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172

APPLIED DRILLING ENGINEERING

 TABLE 4.9- SPHERICITIES FOR VARIOUS PARTICLE SHAPES Shape Sphericity Sphere 1.0 Octahedron 0.85 Cube 0.81 Prism f · f · 2f 0.77 t'· 2f · 2f 0.76 f · 2f · 31' 0.73 Cylinders h = r/15 0.25 h=r/10 0.32 h=r/3 0.59 h =r 0.83 h=2r 0.87 h=3r 0.96 h= 10, 0.69 h=20r 0.58

F

Expansion of the second tenn and division ment volume A!iD gives

by the

ele­

 dp - =Fw -pa. d.D

This expression says that thc change in pressure with

depth in a downwardly accelerating fluid is equal to the specific weight of the fluid (hydrostatic gradient) lcss thc

 inertial effect, which is cqual to the fluid density times the fluid acceleration. lf we are interested in only the

magnitude of the pressure gradient due to fluid accelera­ tion, then

dpa

- =pa

dL

(4.97)

For

a

pipe

with

a closed

end

in an incompressible

fluid, the relation betwcen fluid acceleration and pipe aceleration is given by

 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (4.98) Substituting Eq. 4.98 into 4.97 and converting to field units yields the following expression for a closed­cnd pipe. 0.00162paPd21 - ---'-- . ( 4. 99) .

d 22 - d21

 Fig. 4.44-Streamlines of particle. fluid movement about a settling When applying Eq. 4. 99. one should recognize that the assumption of an incompressible fluid may not be realistic. especially when the change in pipe velocity is very rapid. In addition, the elastic characteristics of the hole or casing wall can also dampen the inertial pressure surge seen. A discussion of elastic theory and water hammer effects is beyond the scope of this book. However, elastic theory predicts that, for an instan­ taneous change in fluid velocity, /11•, the magnitude of the pressure surge is given by Sp¿ =0.00162 PVwa,c 111',

where Vwavc is the effective velocity ofthe pressure wave

through the tluid. For a completcly rigid (inelastic) pipe or boreholc, the effective velocity of thc prcssure wave

(ft/sec)

is given

by

l'wave=fe,

CeP

 where e e is the effective compressibility of the fluid (psi ­ I) and p is the fluid density (lbm/gal) . Example 4.36. Compute the surge pressure dueto iner­

tial effects caused by downward 0.5­ft/s 2 acceleration of 10,000 ft of 10.75­in. casing with a closed end through a 12.25­in. borehole containing 10­lbm/gal mud.

Solution.

The pressure surge

is given

by Eq.

4.99:

For a pipe with an open end , the fluid acceleration can occur inside and outside the pipe at different rates. This situation is too complex for a convenient approximate solution to be easily developed. However, for this case, the pressure surge caused by inertial effects are generally small and of no practica! intcrcst.

0.00162( 10)(0.5)(

~

12.2510.75

1 O. 75) 2

2

(10,000)=271

psi.

173

DRILLING

HYDRAULICS

number given in field

by

units

ele Reynolds

4.16 Particle Slip Velocity

The rate at which sol id

will settle out of the well

particles

NRe = 928p¡Vs1d1

(4.103)

drilling engineer. As

fluids is often of concem to the

µ,

discussed in Chap.

of rock cuttings from

2, the removal

functions of the drilling

the well is one of the primary

found

for

Stokes'

is

to give acceptable accuracy

law

of the complex gcometry

fluids. Unfortunately, because

Reynolds

number

Reynolds

numbers

below

0.1.

For

analytical

and boundary conditions involved

expres­

greater than O. 1, empirically

friction factors

detennined

,

have been obtained

sions describing particle slip velocity

in this

factor

case is

defined

must be used. The friction

only for very idealized conditions.

Again the engineer is

by

correlations and

forced to depend primarily on cmpirical

!=- F ,

direct observations for most applications.

