which incorporates the key elements affecting motivation.

materials but also approval/authority levels and access to you for advice 3. adequate performance is impossible. These categories correspond approximately with Herzberg’s “motivators” and “hygiene factors” mentioned above. matching them is an important way of lifting motivation. and properly trained to do it If one (or more) of these is not right. It will also almost certainly be different from someone else’s list. It’s likely that your list will contain some extrinsic and some intrinsic items.1. All necessary resources must be available – not just the obvious things like people. 4. An individual will put in the effort if they value what they expect to receive as a result. by the way. as far as possible. You will have noticed that very small differences in treatment of people will have a disproportionately big impact on performance. Mengidentifikasi Motivasi This framework can be used to review someone’s motivation and to identify likely problem areas and actions. the individual will experience a feeling of job satisfaction which will itself reinforce the effort level put in. Outcomes in the diagram are listed in two categories: extrinsic (given by the organisation) and intrinsic (arising from the work itself). The individual must be able to do the job. If all these elements are well handled. This checklist of questions can be generated from the model: IV-4 . Surveys of motivation within Schlumberger have found that a combination of intrinsic and extrinsic items are commonly mentioned. The objectives must be clear and accepted by the individual – or they will go off in the wrong direction ! (you will recall that module 4 covered objective setting) 2. Often. appropriate attention to these aspects can begin to improve motivation. An important issue is the subjective idea of “fairness” – as compared with the performance level achieved and the treatment of others. plant. Having matched someone’s outcome expectations it is then necessary to deliver rewards. Take a moment to identify the outcomes that you value in your work right now. (‘leisure’ on the extrinsic list. does not refer to opportunities to rest up on the job but enjoying the leisure after the job!). Recognising the outcomes individuals and.

unique approaches to motivating each of your subordinates. IV-5 .5. Being aware of people's S/N preference can help you give individuals the kinds of tasks that will motivate them. Research has shown that the dimension that most influences the type of work that people choose is the SN dimension. There will therefore be occupations where you find clusters of types (e. there are a very large number of S secretaries and administrators.g. Motivasi dan Jenisnya Let us now look at how you can also use the Myers Briggs Type Indicator to build on any previous motivation theories you may have come across to develop new. a designer or scientist involved in blue sky research is more likely to have a preference for N).

STs are found frequently amongst accountants and bankers. manufacturing are well suited to Ts who like to deal with machinery. In business. construction. research has shown that a high number of customer relations and sales people are SF.The second most important dimension in terms of understanding people's choice of work is the T-F dimension as this is the one which determines how they make judgements. Whatever industry you are in you will probably come across both Ts and Fs who you have to motivate. Engineering. IV-6 . A 'T' person will be comfortable working in an environment where he/she has to make decisions on a rational. principles or theory. Those people with an F preference would often be drawn to occupations where they could be of service to others or where decisions could be made on the merits of individual cases. logical basis.

Someone with an ST profile would focus on detail and logical thinking.When we combine the two functions we get an even clearer picture of how to motivate individuals. but are more concerned by their logical implications. They would probably place a high value on responsibility and would work happily in a clearly structured unit or organisation where hierarchy and roles are defined and respected. They work best in a decentralised structure with no clear lines of authority or fixed rules. They are more motivated by possibilities and long-term goals rather than actualities. we get another perspective on how to motivate individuals. They like to feel a sense of belonging and require support from their manager to remain motivated. For example. When we combine the E/I preference with the S/N function. They feel secure when they know who is accountable for what and are able to control the results of their work. They like to make a difference in people's lives. An SF would take the same care with details but would look at the impact of those details on people. warm interpersonal contacts. NTs are also interested in long-term goals. impersonal concepts and theories. They like to work in a fairly structured organisation but with friendly. An NF does not pay close attention to details. The other two scales (E/I and J/P) describe the way people like to work as opposed to the kinds of work that will motivate them. To be motivated they need a leader who can provide inspiration and human goals. They are motivated by having to find innovative solutions and by dealing with broad. an EN would be motivated by an IV-7 . They value competence.

