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CONTENTS

Sl. No.

Chapter

Desclipnon

Page No

Introduction

II

Review of literature

15

.)

III

Background of study

19

IV

Research Methodology

24

Personal Profile

32

VI

Social condition and family background

36

VII

Economic Status

46

VIII

Health & Psychological condition

51

IX

Life style

58

10

Summmy, Conclusion & Suggestion

64

11

XI

Case Studies

71

12

Appendix-!

Bibliography

75

-""

Appendix-II

Intetview Schedule

78

TROD CTIO
~

ci ilize , o
within and be

omenon has all long engaged the attenta on of all

ersal and irreversible process which varies considerably


ee c tures. Getting old is the result of the interplay of biological,
<b

sociaL phychological and ecology factors of age is the last phase of the human life
cycle and the determination of old differs from society to society in accordance
with the social organization including the cultural beliefs organization including
the cultural beliefs in vogue on one hand and the level of economy, standard of
living and health services on other.
Again has been viewed different by different people. where as to some it
means power, authority wisdom and respect; others consider it as a forced retirement
leading to a state of dependency loss of charm and of physical strength. To most
ageing implies physiological and psychosocial changes that are reflected in their
consequential loss old states, both in the family and in the society.
Edward J. Stieglight defmes ageing as the element of time in living according
to him," again is a part of living, againg begins with conception and terminate with
death". It cannot be arrested unless we arrest life. We may retard againg or accelerate
it, but we cannot arrest it while life goes on,

becau~e

it is essentially an element in

living ageing shows as we grow older. Ageing change change rapid in youth and
even more rapid parentally in.the period between conception and birth.
The demography composition of the world is undergoing transformation. The world
is going and this process is accepted and intensified by the decreasing birth rate and
morality rate, and increasing longevity of life. This change is going to affect the
social and economic lives of human being to a great extent. The demography
composition of the world is undergoing transformation. The world is going and this
process is accepted and intensified by the decreasing birth rate and morality rate,
and increasing longevity oflife. This change is going to affect the social and economic
lives of human being to a great extent.
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The population of the older people in the world aged 60 years and above has
increased by 68% over the last 20 years. According to the estimate of UN there were
approximately 400 millions people in that age group, which constitute 6.4% of the
world's total population. According too an9ther
estimate in 1950 there were 200
.
_

million people over the age of 60 years, w11tc'h by 2000 was 590 million and going
too 1177 million by 2025. They will represent approximately 13.75% ofthe world's
population.
In India, the number of agedpeople has increased with better health and medical
facilities. In India the no of aged above 60 years have increased to 77 million and
their percentage constitute 7. 7% of the total population. Now it is expected to increase
to 9.87.
Sex ratio (females pre 1,000 males) of elderly population and general population,
India (1961 - 2001)
Year

All age (General


population)

Age
60+

Ao-e Group
60-64
65-69

70+

1961

941

1,000

969

962

1064

1971

930

9378

921

922

970

1981

933

956

931

978

970

1991

929

904

904

953

1024

2001

947

987

969

965

1022

Again brings in its wake a host of changes in body and mind of individuals
with consequent impact on the life style and social relations. The rapid industrialization
and urbanization has also led to dissertation old elderly citizen especially the women
by their migration to their working place leaving the old parents alone.
Not withstanding the difference in the criteria of determining the old age,
there has been a great transformation in the structure of the society. Such a shift in
the structure of society, which has resulted in the replacement of multigenerational

units has also had negative effect on the role of old people many of whom nave
their social security in the family. Gradually most of them have relegated to me
fringes of society where they live in isolation as unwanted elements and this can be
in all most all industrial societies.
As the social, economic and psychological problems of the aged are growing.
So to eliminate some of these difficulties a new discipline known as
"GERONTOLOGY" has been developed.

GERONTOLOGY
The term, gerontology is used to describe the systematic study of ageing process.
It generally refers to the study oflate adulthood among human beings. A major branch
of gerontology known as social gerontology has emerged to deal with the social life
ofthe aged.
Social gerontology, thus lay much emphasis on the study of the impact of
social and socio cultural factors on the aging process. It also encompasses a wide
verities of areas like health, family, economic, political and retirement problems of
aged.
The practical purpose of gerontology is to help people lead a better life in their
old age. In western approaches gerontology is influenced by the dominant expenses
of the elderly such as social isolation, abuse, senility and a host of other diseases of
industrial culture. In traditional Indian society generally shows great respect and
consideration for old persons. They were revered as depository of widow prestige
and privileges. Apart from this is India, the aged people plays the most significant
role in socialization of children. As Pillow (1985) has observed that "the higher the
person's age the greater will be his or 41<;)
her knowledge or wisdom".
Gerontology has evolved as a "major branch of study in India in the post
independence period. Its important is gradually being felt in present Indian society.
Where its social structure and value are under going transformation from a traditional

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to a modem and industrial social order with effect of school education coupled with
modern knowledge, industrialization and urbanization.Because of the change in
economic structure in contemporary transitional Indian, the younger and educated
member who were discontented with the administration of the family and the existence
of the elderly as an integral part of the family are being uprooted.
CONCEPT OF AGING

The concept of aging is broadly categorized under two different categories :1.

Physical ageing.

2.

Social ageing.

Physical Ageing :- It is associated with changes in the physiological conditions of a

person such as change in hair, color, loss teeth, weakeyesight, or inability to attend to
personal needs, several physical ailments and their consequences on individual and
family.
Social Ageing :- It is administratively determined for the purpose of social security,

retirement from jobs in the organization sector, for demographic classification, its
consequence on individual and community.
The concept of aging has taken many meaning. Myers in ( 1985) has elaborated
the aging of population in the following manner.
a)

Aging may be viewed as a biological process through which an organization


is modified from birth to death. In a similar sense, the psychological and social
development, process of individuals, inducing transition in social positions,
role status and characteristic of persons can also be examined.

b)

on aging of families, a social grouping


An extension of their approach focuses
~
that is modified over the life course of persons can also be examined.

c)

On a more aggregate level, change on the age distribution of population can


be examined usually in terns of relative proportion of each age group this is
most common way in which the population aging has been viewed.

r s 1

d)

On a more abstract level, there is a sense in which aging can be viewed as a


unsocial index of social and civilization maturity. If one accepts the propositions
that societies follow evolutionary or cyclic paths of growth and decline then
the age of societies follow evolutionary or cyclic paths of growth and diction
then the age of societies represent a vital index of this process, perhaps related
to demographic transition and cultural vitality.
It can't be assumed that only old age has problem at every stage of life. But it

1s conceived that the problem required to be forced in old age may be difficult and of
a different nature of the problem of young or middle age. As such the problems faced
by the elderly of society need special attention by socialities and psychological. Old
age means physical disabilities declining mental ability, the gradual giving up of
roles, playing in social activities and a shift from economic status moving from
economic dependence on other for support.
The period during old age when physical and mental decline is slow and gradual
and when compensation can be made for these declines is known as senescence - a
time of growing_ old or of aging. The term "Senility" is used to refer to the period
during old age when more or less complete physical breakdown takes place and
when there is mental disorganization the individual who becomes eccentric
careless,absent minded, socially withdraw and poorly adjusted is usually described
as "Senile".
Senility may come as early as the fifties or it may occur because the individual
dies before deterioration sets in decline comes partly from a psychological factors.
Individuals who have no sustaining interests after retirement are likely to become
depressed and disorganised. As a result they go down both physically and mentally
and may die soon . How the individual co~s up with the strain and stress of living
will the strain and stress ofliving will also affected the half of his decline. The physical
and psychological changes determines to an large extent, whether he will make a
good or poor personal and social adjustment.

I
Socio-economic situation as faced and experienced by individuals differ from
different groups of people just because one has become old, it doesn't mean that one
has same set of problems of aftluent aged differ from that of destitute aged, the
conditions of slum dwellers differ from those living in developed or posh colonies,
similarly is the position with regards to pensioners and non pensioners of those living
in rural, urban and tribal areas of those belonging to land-owing class and landless
class, etc. the difference in problems may be because different groups face different
differently organized, or have different traditions, values and cultures.
PROBLEMS OF AGED

A man's life is normally divided into five main stages namely : infancy,
childhood, adolescene, adulthood and old age. In each of these stages an individual
has to fmd himself in different situations and faces different problems. Thought form
the point of view of wider society the problems of old age are comparatively less,
from the stand point of the individual the problems are not less significant. In old age
physical strength deteriorates, mental stability dimensions, money power becomes
bleak and eyesight suffers a set back. Only for few old age may prove to be a stage of
contentment and satisfactory. But for a large number a period of disappointment;
dejection, disease, repentance and loneliness. In order to fmd some solace for their
distressed mind good number of people turn towards religion. Some seek to get
satisfaction through the achievements of their children or grandchildren. Some cut
off their relations with external world and prefer to line in solitude only a few make
compromises and try to equip themselves to sail along with the currents of life.
The problems ofthese aged are numerous and complex. The aged in our country
are m ClStallt danger. They lack certain inlportant vitamins, minerals and other food
er major problems encountered by the aged are, the generation gap,
'ards a general protective attitude of retired age without

needs which inevitably stimulates rather unfavourable


re

~uu.

In urban context the oral problems of the aged nave


- 1

began with the division of joint families and property, which ultimately weakened
the so-called traditional familial social security of all in the family. Time to time
changes in the institution of marriage and family have diminished the control of
parents over their children subsequently giving rise to their dependence much on
their children.
In the cities, more number of aged who worked in the organized sector during
their career have been and more covered by social insurance scheme such as pensions,
gratitude's, provident fund disbursement made up on their retirement Since 1871
such system is existing. Similarly the aged in unorganized sector constitute 89% of
the aged worked for low wages and thus have little or no savings to enable them to
meet their old age needs, each of these categories has its own life style and problems.
The present development plans accorded low priority in allocation of resources
for providing services to the aged nor have these people received adequate attention

"

from public, planners, administrators and social scientist. It is high time not only to
generate increased Govt. awareness of the plight of the aged but also to sensitize the
elite groups and NGO's regarding various programs to be envisaged for the
rehabilitation of these people.
It is recognized that prevalence of mental illness among aged person is

comparatively higher than younger persons. the reason for such mental disorder are
depression, loss of role as a bread earner, multiple and complicated bioorganic brain
involvement, differential of children disparities in value precipitation, generation
gap etc. In other words the aged person fail to meet their biological, social,
psychological need in a given achievement.

THE PLIGHT OF AGED WOMEN


~

are the wonderful creation of God" She ls endowed with beauty, nourishing and
motherly attributes. Many seers, poets, have appreciated and praised these virtues of
women. But with the passage of time the same marvel of creation withers and fades
and await for the dooms day. However, that does not come all of a sudden. Due to

rs

change of society, broken systems of joint family, industrialization and even more
economic deterioration, these families are left alone, consigned to their fate. As women
, generally out live the men their number is increasing so also their agony multiplies
at the last stage of life.
Women of India can be broadly divided into two classes against the backdrop
of the development in a time frame continuous. The educated elite and privileged
minority can be seen as one class and the .uneducated, deprived and unprivileged
majority as the other. Though at two ends of the spectrum there is the possibility of a
meeting point for the two classes in there unified pursuit for participative and
distributive justies, where they can express there latent mind power in the opportunities
the explore,the choice they make the resources they seek. Women with varied social,
economic, political regional,linguistic background and milieu constitute about half
the nation.
Old age has different implication for men and women. For e.g.-:effect of the
family cycle is rriore traumatic for women than for men because of their involvement
in female roles in the domestic sphere. Those the change of role induced by the
marriage of the elder son implies a greater identity crises for the women rather than
men, widowhood has a much greater impact on women as it makes them totally
dependent on their sons, involving not only emotional deprivation but also a loss of
status with in the family.
For a male, his role as a major earner in the family is critical, is likely to suffer
in self-esteem if he sees him self as a dependent it is possible that elderly women
does not experience the same loss of status as the male does. For one thing the womens
status does not deemed directly pme jer pwm ability to support her self through her
~

husband's abilities. To do so major facto

tn determing her status. But the mother

enjoys the special status in the eye's ofher son doe's not experience the same sense
of in adequacy that father may experience when she is dependent on her son in the
non traditional.

