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Definition: - a computer is an electronic device which takes data and instructions from the user and after processing producing gives result in useful form. During processing it has to perform:Taking data and instruction from user. Conversion data into information. Give/display the result.
Component of computer
A computer system of four units(1) Input unit (2) Output unit (3) Control processing unit (4) Secondary storage unit. (1) Input unit – data and instruction must inter the computer system before any computation can be performed. This task is performed by the input unit.
(A) It needs the instruction and data. (B) Its convert these data and instruction in computer expectable. (C) Its supplied the converted instruction and data to the computer system for processing.
(2) Output unit- the job of an output unit is just refers to input. It sands the information from the processing to the user. Computer works with binary number. So output unit convert binary number into user acceptable from.
(3) Control processing unit- the memory unit, control unit, arithmetic and logical unit to a computer are jointly known as control processing unit. The C.P.U is the brain of computer. In a human body are function directed by the brain. Similarly in a computer system in a computer system all major calculation is made inside the C.P.U.
(4) Memory unit (primary memory or secondary) – memory unit of C.P.U is also known as primary memory unit. Primary memory unit is used to store data and instruction result. This information is stored temporary. This storage can how information only which the computer is an as such as the computer switch off the data get erased. (5) Control unit- the control unit manage and co-ordinate the entire computer to system. It takes the instruction from the programs stored in the main memory needs the instruction and sends the information to outer units to execute (run) them. (6) A.L.U (arithmetic and logic unit) – In an ALU are designing performed the from basic. Arithmetic calculation addition, subtraction, multiplication and division such as less then greater than. (7) Secondary storage unit – to store data and final results permanently secondary storage devices are used. Just commonly used of secondary storage devices are hard disks, floppy disk, and C.D etc.
History of computer
1) - MARK-I 2) - ENIAC 3) - EDVAC 1943 1946
electro mechanic computer. electric numerical integrator and calculator
electronic discrete variable and automatic computer 1951 universal automatic computer.
4) - Univac-I
The earliest device that used in computer is the ABACUS also knows as SOROBAN. This device is developed in 600 BC. CHARLES BABBAGE (19th century) professor at Cambridge University is the father of modern digital computer. In 1822), he devolved a machine called differential engine.
MARK-I (1937-1943) - mark-I is the first electric mechanical computer. Both mechanical and electronic components were used in its design. Its weight was 35 ton.
ENIVAC (1943-1946) - ENIAC was the first electronic computer. J.P.Eckert and John Mouchly developed it.
EDVAC (1946-1952) – EDVAC was developed by Dr. John Von Neumann.
UNIVAC-I (1951) – UNIVAC was the first digital computer.
GENERATION OF COMPUTER Computer technology has evolved rapidly since 1951. Development of the computer took place in different phase can be viewed as a distinct generation. In all, there are five generation of computers each characterized by its unique features.
First generation computer
Technology used Memory capacity Execution speed Language Example
vacuum tube 10 thousand to 20 thousand character few thousand instruction per second. machine language
ENIAC, UNIVAC-I-II, IBM-170 and 650. Second generation computer
Time period Technology used Memory capacity Execution speed Language Example
1963 to 1975 Transistor & diodes. 40,000 to 64,000 characters. Up to 1 million instruction/sec. ASSEMBLY and HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE, I.B.M-1620, I.B.M-1401. Third generation computer
Time period Technology used
1963 to 1975 integrated circuit (I.C)
Memory capacity Execution speed Language
32,000 to 4 million characters. up to 10 million instructions per second. machine level language and FORTRON, COBOL, ALGOL-68, BASIC.
I.B.M 360, UNIVAC-100 and BURROUGHS-7700.
Fourth generation computer
Time period Technology used Memory capacity Execution speed Language
1975 to today microprocessor using very large integration. 512,000 to 32 million character. 100 million instructions per second. all high level language and forth level Languages and artificial intelligence.
CDC cyber-170, appie, Macintosh, I.B.M Pc, PC-XT, PC-AT and AT-386.
Fifth generation computer
Japan initiated the fifth generation computer project in 1982. Japan aimed becoming the leader in the computer field in 1990. It used VLSI (very large scale integration) and parallel processing technologies. In corporate artificial intelligence (AI). Process non-numeric information such as pictures and graphics. Natural language processing system. With very rapid growth of computer technology the concepts of generation seems to be loosing its relevance. General remark Ist G.E- computers were very expensive, very large in size and weight-relatively slow, unreliable. In first generation electronic data processing had started.
IInd G.E- use of transistors and diodes reduced size and weight, faster operation but costly, increase in reliability, rapid growth in data processing application and introduction of time sharing and real time processing.
IIIrd G.E- smaller in size, faster in speed, reliable and required less power reduced computing costs, improved software support and software development methodologies and tools.
IVrth G.E- More powerful and versatile computers, much faster, much smaller, less expensive, minicomputer and microcomputer come in the market.
Characteristics of computer Speed- A computer is very fast device it can performs amount of working in few second that a human being can do in integer year. Automatic- computer are automatic machine because once started on a job they carry on until the job is finished without any assistance. Accuracy- the accuracy of a computer is very high if the given input is correct then output will be 100% correct. Diligence- Unlike human beings computer is free from tiredness and lap of concentrations. It can do continuously work for hours without creating any error. Versatility- Versatility is the most wonderful thinks about the computer one moment. It is preparing the result of examination. The moment it is busy to preparing electricity bills. Power of remembering- A computer can store or recall any amount of information because it‘s secondary storage. No I Q- A computer is not a magical device it has no intelligence of its own. Its I.Q is zero (0). A computer can not take its own decision. No feeling- computer has no any feeling because they are machines.
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS
(1) Analog computers. (2) Digital computers. (3) Hybrid computers.
Analog computers- Analog computers are specific type of computers that is they are made to perform some particular task only and not for all type of work. It communicate with continuous data and document not communicate with numbers directly i.e.-
It uses continues signals as input. These computers are mostly used in engineering and scientific application.
Digital computers- Digital computers used the binary number systems which has two digits 0, 1. It performs several different tasks. It performs several different generally on counting and not measuring used for business and scientific application. Ex- Pentium III and IV.
(3) Hybrid computers- it is a combination of analog computers and also features of digital computers. These computers are mostly used with process control machine like oil refineries and used at places where signals as well as data are to be entered into computer.
CLASSIFICATION OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS
Computer can be classified on the basis of its use and size.
(A) Special purpose- these are designed for specific class of application. In this type of computer the instruction set permanently stored in the computer chip. It performs the assigned take quickly and efficiently. (B) General purpose:- these computer can be used for different type of task such as world processing, computer appearing accounting e.t.c.
(A) Micro computer – the most common type of computer, micro computer which is portable personal computer that fits on to of a desk. It is a small computer mainly consists of single chip. Computer can be sub divided into two types. They are used as general purpose calculation, business, home appearances and office application. P.C is micro computer for general purpose.
(i) Home computer, (ii) Personal computer.
(i) Home computer- they are basically for hobbies and games and not for professional task. They are linked with ordinary television and multimedia system used for entertainment in various computer centre and home.
(ii) Personal computer- these computers are designed for small business and automation. Personal computers are used in various applications like business and professional. Computer appearing, electronic spread sheet, word processing, accounting e.t.c.