(4.104a)

AEK

4.16.1 Newtonian Fluids

where

through a fluid

For a particle of foreign material

falling

F =

due to viscous

force exerted on the particle

at its terminal velocity, the sum

of the vertical forces act­

drag,

mg on the

particle must be zero­i .e.,

the downward

A = characteristic

of the

and

particle,

area

counterbalanced by the

force W due to gravity is exactly

E K

per unit

kinetic energy

volume.

viscous drag F caused

sum of the buoyant force F bo and

=

by the fluid. The weight W of a particle of density p s and

V, can be expressed by

F is defined

4.100,

and

the kinetic

force

by

the volume

The

Eq.

by

energy per unit volume is given

1

~

E K

P ¡v s 1 -
2

where gis

the acceleration of gravity. The buoyant force

= -

·

F bo can be expressed in tenns of the weight of displaced

If the characteristic area A is chosen to be ( 1rd/

!4), then

liquid by

reduces to

Eq. 4.104a

d,

• f=-g-- 4

P., =o¡

(4.104b)

-

Summing

the vertical forces we obtain

3

PJ

v.,12

The friction factor f is a function of the Reynolds number

Fbo =t», - p¡)gV,.

W-

F=

a tenn called the

and, in the case of nonspherical shapes,

the volume

of the particle

For a spherical

is

particle,

'1r. Sphericity is defined as the surface area of

sphericity,

• 3 /6, and

by

be

force

viscous

the

ttd¿

F can

as the particle

a sphere containing the same volume

grven

ex­

tenns of the particle

pressed in

diameter.

divided by the surface area of the particle.

A list of sorne

are shown

The

shapes and their sphericity

in Table 4.9.

• 3 /6).

-p ¡)g(-n d s

(4.

100)

F=(p s

is

in

friction­factor/Reynoldnumber relation

shown

.

in Fig.

Fig. 4.45. The slanted

4.45 are provided to

lines

flow

the

for

shown

has

that

(i.e.,

Smkes28

creeping

technique (Ex­

facilitate a noniterative graphical solution

of fluid movement pass smoothly about

the

sireamlines

ample 4.37) .

of

.pherical

particle and there is no eddying downstream

The friction factor equation can

be rearranged for the

F

tne particle)

the viscous drag

is

the

slip

related

to

Converting

calculation of particle slip velocity.

Eq.

veíociry

of the sphere

through the fluid

by

units

4.104b

from consisten!

gives

units to field

v s

F=37íd5µ,v51

(4.101)

d,2 (Ps -p¡).

•••••••• ••

••

f=3.57

(4.104c)

.

Vsl

PJ

Equating Eqs. 4. 100

and 4.101

for the parti­

and solving

d e slip velocity yields

slip velocity

Solving

this equation

for the particle

yields

2

l

d

# ~ d5 (Pi

=IB¿ (p5-p ¡)g,

(4.102a)

-p¡)

04d

)

(4.1

,,, ~1.89

## ~

ich is known as Stokes'

law. Converting

from consi

tm t units to convenient

field units gives

This

be

equation

Reynolds

numbers

extended

to

can

number

factor at low Reynolds

below 0.1

if the friction

is defined

by

-p¡)d/

138(p5

(4.102b)

................

'•• =

!=- 24

µ,

(4.105)

Str-kes

law

the slip

to determine

can be used

velocity

NRe

liquids

pherical particles through

as long

Newtonian

is left

exercise .

The proof of this relation

an

as

.zs rarbulent eddies

are not present in the

wake

of the par­

e. The onset

of turbulence can be corrected to a partí­

..

174

APPLIED DRILLING ENGINEERING

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106

PARTICLE

REYNOLDS NUMBER.

BASED ON AVERAGE

(a)

SCREEN

SI ZE

LL

cr

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cr

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10,000

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10

100

1000

10,000

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106

BASE O

PARTICLE

REYNOLDS

NUMBER,

ON

DI A METER

OF EQUIVALENT

(b)

SPHERE

Fig. 4.45-Friction

factors for compunnq particle-slip velocity: (a) crushed

sphencttíes.

sohds and spheres and (b) particles of difieren!