When sitting gender is a very important variable that, influence quality of life
of all ages. India is one of the few countries in the world where women out number
men at all ages.
TABLE
The table shows is of male & female population of different ages.

YEAR

FD.1.ALE

MALE
_ ,., -

u-

,6"u-

65-

2.9

1.7

6.1

3.8

2.0

5.5

3.3

1.7

5.8

3.5

1.9

5.9

3.6

1.9

6.0

.)_

2.0

1980

6.4

4.0

2.2

6.6

4.1

2.3

1990

7.1

4.5

2.5

7.6

4.8

2.8

60~

65+

1950

5.2

1960
1970

70+
!

...

'

I
I
'

2000

8.0

3.5

3.0

5.9

8.9

3.4

'

I
- ----- - --- -- -- -

---

-- - -

------------

- _______ L_____

------

-- --

-------

------

----------

One of the main social effects of extension of life of women is the extended
period of widowhood for women. The number of widows out number widowers due
to cultural practice of many managing younger women and widow. Remarriage being
uncommon.

MEASURES TAKEN UP BY THE GOVT. AND OTHER AGENCIES


The Indian constitution recognizes the duties of the state towards its citizens
including the aged according to article 41. The state shall, within the limits of economic
capacity and development, make effective provisions fnr securing right to work
education and public assistance in case ~f unemployment, old age sickness and
'

disablement and in other cases of undeserved want".


Some states Governments are hiving monthly old age pensions for those aged

60/65 years who have nobody to maintain them. Foods grains are also given in certain
places.

10 1

The senior citizens are given income tax concession upon certain limit.
The

Indian Airlines I Railways are giving concessions in tickets to senior

citizens. Some state Govt. have allowed their consession in journey.


In some old age houses, old person with no source in income are maintains
free of cost.

NAITONALOLDAGEPENSIONSCHEME
1)

Central assistance under the National Social Assistance Programmed (NSAP)

will be available for old age pensions provided strictly according to conditions given
below.
The age of the applicant.
The applicant must be a destitute in the sense of having little or no regular means of
subsistence from his/her own sources of income or through fmancial support from
family members or other societies. In order to determine destitute the criteria, if any
currently in force in the states union. Territories may also be followed the Govt. of
India reserve the right to review these criteria and suggest appropriate revised criteria.
The ceiling on total number of old age pensions for purpose of claiming legal assistance
will be as specified for the status I UTs.
2)

Village panchayata's and relevant Municipalities shall support every call of

death of a pensioner immediately after its occurrence to the appropriate sanctioning


authority. The sanctioning authority shall ensure that payments are stopped there
after.
3)

Sanctioning authority shall have the right to stop I recover payments of any

pension sanctioned on the bases of false % mistakes information about eligibility.


4)

Senior citizens are given 50% concession in air travel and 30% concession in

Rail travel in all classes. Besides they given an income tax exemption upto1,20,000/annually.

[ 11 l

EXTRACTS OF THE RAVISED ORISSA OLD AGE PENSION RULES, 1989

1)

The state Govt. had through their resolution No. : 12066 I pen 30-74/f.
Dated: 25th March 1975 introduced a scheme for grant of pension to destitute

of 65 years of age and above. The scheme was administered throughout the provisions
of the Orissa old age pension rules which formed a part of resolution. In resolution
ows of 50 years of age and

No. 8278, Dated 16th October 1985 the destitute

above. In resolution No. 1863, Dated: 17th Februarv 1989. it was further decided
that leprosy patients with visible signs of deformity

~.vould be

also be eligible for this

pension at the age of 60 years and above.


2)

After careful consideration, govt. have further been pleased to decide that old

age pension rules shall be further revised with a view to ensuring expeditions payments
of pension to old age pensioners by administering the scheme through panchayata
involvement of the Panchayati Raj Institutions with the social welfare programmed
ofGovt.
SOCIAL ASSISTANCE FOR THE POOR LDERLY IN ORISSA : HOW
EFFECTIVE?

ANNAPURNA SCHEME- On March 1999, the Central Govt. Announced a social


assistance scheme for the elderly destitute who have no one to take care of them.
Under the scheme, an elderly destitute will be provided with 1Okg of rice free of
cost. This scheme aimed at covering those who are otherwise eligible for old age
pension scheme. The Govt. has allocated a sum of Rs. 100 Corers of this. But
unfortunately, only 15 states have implemented this scheme, Orissa though one among
them, it has failed to provide the benefit in all areas.
OLD AGE HOMES. :- The total no of old
age homes in Orissa is 44 in which
~
~

approximately 1100 destitute older person take shelter. In Orissa, estimated 1,58,471
no of older people are there and approximately 4064 are centenarians. Though there
is a need of more homes for the destitute, it's been difficult to continue support for
them.

12 1

OLD AGE PENSION:- the State provides a pension ofRs. 150/- to the needy destitute.
For the year 2001-2002 an approximated 7060.21 lakh was spent on this. However
still, many elderly were denied the support. As per the govt. records, out of the target
of 590000, the scheme has covered.
As per the National policy for the older person an action plan was prepared to
be implemented from 2000 till 2005 in which, the Ministry of Agriculture was
supposed to recognize the older person specifically in the relief code, but the recent
cyclone saw the callousness of the govt. towards the elderly.
As per the above scheme, Ministry of health and family welfare has provision
of geriatric beds I wards in all public hospital, but in Orissa no such provision has
been made so far.
Under the project OASIS, financial assistance up to 90% of the project cost is
provided to .the voluntary organization for establishing and maintaining old age homes,
day care center and mobile medicare units but only 44 old age homes are there in
Orissa. The conditions of the older people in these homes are deteriorating everyday
due to substantial delay in releasing the funds for such programme.
1999 INTERNATIONAL YEAR OF ELDERLY
The year 1999 has been declared by the United Nations as the international
year of older persons, the objective being "to add life to the years that have been
added to life." The union govt. approved on Jan. 13 1999 the national policy for
older persons for accelerating welfare measures and empowering the elderly people
in ways beneficial to them. It may be recalled that in 1990, the general assembly of
the united nation designated 1st, October as the international day for the elderly,
later renamed the international day

old~Ft.persons,

which was celebrated for the first

time in the year 1999". The day has become an annual affair in most countries with
varied activities a organized in conjunction with the official commemoration. The
general assembly adopted the UN principles for older persons in 1991. The eighteen
principles to provide a brood frame work for action on ageing. They are organized

t3 1

into five clusters : independence, participation, care, self, fulfillment and dignity of
older persons. In 1991, the general assembly adopted the proclamation, which called
for the observance of the year "1999 as the international year of the aged".
The only remedy to ageing or the process of degeneration is perpetual
regeneration. The first to regenerate is the need or faith one must believe in the
possibility of fighting back the onslaught of age. One must refuse to grow old one
must not count his/her age but keep function. The minor complaints that tend to
make a maintain of a male hill should be just ignored.Today's younger generation
will become tomorrow's senior citizen. What we do to the aged parents will be done
to us in future. All should realize that the savor have the scarified their life in building
up our family and hence they have the right to retire and have peace when they are
old. It should be our responsibilities to see that old member of the family are given
due respect, love and care when they are in need.

-!f)

t4

~l

II - ll3:~dVH3

REVIEW OF LITERATURE
In the present chapter an attempt has been made to made an extensive review
of litreature on the study of ageing in India.It is expected that review will provide
sufficient insight into the problems under study.Added to that it will provide some
directions in which the present study can be directed.
In the review of litreture the researcher have re\iewed all the studies that has
been published in various researches, journals, books. magazines and the data available

ln state library and other libraries have been reviewed \\ith the help of the content
analysis method, the news paper[current and old] have also been scanned and
articles have been taken out from internet.
Until very recently their has been very little research on their problem of ageing
in India although in 1960's only one attempt was made to bring together evidence
from library and sociological sources to shed light on the issue of the status of old
people in Indian society.Probably the first published report of a field investigation
designed (1964).Since Harlans work a number ofmore extensive studies of ageing
in India have been carried out for the most part by sociologists interested in a
broadly focused inquiry into the roles of old people in particularly rural and urban
communities.
Scientist and Philosophers of Greece and Rome dscribed the process of ageing
in t erms of biological and psychological way. HIPPOCRATES, ARRISTOTLE,
CICERO were the few who dealt with the process of ageing.
Aristotle in his book "On youth and old age on life and death and death and on
respiration" . presented youth and old age as opposite.
~ ';)

Galen a Greek philosopher was th~ fust man to characterizes aging as a process
beginning with conception,
Plato in his book "Republic" refers to two important features of the later life.
The persistence of characteristic from earlier lift and the relief of having out grown
some life difficulties including frustrated ambition.
r 16 1

Cicero "De senectuate has become a very favorite source for contemporary
writer on ageing".
The Belgain Mathematician Quetelet was considered to be the first gerontology

and be had contributed a book "on the nature of man and the

development of his

facilities" .
An English

statistician, Sir Francis Galeton was perhaps the next prominent

investigator in the field of aging. He was influenced bv outlet,s work and his
fundamental contribution to the concept of aging was based on the data gathered by
his Anthropometries laboratory at the International He

Exhibition in L-andon 1884.

In America, Cotton Mather (1663 - 1728) was one of the first writers about
agemg.
The premier comparative study of aging in various societies is Leo. W.
Simmons's. The role ofthe aged in primitive societies. The general argument of this
study is that the status of the aged varies among societies; the allocation of society is
negatively related to the development of technology and occupatioal specialization
and more generally modernization.
Saraswati Mishra in her study, social adjustment among retired Government
Employers of Chandigarh, has concluded that old age has started emerging as social
problems in Indian society due to socio-cultural changes brought about by the
industrial revolution. According to her the main contributing factor for the emergence
of social problem of old age are the changing social structures especially the family
structures, individualistic values, negative attitudes of the younger generation towards
the aged and the compulsory retirement form economic activity.
&f)

Kripal Singh Soodan in his study "Ageing in India". has found that about half
of the aged are wholly dependent upon others one tired of the aged are still the chief
bread urinners oftheir families. A majority of aged had no income oftheir owns. His
analysis of the assets and liabilities of the aged showed that about a forth of the aged

11 1

had yet to meet their major responsibilities connected with the education and marriage
of their children.
Sati in her study concluded that the retired persons didn't consider themselves
isolated lot as they were all inlagrated with the family and they didn't consider
themselves a liability on the family.
Bhatia's study of retired employees of an urban area of udaipur attitudes that,
as a social and economic event most of the retired people face retirement without any
planning and preparation. The retires are not very happy about the age of retirement.
Most of them want to continue in their employment, if it is possible. Income has been
stated by the retires as their greatest deprivation offer retirement.
In the western countries, old age has been fixed at 60 years, which also happens

to be the age of retirement from public service. In India, most Govt. servants are
repaired to retire at younger age of 58 years and hence the problem of retirement
arises much earlier.