Mini computer- mini computer are forget in size than micro computer and have very fast speed. The data transfer rate is about 4 million byte/second.
(B) Super computer- super computers are more powerful and much faster than main frame computers. There processing speed is in the rate of 10 thousand to 400 million instruction per second. Super computer contains a number of C.P.U i.e. which operates in parallel to made it faster.
(C) Main frame computers- these are very large machine with the capacity of parallel processing the data transfer rate is 8 million byte/sec used for central processing like train reservation system and airline reservation system.
TYPE OF PC desktop work station lap top note book palm top
(1) DESKTOP- desktop is a form of personal computer placed on the top of desk. Desktop is also a computer display area that kind of objects user can find a desktop can be contains in a window. That is a part of the total display area or can be full screen. Desktop can apparitions form of desktop computer. P.C computer place of top of desk.
(2) WORK STATION- It refers to computer on the desk which are more powerful then the typical personal computers. Personal computers con LAN (local area network) connected to a mini computer. They have a large video display and there memory is from 32 MB to
64MB. Workstation are normally use with UNIX operating system. Work stations are used for application like engineering design another graphics application.
(3) LAP TOP- Lap top refers to personal computers which are portable and light weighted and as small as a briefcase. They have a flat screen and can run on the main or on the battery back up and are used by persons who need to carry computers such as managers and executive‘s typical application used for include word processing, spread sheet and presentation.
(4) NOTE BOOK-these are small light weighted and easy to carry. The screen is on the inside lap top which when open shows the keyboard and mouse control. They are designed to run on rechargeable batteries or the mains and cab contain many of the features as desktop computers. Touchpad or a button is usually to control the screen pointer.
(5)PALM TOP- these are small hand held computers. They are supplied with software such as diary. Contact data base many now have e-mail features/facilities and spread sheet. They either use a small keyboard or a touch sensitive screen. They cab be linked to larger computer directly by cable.
Input units provide communication between the user and the machine. Whatever data you input through the input device, input devices convert it into the binary form which can be understood by the CPU. Example- ‗keyboard‘, ‗mouse‘, ‗light pen‘, ‗optical mark reader (OMR)‘, ‗optical character reader (OCR)‘, magnetic ink character reader (MICR)‘, e.t.c. (1) KEYBOARD- the keyboard is similar to a type writer keyboard for which reason, it is called QWERTY keyboard. The standard key board can be divided into (three + one) 4 areas.
A- Alphabetical keys (A to Z) B- Number key (0 to 9) C- Helping key (ctrl, alt, deletes)
D- Functional key (f1 to f12)
Type writer area has the standard set of alphabetical and number keys. Function key are from f1 to f12 which have differenxat functions depending on the software in use. F1 is mostly use for help. Number key pad has numbers keys and cursor control.
(2) MOUSE- A mouse is also a pointing device it is held on one hand and moved across a flat surface the size of the mouse is about a norm bath scope. It roles on a small rubber boll and has two or three button on the top. When the user roles the mouse across the flat surface the cursor on the screen moves in the direction of mouse movement. With the proper surf software mouse can also be used to draw picture on the screen and edit text.
(3) OMR- ‗OMR‘ are special scanner used for recognizing a ore-specified type of mark made by pen or pencil. In the objective type question paper your answer in a special sheet by darkling a small square or circle using a pen or pencil. These answer sheet are feed into the computer using optical mark reader (OMR) focus the light on page and light pattern replaced from the dark mark is detected.
(4) LIGHT PEN-A light pen is used to select a displayed menu option on monitor screen. It is a photosensitive pen device capable of sensing a position on the screen when the tick touch s screen, when it tip is moved its photocell sensing Element detect the light coming from the screen and the signals are send to the procedure. The user indicates his choice by touching light pen on a desired option of the menu. The signals send by the light pen to the procedure identify the menu option.
(5) SCANNER- scanner are use to read our pictures or numbers directly from the page and convert into digital format from, which computer can display on the monitor. Scanner function is similar as photocopy machine. Scanner allows you to save scanned images on your personal computer.
(6) DIGITAL CAMERA- a digital camera can store more pictures than any ordinary camera. Pictures taken using a digital camera are stored inside its memory and can be transferred to a computer by connecting the camera to it. A digital camera takes pictures by converting light passing through the lens and at the front side of object.
(7) BAR CODE READER- a car code is made up with vertical lines and spaces. The sequence of bars and spaces of different thickness represents a sequence of number. Bar codes are commonly found on packaging and the fact give about the country name of the manufacture and the product itself. A bar code reader is used a laser beam that is sensitive to different reflections from the lines and the spaces. The reader translates the reflected light into digital light that is transferred to a computer.
(8) MICR (MAGNATIC INK CHARCTOR READER) - 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, II, I, I, III. This uses special ink which contain iron practical that cab be magnetized and then read, when the printed numbers passes through a MICR reading machine. The MICR reading machine will only recognized no printed in a standard font using special magnetic ink this provide high level of security because any attempt to after the magnetic ink print ort with normal ink-will be ignored because it is expensive. It is mainly used by banks. The account number, cheque number, and the brain cheque number are pre-printed on a cheque.
(9) JOY STICK- Joy sticks used for playing computer games. Children can play in a simple way by use of joy stick while playing video games. The user needs to move the quickly across the screen. Pressing a key on the keyboard can do this. But it is not comfortable for small children to use keyboard. This type of lactation can be better with the help of joy stick.
(10) TRACK BALL- a track ball is used in the same way as a mouse by it is useful, where desk apace is limited. It is like an upside, down mouse because the user rotates the ball and the main body part stays still. It has button like a standard mouse. It is used where flat surface close to the computer is limited.
(11) OCR- OCR is used to take a digital image of printed or hand written text. The OCR software then converts the image of the text into an actual text file by recognizing each character. The text file can be edited using a word processor. Its disadvantage is recognition can be poor particularly with poor quality original.
(12) GRAPHICS TABLET (DEGISTING TABLET) – a flat pad which you can write or draw with a pressure sensitive styles (like a pen). The movement of the styles and the pressure are mirrored by the drawing on the monitor screen. Used for art work and computer added design. Button on the side, act as mouse button to allow selection from menu e.t.c. natural to use for any 0one familiar with a pen.
(13) VOICE RECOGNITION- These devices convert human speech into electric signals that a computer can recognize. These electric signals patterns are then compared to a directory of pattern store previously to identify a particular character. Most of the voice recognition systems are speaker depended.
Output may be tight printed or graphical or may be of audio or videos type. Out put devices can be classified as soft copy devices and hard copy devices. All the output devices communicate with the C.P.U an output review.
HARD COPY DEVICES- hard copy a device means output is in the directly useable from that is imprinted or gloated form. Hard copy device produces a permanent record or media such as paper or microfilm. Hard copy devices are very slow in operation as compared to soft copy devices. Example of H.C devices are printer or plotters e.t.c.
PRINTER- It is a device of producing computer output in the printed form on the paper on singular medium. Printer can be classified into two main categories. (1) Impact and, (2) Non impact printer.
