172
APPLIED DRILLING ENGINEERING
TABLE 
4.9 

SPHERICITIES 
FOR 

VARIOUS 
PARTICLE 

SHAPES 

Shape 
Sphericity 

Sphere 
1.0 

Octahedron 
0.85 

Cube 
0.81 

Prism 

f 
· f 
· 2f 
0.77 

t'· 
2f 
· 2f 
0.76 

f · 2f · 31' 
0.73 

Cylinders 

h = r/15 
0.25 

h=r/10 
0.32 

h=r/3 
0.59 

h =r 
0.83 

h=2r 
0.87 

h=3r 
0.96 

h= 10, 
0.69 

h=20r 
0.58 
F
Expansion of the second tenn and division ment volume A!iD gives
by the
ele
dp 

 
=Fw 
pa. 
d.D 
This expression says that thc change in pressure with
depth in a downwardly accelerating fluid is equal to the specific weight of the fluid (hydrostatic gradient) lcss thc
inertial effect, which is cqual 
to the 
fluid density times 

the fluid acceleration. 
lf we are interested 
in only 
the 
magnitude of the pressure gradient due to fluid accelera tion, then
dpa
 =pa
dL
(4.97)
For
a
pipe
with
a closed
end
in an incompressible
fluid, the relation betwcen fluid acceleration and pipe ac celeration is given by
. . . 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. 
. (4.98) 

Substituting Eq. 4.98 
into 4.97 
and converting 
to field 

units yields 
the following 
expression 
for a closedcnd 

pipe. 

0.00162paPd21 

 
' . 
( 4. 99) 

. 
d 22  d21
Fig. 4.44Streamlines of particle. 
fluid movement 
about 
a 
settling 

When applying 
Eq. 
4. 99. one should 
recognize that 

the assumption of an incompressible 
fluid may 
not be 

realistic. especially 
when the change in pipe velocity 
is 

very rapid. In addition, 
the elastic characteristics 
of the 

hole or casing wall can also dampen the inertial 
pressure 

surge seen. A discussion 
of elastic 
theory and 
water 

hammer effects is beyond the scope of this book. 

However, elastic 
theory 
predicts that, 
for an 
instan 

taneous change 
in fluid velocity, /11•, the magnitude of 

the pressure surge is given by 

Sp¿ =0.00162 
PVwa,c 
111', 
where Vwavc is the effective velocity ofthe pressure wave
through the tluid. For a completcly rigid (inelastic) pipe or boreholc, the effective velocity of thc prcssure wave
(ft/sec)
is given
by
l'wave=fe,
CeP
where 
e e 
is the effective 
compressibility 
of 
the 
fluid 

(psi I) 
and p 
is 
the fluid 
density 
(lbm/gal) . 