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BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY


The area of study of the researcher is "Balasore city". In order to understand
the nature of the area, it is necessary for the

re~_earcher

to depict the nature and

haracteristics of it in a order setting. So, it is appropriate to give the demographic


rofile of Orissa first and then Balasore city.
ORISSA:-

In 1936, Orissa because the new modem state. Orissa is situated on the East
oast oflndia. It has total geographical area of 1555,707 sq. Km., Balasore is one of
a small district of Orissa. It has population of 36,706 approx. The language spoken
ere 1s onya.
Orissa is maritime state with a costline of 482km along the Bay of Bengal . It
::surrounded by west Bengal on the west, Bihar on the North and Andhra Pradesh
e south. The average rainfall in the state is 150cm.
Orissa's economy is agro based 76% of people are dependent on agriculture.
es, oilseeds, jute, sugar came, cocunut and turmeric are important crops. The
ontributes one-tenth (1 / lOth)of the rice production in India.Forests cover nearly

--- Yo of the total area of state.


Orissa has a high percentage of SC and ST constituting . 9.78 million out of
~ _6.37

million people. The high court is located at Cuttack.

resent study has been conducted in the city Balasore. The details of which

I -

Balasore is a leading place of education.It has got many schools and


colleges. There are both English medium and Regional schools like Boys High school
DAV Public school. Many colleges have been established in the city but among
themreputed ones are F.M College,KK&, Womens college,Balasore College of
Engeneering and Technology,Modem Eng~eering and Management Studies.has also
many places of recreation like Parks, Cinema halls, clubs, restaurants, city mall,
hotels etc which provides entertainment facilities to its people.
A large percentage of the exibits in the state meseum original from Balasore
and its environs furnishing important links in the history of the town. The city has
also the facility of state library for the old and young.
Balasore is a small and peaceful city like other districts of orissa. Balasore is
one of the urban city of Orissa.
The people of Balasore city irrespective of caste, crud, religions race stands
on footing. they are bound in harmony, co-operation, goodwill and mutual assistance.
Here we fmd people of different religions and various religious institutions like ,
Temples, Churchs, Gurudwar are also found here. The inhabitants of the city take
active part in religious festivals of one another.
As per the study of the researcher on the problems of the aged all that can be
said about the aged ofBalasore they are our concern. They have always been a solid
for India's footing but slowly this is disintegrating because of over modem

e aged who are above 60 years are 76.5 million of India's total population
- a natural and normal condition. Thia project is an attempt to construct a
~-----"'""-"''"".,.,,.,...e

picture of the problems of aged in Balasore city. Also possible

e oeen suggested for the gradual removal of the problem.


~-...~ ..........

e to depict a concrete picture ofthe problems of the aged women

ety and with special reference to Balasore city in particular.

r 23 1

CHAPTER-IV
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

f 24 l

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
It would be difficult to comprehend the nature and content of researcher without

an appreciation of the method we designate as scientific. Research is an Endeavour


to discover intellectual and practical answer to problems through the application of
scientific methods to the knowledgeable universe.
Methodology is a planning a procedure of study. It shows the investigator, the
way of conducting the research for a better under standing of the study and for the
proper development of the theory as well as to make the study in a clear way
methodology is relevant. Methodology involves the formulation and application of
research design in such a way that the condition of collection and analisation of data
enables us to answer the specific questions posted under the objectives of the study.
Therefore, every research lies more in its method than the contents of subject matter.
In this chapter the researcher intends to present a brief picture of methodology
on the problems of the aged women in Balasore city. The methods followed in this
study are discussed below :-

SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY:Ageing is unequivocally an universal and irreversible process. The problem


of the aged are numerous and complex. A number of factors contribute to the changing
status of the aged, this foremost being the breakdown of joint family system. Because
of the change in economic structure in contemporary traditional India, the younger
e

ated members of joint family who were discontent with the administration of
_ and the existence of elderly as the integral part of family are being up rooted.
_-\geing is a process, which gradually damages the organism and reduces its

viab _.
nature of all

e most important old age problem is purely social and psychiatric in


e problems; health is a major unsolved problem. Among other problems

on-countered b.. aged are, generation gap, a marked tendency toward a general
protective attitude of the retired aged without consideration of their actual needs
which inevitably stimulates a rather unfavorable reaction from the adult population.

2s 1

Old age has different implications for men and women for eg-effect of the
family cycle is more because of their deeper involvement in female roles in the
domestic sphere. Thus the change of role induced by the marriage of children implies
a greater identity crisis for the women rather
than men. Widowhood has a much
'
greater impact on women as it makes them totally dependent on their sons, involving
not only emotional deprivation but also a loss of status with in the family
OBJECTIVES:LJ

To find out the degree of familiar interaction of the aged women .

LJ

To find out present economic cindition of the aged women.

LJ

To fmd out the familial, socio economic psychological and health problems of
the aged women.
To delineate the inter personal relation of the aged and the changes taking
place due to forces like modernization urbanization and the like.

LJ

To fmd out the attitude of younger generation towards the aged.

LJ

To study the welfare measures available for the care of these women.

LJ

To suggest ways and means to improve their lot.

HYPOTHESIS:-

A hypothesis is provisional supposition a tentative solution to the problem. A


h)-pothesis helps a research in.proceeding further and fmding a solution to the problem,
he want to study. It is with clear hypothesis that one comes to know of the
f study the nature of data to be collected and one to be descarded.
riling to LUND BERG "A hypothesis is a tentative generalization, the
remains to be tested". In its elementary stage a hypothesis may be

se the following hypothesis :mlitions of the aged women influence their adjustment
m person to person.

2)

Family structure influences the intergenerational adjstment pattern of aged

women.
Most of the aged women are well adjusted with the socity in relation to their

3)

economic condition.
>

4)

The major ailments, which the age4;-women influence their adjustment pattern,
which varies from person to person.

UNIVERSE OF STUDY:In a methodologocal aspects "Universe of study" has got a special importance.
Universe is the total member of cases with a given characteristics or all the
members of cases with a given characteristic or all the members of a given set or
class. Whether the population is fmite or in fmite is from this totality of cases that a
sample is drawn. A population because it includes the entier existence of a specific
characteristic or combination of characteristic . In other words it refers to the field of
study within which the research will be conducted. It may be definite/indefmite,
real/hypothetical. The present research work is a humble attempts to study socio,
economic and health problems of the aged women with in a limited time period. The
universe of the present study is the aged population in Balasore. The selected
population has been stratified into one category, i.e.urban. For this study 50 respondent
s were interviewed from different areas of the city particularly old Mathasahi,
Khaparapada, Malikashpur etc. Hence these are selected as the general areas for
arranging out the present field study.
PILOT STUDY :Pilot survey is the preliminary study of the universe in question to get an early
ea about it. pilot studies are necessary for framing a perfect schedule. It is undertook
e final schedule is drafted. It may be undertaken without any hypondent

e
fro

om the information is to be collected. Some of the errors are such that they

can

only when the schedule has been actually put into operation. The schdules

migh

e gthy questions may be ambiguous or they may be offensive in nature.

The p. o

early brings to light such defects.

21 1

In the present research, I have conducted a pilot study of 5 respondents. It was


found that while some are understandable there was also undecided answer. It was
also found that different people gave different replies for the question. So, such
questions were omitted from the sched\lle and a new amendment schedule was
prepared which seem to be appropriate i1i all due respect. So, the main propose for
under taking this pilot study was to frame the fmal structure, interview schedule.
Much case, tact and patience were exercise to deal with the respondents while
interviewing them, so that they give appropriate answers.
RESEARCH DESIGN :Coducting a research work is quite a difficult task but it can be made easier if
the researcher follows a proper plan and strategy of ingestion what is called as a
"Research Design". A research design is not only highly specific plan to be followed
without any deviation but also a series of guide.
According to Wilkinson and Bandarkar "Research design contain systematic
planning and systematic continuance of research work. The decision in respect of
the data to be collected, data are to be organized etc, which constitute the trunk of the
research design must be based an good ground". On the whole it can be said that
such a methodologically designed research

wil~

defmitely help in establishing how

all major studies can be carried out with the help of proper research design.
This chapter however doesn't deal with the explanation of methodology alone.
A number of their things have also been discussed such as objectives of study,
thesis, area of study, designing the sample, collection and analysis of data, pilot
. -. interview schdule, plan of study and fmally limitation of study.
e present study, I have used exploratory method to carry out the research
~...,. ....,ratory

method is a method by which we achieve new insights into it.

is method due to the following reasons:-

ethod is conducted to gain familiarity with the phenomenon or

2s 1

to achieve new insight into it. More structured investigator and to make intelligent
plans for improving them.
Secondly, an exploratory method also serve as a basis for clarifying concepts,
establishing priorities for further research, getting information about practical
<b_

possibilities for carrying out research in specific real life settings. So with the help of
this method more and more facts come to the light which are hither to unknown.
Last but not the last, with the help of this method, it becomes possible to study
a problems thoroughly and deeply in all aspects.
SAMPLING PROCEDURE :-

One ofthe most important methods in social research is the process of sampling.
When a small group is taken as a representative of the whole, the study is called
sampling. Most of the statistical studies are based on samples and not on complete
enumeration of all the relavant data.
Sampling is a portion selected from the population or universe sampling affords
an estimate of characteristics of the population in a much shorter time than would be
possible otherwise. It makes the study less expensive. As it is difficult to contact
each aged people ofBalasore City, therefore, the research has used sampling method.
In the present study, I have used random sampling method for the collection of
data. Keeping in view the purpose of the study and the broad characteristics of the
universe, random smapling was thought to be the most suitable technique.
~

IETHOD OF DATA COLLECTION :-

Data collection is an important aspct of any research. There are a number of


techniques developed for the purpose of data collection. Among them interviewing
is the principal method in the field of investigation and collection of data. In this
study the method of interview have been applied for collection of data.
In this study two sources of data collection are used, i.e., primary and secondary.

The primary data were gathered through interview schedule which contained questions
29 l

....

- -- --

- -- - -- - - - - - --

- - - - , - - - - - -- --

which are predetermined by the researcher and is filled up by the filed worker after
gathering information from the informants.
The secondary data are collected through various books, journals, statistical
research based on census data etc. The schedu~e may contain structured questions by

...

which the respondents choose from the alterfm.iive answers given to the questions.
The structured questions helps in the tabulation of data.

