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# Project 2

Cantilever Retaining Wall

Contents:
A. Written Parts
1. Preliminary design
2. Computation of soil thrust (analytical (Rankine) and graphical (Culmann) method
3. Stability checks
B. Drawings
1. Vertical cross-section (scale 1:50)
2. Computation plan of soil thrust usign graphical method

Ionescu Paul
Nr ≔ 8
Gr ≔ 1
ua ≔ 5
daN ≔ 10 N

5 ―― Surcharge on platform 2 2 m m f ≔ 0. Input data Design Theme: The scope of this project is to design a cantilever type of retaining wall from concrete to create a raised flat platform.3 m df ≔ 1 m H ≔ df + dH = 5. 0.0.9 ―― ⋅ kN 3 m ϕ = 33.663 m zf ≔ Round (zf .53 m 10 H zf ≔ ―= 0.5 m) = 0.1.5 deg .2 m height of wall above ground height of wall under ground total height base width H a ≔ Round (a .5 m a ≔ ― = 0. 0.3 m B ≔ 3.44 friction coefficient between base pier and soil soil conventional pressure pconv ≔ 280 kPa dH ≔ (3.5 ua) deg daN c ≔ 0 ―― 2 m kN kN q ≔ (10 + 2.1 ⋅ Nr) m = 4. Preliminary Design 1. The backfill is granulal cohesionless soil (sand) with the following characteristics: Specific weight: Internal friction angle: Cohesion: kN γ ≔ (19 − 0.3 m top wall width ⎝ 24 ⎠ wall width foot base height 1 γ = 18.05 m) = 0.1 ⋅ Gr) ―― 3 m ϕ ≔ (31 + 0. 30 cm⎟ = 0.5 ua) ―― = 22.65 m 8 ⎞ ⎛H t ≔ max ⎜― .5 + 0.

82 kN = 111. However. if the wall AB is allowed to move away from the soil mass gradually.289 ka ≔ ⎜tan ⎜45 deg − ― 2 ⎟⎠⎟⎠ ⎝ ⎝ 2. The line BC is divided into 10 equal segments and is computed the weight vectors Gi of each soil triangle BB'Ci represented on reference line at a convinient scale. Ultimately a state will be reached when the stress condition in the soil element can be represented by the Mohr’s circle b. and the effective pressure σ'a on the vertical plane (which is a principal plane) is Rankine’s active earth pressure. Computation of soil thrust (analytical (Rankine) and graphical (Culmann) method 2. then σ'h = K0σ'0 .88 Pmax ≔ ―― ⋅ 57. The curve passing to each pressure vector is drawn and the maximum is found intersecting a tangent line (parallel to reference line) and the curve. If the wall AB is not allowed to move. 2 Point C is is set at the intersection of the reference line and superior soil surface. Earth active pressure force vector has the direction of the orietation line. the state of plastic equilibrium and failure of the soil will occur. This situation represents Rankine’s active state.1 Rankine method: The phrase plastic equilibrium in soil refers to the condition where every point in a soil mass is on the verge of failure.2.2 Culmann method 2. The stress condition in the soil element can be represented by the Mohr’s circle a. the horizontal principal stress will decrease. . σa ka = ― for cohesionless soil : σo 2 ⎛ ⎛ ϕ ⎞⎞ = 0. the application point in Gi end and the vertex at the intersection with B'Ci . As the friction between the wall and soil is neglected and the back face of the wall is vertical the angle Ψ is π taken ―. The vertical and horizontal effective principal stresses on a soil element at a depth z are σ'0 and σ'h respectively.5 Soil active pressure coefficient This method consist in finding graphically the active pressure force exerted by backfiill soil.014 kN 1. The reference line line B'C makes angle ϕ with the horizontal plane and the orientation line is inclined with Ψ angle from the reference line.

Overturning 3.rotating . Sliding 3.352 Pa .1.23 m 2 Gs ≔ As ⋅ γ ⋅ 1 m = 193.3.193 kN Total soil lateral pressure force: q ⋅ ka + (q + γ ⋅ H) ka = 111.2. Sliding Ff vL = ― Pa Sliding safety factor ⎛ 2 a−t⎞ Area of wall profile: Aw ≔ B ⋅ zf + (H − zf) ⎜t + ―― = 3.1.347 kN Friction force: Ff ≔ f ⋅ ⎛⎝Gw + Gs + q ⋅ (B − 2 a) ⋅ 1 m⎞⎠ = 150.5 kN 3 m Soil area resting on wall footing: As ≔ (B − 2 a) ⋅ (H − zf) = 10.068 kN Pa ≔ H ⋅ 1 m ⋅ ――――――― 2 Ff vL ≔ ― = 1.94 m ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ kN Total weight of wall: Gw ≔ Aw ⋅ 25 ―― ⋅ 1 m = 98.sliding (structure beeing to light) . Stability checks Failure scenarios: .sinking (structure beeing to heavy ) Ultimate limit states for: 3.3. Bearing capacity 3.