Example 4.36. Compute the surge pressure dueto 
iner 
tial effects caused by downward 0.5ft/s ^{2} acceleration of 10,000 ft of 10.75in. casing with a closed end through a 12.25in. borehole containing 10lbm/gal mud.
Solution.
The pressure surge
is given
by Eq.
4.99:
For a pipe with an open end , the fluid acceleration can occur inside and outside the pipe at different rates. This situation is too complex for a convenient approximate solution to be easily developed. However, for this case, the pressure surge caused by inertial effects are generally small and of no practica! intcrcst.
0.00162( 10)(0.5)(
~
12.25~10.75
1 O. 75) ^{2}
_{2}
(10,000)=271
psi.
173
DRILLING
HYDRAULICS
number given in field
by
units
ele Reynolds
4.16 Particle Slip Velocity
The rate at which sol id
will settle out of the well
particles
NRe = ^{9}^{2}^{8}^{p}^{¡}^{V}^{s}^{1}^{d}^{1}
(4.103)
drilling engineer. As
fluids is often of concem to the
µ,
discussed in Chap.
of rock cuttings from
2, the removal
functions of the drilling
the well is one of the primary
found
for
Stokes'
is
to give acceptable accuracy
law
of the complex gcometry
fluids. Unfortunately, because
Reynolds
number
Reynolds
numbers
below
0.1.
For
analytical
and boundary conditions involved
expres
greater than O. 1, empirically
friction factors
detennined
,
have been obtained
sions describing particle slip velocity
in this
factor
case is
defined
must be used. The friction
only for very idealized conditions.
Again the engineer is
by
correlations and
forced to depend primarily on cmpirical
!= ^{F} ,
direct observations for most applications.
(4.104a)
AEK
4.16.1 Newtonian Fluids
where
through a fluid
For a particle of foreign material
falling
F =
due to viscous
force exerted on the particle
at its terminal velocity, the sum
of the vertical forces act
drag,
mg on the
particle must be zeroi .e.,
the downward
A = characteristic
of the
and
particle,
area
counterbalanced by the
force W due to gravity is exactly
E K
per unit
kinetic energy
volume.
viscous drag F caused
sum of the buoyant force F bo and
=
by the fluid. The weight W of a particle of density p s and
V, can be expressed by
F is defined
4.100,
and
the kinetic
force
by
the volume
The
Eq.
by
energy per unit volume is given
1
~
E K
P ¡v s 1 
2
where gis
the acceleration of gravity. The buoyant force
= 
·
F bo can be expressed in tenns of the weight of displaced
If the characteristic area A is chosen to be ( 1rd/
!4), then
liquid by
reduces to
Eq. 4.104a
d,
_{f}_{=}_{}_{g}_{}_{} 4
P., =o¡
(4.104b)
_{}
Summing
the vertical forces we obtain
3
PJ
v.,12
The friction factor f is a function of the Reynolds number
Fbo =t»,  p¡)gV,.
W
F=
a tenn called the
and, in the case of nonspherical shapes,
the volume
of the particle
For a spherical
is
particle,
'1r. Sphericity is defined as the surface area of
sphericity,
3 /6, and
by
be
force
viscous
the
ttd¿
F can
as the particle
a sphere containing the same volume
grven
ex
tenns of the particle
pressed in
diameter.
divided by the surface area of the particle.
A list of sorne
are shown
The
shapes and their sphericity
in Table 4.9.
3 /6).
p ¡)g(n d s
(4.
100)
F=(p s
is
in
frictionfactor/Reynoldsnumber relation
shown
.
in Fig.
Fig. 4.45. The slanted
4.45 are provided to
lines
flow
the
for
shown
has
that
(i.e.,
Smkes28
creeping
technique (Ex
facilitate a noniterative graphical solution
of fluid movement pass smoothly about
the
sireamlines
ample 4.37) .
of
.pherical
particle and there is no eddying downstream
The friction factor equation can
be rearranged for the
F
tne particle)
the viscous drag
is
the
slip
related
to
Converting
calculation of particle slip velocity.
Eq.
veíociry
of the sphere
through the fluid
by
units
4.104b
from consisten!
gives
units to field
v s
F=37íd5µ,v51
(4.101)
d,2 (Ps p¡).
••••••••• •••
••••••••••••
f=3.57
(4.104c)
.
Vsl
PJ
Equating Eqs. 4. 100
and 4.101
for the parti
and solving
d e slip velocity yields
slip velocity
Solving
this equation
for the particle
yields
2
l
d
=IB¿ (p5p ¡)g,
(4.102a)
p¡)
04d
)
(4.1
,,, ~1.89
ich is known as Stokes'
law. Converting
from consis
tm t units to convenient
field units gives
This
be
equation
Reynolds
numbers
extended
to
can
number
factor at low Reynolds
below 0.1
if the friction
is defined
by
p¡)d/
138(p5
(4.102b)
................
'•• =
!= ^{2}^{4}
µ,
(4.105)
Strkes
law
the slip
to determine
can be used
velocity
NRe
liquids
pherical particles through
as long
Newtonian
is left
exercise .
The proof of this relation
an
as
.zs rarbulent eddies
are not present in the
wake
of the par
e. The onset
of turbulence can be corrected to a partí
..
174
APPLIED DRILLING ENGINEERING
LL
~
cr
~
~
LL
10,000
_{'}_{.}
...
"'I
'
'
\
'
'
\
_{'}
'
'
_{'}
'
'
'
\
\
\
\
\
_{\}
288 '
\
100
~
~I\
_{'}
'
,
...
^{.}^{.}^{.}
\
\
" Crushed ' ' •
...
^{a}
~ ~
\
\ 1
\
Si lica
'
'
\ 1
• "
S >heres~ ~
 crushed
20
\
\
\
_{'}_{}
\
\
\
1\
\
\
,¡
\
10 ...\'r..
'
'
'
~
_{~}
'
'
\
Galena
^{1}^{1}
\
\
\
\
1\
\
~
'
\
\
\
\
\
'
~
\
~
'
\
\
\
'
\
~
_{\}
_{\}
_{\}
2
\
\
\
11.
^{~}
0.6
0.4 \
\
\
\
0.2
l
\
~
\
\
\
0.001 1
0.01
0.1
2
4
\
\
.........
\
_{~}
~
......
""
......
\
\
\
\
_{\}
......
_{\}
\
\
,
\
\
\
_{\}
10
100
1000
1\
106
PARTICLE
REYNOLDS NUMBER.
BASED ON AVERAGE
(a)
SCREEN
SI ZE
LL
cr
~
cr
LL
10,000
~
"
"
"
"
"
"
_{6}_{0}_{0}
_{1}_{}_{\}_{.}
_{'}
_{'}
_{'}
_{'}
_{,}
_{,}
400r '\t~ ,H+~'d+~~~N11o~ '*+~ ',~'H+~' ltl+'+t1r v'H'ttt~'.i++tt++++r++H
200~ \+i+\c'+ \
'f0lM~
._...
H++\~~
~ ~ \IH
'.+~\.....++~~4
\~14~~ ~+ +++1
100
\
\
'~
~ ~~
\
\
\
,
\
60~ t1rtH+\+'tr+H~'rt~ ~~~
\
\
\
\
'\:
,lo
.....
,
...+++~"+ftt++'''r+ftH+~'tr++++++++t~
\
\
\
\
\
\
4 o t,r,Plli+'1.tPr++\t+\l"i+"'\J"~lil'"+.c='l+ *+r\f4~ ~ ~+lt ++~ , , . = o. 1 2 e _,_,_
20
\
'
\
~,
~
...
~;;::