(1) IMPACT PRINTER- In impact printer a character is printed on the paper through physical contact between the printer head strikes on ink ribbon in the paper. Example- Dot matrix printer Daisy wheel and Line printer
(I) DOT MATRIX PRINTER- The character is formed with closely packed dots. The printing head contains vertical arrows of pins. Formation of character is cone by the movement of head across the paper. Selected print needles strikes the
ink ribbon against the paper to produce an image of character. Dot matrix printer support printing character or graphics. It comes into two print head specification. (a)- 9 pin and, (b) - 24 pin.
(II) DAISY WHEEL PRINTER- it is the solid font type character printer. Daisy wheel printer is named as such the print head resemblance in daisy flower. With the printing arms it‘s appearing like the pettles on the flowers. Printer quality is better than dot matrix. It is by directional printer that is the head of the printer prints while moving in forward direction. It also supports graphics such as curbs which can we produce. Daisy wheel printer is a letter produce. Daisy wheel printer is a letter quality printer, because it produces a solid character unlike broken characters formed by a cot matrix printer. The font is the fixed type for a Daisy wheel printer.
(III) LINE PRINTER- line printer prints one complete line at a time. It works on both technologies that is ‗Dot matrix‘ and ‗daisy wheel‘. Dot matrix type line printers are relatively slower than solid font line printers. Its speed may be print hundred lines per minutes or mores.
(2) NON IMPACT PRINTER- It uses variety of tectonics to produce characters without any physical impact on the paper. Do not make any noise while printing. Examples of non impact printers are laser printer, ink jet printer and thermal printer. (I) INK JET PRINTER- It uses dot matrix approaches to print text and graphics. Nozzles in the print head produce ink pamphlet. The pamphlets are charged, which are deflected to direct then to the desired spots on the paper to form and impression of a character. It has a speed of 40 to 300 characters per second with software controls on size and style of
characters. This printer support color printing and are very quits and noiseless in operation. (II) LASER PRINTERS- It works on the concepts of using laser beams to create an image on a photo sensitive surface. Initially the desired out put images is written on a copier drum with a laser beam that operates under the control of computers. The laser expose drum areas attract a toner that attaches itself to the laser generated charges on the drum. The toner is permanently fused on paper with heat and all pressure rolling the drum over the blank papers. It produces very high quality of output. They are capable of printing 4 to 30 pages per minute.
It is a device that draws pictures or diagram under computer control. It uses ink-pen or ink-jet to draw graphics or drawing. Either single color or multicolor pens can be employed. The pens are driven by the motors. Plotters are used for producing maps, architechral and drawing and designing of engineering and business extra. The graphic and drawing design by plotters are uniform and precise and they are of very high quality. There are two types of plotters. a)- Flat bed and b) - Drum plotters. SOUND CARD AND SPEAKERS
The speaker use to play music by the computer from the program or C.D ROM as well as spoken output. These devices convert the electric signals into the original speech format. Thus the speaker gives sound. To use speakers we must insert sound card into C.P.U and install sound driver software to the computer. This is particularly useful for blind users where text and figure can be spoken by the computer. Another use of this device in speech synthesis for inquiry service. Where the operator has the number of information is given to us through a computer synthesis.
SOFT COPY DEVICES
VISUAL DISPLY UNIT (V.D.U) – It is most commonly used output device work on the concept of cathode radio (C.R.T). And no media cards or paper outputs are involved. V.DU is an essential part, on which the user can directly see whatever he/she entered through
input devices. It is used for displaying output on the screen and consists of 25 rows and 80 columns. Each rows, columns and intersection display one character of alphabet, which are made up of smallest dots card pixel.
Monitor can be of available in different sixes on the market. Example- 14‖, 15‖, 17‖, 19‖, 21‖ inches.
RESOLUTION- it refers to the sharpness and clarity of an image. The term is most often used to desirable monitors, printers and bit map graphic image. For
a V.D.U the number of pixel is determined by graphic mode and V.D.U adaptor. But size of display depends on the size and adjustment of the monitors, hence the resolution of V.D.U is taken as the total number of the pixels displayed horiziontically or vertically.
REFRESH RATE- because of the short persistence of the point the picture printed on the ‗cathode radio tool‘ must be reprinted and refreshed many times per second. Refresh rate on a screen depends on the number flying to be displayed. For example – for graphics monitor the screen resolution signifies the number of dots (pixel) on the screen. For example – 640 by 480 instinct dots on each of 480 lines. This translates into different dot per inch measurements depending on the size of the screen. For example- 15‖ V.G.A monitor (640 by 480) displays about 50 dots per inch.
MONOCROME AND COLOR MONITOR- Monochrome monitor capable of displaying only a single color images. It has only one electron gun. Colors monitor is capable of
displaying up to ‗17‘ million colors using combination of basic colors. It has different color. Generally two types of computer color monitors are used ‗R.G.B (red, green, blue)‘ and ‗C.M.Y.K (cyan, magenta, yellows, and k for black)‘ on a color monitor (RGB).Each group of phosphor dots is made up of one green, one blue and one red dot. One group dot is called pixel by----------group appear to the human appear as many color possible.
DOT- PITCH- Dot pitch is the distance between two pixels on the screen.
INTERLACED AND NON INTERLACED- interlaced is a technique to paint the image on the screen. In this technique the scanning starts with odd scan lines and move from left to right until it reaches to the button of the screen. In non interlaced technique the scanning starts sequentially from left to right. In non interlaced system refresh rate is double as compared to interlaced system.
The standard on which monitors run. (1) V.G.A- it stands for video graphic adaptor/array. It introduces by I.B.M. them available in black & white as well as color monitor. The standard of V.G.A‘s is 640 × 480.
(2) S.V.G.A- Super video graphic adaptor/array supports the display of 16 million colors. But the number of color that can be displayed simultaneously is limited by the amount of video memory installed in the computer. The greater number of color or the higher resolution or the more video memory will be required standard in S.V.G.A 800×600.
(3)X.G.A- It stands for xtandard graphic adaptor/array. It was developed by I.B.M and was originally used to describe property graphic adaptors designed for use in micro channel architecture expansion slots. The standard use is of displaying resolution up to 1024 ×768 pixels.
Computer memory STORAGE DEVICES
STORAGE METHOD- There is two types of storage method primary storage and secondary storage method. (1) Main memory (primary memory)(2) Secondary memory (auxiliary, external memory)
(1) Primary storage memory—computer‘s main memory or primary memory is a volatile memory, that is it is completely washed off and lost data, when power supply is switched off. As we use the computers to keep many important records. It should have some facilities to keep the data permanently, without any loss of data. Magnetic storage devices and optical storage devices are the most popular means of storage data permanently and are also the main source of transferring data between computers. Memory is that part of a computer which stores data and instruction and result and at the some time. It is responsible for retrievable of when required. This memory is also known as eternal memory or primary memory. It‘s a temporary storage areas, in which instruction and data of a program recycle. Mainly program being executed by the C.P.U when data processing rate is hundred times faster than the secondary memory. Main memory is of two types(i) RAM (random access memory) (ii) ROM (read only memory).
(i) RAM- it is that type of memory which stores data and instruction given by us. In this memory we can read as well as write. It is called random access memory because output data are produced randomly, that is in this memory when we give command to it output report does not is directly not the
sequence wise. This is for temporary storage. The data get erased, when you switched off. It is also known as temporary or volatile memory.