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE :Schedule is the form containing some questit:ms on blank sheet, which are to
be filled by the researcher for getting the required information from the informants.
Questions in the schedule may be of two types structured or unstructured. The

structured questions mostly involve the use of fixed alternative questions. The
unstructured questions are open-ended questions generally releted to opinions sought
about it. The respondents are given freedom to express their view. These answers are
ually long and rained.
Interview schedule for the present study contains questions pertaining to different
aspect. Viz family life of the aged women, their social condition, economic condition
ealth and psychological condition.
-Young has rightly said that "an interview may be regarded as a systematic method
ch a person enters more or less imaginatively into the life of a comparative
This interview schedule containing structured, close ended questions. Where
.,.....,.., . . . ._ents have to choose any one of the alternatives as their answers.
lJLATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA:a on means the systematic organization of data in the form of
oper tabulation the data collected is likely to get comlicated. The
_ e- in olved two stages;Fim1y data collected were systematically
ency and percentage were worked out. Then they are placed
and lastly different tables were worked

r Jo 1

out~Then

they are

placed into the tabulation from and lastly different tables were compared in order to
find out the co-relation between various dependent and independent variables.
In the present study the data collected was carefully interpreted and presented
.Firstly, the data was classified into age group, caste,income, religion, etc. After the
collective of data tabulation was done in a~
,orderly form in the master tabulation
<?
sheet. Then the necessary conclusions were 'taken and the tables were interpreted.
Thus every effort was made to throw light on the extent of problems of the
aged women of Balasore city.
LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY :The sample size is too small to draw the accurate conclusion.
The personal matters of the aged women were not revealed.
Limited availability of research literature and limited time on this topic did not
allow for an exhaustive discussion on the theoritical aspects.
Moreover at first the researcher had to convince the respondent to reveal their problems
to the interviewer, So the establishment of report of report and collection of data was
indeed a great difficult task.
EXPERIENCE OF THE RESEARCHER.;Duripg the field work the researcher used the method of collecting data which
is said to be the best method for eliciting real information from respondents. To
conduct a research work on the old age was a unique experience. The researcher has
some pleasant aswellas unplesant experiences while conducting the research . Some
.vomen were open-minded and helpful. They were quite co-operative and were ready
o give correct answers to my question. But same were shy, wuspicious and
ervation and were not at all ready to disclose their problem(famlial problem) to
ider.
_ these research work, I had to face some difficulties;-as follows:se ~ho were ready to be interviewed wanted to know all about the research
o explain the aims and objectives of the study before the respondents.
es the visit was not enough and the rspondents were contacted
s according to their comunience.
laining the aims and objectives, the repondents has to assured
ouldn't be disclosed.

31 1

CHAPTER-V
PERSONAL PROFILE

32

PERSONAL PROFILE
Personal profile is a vital aspect of study in the present research as it determines
individual attitude, values, motivations, personality etc.
In this chapter the persons profile of the respondent includes age, sex, religion,
mother tongue, caste, marital status, educational qualification, occupation type of
family and nature of residence.
~
AGE FACTOR:Age is a key social determinants in society. It is an important factor that determines
the dependency of a person. Sixty is usually the deving line age is also the important
variable in understanding the personal profile of an individual.
The information collection regarding the age of the respondents are presented
in the form of table.
~

TABLE-1
(Distribution of respondents on the basis of their age)
Age

No of respondent

Percentage

60-70

30

60%

70-80

13

30%

80-90

10%

TOTAL

50

100%

From the above table it is clear that 60% of re~pondents fall in the age group of 6070 yrs. 30% of respondents are from age group of70-80 yrs. and 10% of respondents
are from age group of 80-90 yrs
SEX:Sex refers to the individual category i.e.male or female. This is the main variable
for understanding the research because by only sex factor of the individual we know
about the problems of imdividual.
Since my topic deals with the problems of aged women. So, all the 50
respondents are female.
REUGIO~

:-

Religion has been playing a dominant role in the process of socialization and
maintaining the social system and social relationship. The institution of religion is
universal and found in all societies, past and present.

33 1

MARITAL STATUS:-

Marital status determines whether a person is married or unmarried, widow or


widower, marriage has always been the universal social institution established by
the human society to control and regulated :the life of a men.
<t;.- "

TABLE- 2
Distribution of respondent on the basis of their marital status
Marital Status

No of respondent

Percentage

Married

20

40o/o

Unmarried

2%

Widow

29

58%

TOTAL

50

lOOo/o

It is clear from above table that majority of respondents are widow i.e. 58% while

40% are married and 2% are unmarried.


EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION:-

Education is necessary for every individual both male and female, since literacy
rate is very low among females. So in this study there are 4 types of educational
qualification like under matriculation, matriculate, intermediate, graduate/post
graduate.
TABLE- 3
(Distribution of respondent on the basis of the education & qualification)
Ed c tional Qualification

No of respondents

Percentage

- er _ Iatric

35

70%

10%

10%

fU4tC

10%

:o

100%

'I

tion

;r;.

...!."
:utiue

1:

II
~

II

0% of respondents are under matriculate while 10%


0 Yc are graduate.

e an
3

OCCUPATION:Occupation provides livelihood to the individual to maintain his basic needs .In
this study there are 3 main types of occupation Viz Rt Govt,employees, business,
~

house wife.

TABLE- 4
(Distribution of respondents on the basis based on the basis of thier occupied)

Occupation

No of respondent

Percentage

R.I. Govt. Employee

10%

Business

10

20%

House wife

35

70o/o

Total

50

100%

It is clear from above that 70% are house wives and 10% are RI. Govt. employee
and 20% are Business women.
NATURE OF RESIDENCE:In the present study nature of residence is categorized into 4 types permanent
owned, rented, relative's house, old age houses.

TABLE- 5
(Distribution of respondent on the basis of residence)
J

Residence

No of respondent

Percentage

Owned

20

40o/o

R ented

15

30%

Rla -e- House

2%>

01 a=e

14

28%

30

100%

mes

TO AI.

It is c ear from above table that 40% of the aged have permanent residence
while 30% are li ing in rented house, 2% living in relatives house and 28% living in
old age homes.

3s

CHAPTER- VI

SOCIAL CONDITION I FAMILY


BACKGROUND

SOCIAL CONDITION I FAMILY BACKGROUND

After personal identification, the social problems or family background is the


vital aspect of study in present research. It determines individual day-to-day social
>

life, the problems, the living arrangement ~:f. aged women. The real problem of the
aged have began with the division of joint families and property which ultimately
weakened the so-called traditional familiar social security of all in the family. Time
to time changes in the institution of marriage and family have diminished the control
of parents over their children subsequently giving rise to their dependence much on
their children.
In this chapter the social condition of the respondent includes their problems

in family, their family relationship, their status in family role in decision making
process etc.
The detail information on those aspects has been taken by the researcher with
a view to fmd out its co-relation with the exposure in different aspects of life.

TABLE- 6
(Distribution of respondents on the basis of type of family)
Type of family

II

Percentage

20

40%

~lear

30

60%

_-\I_

50

lOOo/o

Joint

No of respondent

e thable that 40% of respondents are staying in joint families


ear families.

PIE- CHART

DISTRIBUTION OF RESPONDENT BASED ON THEIR TYPE OF FAMILY

40%
60%

Nuclear family

Joint family

It is clear from above graph that 40% of respondents are staying in joint families

while 60% respondents are staying in

TABLE-7
(Distribution of respondents on the basis of problems in their family)
Problem of their family

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

25

50%

No

25

50%

Total

50

100%

- - ear from above table that 50% of the aged have problems in their families
s not have any problems.
e

types of problems. In the present study the aged have


obey money problem etc.

TABLE- 8
(Distribution of respondents based on their types of problem)
Types of problems

No of respondent

Percentage

5 ~ ,>

Children don't obey

10

Monetruy problem

15

30%

Family dispute

10/o

nominate

10o/o

Clash of Ideology

20

40%

TOTAL

50

100%

Children want to

It is clear from above table that 10% aged have problem that their children

don't obey while 30% have monetary problem, 10% have family disputes, in case of
another 10% children want to dominate and 40% face the clash of ideology.
TABLE- 9
(Distribution of respondents based on opinion regarding staying with their
children)

Staying with their

. No of respondent

Percentage

children
Yes

38

76%

- 0

12

34%

50

100%

II
e

e that majority of aged i.e. 76% are staying with their


staying in alone in old age homes or Ashram.

TABLE- 10
(Distribution respondents regarding children staying out of station)
Children stay out of

No of respondent
i
~

station

Percentage

Yes

30

60o/o

No

20

40%

Total

50

100%

It is clear from above table that 60% of respondent children stay out of station

while only 40% of respondent's children stay with them.


TABLE- 11
(Distribution of respondents based on the causes of children staying out of
children)
Causes of their
childen 's staying out
of station

No of respondent

Percentage

Necessarily of jobs

29

58%

Personal attitude

Family Dispute

21

42o/o

Carrier Ambition

50

100%

Le~s

attachment for
parents

OTAL

m above table taht 58% of respondents mentioned that their


v.~...~.

, ............

because of necessity of jobs and 42% mentioned that

reer amibition. But there are no respondents who mentioned


station due to personal attitude or less, attachment for

TABLE- 12
(Distribution of respondents based on getting proper treatment from their children)
Getting proper

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

35

70%

No

15

30%

Total

50

100%

treatment form children

It can be seen from the above that 70% of the respondents are getting proper

treatment from their children and 30% of the respondent do not get proper treatment
for their children. Therefore, majority of respondents are getting proper treatment
from their children.
TABLE- 13
(Distribution of respondents on the basis of nature of their family relationship)

Nature of family

No of respondent

Percentage

Satisfactmy

40

80%

Disatisfactmy

10

20%

Total

50

100o/o

Relationship

c ear from above table that 80% of aged women are having satisfactorily
famit re

ons p 'here as 10% of aged women are dissatisfy with their relations

with other famil; members.

4t 1

BAR GRAPH
(Distribution of respondents on the basis of opinion regarding their family
relationship)

90

80

80
70
60
50

40

D Satisfactory

40
30

20

Dissatisfactory

20
10
0

From the above Graph, it is clear that 80% of the respondents have satisfactory family
rela onships and 20% of the respondents have dissatisfactory family relationship.
S is

ear from the above graph that majority have satisfactory family relationships.
_ it is seen that the behavior of family member change towards the

e_ grow older.

- 1

TABLE- 14
(Distribution of respondents on the basis of change in attitude)
Change in attitude of the
family members towards
a2ed women

No of respondent

Yes

10

20%

No

40

80%

Total

50

100%

Percentage

,._.. ...
\

It can be seen from above table that 20o/o of aged women mentioned that changes

access in the attitude of family members towards them due to old age while 80%
doesn't mention any such changes.
There are some reasons for which there is change in the behaviour of family
members due to old age towards them which are mentioned by the aged women in
the preceding table. The reasons for which changes occur are categorized as five in
number such as, daughter-in-law or son-in-law don't adjust with old person, children's
don't obey, monetary problems, ill health, expectation of household service.
TABLE- 15
(Distribution of respondents on the basis of the causes of such change)
Causes of such change
ghter-in-law I son-in-

No of respondent

Percentage

10

20%

10%

10%

20

40%

10

20%

- ;:at not adjust

ont obey

100%

r .o

It is clear from above table that 20% of respondent are of the opinion that their
daughter-in-law I son-in-law can't adjust with them. Where as 10% of respondent
mentioned that their children don't obey them. Another 10% of respondent said it is
due to monitory problem 40% of respondent said it is due to ill health and 20%
'

respondent said it is due to expectationibof house hold work from the old women,
which they can't able to do.
TABLE- 16
(Distribution of respondent son whether they feel as a borden of family)
Feeling as a Borden

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

4%

No

48

96o/o
I

Total

50

lOOo/o

It is clear from above that 96% of respondents stated that they are not burden
on their family. But 4% of the respondent said that they think they are becoming a
big burden on their families.
In traditional Indian society the joint family was the most prevalent from of
family and in most cases it was patriarchal. Though the eldests male member was
regarded as the head of the family and father enjoys the highest authority, Mother
were also not left behind. She was also consulted in every decision making process
after father.
TABLE- 17
(Distribution of respondent regarding their status in the family)
Status of the family

No of respondent

Same as before

35

4%

96%

10

20%

50

100%

TOTAL

Percentage

--------~--------------------~

44 l

It is clear from above table that majority of aged women, i.e. 70% stated that
there status is same as before where as 10% stated that it is less than before and 20%
stated that it is more than before.
\

Generally, in Indian culture the

m~or

decisions of the family were taken by

the elder members and every body in the family has to obey his decision. But the
decision making process has changed with changing time.
TABLE- 18
(Distribution of respondent according to their involvement in decision making)
Participation in
decision making
process

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

40

80%

No

10

20%

Total

50

100%

It is clear from above table taht 80% of aged women take active participation

in decision making process in family matters


role in decision making process.