An IN likes to draw on his or her creativity and inspiration. An ES on the other hand. In order to complete the picture. The IS employee on the other hand likes to have clearly defined tasks that they can get on with on their own. let us now look at the J-P scale which determines how individuals like to organize their work or the working environment. It therefore can sometimes be difficult to predict what outside stimuli the IS will react to. Their attention tends to be very selective and is determined by their own internal interests.open-ended project. IV-8 . He or she would be motivated by difficult problems and would often like to be the one pioneering a new area of work. would probably prefer a more structured project working in a team with others. particularly one which required them to gather information or opinions from many other different people.

IV-9 .

Kepercayaan diri hanya dapat dirasakan oleh yang bersangkutan dalam bentuk kemantapan hati dan optimisme menghadapi tugas yang harus dilakukan. dan pergolakan. baik antara seorang dengan orang lai ataupun antara seorang tetapi dengan tugas yang IV-10 . persaingan. Tugas dan Kepercayaan Diri Kepercayaan diri atau selfconfidence merupakan suatu paduan sikap dan keyakinan seorang dalam menghadapi suatu tugas atau pekerjaan yang berasal dari dalam diri. Pengembangan Kepercayaan Diri “… untuk menghadapi dunia masa mendatang yang penuh keterbatasan. Kepercayaan diri adalah sifat internal pribadi seseorang dan bersifat sangat relative.Sumber : Bahan Training Schlumbereger 6. hanya ada satu jawaban bagi generasi mendatang agar dapat ‘survive’ yaitu mempertebal kepercayaan diri…” a.

Secara umum orang yang semakin tua. Seseorang mungkin akan mempunyai kepercayaan diri yang besar untuk melakkukan suatu tugas tertentu tetapi kepercayaan dirinya akan hilang jika harus mengerjakan pekerjaan yang lain. Seseorang mungkin akan mempunyai kepercayaan diri yang tinggi untuk melakukan sesuatu pekerjaan tetapi akan berkurang kepercayaan dirinya seiring bertambahnya usia atau telah terjadi sesuatu pada dirinya missal kecelakaan. Dalam setiap keberhasilan akan terselip rasa puas dan bangga yang dapat menumbuhkan rasa percaya diri. IV-11 . Sukses dan Kegagalan Salah satu faktor penting yang mempengaruhi peningkatan dan pengurangan kepercayaan diri adalah kegagalan atau kesuksesan dala menyelesaikan tugas. tetapi jika pekerjaan yang sulit dapat dilalui dengan baik tentu akan mempertebal rasa kepercayaan diri. Tingkat kemungkinan seseorang gagal atau sukses dalam melaksanakan tugas banyak ditentukan oleh tingkat kemudahan atau kesulitan pekerjaan yang dihadapi dan tingkat kemampuan seseorang. Kepercayaan diri juga bersifat dinamis. Hal ini dikarenakan karena jiwanya yang telah matang dan pengalaman yang cukup. terutama yang telah melewati setengah umur akan berkurang rasa percaya dirinya untuk melakukan kegiatan yang bersifat ketrampilan fisik. Namun sebaliknya usia yang makin lanjut makin member kepercayaan diri untuk menyelesaikan masalah-masalah nonfisik walaupun relative kompleks. sebaliknya setiap kegagalan akan menyisakan kekecewaan dan perasaan kecil hati atau bahkan frustasi yang mengarah kepada pengurangan kepercayaan diri. makin dierlukan kepercayaan diri yang tinggi. Kegagalan yang berulang atau beruntun dapat mengurangi kepercayaan diri yang bersangkutan sebaliknya kepercayaan diri seseorang akan semakin meningkat apabila dia sering berhasil dalam melaksanakan tugasnya. Makin sulit pekerjaan makin besar kemungkinan gagal. b.berbeda. Makin sulit suatu pekerjaan.