(ii) ROM- in this part of memory only those instructions are stored, which are necessary for operating of a computer. In this memory we can read data only not the write. In ROM programs are feed at the time of manufacturing the computer. In this memory stored information is always available even if you switch off a computer because of this function it is known as permanent memory.
Types of rom- (a) PROM, (b) EPROM, (c) EEPROM.
(a) PROM- ―programmable read only memory‖ in which user can load and store programs and data‘s that is, it possible for a user to customize a system by converting his own programming to micro programs and storing them in a user program ROM chip.
(b) EPROM-‗erasable programmable read only memory‘. Once information is stored in a ROM or PROM it can not be change however there is another types of memory which overcome this problem. It is possible to erase information in a EPROM and the chip can be reprogrammed new information. When an EPROM is uses information stored in EPROM can only be read and the information in the chip until it is erased.
(c) EEPROM- ‗Electrically erasable programmable read only memory‘. EEPROM are of two type, first one in which the stored information is erased by ‗espousing‘ the chip for some time to ultraviolet light and the second one information is erased by using high vicinage electronic pulse the first is known as ultraviolet EPROM and the second is know as electricity erasable programmable read only memory.
CHART OF STORAGE DEVICES
SECONDRY STORAGE- secondary storage is also known as auxiliary or external memory. It supplements the primary memory. Secondary storage is used to store data or information permanently. Its storage capacity is very large. Data can not be process directly from secondary devices hence we need main device can not any way replace the primary memory of the computer system. Commonly used of secondary storage devices is hard disk, floppy disk, c.d. e.t.c.
TYPES OF STORAGE DEVICES
Storage devices are classified into two parts. According to their working and the method provided to access the information stored in it.
(A) SERIAL ACCESS STORAGE DEVICES- these devices provided only serial access to the information stored. This means all the previous record need to be read to access the next record in a serial access storage device. Simultaneously reading and writing can not be done in the file. Magnetic tape is an example of serial access storage device.
(B) DIRECT ACCESS STORAGE DEVICE- In direct access storage device there is no need to read all the previous record to access particular record. In these devices data stored can also be accessed sequentially if need be. Reading and writing can be done simultaneously in the file. Magnetic disk and C.D Rom are the example of direct access storage devices.
MAGNATIC TAPE- Magnetic tapes are used as external storage device to keep back up of precious software and data. It is a serial access storage device. Which provides sequentious access only? Tape is a plastic ribbon that is coated on one side with a magnetic material (iron, oxide). Information is stored using Binary code in form of magnetized or non magnetized spots. An electro magnetic head arrange these magnetic particles to store data. These particles are interpreted back to the information. It comes in the range of 12.5 mm to 25 mm width and 500 meter to 1200 meter left.
Magnetic tape has there own coding system. Information is recorded on the tape in the form of tiny invisible magnetized and non magnetized spots (representing 1‘s, 0‘s)
LIMITATION OF MAGNATIC TAPE-One of the main limitations with magnetic tapes is that it lacks direct access to records. It requires human intervention for operation. The data transmission of magnetic tape is slow, compared to disk.
MAGNATIC DISK- Magnetic disks are used as an input, output or external storage device. It is popular medium for direct access storage device. It is thin circular, platter, data coated on both sides with a magnetic material. It usually comes in fork of disc packed also known as hard disk. All the disks in the disk pack rotated at a very high speed of 700 to 7200 round per minute (R.P.M). It comes in two variables according to operations of read and writes mechanism that is fixed head and moving head.
STORAGE OF INFORMATION- information is stored on both of surface of each disk platter except the upper surface of the top platter and lower surface of the bottom platter. Each platter is divided into concentric circles known as ‗Tracks‘. The set of corresponding tracks in all the surface of a disk pack is known as cylinder. Data is stored in one cylinder first then the head moves to the next cylinder. Information is stored as a series of magnetized or nor magnetized spots (one bite or 0 bite). Each track contains equal numbers of Characters. Information can be erased from anywhere on the disk and new data can be recorded on it.
ADVANTAGES OF MAGNETIC DISK- (a) magnetic disk are a D.A.S.D device that is time taken to locate a particular record is independent of the position of that record. (b) Disk storage is more durable than that of tape storage. Magnetic disk supports online processing because of its direct accessing because of its direct accessing property.
DISADVANTAGES OF MAGNETIC DISK- The disadvantages of magnetic disks packed are that it is costlier than tape. Tapes are more economical to use.
TYPES OF MAGNETIC DISK
(1) WINCHESTER DISK/ HARD DISK- It is a group of large metal or plastic disks, which are permanently sealed in a container. Read and write heads and access mechanism are also inbuilt within the container. These sealed containers are not generally removed from their disks drives. Smaller size of Winchester disks are used in mini computer and pc. In operation the disk is rotated at a high speed on the spindle. There is one read, write head for each surface. The heads can move to and frown to Select desired track position. During operations thin cushion of air is maintain between a rotating disk and read write head.
To store or retrieve data the system finds the disk address used to contain data by moving he read write head to the appropriate track where it rates until the desired sector pressed by. Now a day‘s hard disk‘s capacity up to 80 G.B is available.
FLOPPY DISK- It is small secondary device which can use for both input and output operations. Floppy disks are made of magnetic oxide, coated with nylon computer tape material. The tape material is cut into circular rates. These disk drives are economical and very flexible to use. The disk is covered in a protective sheet (with opening for editing and writing). Now a days two sizes of disks are commonly available 5.25 inch and 3.5 inches. The capacity of 5.25 inch floppy disks is 360 K.B and 1.2 M.B, while that of 3.5 inch disk can store about 1.44 M.B of data. The 3.5 disks are also referred as microfloppy disks.
OPTICAL DISK- To store and retrieve very large amount of data led to the development of optical disk system can store as much as hundred times, the content of current magnetic disks drives. Optical disk recording system uses laser light source, to focus on a rotating disk, which is coated with a reflective surface. Data recording is done by turning the laser beam. The storage cost is very low and access time is fast. C.D DVD VCD CDR/W. CD- CD is stands for compact disk. A simple type of CD has the capacity to store the data almost 700MB.
VCD- VCD means video compact disk.
DVD- DVD stands for ‗digital versatile disk‘. It has the capacity to store the data almost 4GB to 4.5GB.
CDR/W- It support CD read and writing.
PEN DRIVE- Pen drive is the device, through you can store your data in a pen type storage medium. It comes in different storage variety, just like 500MB, 1GB e.t.c.
NEED FOR DIFFERENT NUMBER SYSTEM
Computer being electronic machine, character and numbers have represented inform of electronic pulses. If computer has to work with decimal number system, computer circuitry should be such that it should be able to generate and identify ten (10) different levels of electronic pulses for 10 digits (0-9). This will make the machine very unreliable and error form. The basic elements in early computer were relay switches. The operations of a switch or relay can be essentially binary in nature. That is switch is either on (10 or off (0). The principal of modern computer systems are transistors for the purpose of reliability. These devices are always in one or two states, set (1) or not ser (0). However to work with binary number system, which deals with only 2 numbers that is ‗0‘ and ‗1‘. The computer circuit has to be such that it is able to generate and identify only two different levels of pulses (0,1) is known as ‗bit‘ and a combination of these bets together constitute a ‗byte‘ (8bits=1byte).