~hile

20% does not play any active

CHAPTER- VII
ECONOMIC STATUS

ECONOMIC STATUS
In an economic system, where in the ownership rights are vested with them,
the aged contorl to a considerable extent, tha the life pattern of the young and thereby
command their assistance and difference. The time and the manner under which the
property rights age transferred from one generation to another have far reaching
repercussions on the relation between tire old and young limitation of property rights,
separation between ownership and control and the proliferation of open opportunities
for the young undermine the authority and autonomy of the aged. In general the old
age is accompanied by as decline in economic status. But all aged neither time in
same economic conditions or are adversely affected in the same way. The variation
in economic conditions mainly dependent on the nature of occupation, sex and marital
status of the person, his health, social obligations and central over economic resources.
Generally, aged women tend to have low income and little accumulated wealth
as a result many of them are in a poor position to maintain even the optimums standards
of living .So maintain a responsible standard of living ofthe aged ensuring them the
basis amenities of ilfe is being given great importance in almist all the modern
societies.Relatively with a much higher per-capita income and better pension plans,
the aged people in the advance countries are still considered to be in bad financial
conditions.
It is true that few elderly women have adequate income from investments to
meet their needs; the most have to depend on the economic aid from others like
public or private or Govt, institution, churches, friends and relations.
In India the plight of aged women is all more hopeless in this regard. A large
section of India's population is living below the poverty line. And women are still
.
dip rimed of many economic rights.
In this chapter, the present economic status ofthe aged and the relation between
economy and aging are mainly examined.
Firstly the respondents were asked about their present type of occupation.
TABLE -19
(Distribution of respondents according to their present occupation)
of occupation
1

Employee

No of respondent

Percentage

10%

.)

'"'

6%

17

34%

_5

50%
1 00~~

So it is clear from the above table that 10% of aged women were Govt.
employees while 6% are business men. While 34% have retired from private jobs
and rest 50% are housewife.
TABLE- 20
(Distribution of respondents regardmg their source of monthly income)
'-',

Source of Income

No of respondent

Percentage

Business old age pension

15

30%

Children's salruy

20

40%

House rent

10

20%

Business

10%

TOTAL

50

100%

Since most of the aged women are economically dependent upon others
therefore there are various sources from which these aged women get their income.
There are categorized into 4 types.
The above table shows that 30% of aged women are getting their income from
pension I old age pension 40% of the depends on children's salary 20% get it from
house rent and 10% from Business.
TABLE- 21
(Distribution of respondents on the basis of while to meets their expenditure in
their income)
Ability to meet expenditure

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

45

90%

No

10o/o

Total

50

100%

The above table shows that while 90% of aged is able to meet their expenditure
with their income only 10% are unable to meet their expenditure.
There are arious sources of expenditure for the aged women such as personal,
household, medical aid.

4s 1

TABLE- 22
(Distribution of respondents regarding their major source of expenditure)
Source of Expenditure

No of respc;mdent

Percentage

Personal

10 -

20%

House hold

10%

Medical Aid

20

40%

Religious work

10%

Travelling

10

20%

Total

50

100%

It isclear from above table that 20% of respondent spends their income on

personal things. 10% on household, 40% on Medical aid 10% on religious work and
20% on traveling.

TABLE- 23
(Distribution of respondents according to whether or not they have savings)

Do not saving

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

20

40o/o

No

30

60o/o

Total

50

lOOo/o

e table shows that 40% of aged women have their personal savings.
do not have savings.

TABLE- 24
(Distribution of respondents according to control over fmance and family budget)
Control over finance and
Percentage
No of respondent
family budget
\.

Self

5-~~

10/o

Husband

10

20/o

Son/Daughter

20

40o/o

Son-in-law/Daughter-in-law

15

30%

Total

50

100%

It is thus clear from above table that 10% of aged women control their family budget

and 20% are controlled by their husband. 40% are controlled by son/daughter and
30% are controlled by son-in-law I daughter-in-law.
TABLE- 25
(Distribution of respondents regarding economically dependent members)
Economically dependent
Percentage
No of respondent
members
Yes

16%

No

42

84%

Total

50

100%

It is clear from above table that 16% of aged women have economically

dependent members while 84% does not have economically dependent members.
TABLE- 26
(Distribution of respondents on the basis of whether they are dependent or not)
Dependent

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

34

68%

16

32o/o

50

lOOo/o

Total

It is thu- clear from above table that 68% of aged is dependent while 16o/o are
independent.

r so

CHAPTER - VIII
HEALTH
AND
PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION

I -

HEALTH AND PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION

"Health is wealth" Nothing is greater then this in this world. Health is not
only a biological or medical concerh but also a significant personal and social concern
<t;o.

with declining health individual can lose their independence, social roles becomes
isolated, experience economic hardships, change their self perception and some may
be institutionalized.
As a person ages, he begins to fear of illness, loss of mental keenness etc. As
one gets older fall in health often becomes a problem. This old age affects especially
women as physically they are weaker then man.
Ethel shanas moted "There is no such disease old "Old Age". Some people are
severely restricted in their mobility others are able to maintain themselves in the
ordinary activities of daily living. The variation among the elderly in this physical
health nd degree of impairment is enormous.
Health status of individuals does very. According to D'SOUZA. There are
four factors which determine the health status of the aged.
LJ

Inadequate and unbalance malnutrition diet.

LJ

Environmental condition such as poor sanitation, lack of basic amenities such


as water and proper drainage system tend to make the environment become
itself a health hazards.

LJ

The availability and quality of health services.

LJ

The nature and condition of their hard work combined with poor nutrition
leads to the state of general disability and most of the aged suffer from what
may be called deficiency illness.
An elderly person who cannot work and does not have enough servings to

....,.,_.,.~.~ .. himself suffers keenly. Problem of growing old is the feeling ofbeing rejected

ety to which one has belonged all of one's life.


y reveals that of all physical handicaps, eyesight and impaired hearing
COJmtilOil

case. Apart from this diabetes, fatigue, etc are the insignificant

SU!term ~. Probably the mental difficulties are more than the physical.

the mental urge for recreation, sympathy and acceptance


p

.~sical.

In terms of health status, differences between the sexes are clearly explicit in
that females have higher rate of morbidity though in fact it has long been observed
that "Women are sicker", but men die sooner".
'

The detail information on &~se aspects have been taken by the researcher
with a view to fmd out the different types of health problems of aged women.
The aged were first asked haw they estimate their health at present.
TABLE- 27
(Distribution of respondents regarding perception of their own Health)
Perception of Health

No of respondent

Percentage

On the whole Good

15

30%

Minor health problem

28

50%

Major health problem

14%

TOTAL

50

100%

The above table shows that 30% of aged have over all good health while 56%
of aged suffer from minor health problems and rests 14% suffer from major health
problem. But there is only respondent who have the problem of incapacitated. So,
majority of aged have minor problems.
In present study, the aged women are suffering from diseases and they have
also major health problems which they face. In the preceding table, the major health
problems of the aged are mentioned.
TABLE -28
(Distribution of res ondents accordin to their aihuents)
No of respondent
Percentage
28
56%
,.,

.)

10

20%

4%

It is clear from above table that 56% of respondents have ye sight problem 6%

of aged have trouble, 20% have diabetes, 4% have asthma and 14% suffers from
joint pains.
TABLE- 29

(Distribution of respondents whether they face problems with cost of medicine)


Problem due to high Cost
No of respondent
Percentage
medicine
Yes

48

96%

No

4%

Total

50

100%

I
I

'

It is thus clear from above table that 96% of aged faces problems with the high
cost of medicines while 4% does not have any problem.
TABLE- 30

(Distribution of respondents regarding the type of physical difficulties they face)


Types of difficulties

No of respondent

Percentage

Climbing stairs

10

20%

Doing manual work

15

30%

Walking

10%

Daily Activities

20

40%

TOTAL

50

100%

TABLE- 31

(Distribution of respondents according to who looks after them during illness)


I

Attendant

No of respondent

Percentage

Husband

13

26%

Son(s)

15

30%
f)

Daughter-in-law

7.

14%

Daughter

10

20o/o

Relatiyes

10%

TOTAL

50

100%

'

- - - - --

54

It is clear from above table that 26% of the aged are being looked after their
husband during illness. 30% are being looked after son 7% by their daughter-in-law
and 10% by their daughter and 5% by their relatives and others.
TABLE- 32
(Distribution of respondents regard,ing the source of Medical AID)
~ "

Source of Medical Type AID No of respon(Jent

Percentage

Self

?'""
-J

46%

Son/Daughter

15

30%

Relatives

10

20%

Savings

4%

TOTAL

50

100%

The above table shows that 46% of aged women depend on their own fmance
or on their husband for medical aid. While 30% get medical expenses from their
sons/daughter 20% get medical expenses from relatives and rest 4% get it from their
savmgs.
TABLE- 33
(Distribution of respondents regarding the type of Medical Treatment)
Type of Medical Theatment

No of respondent

Percentage

Occasional Treatment

35

70%

Regular Treatment

10

20%

Institutionalized

10%

TOTAL

50

100%
.,

It is thus clear from above table that 70% have occasional treatment 20% have

eatment and 10% have been institutionalization.


TABLE- 34
lL'LU,.un of respondents on the basis of opinion regarding depression)

--

No of respondent

Percentage

12

24%

38

76%

50

100%

55 1

lt is clear from above table that 24/o of res\')ondent have de\')ression while
7 6o/o of aged does not suffer from depression.
TABLE- 35
(Distribution of respondents regarding ~he self-assessment of their Mental Health)
Self Assessment of Mental
No of re pondent
Percentage
Health
Frustration

12

24%

Lowliness

28

56 'Yo

Sadness

14%

Anger

.)

"'

6%

50

100o/o

TOTAL

It is clear from above table that 24% of aged suffers from frustration, 56%
suffer from loneliness, 14% suffer from sadness and 6% suffer from anger.
TABLE- 36
(Distribution of resoondents according to the cause of Deoression)
No of respondent
Percentage
Causes of Depression
-

Illness

10

20%

Children do not obey

18

36%

Family problems

10%

Bad physical health

17

34%

TOTAL

50

100%

TABLE- 37
(Distribution of respondents regarding their attitude towards members of society)
Attitude towards Members
of Society

No of respondent

Percentage

Favourable

47

94%

,..,

Unfavourable

.)

6%

Total

50

100%

- I

It is clear from above table that majority of respondents i.e. 94% have favorable

attitude towards members of society while only 6o/o does not have unfavorable attitude.

TABLE- 38
~

(Distribution of respondents regarding their Attitude towards life)


Attitude towards life

No of respondent

Percentage

Feel lonely

20

40o/o

Distressed about present life

12

24%

Dishea1iened by failure

13

26%

Worried about remaining life

10%

TOTAL

50

100%

It is thus clear from above table that 40% of aged feel lonely, 24% of aged are

distressed abot present life, 26% are disheartened by failure while 10% of aged are
worried about future.