175
DRILLING
HYDRAULICS
Example 4.37. How much sand having a mean diameter
porosity
of 0.40,
the
fill on bottom
is approximately
of0.025 anda sphericity of0.81
will settle to the bottom
of the hole if circulation
is stopped
for
30
minutes.
The
303
(O. O I )
= 5
ft.
drilling fluid is 8.33­lbm/gal
water having
a viscosity
of
(1­ 0.4)
1
cp
and
containing
l % sand by volume.
The
specific gravity of the sand is 2.6.
Solution.
A
slip
velocity
first
must
be
assumed
to
establish a point on the friction
factor plot shown
in Fig.
4.16.2 Non-Newtonian Fluids
4.45. Assuming Stokes' law is applicable,
Particles
will
not settle through a static non­Newtonian
fluid unless
the
net
force on the particle
due to gravity
138(p5 -p¡)ds 2
and buoyancy
is sufficient
to overcome the gel strength
v a=
2,
of the fluid.
For
a sphere,
the surface
area
is
1rd5
and
µ
2
the force required
to break
the
gel
is
equal
to
nd s
t e:
2
138(2.6(8.33)­ 8.33](0.025)
Equating
this
force
to
the
net
force given
by
Eq.
4.100
gives
= 1.15
ft/s.
This slip velocity corresponds
to
a friction
factor
and
Thus, the gel strength r 8 needed
to suspend
a particle of
Reynolds number given by
diameter d, is given
by
3.57(p5- p¡)d,
ds
J=-- ----'--
r 8=-( p5- p¡),
(4.106a)
2
PJVs¡
6
3 .57[2.6(8.
33)­8 .33)0.025
Converting
this equation
from consistent
units
to
field
units gives
8.33(1.15)2
r8=10.4d5(ps- PJ),
(4.106b)
=0.108,
or, conversely,
the particle
diameter
must
exceed
and
T
d , =
g
..
••...•..
.
(4.106c)
928p ¡V si d s
928(8.33)(
l. J 5)(0.025)
10.4(p
N Re = ----'- --
s - p¡ )
µ
=222.
to settle through
a fluid
having
gel strength
r 8.
Particles
having
a diameter
slightly
greater than
that
given
by Eq.
4.106c
will settle slowly
such
that the flow
Entering
Fig.
4.45a at the point (f=0.108,
NRe =222)
pattem around
the sphere
corresponds
to creeping
flow.
and moving
parallel
to
the
slant
lines
to
the
curve
for
An analytical
solution
for creeping
flow
has
not
been
'1'=0.81
yields
an intersection
point (!=5,
NRc=40).
developed
for non­Newtonian
fluids.
Thus, the slip velocity
is given
by
V5¡
= 1.89~
ds
(P, - p¡)
Example 4.38.
Compute
the
rnaximum­diarneter
sand
f
particle
having
a
specific
gravity
of 2.6
that
can
be
suspended by a mud that has a density
of 9 lbm/gal anda
gel strength
of
5 lbm/
100
sq
ft.
/ 0.025
12.6(8.33)­ (8.33)J
=l.89....J­­­
­
­­ ­­
5
8.33
Solution. The maximum
diameter
of a spherical
sand
grain is given by Eq. 4.106c:
=0.17
ft/s
or
10.
l
ft/min.
T
5
d
=
If circulation is stopped for 30 minutes.
the
sand will set­
g
s
10.4(p5
- p¡)
10.4(2.6(8.33)­9.0]
tle from approximately
30(10.1)=303
ft
=0.038
in.

of the bottom portion of the hole. If the sand packs with a

176

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APPLIED ORILLING ENGINEERING

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PARTICLE

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NUMBER

Fig. 4.46-Particle-slip velocity correlation of Moore.

 4.16.3 Carrying Capacity of a Drilling Fluid during rotary drilling operations. While these correla­ In rotary drilling operations, both the fluid and the rock tions should not be expected to give extremely accurate fragments are moving. The situation is complicated fur­ results for such a complex flow behavior, they do pro­ ther by the fact that the fluid velocity varíes from zero at vide valuable insight in the selection of drilling fluid the wall to a maximum at the center of pipe. In addition, properties and pump operating conditions. The correla­ tions of Moore, 31 Chien, 32 and Walkcr and Maycs33 the rotation of the drillpipe imparts centrifuga! force on the rock fragrnents, which affects their relative locat