DIFFERENT NUMBER SYSTEM
(1)DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM- Our present number system with a base or radix of 10, based on use of 10 different digits (0-9), known as an ‗Arabic numerals. The highest numerical symbol that is ‗9‘ has a value ‗1‘ less than the base for the decimal number system. The number system is most easily understandable and is most popular in daily life.
(2)BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM- ‗GOTFRIED WILHELM VON‘ uses binary number system in 17th century. Binary number system uses only two digits that are ‗0‘ and ‗1‘ and has a base of two. All decimal numbers can be represented using the combination of these two digits only. Use of binary number system in computer simplifies the designs, reduces the cost and improves the reliability of computers. It also simplifies the design of storage devices. All the modern computers use binary number system. The binary number system is he most natural number system, requires small amount of circuitry and more efficient.
(4)10 change into (?)2
There are two techniques to change decimal number system into binary number system.
First one- you can derive the answer through the L.C.M techniques-
=100 = (100)2 ANS= (4)10--(100)2
Second one- second one is the ‗division reminder techniques‘. (4)10--------> (?)2
Steps 1 and 2 = 4/2 = ‗2‘ and reminder ‗0‘ Steps 3 and 4 = 2/2 = ‗1‘ and reminder ‗0‘ Steps 3 and 4 = 1/2 = ‗0‘ and reminder ‗1‘ Result=100 That is= (100)2
(3)OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM- a number system with a base of 8 is known ONS. Digits used for the representation of octal number system in binary number system, 3 bits are required, to number system.
(4)HEXA DECIMAL NUMBER SYSTEM- Hexa decimal number system is single number system is a base of 16. Digits used in this number system are 0-9 and A, B, C, D, E, F, where decimal value of A to F are ‘10 to 15‘. Respectively, a represent ‗10‘, B represent ‗11‘ and so on. In binary representation, 4 bits are used to represent each digit of hexa decimal number system.
(Decimal number system)(Octal number system) (B.N.S) (Hexa decimal number system) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0111 1000 9 A (10) B (11) C (12) D (13) 0000 0001 0010 0 1 2 0011 0100 0101 0110 7 8
3 4 5 6
E (14) F (15)
CHANGE DECIMAL INTO BINARY NUMBER SYSTEM-
(121)--(?)2 ANS= (1101)2
CHANGE DECIMAL INTO OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM-
CHANGE DECIMAL INTO HEXADECIMAL SYSTEM-
= (79)16 CHANGE OCTAL INTO HEXADECIMAL SYSTEM-
(110)8---- (?)16 82 81 80
STEPS 1 = 110 -- 1 1 0 = (64*1) + (8*1) + (8*0) = 64+8+0 = 72 ANS--- (72)10
STEPS 2 = (72)10--(?)16
= (48)16 ANS= (110)8--(48)16
CHANGE POINT DECIMAL INTO OCTAL NUMBER SYSTEM(957.96)10--(?)8
.96*8=7.68 .68*8=5.44 .44*8=3.52 .52*8=4.16 .16*8=1.28 =75341 (1675.75341)8
-REPRESENTATION OF CHARECTORS IN COMPUTERS-
As we know the computer can understand the languages of 0‘s and 1‘s. By using these numbers in combination computer can manage many characters. Coding of character has been standardized to facilitate exchange of information between computers. Almost all computer uses 8 bite codes to accommodate 28 (256) different characters. The two most popular 8 bite character codes are ‗EBCDIC‘ and ‗ASCII‘. There are 3 different coding system used in computer
BCD- Binary coded decimal. EBCDIC- Extended binary coded decimal interchange code. ASCII- American standard code for information interchanged.
(1) BCD- we all have uses decimal number system for a long time, almost most of the document (e.g.:- cheques, drafts, bills, business and report e.t.c.) value of these things must be converted from decimal to binary before the computation. For this reason many early machine were using BCD system. BCD uses 4 bits to encode each digit.
(129)__________BCD BCD= 129= 1=001 2=010 9=1001 BCD=0001 0010 1001
(256)10 ___________BCD 2=0010 5=0101 6=0110 BCD=0010 0101 0110
Representation of character and special symbols in obtain by adding two additional bits to the left. Therefore with 6 bits it is possible to have 26 (64) codes. This sufficient to represent all the digits (0-9) and alphabets (26) only upper case and special symbols.
(2) EBCDIC- EBCDIC uses 8 bits for representation digits and alphabets. With 8 bit coding system it is possible to represent 28 (256 different digits, alphabets and special symbols. In this representation each character (that is each bite) is divided into 2-4 bit position. A zone position on the left and a numeric position on the right.
Each zone correspondence to hexadecimal digits. Therefore each character is uniquely represented by a two digits hexa decimal number. That is in EBCDIC coding pattern all the characters are partition into 8 groups.
a------I j------r s-----z $, <, >, *, +, ,, -, /, A----I J-----R S-----Z 0------9
1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111
(1)(54)10_______________EBCDIC 5=1111 0101 4=1111 0100 =1111 0101 1111 0100
(2) BIT____________EBCDIC B=1100 0010 I=1100 1000 T=1110 0011 BIT=1100 0010 1100 1000 1110 0011.
(3)ASCII-It stands for ―American standard code for information interchanged‖. This code is particular in data communication and widely used in micro computers to represent data. ASCII coding is of ‗2‘ types----(1) ASCII-7 (27 Different character) (2) ASCII-8 (28 Different character)
ASCII-7 = In this code first three bits are zone bits and rest four are numeric, which represent the digit. ASCII coding is used by almost all micro computers.
ASCII-8 = It is a standard version of ASCII-7. It is 8 bit codes that allow 28 (256 different characters). The additional bit is added to the zone bit. Zone positions for ASCII-7 code are as follows-
CHARACTER RANGE a---------o p---------z $, <, >, *, +, ,, -, ! A---------O P----------Z 0-----------9
ZONE POSITION 110 101 010 100 101 011
(1) (AB) ------------ASCII-7 A=1000001 B=1000010 = (1000001 10000101) (2) (54) -------------ASCII-7 5=0110101 4=0110100 = (01110101 0110100)
HARDWARE- hardware system is a collection of mechanical devices that make a compute. Software is defined as a set of instrucions stored as program that control the operation of a computer system. And make the hardware to performed required operation. That is the software is a backbone of the computer industry. It provides the facility to manipulate data maintains integrity within system components and network and provides the course of communication with other system. The hardware without software is like a human without brain.
TYPES OF SOFTWARE(1) System software- Systems software is the programs use to control the operation of the computer system. It acts as interpreter between user and computer. System software can be further categories as(i) Operating system (ii) Translators as assembler, compiler and interpreter. (iii) Database management system (DBMS) (iv) Drivers and system testing tools.
TRANSLATORS- Programs which translates a program, written in any computer language, into machine language (understandable to the computer) code are known as translators. Translators are divided into following categories.