CHAPTER-IX
LIFE STYLE

LIFE STYLE
The elderly persons in the society have personal attachment with old friends
and relatives. As per tradition, they feel happy if these guests are properly entertained
and respectfully treated by the youngest in the family on their occasional visits. It
appears the importance of the old friends~ and relatives ofthe aged depends upon the
individual status of the aged in the family to considerable extent. .
The older generation suffers from the fear of loneliness or isolation. People do
not like this company. So, the elderly developed an acute sense of helplessness and
uselessness in the family or society. They feel humiliated because they can't take
care of themselves and nobody bothers about them.
The data collected from respondents about life style and self - concept is
presented below.
A significant aspect of friendship is frequent mutual visits between friend. So,
in the present study the respondents were asked whether their relatives and friends
come to their place and contact then.
TABLE- 39
(Distribution of respondents regarding whether their relatives and friends come to
their places and contact them)
Do your friends visit yo:u

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

50

100%

No

Total

50

100%

It is clear from above table that 100% of aged stated that their relatives and

friends comes to their place and contact them.


TABLE- 40
istribution of respondents according to frequency of mutual visits between
friends)
encv of M utual Visit

No of respondent

Percentage

15

30%

28

56%

14%

50

100 o

- I

It is clear from above table that 3% of aged mentioned that their friends and

relatives visits them quite often, 56% said that their friends and relatives visit them
sometimes while 14% of aged said that their friends and relatives contact them rarely.
The aged were asked on to how they spend their leisure time.
>

TABui = 41
(Distribution of respondents on how they spent their leisure time)
Spent their Leisure time

No of respondent

Percent~ge

Doing household work

10

20%

Reading I Writing

30

60%

Social Work

.)

6%

Card playing

4%

Discussion

10%

Solitude

TOTAL

50

100%

,..,

It is clear from above table that 20% of aged spent their leisure doing household
work while 60% of aged spent thus leisure reading and writing. Similarly 6% spent
their leisure doing social work, 4% spent leisure by card playing and rest 10% by
discussion.
TABLE- 42
(Distribution of respondents regarding their attitude towards Today's Younger
Generation)
Attitude towards
Today's Younger
Generation

No of espondent

Percentage

Favourable

35

70o/o

"CnfaYourable

15

30%

50

100%

al

BAR GRAPH
(Distribution of respondents regarding their attitude about their members of the
younger generation)

80

70

70

60

-t------

50
40-+-----

30

30 -+----+--+--

D No of Respondent
D Percentage

20 - - t - - - - 1 - - + - 10 -+---+--+--0

Favourable

Unfavourable

From the above table it is clear that 70% of the respondents have favourable
attitude towards younger generation and 30% of the respondents have unfavourable
attitude towards younger generation. So it is clear that majority of the respondents
have favourable attitude towards younger generation.
It is thus clear from above table that 70% of aged have favourable attitude

towards today's generation while only 30% have unfavourable attitude.

TABLE =_43
(Distribution of respondents regarding whether they feel Neglected)
Feeling Neglected

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

17

34o/o

No

.).)

""'"'

66%

Total

50

IOOo/o

It is clear from above table that 4% of aged feel neglected while 96% does not
feel neglected

r 61 1

TABLE -44

(Distribution of respondents regarding the Acquisition of new social


responsibilities)
Acquisition of Social
Responsibilities

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

40 '

80%

No

10

TOTAL

50

20%
100%

It is clear from above table that 80% of aged have acquired new social

responsibilities while 20% do not have any new social responsibility.


Mostly after retirement, the aged acquire new types of responsibilities. So
they were asked about the nature and type of responsibilities.
TABLE- 45

(Distribution of respondent regarding the type of new respor;tsibilities)


'JYpe of new Responsibilities

No of respondent

Percentage

Marketing

30

60%

Kitchen Work

10%

Household Work

10%

Getting milk from Centre

10

20%

TOTAL

50

100%

It us clear from above table that 60% of aged have new responsibility of

marketing work and rest 20% gets milk from centers.


TABLE -_46

(Distribution of respondents on whether or not they are getting pension)


Getting Pension

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

47

94%

,..,
.)

6%

50

100%

No
Total

62 1

It is clear from above table that while 94% gets pension only 6% of aged does
not get any pension.
TABLE- 47
(Distribution of respondents regarding their opinion of setting old age homes)
'
~~

Setrting old age Homes

No of respondent

Percentage

Yes

49

98%

No

2%

Total

50

100%

It is clear from above table that 98% of aged are in favourable of setting old

age homes while 2% are no in favourable of it.

\.

(!:;

CHAPTER-X
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION
&

SUGGESTION

64 1

SUMMARY
From the above description it is observed that the problem of aging ha been
recognized as a major social problem by sociologist all over the world. In the present
study there are categorization often chapter's for studying the problems of the aged
women in Balasore city. The chapter's ai.e like introduction, review of literature,
Background of study, Research Methodology, Personal Profile, Socio Economic
limitation etc.
D

From the Introduction chapter it is observed that 'Gerontology' has a great


place to study in aging which is used to describe the systematic study of aging
process. It is also observed that the problem of the aged are numerous and
complex. Old age means physical disabilities, declining mental ability, the
gradual giving up of roles. The aged living in enforced retirement not only
suffer from chronic diseases and frailties of age but also from the unhappiness
caused by their feeling of uselessness, loneliness and despair. This makes it
necessary to look into the various aspects of their problem social, economic,
psychological and other related aspects.
From the second chapter, which is Review of literature it is observed that all
the studies published by various researches, journals, books etc has been
reviewed. There are seventeen studies, which have been written in this chapter,
which are worked out by different sociologiest, philosophers and scientists.
The third chapter, which is the Background of studies the nature, characteristics
and the background of the study contents. So, at first the nature and
characteristics of Orissa is presented and then that of Balas ore is mentioned.
The fourth chapter Pictures the researches methodology which includes
significance of the study, objectives of the study, hypothesis pilot study, universe
of study, research design, sampling procedure, methods of data collection,
interview schedule and analysis of data.

rsonal profile chapter is respondents were asked about their age, sex,
_ n, mother tongue, marital status, education, qualification and occupation

'\.VJLU.LJ.....

on and family background the respondents were asked about


ead to their social problem. In this chapter the aged were
e family, their participation in decision making process,
er they feel as a burden on family members etc.

Regarding the economic position the respondents were asked about their
physical health, major and minor health problems, proper care in hospital, source of
payment for treatment, about their mental health feeling of loneliness, sadness etc.
And lastly from life style chapter the respondents were asked about their basic
'
amenities, mutual contacts between fr~p.ds how they spend their leisure, attitude
towards younger generation and idea of social isolation etc.

Major findings :
The chapter containing personal background of the respondents contains the
following fmdings:CJ

On the basis of age, majority of respondents are between the age group of 6070 years who constitute 60% of the aged people

CJ

According to topic of my research all the respondents are female.

On the basis of marital status 20 respondents are married who constitute 2%


are unmarried and 58% are widow.
On the basis of education qualification 70% are under matriculation, 10% are
matriculate, 10% are intermediate and 10% are graduate.
On the basis of occupation 10% respondents are Rt. Govt. employee, 20% are
businessman, 70% are housewife.
The Chapter dealing with social condition and family background contain the
following major fmdings.
On the basis of type of family majority of respondents i.e. 30 constituting 60%
belongs to nuclear family while only 40% respondents live in j oint family,
which is known from table 6.
Reading family relationship 40 respondents containing 80% have satisfactory
relationship while 20% have dis-satisfactory relationship, which is found from
table 13.
On the basis of status in the family it is found from table 17 that 70% of
respondents enjoys same status as before.
Regarding the involvement in decision making process it is found from 18
that 80%of the aged are still the decision makers in the family.
The chapter containing economic position contains the following major
findings: -

r
(_

66 1

Regarding the present sources income 30%of the repondents depends upon
pension.20% respondents depends on house rent. While 10% on business and
40% depends on others sources.
CJ

From the table 23 it may be noted that 40% of aged have savings while 60%
doesn't have any saving.
Regarding control over fmance and family budget, 10% of the aged control it
while 90%' are controlled bythe family member's i.e. son(s)/daughter(s), or
daughter-in-law, son-in-law.
From table 25, it can be found that while 84% of the aged women are
economically non-dependable 16% are economically dependable on others.

On the basis of health and psychological conditions the fmdings are give below :CJ

From table 27, it may be noted that a higher proportion of aged women i.e.
56% have minor health problems while 14% have major health problems and
30% have an average good health.

CJ

Regarding the ailments faced by the aged, 56% suffers from poor eyesight,
20% from diabetes, 10% have major health problems and 14% have an average
good health.

CJ

From table 29, it can be found that 96% of aged complains about high cost of
medicines, only 4% don't face any problem with the cost of medicines.
About 70% of the aged women gets occasional treatment at home while 20%
gets occasional treatment at hospital anc;l10% gets regular check-up of their
health, which is found from table 33.

CJ

As regarding the sources of medical treatment 46% aged bears the medical
cost by themselves while 30% depends on the son/daughter, 4% depends on
their savings and 10% depends on their relatives.

CJ

Regarding the self assessment of their mental health, majority of aged, 56%
suffers from loneliness, while 24% suffers from frustration, 14% suffers from
sadness and 6% from anger.

CJ

As regard to depression it is good fact that only 24% suffers from depression

while majority of 76% dont't sufferfrom depression.


From table 37 it is seen that 94% of respondent's have favourable attitude
towards society only 6% have unfavourable attitude.
From life-style chapter on aged women the following fmdings are worth
r

67 1

mentioning :LJ

Finding the opinion about the interaction with relatives and friends. 70% of
the aged women have normal relationship and 30% are very caring relationship.

LJ

From the table 43 it can be found that 34% of people feel neglected, 66%
don't feel neglected.

LJ

Finding on the basis of leisure time from table 41 , shows that majority of the
aged women i.e. 70% spend their leisure time in prayers and with their grand
children's. 15% spend their free time in watching T.V. and listening to music
and 15% like to spend their free time with their friends and relatives.

LJ

The opinion about the cause of social isolation, 15% is due to children's refusal
to stay with elders. 75% says its due to differences among family members.
10% of the opinion that its due to mishap in life.

LJ

As regard to the setting of old age home, it can be found from table 4 7, 98% of
aged are in favor of it only 2% don't support it.

CONCLUSION
From the above description and fmdings it may be concluded that we have
reached a significant crossroad, the beginning years of new millennium and the
multiplicity of problems of growing aged. This is a momentous occasion by all
accounts. Yet what is remarkable is what awaits the world in this new era as it
undergoes a demographic revolution. The world is changing as it ages, and just as
older persons have been agents of that changes, they must also be its beneficiaries.
Aging is not a separate issue from social integration, gender advancement
economic stability or issue of poverty. It has developed a connection with many
global agendas and will play, increasingly a prominent role in the way society interacts
with economic and social welfare institutions, family and community life and the
role of women.
The Indian aged population is currently the second in the world i.e. 77 million
ana out of which 40 million are female. In most of the developed countries, women
_er than men do. One of the

ma~social

effects of extension of life in later

e extended period of widowhood for women. Though large number and


- ~omen live longer than men, old age social security and benefits are
That is why there are more poor and needy among the female aged
w

e male aged.