~
\
w
1
10 ~
\
\
~
"~
1"~
~~""'
\
\
tµ=0.220
__
,_
6 \.
\
..
'
'\.
"""'
'
'\
4 t,!1Ht+\t '+' '~ ' \t+l\\1+t\t'~ ' .i~Pk',~+ ""~1~~~
...
'
1
= o. 600 
  i
.
2 '
"
,
'
'~
...
~
........
"""'
'
'
lJ!=0.806
_
\
\
'
\
\r
\
\
1\l
..
111
1
1.000= ==
0. 001
0.01
0.1
1
2
4
10
100
1000
10,000
105
106
BASE O
PARTICLE
REYNOLDS
NUMBER,
ON
DI A METER
OF EQUIVALENT
(b)
SPHERE
Fig. 4.45Friction
factors for compunnq particleslip velocity: (a) crushed
sphencttíes.
sohds and spheres and (b) particles of difieren!
of the bottom portion of the hole. If the sand packs with a
176
\.L.
a:
~
_J
<{
u,
1
1
1
"1
1
1
11111
11111
1
1
\
1
11
111
1TT
ill
.\\\\\\
1
1
1
\
11111
111
APPLIED ORILLING ENGINEERING
11111
\
\
\\
\
PARTICLE
REYNOLDS
NUMBER
Fig. 4.46Particleslip velocity correlation of Moore.
4.16.3 Carrying Capacity of a Drilling Fluid 
during 
rotary drilling 
operations. 
While 
these 
correla 

In rotary drilling operations, both the fluid and the rock 
tions should not be expected 
to give extremely accurate 

fragments are moving. The situation is complicated 
fur 
results for such a complex flow behavior, they do pro 

ther by the fact that the fluid velocity varíes from zero at 
vide valuable insight 
in the 
selection of drilling 
fluid 

the wall to a maximum at the center of pipe. In addition, 
properties and pump operating conditions. The correla tions of Moore, ^{3}^{1} Chien, ^{3}^{2} and Walkcr and Maycs33 

the rotation of the drillpipe imparts centrifuga! 
force on 

the rock fragrnents, which affects their relative 
locat 