(1)ASSEMBLERS- An assembly language program can not be directly executed by the computer. It has to be converted into its machine language equivalent code before execute it. An assembler is a program that translates a program, written in assembler language into a machine executable code. The input to assembler program is an assembly language program known as source program and output of assembler is a machine language program known as object program. (2)COMPILER- Compiler is the translators, which translate high level language program into machine code and this machine code and this machine code is executed after words. The translated machine code is known as object code. Function performed by compiler are-
(i)A locate address for all variables and statements. (ii)Generate the object program on tape or disk as required. (iii)Produce listing of source and object program. (iv)Tabulates a list of programming errors found during compilation. Some of the important compiler based languages are, CONOL, PASCOL, FORTRON and TURBO C.
INTERPRETER- Interpreters are used for translating high level language program into machine level language program line by line and executing each of the instruction alternately. When a program is to be executed, the interpreter accesses the first instruction, translate it into one or more, machine language instructions, and then execute those instructions. The interpreter then accesses the next instruction and repeats these tasks. The process continuous until all source language instructions have been translated and excited. Features of interpreters(i)Interpreters are slow as compared to compiler because of line by line translation and execution.
(ii) Debugging is easier in interpreter based languages because interpretation process stops as soon as error is encountered. (iii) Most well known interpreter based language is basic.
APPLICATION SOFTWARE Application software enables the users to produce the some useful output such as specific inventory control report, Attendance accounting or medical accounting tasks etc. It is further divided into following categories,
CUSTOMIZED APPLICATION SOFTWARE- customized application software are the program written in order to perform specific job for the user. They are written in a variety of programming languages depending on the task at hand. Normally there are sets of programs used in conjunction with one another. Example- Payroll systems, customized packages for a company etc.
STANDARD APPLICATION SOFTWARE- It is generated set of program use to deal with a particular application. This software is normally developed by specialist software developers, to solve common problems faced by many users example- ms office, word star, tally etc. Advantages of standard application packages-
(1) saves programming efforts and expense on the part of users. (2) User gets well tested and tried programs. (3) Relatively quick in implementation.
OPERATING SYSTEM Definition-
Usage of operating system- The usage of operating systems can be define as(1) Easy interaction between users and computer. (2) Computer starts operation automatically, when power is turned on. (3) Loading and scheduling user programs. (4) Controlling input and output. (5) Controlling program execution. (6) Managing use of main memory. (7) Providing security to user‘s job and files.
EVOLUTION OF OPERATING SYSTEM- An operating system may process its tasks sequencly or concurrently. Depending upon its architecture, the resources of computer may be dedicated to single program until its completion or they may be allocated among several of execution. Thus the evolution of operating systems are-
(1) Batch processing- To speed of the processing operators, batch together jobs, with similar needs and run then through the computer as a group. This function performs due to set up of different-different environment and different application. The two major drawback of this system is-
(A) When a job stopped- It tells job is fail but does not tell about the reason of failing job. Now this type of C.P.U waits for next job. (B) C.P.U in idle state- In this, when job fail then C.P.U waits for next job again to turn on initial step by doing warm booting. FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEM An operating system must perform at least the following function in order to enable the computer to process user program satisfactory. (1)Processor management(A) Processor management e is one of the most important job of an operating system. (B) It controls the execution of the processor. (C) It co-ordinates with the other components of the operating systems.
(2)Device management(A) It controls the functioning of various input and output devices like printer, hard disk, terminals e.t.c. (B) It controls the allocation accessing and de allocation of the devices.
(3)Memory management(A) It manages the efficient use of memory. (B) Ensures that the memory space of 1 process is protected from other process. (C) Freeze the memory when the process is complete. (D) It decides which process should reside in main memory.
(A) It involves the keeping track of all different files and maintaining the integrity of data stored in the files including file directory structure. (B) It is also known as information management. (C) It manages the disk space. (D) Controls the reading and writing of information on the physical media.
(5)Job control- when the user wants to run an application program, he must communicate with the operating system by telling it what to do. It does using operating system job control language, which consist a number of operating system commands called ‗system command‘. It controls the functioning of the operating system.
(6)House keeping- It include all the support services necessary to ensure smooth operation of the operating system security, protection back up and restoration.
TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM
(1)Single user of operating system- It allows only one user to work on the machine at a time. It will permit both real time processing where the user is interacting with the computer during the execution of program and Batch processing, where a series of programs are run in sequence. Example are- m.s dos, win-98.
(2)Multiple user of operating system- It allows more than one user to work on the same system. In the multi-user operating system, computer resources are time should among the users each user having exclusive use of the resources at only one time. Example are- UNIX, XNIX, WINDOWS NT.
MULTIPROGRAMMING OPERATING SYSTEM It gives the appearance of running more than one program at a time. Different areas of primary storage and any particular program can be called into a specific area.
NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM MULTIPROCESSING- multiprocessing refers to simultaneous execution of two or more process by a multiple processor computer system. Additional processors are to the system to enhance the throughput. The additional processor can be an input-output processor. Generally multiprocessing system is defined by a system having more than one C.P.U.
UTILITY SOFTWARE System utilities are a wide variety of general purpose program that greatly speed up and simplify the use of a computer. They improve programming efficiency by providing the improved system performance. Some of the main utility software are-
1) Disk defragmenter 2) Virus scanner 3) Norton toolkit.
1)Disk Defragmenter- Normally files are stored on the system in fragmented manner according to the availability of space available. Disk defragmenters are programs that recognize information and the hard disk so that pieces of information in each file are stored as close together as possible. This makes reading from and writing files to hard disk more efficient and time saving. They are also known as disk compaction program-
Advantages of disk defragmenter(1) Disk defragmenter speed up system performance. (2) It can significantly decrease the time. It takes for programs to starts files to be read. (3) It is easy to implement.
Disadvantages of disk defragmenter(1) Takes a lot time to run most disk compaction program. (2) Can‘t be run from or written into another program.
PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES A computer being an electronic device can‘t understand instructions if provided in natural language. Therefore a special language is used to provide instructions to a computer system. This language is known as computer programming language consists of, a set of symbols and characters, words, and grammar rules that permit user to construct instruction in the format that can be understood and acted upon, by the computer system. LOW LEVEL LANGUAGES- The languages which use only primitive type of operatio9ns of the computer are known as low level languages. In these languages programs are written by means of memory and resisters available on the computer. As we all know that the architecture of computer differs from one machine to another, so far each type of computer there is a separate low level programming language. Program written in one low level languages of one machine can‘t be ported on any other machine due to the architectural changes. Because of this, low level languages are known as machine dependent languages like machine languages and assembly languages. MACHINE LANGUAGE- In machine languages programs the computation is based on the binary numbers. All the instructions including operations, registers, data and memory location are given in their binary equivalent. The machine directly understand this language by virtue of its circuitry design, so these programs are directly executable on the computer without any translations, which makes the program execution very fast. Machine languages are also known as first generation languages.
ADVANTAGES OF THE MACHINE LANGUAGES- Machine languages makes most efficient use of computer system resources like storage, registers e.t.c. The instructions of a
machine language program are directly executable. That is no need of translators. Machine language instruction can be used to manipulate the individual bits in a computer the individual bits in a computer system with a very execution speed due to direct computation of memory and registers. Draw back of machine language-Machine languages are machine dependent and therefore programs are not portable from one computer to the other. Programming in machine language usually results in poor programmer productivity. Machine language requires programmers to control the use of each register in the computers arithmetic logic unit and computer storage locations must be address directly. Machine language requires a high level of programming skills, which increase programmer training cost. Program written in machine language are more error prone and difficult to debug.
ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE- Assembly language is also known as second generation languages. These languages substitute alphabetic and numeric symbols (mnemonic) for the binary codes machine language. That is we cab use mnemonics for all up codes (which are to follow), registers and for the memory locations which provide us readable from of the program. These languages also provide us the facility to write reusable code in the form of macros. These languages require translators known as assemblers for translating a program code into machine language because complete can interrupt only the machine code instructions.
ADVANTAGES OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE- Assembly languages provide optimal use of computer resources like registers and memory because of direct use of these resources with in the program. Assembly language is easier to use than machine language because there is no need to remember or calculate the binary equivalent for up code and registers. An assembler is useful for detecting programming errors.
DRAW BACK OF ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE- Assembly language program are not directly executable due to need of translation. Assembly languages are machine depended and therefore not portable from one machine to another. Programming in assembly language requires a high level of programming skills and knowledge of computer architecture of the particular machine.
HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGE- All high level languages are machine independent languages. The high level languages use natural languages like structure. These languages require translators (compiler and interpreter) for translating high level language programming into machine language program for execution. These languages enable the programmer to write instructions using English words and familiar mathematical symbols. So it‘s become easier for programmer to concentrate the on logic of problem solving rather than technical details of the computers.
ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES OF HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES
FOURTH GENERATION LANGUAGE (4gls)- Fourth generation languages (4gls) are a class of software design to simply the task of developing a new application by making the user interface similar to natural languages. There are very easy to natural languages. Some 4gls are design to improve the productivity of programming professionals. Advantages- (1) Easy to use, (2) Machine independence. (3) Enhance programming productivity. (4) Ease of modification and maintain of data.
Disadvantages(1) 4gls programs are less efficient from the computer resource deep to point of view. (2) Programmer becomes less skilled over a period of time. (3) Security standard are difficult to enforce GL environment.
COMPUTER VIRUS Computer virus is a program design to alter (to change) or destroy the data stored on a computer system. Computer virus can be passed from one computer to another, on floppy disk, over network and over modem connections. The basic different between a normal program and virus program is that virus is a broad terms, it not only viruses but also ‗worms‘ and TROJANS‘.
WORMS-They are the viruses on network mostly. Like biological worms these also go on changing their addresses that is self relocate themselves. They make home in the computer memory and slow down the working of the computer. For e.g. - Xeroxparc worms, Alarm clock worm e.t.c.
TROJANS- It is a program that seems innocence but conceals a malicious program with in itself.
Examples are-x-mas card, Run me etc.
Classifications of virus/working principal Viruses are the classified on the basis of their mode of existence. There are following categories of viruses-
(1)Boot infectors or boot sectors viruses- This viruses physically reside in the Boot sector of the disks. These viruses get loaded soon after the power on self test (POST) and control the system and remain in control time. A boot sectors virus substitute itself from the boot strap loaders. Thus, these viruses get loaded every time when we switch on the system.
(2)General.Com or .Exe infectors- These viruses are most dangerous of all. They attached themselves to program files and can spread almost any executable program in any system. It may replace a portion of original file with its own code; this destroying the file or it may attach itself to the file. By attaching themselves to ‗.exe‘ or ‗.com‘ files, they alter size of file and some times multiple infections. The program files too large to be accommodated in the memory.
(3)System Infectors-These viruses deal with the components of the system itself. These viruses attached themselves to a file such as command ‗.com‘ or other memory resident files and manipulate these files. System infector differ from boot infectors in the sense that system infectors gain control after the computer is booted and interact a hard disk or bootable floppies, which contain the appropriate system files only.
Preventive measures (1) Use detection utilities, virus scanning programs that will determine if an infection exists. (2) Use infection prevention program to against virus penetrating a system. (3) Avoid loading unknown disk into a system unless it is certain that they are virus free. (4) Do not accept program unless it is certain that they are virus free and use write protection tab (are disk protectors use for not need data written on it). Disinfect an infect system- To disinfect an infected system use infection prevention program. They keep watch for viruses and detect one. These programs are of two types-
1)Protection system- They keep a watch for viruses and sound an alarm, when any found.
(A)Boot monitors- They become memory resident and capture the disk input or output interrupt. They keep a watch over disk input or output to the boot sector and partition table. Whenever any attempt is being made to read or write to area the sound an alarm and warn the user.
(B)File monitors- They check if any attempt is being made to write into an ‗.exe‘ or ‗.com‘ file of the systems. (C)Disk scanners- They check the hard disk, floppy disk for viruses. To prevent viruses from entering network and for maximum protection each work station should have a signature scanner and a memory resident activity monitor was developed by ‗M.C.CAFE‘ associates U.S.A. UNIT-V DATA COMMUNICATION Data communication is the process of transporting enclosed data from one location to another using any transmission media with in network. A communication system consists following basic components-
1) The sending and originating computer. 2) Data encoding device. 3) The communication channel (link). 4) The receiving computer or terminal.
Communication Protocol- In computer network communication occurs between entities in different system. A entity is anything capable for sending or receiving information. However, two entities can‘t simply sent bit streams to each other and expect to be understood for communication to occur, the entities must agree on a protocol. Thus, a protocol is a set of rule that governs data communication. A protocol defines.
Attenuation- What is communicated, however it is communicated and when it is communicated.
Important of Protocol-
(1) it‘s very important, it is a set of rules and procedure according to which the computer system communicate with each other. (2) Very important, because machine communicates with each other. (3) It establishment rules for the proper implementation of controls and data transmitted as row of bits and bytes.
(1) It stands for transmission control protocol and internet protocol. (2) T.C.P are one of the principal components of the TCP/IP protocols suite. (3) TCP put data into packets and provides reliable packets delivery across network. (4) TCP uses IP protocol to deliver packets to upper layer in the network model (ISO-OSI model).
OSI- ―Open system inters connection.‖ ISO- ―International standard organization.‖
(5) Only a packet arises at the correct IP addre4ss, TCP goes to work. (6) Between both the sending and receiving computer establish a dialogue, so that data transmitted from one computer can be communicated to other.
Data Transmission-Data transmission is the movement of data from one place to another using some form of representation appropriate to the transmission medium with in a network. Data transmission system can include electrical system carried along a conductor, optical system and electro magnetic webs.
e.g. - Radio or infrared signals.
Data transmission is of two types eternal and external.
External Data transmission- It refers to the transfer of data to either local peripheral equipment example printers (remote computers).
Types of transmission (signals) - In order to transmit data signal to destination, the message has to be given some informing of presentation which should be signals, acceptable to the communication channel. There are two types of transmission based on the presentation of data are-
(1) Analog and (2) Digital.
Analog- Analog data transmission signals are transmitted by varying one of the physical characteristic continuously as a function of time. Normally continuously varying voltage is use for such a transmission (for e.g.- telephone line). Analog transmission is generally using for the transmission of voice signals or TV signals. In terms of voltage voice can be representing as follows-
Digital- In digital (binary) transmission the strings of 0‘s and 1‘s are transmitted. These bit streams consist of characters or numbers digitally. That is digital transmission show the number of possible values in the form of 0‘s and 1‘s. For example equivalent of 25 can be represented as ‗11001‘. The diagrammatic representation of digital signals are-
Advantage of Digital over Analog- Digital transmission has the very low error rate as compared to Analog transmission the number of possible values are only 2, That is ‗0‘ and ‗1‘. Another advantage of digital transmission is that different entities for example voice, data, images can all be mixed together to ensure proper utilization of the transmission equipments.