68

Widowhood of lowers the socio-economic level of women. Older women are


either illiterate or poorly educated. All these have heavy fmancial implication for the
health and social services sectors. Urban widows sometimes get the pension and life
insurance many of there deceased spouse. Rural women rarely have this advantage.
Nor are they likely to hold property exclusi~ely in their names. These factors increases
the dependency of women on others in olf.tage. All this contributes to women's total
dependency on the family for more survival.
Older women's health is less than satisfactory. The proportion of women's
physically immobile due to various health problems is higher than for men of the
same age. Low social status, discriminatory practices and poor attentino to health are
responsible for the poor health of older women have more problems with activities
of daily living, but get less help from others.
The problem of the aged women become moreapparent with decay in traditional
values and breakdown of joint families bonds. The helplessness of elderly parents
and grand parents with present day Indian families has come as a shock to many.
Insurance has not grown adequately. Savings have been invested in families ventures
and elderly have been alienated in their own families. They have to adjust with their
family, health, economic conditions and also psychology. It is a human problem and
at this stage of transition in Indian society, Govt. assistance assumes importance.
The present generation and the present society should scrifies for the elderly
considering the magnitude of sacrifices the past generation has made in all fields to
ensure the well being of the present generation
Women report lower life satisfaction and higher psychological distress.
Depression is the most common symptoms reported in women's issue and at
inYervention strategies to empower them.
In a world characterized by diversity of problems and perspective growing
o er in the experience common 1o all let us remember that are just you and me in a
e , rears hence. If we bear only this truth in mind, we can stifle both complaints and
o live with ourselves and with the aged people.

69 1

SUGGESTION
o

The need of older persons must be assessed in a wider social context in this
rapidly changing societies.

Older persons must step forward to participated in various developmental


projects and programmes by which they can come into the main stream ofthe
society.

Re-negotiation of family kinship responsibilities is necessry in many societies


to ensure reciprocity among family members.

Care giving rendered by older person (specially old women) also extends to
support of children and grand children affected by economic change and major
shocks such HIVI AIDS pandemic.
State Government must come out with a clear cut policy to protect and ensure
the rights of the older people by enforcing various laws and policies.

Closely related is the issue of the feminization of old age

ca~e

and the need to

ensure that women do not bear the full burden, which has both social and
economic costs to them. Besides the challenge of improving the quality of
care to older persons, the inevitable increase in its quantity is also a looming
l.SSUe.

r 1o

CHAPTER-XI
CASE STUDIES

r n 1

CASE STUDIES
Case- I
Name: Binapani Mishra
Age: 85
Place: Saheed Nagar

Smt. Binapani Mishra aged about 85, resident of Saheed Nagar, Bhubaneswar when
contacted she heaved a woeful breath and asked me to listen. She was born in a
conservative Brahmin family in a village named Chakoda in Kendrapara district in
the year 1999. Her father was a Headmaster of high school serving away from native
place. As ill luck would have it her mother passed away in early childhood because
of lack of medical facilities in their remote village. She was brought up with all cares
by her aunt. She had her early education in the village school and with puberty her
school education came to a close as it was prevalent in the then society. However, her
father who did not marry and led semi ascetic life and arranged her marriage to an
engineer. She had good stint of life although struggling throughout. Having 5 sons
and one daughter and her husband being posted in Calcutta she had her own dream.
But all dreams do not turn up as one desires. Children thought educated had their
own views. Unemployment plagued the family economy. Daughter was married to a
lecturer but because oflack of amenities, adjustment of ego problem led to separation.
D~ughter

and grand daughter remained with her sons with advancement of age got

married. Whatever, money was saved it was spent for treatment of ailing husband
who was shocked to see the family members owes, and breathed his last. The children
although partly employed in private concerned were to be married. So whatever little
amount was left was also spent. Only the dilapidated house is there. Now children
are staying separately with little earning they earn is to look after there family. Mother
of five children has became a liability to each son. The old age associated with health
hazards and mental tension she lives the dying life and waiting for her death. Once
she was the king pin of family but after death of her husband and giving marriage to
her five sons her status has been reduced and she lives a measurable life.

rn

Case- II
Name: Smt. Bijayalaxmi Rao
Age: 78
Place : Shastrinagar

Smt. Bijayalaxmi, resident of Sastrinagar, aged about 78 had a little different story.
When contacted the aged lady staying alone with hearing problem, (uses hearing
device) asked to sitdown and listen. She was born in Berhampur in a lower middle
class family. Father was primary school teacher. They were four sisters and one brother.
She was the eldest. So responsibility was part of her life from childhood when she
had to look after the youngsters. After class VII she got married to Mr. P. V. Rao, an
employee of Berhampur municipality who subsequently got promoted & became
accountant. She too gave birth to five daughters and last child was a son. With the
nominal income however, she gave proper education to all the children and give the
daughters married who are staying in Andhra, Tamil Nadu, Raipur, Berhampur etc.
Her son became a doctor and posted at Thanjavure, Tamilnadu with his family. She
became widow at the age of 66. Whe~ asked why she was staying alone, she smiled
and said her son wanted her to stay with his family in Tamil Nadu. But she had a deep
attachment with the small two roomed house and the garden which she nurtured for
the last 50 years. The old broken furniture still lying, photo of her husband & other
family members adored the wall. Then puja room though little was well arranged.
When asked why she was not changing the oldfurniture tears came to her eyes. She
told that these were part of her life and associated with sweet I sour memories of
their family. She has grown old so also everything around her. The neighbour, s
South Indian family are very cordial. They visit daily. The grand children play in the
garden and also do little work for her. The maid servant taken care of the house hold
works. Her children some times come and her brother who is staying in V.S.S. Nagar
visits. So she is happy with the old house, and broods over the past, recollects the old
memories. Watching the young children playing in the garden gives her solace. She
has little needs. Of course, she sometimes feels lonely particularly when she becomes
ill. Her son takes her for treatment and when she feels fit & fine she wants to come
back to her own world where she is the queen & has lot of time to spend as per her
sweet will. Really, attachment to a house with with garden which was made with toil
& trouble & associated with the sweet memories of her youthful days weighs more

73

than to remain in sons family where one can not adjust to the modem systems & life
style.
Case- III
N arne : Gunduchi Maharana
Age: 72
Place : Unit -9
A widow wearing tarrered clothes, clearning utensil and doing other works when
contacted she was astounded. She was bit nervous, afraid when questions were asked.
However, when she was told about the purpose she felt case and narrated her story.
Her name Gunduchi Maharana aged about 72. She was born in a village and as per
the system prevalent then, at the age of 14 year, she was married to a young man
named Ajay Maharana, of her neighboring village. He know carpentry work and
somehow went to Calcutta in search of better prospect I job. Ajay could not bring
th~ir family, as he did not get any accommodation. But after few years her husband
moved to a semi urban area and started his own workshop. She also went there and
remained with him. Her life was somehow in a better stage but one thing plauged the
family that was no children born to them. She did manyPujas, fastings, visited Shrina
Maa Kali and other places but their wish was not granted. Finally they meet doctor
and took medicines but that too did not yield any result. Age was passing her husband
became impatient for a chold. So they had feuds and family trouble fermented. After
one year her husband married for the second time. He begot a male child for his
second wife. The ill fate of Gunduchi came to her life and she was treated very badly
by her family members. One fme morning her husband took her to her parents house
and left her forever. She was also thrown out of her own parents house because no
one was ready to take her burden. They she became half mad and moved from place
to place. One day a kind man brought her to his house as a maid servant. She is still
leaving there as a family member. Her withered face, pale eyes and face, were speaking
a lot. As her clothes were tattered so was her fate . God known what awaits more,
tears rolled down her face. I was deeply moved and solaced her. I advised her about
availabilty of old age home in the town. I left the house she was giving a vacant look
to me or to future, nothing clear yet.
' Hope springs eternal in human breast, man never is but always to be blessed".
These lines of Alexander Pope came into my mind. I prayed God let almighty bless
her for the rest of life.

74 1

APPENDIX-I
BIBLIOGRAPHY

r 1s 1

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Hasan, Siyid Zafar, 1975 (March)

Ageing in India
>
Minerva Associates (Publications) Pvt. Ltd; "
7-B, Lake Place Calcutta- 700024
Hussain, M.G. 1997

Changing Indian Society and status of the aged


Manak Publications (P) Limited
G-19, Vijay Chhak, Laxminagar, New Delhi-110092
Dadekar, Kumudini, 1996

The elderly in India


Sage publications India Pvt. Ltd.
M-22, Greater Kailash Market, New Delhi-11 0048
Pati R.N. & Jena, B, 1989

Aged in India
Nangia, S.B.
For Asshish Publishing House
8/8, Punjabi Bagh, New Delhi-11 0026
Sharma, M.L. and Dak, T.M., 1987

Ageing in India
Ajanta Publications (India)
7255/8 Prem Nayar, Shakti Nagar, Delhi-11 0007
Kumar, Dr. S. Vijaya, 1997

Family life and socio-econoinic problems of the aged


(Nangia, J.B.)
For Ashish Publishing House
8/81, Punjabi B~ New Delhi-110026

76 l

Agnmotn, narenura

~umar,

1,10

frpbtf;)fUS ol the old. age


Agra University Journal Research
24(2) July 1976
Chanana H.B & Talwar r .. ~ ......... ,
Ageing in India : Its socio, economic and health implications
Asia-Pacific Population Journal, Vol-2, No.3
Reference Orissa, 1999
EnterPrising Publishers
Reference Orissa, 1999
Enter Prising Publishers
Ray Press - New Delhi
Balasore Guide - 2010
Times communications
Times Bureaw of Information
Vivekananda Lane, Balasore

'-

3~il03H3S M.JIIAHJI~NI

II-XION:flddV

L\TERVIEW SCHEDULE
SOCIO- ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF AGED WOMEN IN BHUBANESW AR CITY.

BLOCK- I - PERSONAL IDENTIFICATION;


1.

Name of the respondent

2.

Age

3.

Sex

4.

Religion

5.

6.

Female

(a)

Hindus

(b)

Muslim

(c)

Christian

(d)

Sikh

Caste:
(a)

Brahmin

(b)

Kayastha

(c)

Shudra

Marital Status :
(a)

Married

(b)

Unmarried

(c)

Widow

Educational qualification:
(a)
)

(c)

Under matriculate
Matriculate
Intelliediate
Graduate/Post graduate

8.

9.

10.

Nature of occupation:
(a)

Rt Govt employee

(b)

Business

(c)

House Wtfe

Type of family
(a)

Nuclear

(b)

Joint family

Do you have children ?

Yes/No

If yes, number of children

11.

No. of members in your family

12.

Nature of residence
(a)

Permanent owned

(b)

Rented

(c)

Relative's house

(d)

Old age house/Ashram

BLOCK- II SOCIAL CONDITION

13.

What type of problems do you face in your family ?


(a)

Negligence of Children towards you.

(b)

Dominance of children over you

(c)

Monetary problem

(d)

Clash of ideology

(e)

Children compel you to work while you can't


ii;

14.

Are you staying totally alone ? (In case of no child)

Yes/No

If no, who else is staying with you ?

15.

Do your son or daughter stay with you ?

Yes/No

Or

Do your son/daughter stay separately from you in the


same city?
If yes what are the reasons ?

16.

(a)

Lack of financial adjustment

(b)

Continuous quarrel with family members

(c)

Lack of privacy

(d)

Clash of ideology

(e)

If other then specify

Do they visit you ?

Yes/No

If yes, How frequently do they visit to you?

(a)

Regularly

(b)

Occasionally

(c)

Never

17.

Do you feel their absence?

Yes/No

18.

Do you get proper treatment from them?

Yes/No

If no, then what are the reasons?.

(a)

Taken to be a burden

(b)

Inval~dity

(c)

Clash of ideology

(d)

If any other, Specify

of age

19.

Do you think of staying with them ?

Yes/No

Ifno, Why?

20.

21.

(a)

They don't want

(b)

Financial problem

(c)

Difference of pinion

(d)

If any other, specify

How is your relationship with other family members?

(a)

Satisfactory/Excellent

(b)

Dissatisfactoryfun happy

Do you find any change in the behavior of your family members or others in the

society due to your old age ?

Yes/No

If yes what is the reasons

22.