Kemandirian atau kemampuan untuk “berdiri sendiri” erat hubungannya dengan tingkat kepercayaan diri seseorang. dan tenaga. Kemampuan dan Kepercayaan Diri Untuk mencegah. ataupun mengurangi kemungkinan terkikisnya rasa kepercayaan diri maka seseorang harus pandai memilih pekerjaan cara menyelesaikan pekejaan yang dihadapinya. serta hasil akhir yang diperoleh. dan menyelesaikan suatu pekerjaan dengan baik dalam arti baik perencanaannya. melaksanakan. Selain itu faktor ketenangan. Kepercayaan diri seseorang banyak ditentukan oleh kemampuannya untuk memulai. Ambisi memang harus dimiliki tetapi ukuran kemampuan seseorang banyak ditentukan oleh latihan dan pengembangan diri melalui pengalaman. Optimisme dan keberanian yang melampaui batas tentu akan memberikan hasil yang tidak memuaskan juga. menghindari. Hal ini tentu saja jangan ditafsirkan sebagai sesuatu untuk menakuti (discourage) ataupun membatasi seseorang yang sedang bergairah dan berambisi untuk mencapai sukses yang besar. d. Lompatan jauh hanya dapat tercapai melalui latihan dan kerja keras yang sistematis. Seorang yang memiliki kepercayaan diri yang tinggi IV-12 . efisiensi waktu. Dengan cara pengembangan kemampuan menyelesaikan pekerjaan dari yang paling sulit menuju pekerjaan yang relative sulit. untuk itu sebaiknya keberanian mengambil resiko didasarkan pada perhitungan yang matang dan disesuaikan dengan kemampuan dan tingkat kepercayaan diri yang ada. kepercayaan diri dapat dikembangakan pula. Sikap Mental dan Kepercayaan Diri Optimisme dan keberanian mengambil resiko dalam menghadapi suatu tantangan tidak luput dari penganruh kepercayaan diri yang ada. c. ketekunan. teknis pelaksanaan.Untuk meningkatkan kepercayaan diri seseorang harus berusaha sebanyak mungkin mencetak kesuksesan. biaya. dan kegairahan dalam mengerjakan tugas. secara langsung maupun tidak dapat menunjukkan tingkat kepercayaan diri seseorang. sistematikanya.

e. bersyukur. Orang beriman akan selalu bersyukur atas segala karunia yang diterimanya bukan malah menyesalinya. Doa banyak memberikan ketentraman batin dan dorongan pada karsa. Penolong.relatif akan mampu menyelesaikan suatu pekerjaan tanpa harus menunggu perintah atau bantuan orang lain. IV-13 . sebaliknya setiap karya yang dihasilkan juga akan menumbuhkan dan meningkatkan kepercayaan diri. dan berdoa adalah bagian yang tidak terpisahkan. Seseorang yang beriman akan selalu berani melekukan suatu pekerjaan jika pekerjaan yang dihadapinya dianggap baik dan benar. Iman kepada Tuhan akan member rasa aman yang tenteram. ketentraman batin Iman. Mawas Diri Berdasar segala uraian diatas maka seyogyanya masing-masing mencoba untuk mengevaluasi diri. menelaah kelemahan-kelemahan yang dirasakan dapat mennghambat kemajuan. ketenangan dan kegairahan bekerja sehingga secara tidak langsung akan mempertebal kepercayaan diri. bahkan mungkin dianggap mulia disisi Tuhan. Keyakinan bahwa Tuhan Maha Pengasih dan penyayang. Kepercayaan dri merupakan landasan yang kuat untuk meningkatkan karsa dan karya seseorang. Orang yang beriman kepada Tuhan tidak akan merasa rendah diri. dan jangan biarkan diri kita larut dalam lembah duka dan frustasi. dan Pengampun akan mempertebal rasa kepercayaan diri seseorang yang beriman karena akan menghilangkan semua keraguan dan kebimbangan ataupun ketakutan untuk melakukan sesuatu. bahkan merupakan landasan utama dari kepercayaan diri. Unsur Keimanan Unsur keimanan dapat menumbuhkan rasa percaya diri. Biasakan diri hidup penuh dengan gairah positif. namun semua itu harus diikuti dengan tindakan nyata jika memang ada suatu hasil nyata yang diinginkan. f. Jika ada kegagalan hendaknya kegagalan tersebut dijadikan guru dan jangan sampai kegagalan menjerumuskan diri pada penyesalan tiada henti.

orang bersedih karena kemalangan juga wajar.Seorang yang bersedih atau kecewa karena kegagalan adalah wajar. namun tidaklah wajar jika kesedihan dan kekecewaan tersebut dibiarkan berlarut-larut. IV-14 .