(a)

Daughter-in-law I son-in-law can not adjust

(b)

Children don't obey

(c)

Monetary problem

(d)

Ill health

(e)

Expectation of household service

With whom you are more free to discuss your problems ?

(a)

Friends

(b)

Husband

(c)

Son!daughter

(d)

Daughter-in-law

(e)

Grand children

(f)

Any one else

23.

What is your perception of your status in the family?

(a)

Same as before

(b)

Less than before

(c)

More than before

24.

Are you consulted in family matters ?

25.

Do you actively take part in the decision making

26.

Yes/No

process in the family ?

Yes/No

Do you actively take part

Yes/No

in the festivals/ceremonies

27.

Do you think that you are a burden on your family

Yes/No

or an society ?

BLOCK- TI WORK STATUS & ECONOMIC POSITION

28.

What is your source of income ?


(a)

Pension/old age pension

(b)

House rent

(c)

Business

(d)

Other

Are you working in any other organization

Yes/No

after your retirement ?


yes, What is that
;ib

u able to meet your expenditure from

Yes/No

31.

What are the major sources of expenditure ?

(a)

Personal

(b)

Household

(c)

Medical aid

(d)

Children's marriage

(e)

Religious work

(f)

Guest

(g)

Traveling

(h)

If other specify

<:;;.-

32.

Do you have savings ?

Yes/No

33.

Do you feel secured future by savings ?

Yes/No

If no, why?

34.

(a)

The saving is not satisfactory

(b)

Any future dream

(c)

Children's marriage

(d)

More expenditure

Do you have problems with increasing market rate of

Yes/No

goods and house rent ?

35 .

Do you have any economically dependent members ?

Yes/No

36.

Do you depencfOVI&f others for fmancial help ?

Yes/No

If yes who supports you

37.

(a)

Son/daughter

(b)

Husband

(c)

Relatives/Neighbor

(d)

If any other specify

(!;a-

Do you have control over fmance and family budget ?

Yes/No

If no, who controls it

(a)

Son/daughter

(b)

Husband

(c)

Daughter-in-law

(d)

If any other specify

BLOCK- IV PHYSICAL & PSYCHOLOGICAL CONDITION

38.

What is your self assessment of your physical health?


On the whole good

39.

(a)

Miner health problem

(b)

Serious health problem

(c)

In capacitated

Do you frequently suffer.from diseases?

Yes/No

If yes how often ?


(a)

Quite often

(b)

Sometimes

(c)

Rarely ~

(d)

Alaways

40.

What are the major health problems you have ?


(a)

Eye sight problem

(b)

Diabetes

(c)

Heart trouble

(d)

Joint pains

(e)

If any, specify

I
i

I
i
i

!'
41.

Do you face problems with cost of medicines and other

I;

Yes/No

expenses attached to it ?

42.

What is the source of payment for treatment ?

fi

(a)

Self

(b)

Sons

(c)

Relatives

(d)

If any other specify

'I
~

43.

Do you get proper care in hospital ?

44.

How frequently you need medical treatment ?

45.

(a)

Occasionally

(b)

Regularly

{c)

Monthly

Yes/No

Do you remain worried or depressed for your general

Yes/No

health for long time ?

(a)

Due to illness

(b)

Due to worries

(c)

Bad economic circumstances of the


family
c<\

(d)

Both physical and mental tension

46.

Do you feel tensed about fatigue ?

Yes/No

47.

At the time of illness do your family members

Yes/No

take care and console you ?

If no what's the cause?

48.

(a)

Don't want to take that responsibility

(b)

Monitory problem

(c)

Don't want to waste their time & money

(d)

If any, then specify

Do you feel lonely ?

Yes/No

If yes then why do you feel so ?

49.

(a)

Due to illness

(b)

Widowhood

(c)

Children don't obey

(d)

Day to day family problems

(e)

Worried about remaining life

When you feel depressed, what do you do to overcome


the depression ?

(a)

By reading religious scriptures

(b)

Spending time with friends

(c)

Busy in household work

(d)

Discussing with family members

Are you stro,Fg enough to do all yo~asic daily

Yes/No

... urks by yourself?

BLOCK-Y
51.

LIFE STYLE & SELF CONCEPT

What is your opinion about the basic amenities which


yougetnow?

52.

(a)

Feel very bad

(b)

Not so good as before

(c)

N onnal/better

(d)

Minor problem

How modernization or improvement of technology


has improved your living ?

53.

(a)

Made life comfortable .

(b)

Not so much

What is your opinion about the interaction


with relatives and friends ?

54.

55.

(a)

Normal

(b)

Caring

(c)

Rudely

How do you spend your leisure time ?


(a)

Watching T.V./listening music

(b)

Prayers/Reading scriptures

(c)

With friends

(d)

Telling stories to children

What is your attitude towards your family members of


the younger generation ?
(a)

Favorable

(b)

Unfavorable

you attend my public meetings ?

'

..,.,
Yes/No

10

57.

58.

59.

What is your perceived attitude of society towards you?


(a)

Favorable

(b)

Unfavorable

What is your idea about social isolation?

(a)

Children refusal to stay with elders

(b)

Differences among family members

(c)

Mishaps in life

(d)

More family responsibilities

(e)

If any, specify

Have you acquired any new/more social responsibilities ?

Yes/No

If yes then what are those responsibilities ?

60.

(a)

Shopping

(b)

Attending Children

(c)

Household work

(d)

Work for social welfare

Do you feel secure and safe in this materialistic

Yes/No

world/crime prone society ?

61.

Do you feel your economic condition can be

Yes/No

improved by the action of Government ?


If yes then how ?

(a)

By enhancing pension

(b)

By controlling inflation

(c)

By prc:"viding free medical treatment/medicines

(d)

By developing widow/destitute homes

11

62.

Nowadays parents/elderly persons are ill treated/manhandled

Yes/No

do you feel some legislation be made to save the aged from


such atrocities.
"" ~

63.

What is your opinion about the future role offamily/govt./NGO


for the aged persons ?

(a)

Hopeful of better treatment

(b)

More aged homes with proper maintenance

(c)

NGO/Govt. direct involvement in the matter

12

SOt:IO-EC:ONOMit; PROBI..EMS
OF AGED WOMEN

IN BAI..JlSORE t;ITY
~

A Dissertation presented
in partial fulfillment

for
Final Degree Course
Submitted By:~Jlnita }lparajita ([)as
+3 illrd Year Arts
Exam. Roll No.-08A21002 1 ,. ~
Class Roll No.-08DA016 ..,..,...

GuidedBy:([)r.

Smt. }f. nita r.Pantfa

HOD of Sociology Deptt.


F.~I.(Auto) College, Bls.

DEPARTMENT OF SOCIOLOGY
F.M. AUTONOMOUS COLLEGE

DECLARATION
I MISS ANITA APARAJITA DAS, hereby declare that this
:.

Porject Report Entitled "Socio-Ecot!Omic Problems of Aged Women"


(with specific reference to Balasore City) submitted for partial
fulfillment of Bachelor Degree of Arts in Sociology of Fakir Mohan
Autonomous College, Balasore is an original works of mine under the
guidance and supervision of Dr. Smt. Anita Panda, Sr. Reader in
Sociology.
This thesis is prepared on the basis of field work conducted by
me and the material embodied in it are not borrowed from any other
sources without acknowledgement.
I further declared that to the best of my knowledge this work
has not been published in any book, journal and has not been submitted
to any other university which was published earlier.

Date:
Place:

./Lnita_j!lparajita CDas
+3 IIIrd Year (Arts)
Roll No.- 08DAO 16
Regd. No.- 01017/08
Sociology (Hons)

CERTIFICATE
Tllis is to ceitify that the dissertation entitled "Socio-Economic
~ i>

Problems of Aged Women" (with reference to Balasore City) by

Miss A nita Aparajita Das a final year student in Sociology in FAKIR


MOHAN AUTONOMOUS COLLEGE, BALASORE, has
conducted the research work in pruiial fulfillment of+ 3 Degree Course
under my guidru1ce and supervision. The collection of data, tabulation
and writing of reseruch essay have also been sincerely done by tllis
student and not subnlitted to any other institution.

Date:
Place :

CDr. Smt. Yl nita {.Panaa

Head of the Depatiment


Sociology
F.M: (Auto) College, Balasore

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
In the preparation of tilis disse1iation I feel it a great privilege to
~ y

acknowledge most sincere and deepest of gratitude to Mrs. Atlita Panda,


Reader in the Department of Sociology, FAKIR MOHAN

AUTONOMOUS COLLEGE, BALASORE whose J_mowldege,


suggestion, guidance, co-operation and useful advice has helped me
inunensely without wllich tilis work would not have come to limelight.
I am thankful to all ti1ose aged women in ti1e Balasore for their
kid co-operation and pruiicipation during the course of inte1view witi1
me witi1out wllich the present study would never have been materilized.
Last but not ti1e least I am extremely grateful to my pruents,
fl-iends for their guidance, assistru1ce, encouragement, affection and
supe1vision which helped me in completing the disse1iation work in
time.

Date:
Place :

./lnita./lparajita CDas
+3 Illrd Year (Atis)
Roll No.- 08DA016
Regd. No.- 01017/08
Sociology (Hons)

PREFACE
I have a great pleasure in W(iting the preface to this thesis.
~

India is a countrywithfine tradition lJfre~r..pecting, loving & supporting


the aged As a result of economic develop1nent and westernization
instead (?lliving injointfmnilies nuc/earfamilies is becoming the way
(?l the day and this type oftransforrnation brought 1nore difficulties in
supporting and taking care qfthe aged
The socio-econornic problems (?fthe aged wo1nen have been of
equal importance on par with their health probletns. This has evinced
interest in rny taking this research topic and accordingly, I have 1nade
an intensive research on family

l~fe,

socio economic and health

problems qj"the aged wo1nen in Balasore.


The aged people who are 60 years & above are 77 millions ql
India :s total population. This is an attempt to construct a comprehensive
picture qf the prob/enz. Also possible memmre.s have been suggested
for the gradual removal (?fthe problem.
I would request all those who are interestedfor better tonwrrow
should treat these elderlycitizen with respect, love and due care and
attention.
I have rnade an attempt to depict a concrete picture (?f aged
women our conternporaty society at large and with .special reference
to Balasore City in particulm:

CONTENTS
Sl. No.

Chapter

Description
,

Page No

Introduction

II

Review of literature

15

.)

III

Background of study

19

IV

Research Methodology

24

Personal Profile

32

VI

Social condition and family background

36

VII

Economic Status

46

VIII

Health & Psychological condition

51

IX

Life style

58

10

Summary, Conclusion & Suggestion

64

11

XI

Case Studies

71

..,

12

Appendix-!

Bibliography

75

13

Appendix-II

Inte1view Schedule

78

VISSE'R IAIIcJN SU13MIITEV IN PARTIA L


FULFILLMENI FOR 13ACffL<DR'S VfGRff
IN ScDCIOL<9GY tl<9N<9URS l1NVER
'RAMA VEVI WVtv1EN'S
(A.UT(JNOIVIOUS COLLEGE)

2 06

Su6mitted 6y: 1Vtiss :MadJiufita Pattanayaf(


Rama Devi Women's (Autonon1ous) College
Exan1ination Roll No- RD03SOC30
Under the guidance & Supervision of

DR. SMT ANITA PANDA


SENIOR LECTURER DEPARTl\t1ENT OF
SOCIOLOGY
RAMA DEVl \VO lV IEN'S (AUTONOMOUS) COLLEGE
BHUBANESW AR

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(I)-(VI)