Direction of Transmission Flow- The direction in which information can flow over a transmission path is determined by the properties of the both that is the transmitting and receiving devices. Thus depending upon the direction of data transfer allocated in the system are three different types(1) Simplex Transmission (2) Half Duplex Transmission (3) Full Duplex Transmission.
(1)Simplex Transmission- In simplex transmission a single line is capable of transmitting data in only one direction. That is a simplex mode the communication channel is used in one direction. The receiver receives the signal by transmitting device. In this type of transmission are can send signal and other can receive. Radio and television broadcasting are examples of simplex transmission.
(2)Half Duplex transmission- In half mode is capable of transmitting data in both direction but not simultaneously. That is in this transmission the communication channel is used in both direction (send and receive data by using a single path) But not in single time slot.
(3)Full Duplex Transmission- A full Duplex line can send and receive data in both directions simultaneously. It is faster because it avoids the delay occurs in a half duplex circuit. Each time the direction of transmission is changed. That is in full duplex mode both receiving and sending device can communicate each direction in single time slot. For example- computer network.
In computer network the transmission of data is based upon the binary digit sequence. Techniques uses for transmission based on the pattern of bits transferred are as follows-
(A) Serial transmission(1) In serial data transfer bits are transferred serially over the communication line. (2) Serial transmission than parallel transmission because only one channel is used in this type of transmission.
(3) Serial data transmission is normally chosen for long distance data communication as serial transmission over long distance is cheaper than parallel data transmission. (4) Telephones line is one of the most common media for serial transmission.
(B) Parallel Transmission(1) In parallel transmission the entire byte can be transmitted at the same time by transmitting channels. (2) This makes parallel data transmission costlier as the distance increase. (3) In parallel data transmission there is a problem of ‗line noise or crosstalk‘. That is this transmission is not suitable to communicate with distance resources. (4) This system (transmission) is useful for the communication between various parts of computer. Data and address buses are the example of parallel transmission.
MODULATION In order through the web form to be transmitted, It is necessary to be converted into the high frequency signals this process start modulation. In analog modulation analog signals used as carrier and in pulse modulation the digital signal is used. Following are the modulation used for analog signals(1)Amplitude modulation- If the amplitude of the carrier web is changed according to the various amplitude of wave form the process is called amplitude modulation. Here the amplitude of high frequency carrier wave is changed as per the variation in the amplitude of input wave for the process is called modulated wave form.
2) Frequency modulation- In this modulation the frequency of the carrier wave is modified in proportion to the modulating signals. The frequency of the carrier wave is increased according to the increased in the amplitude of the input wave form. The frequency of the carrier wave decreased upon the decrement in the input wave form. 3) Phase modulation- In phase modulation, the phase of the career wave is varied (change) in according with the variation, with the input wave form the phase angel of the terms of corresponding changes on the amplitude of input wave form increased and phase shift decrease where the amplitude of the input wave form decrease normally, The phase angel effects the frequency of the signal. Therefore the phase modulation is very similar to the frequency modulation.
Types of Network (1)LAN (LOCAL AREA NETWORK)-
(A) LAN is a group of computer devices collected by a communication channel, capable of a sharing file and other resources such as printers and high capacity, high speed mass storage devices between several users. (B) LAN allow for high speed exchange of essential information between people in an organization. (C) It allows cost effective multi-user environment. (D)Due to shorter area coverage, LAN offers loser delay‘s than WAN and MAN.
(2) MAN (METROPOLITIAN AREA NETWORK)-
(A) It stands for metropolitan area network. (B) It is a collection of multiple area networks that are connected with in a same city to form a city wide network for a specific government or industry. (C) MAN generally expands a larger geographic area than a LAN.
(D) The MAN network standards are sponsored by ‗IEEE 802.6 set of standards are dedicated to MAN. (E) MAN is designed with two unidirectional buses; each bus is in depended of the other in the transfer of traffic. (F) MAN makes the entire city network and also utilities the cable television network to connect computer together.
(3) WAN (WIDE AREA NETWORK)-
(A) It stands for wide area network. (B) A networks that connects users across larger distance, often crossing the geographical boundaries of cities, sates or countries is also known as wide area network. (C) The connection is made via satellite communication link or via internet. (D) WAN allows work groups to be spread across the geographical boundaries of used for remote data collection.
-TOPOLOGIESTopology means the physical arrangement of the system on a different geographical location. Topologies determine complexity and therefore the cost of network cable installation. In topology computer are connected to each other through some in connection medium known as communication medium. Different types of topologies are-
(1)Bus/linear topology (2)Ring (3)Star (4)Mesh (5)Tree
(1)BUS/LINEAR- In this topology all computers are connected by a single length of cabling (cable) with terminator each end. The Bus topology is the simplest and most widely uses network design.
In this topology computer are connected by using thin co-axial cable and the connector, A network device is used to connect the system.
ADVANTAGE1) - It is simple, reliable, in very small network, easy to use and easy to understand. 2) - Bus requires least amount of cable to connect the computer together and its therefore less expansive. It is easy to expand that is two cables can be joined into one longer cable with a connector.
DISADVANTAGE1) - In this topology, only one computer at a time send a message hence the number of computers attached to a bus network and significantly effect the speed of the network. A computer must wait until the bus is free. 2) – Trouble shooting of this system is very typical because if one system goes down then whole network goes down.
(2)RING OR CIRCULAR TECHNOLOGY- In Ring topology lay out is similar to the bus topology; accept that the nodes are connected in a circle, using cable segments. That is in
this topology last node is finally connected to first machine. Terminator is not used because there is no end to Ring. This topology can be found in pear to pear network.
ADVANTAGE – The fare sharing of the network allows the network to degrade (slow) forcefully as more users are added. A new node can be added for anywhere in this topology.
DISADVANTAGE – 1) – Failure of one computer on the ring can affect the whole network. 2) – Adding or removing computer disturbed the network.
(3)Star Topology - Each computer on a star network communicates with a central ‗HUB‘ that resends the message either to all the computer (in the network) or only to destination
computer. In this topology a centrally located ‗HUB‘ is used to connect the network.
ADVANTAGES – 1) – It is easy to modify and add new computers without disturbing the rest of the network. 2) – Single computers failures do not necessary bring down the whole network. The hub can detect a network fault.
DISADVANTAGES – 1) – Its costs more to cable because all network cables must be pulled to one central point, requiring more cable must be pulled to one central point and costly also. 2) – If the central hub fails, the whole network fails to operate.
(3) Tree Topology- It containing ‗0‘ or more nodes. Those are linked together in a hierarchal fashion. The top most nodes is called the root. The roots have ‗0‘ or more child nodes. Nodes sharing the same parents are called siblings. These relationship ensure that there is always one and only path from one node to any other node in the tree.
(4) Mesh topology -
The mesh topology consists of point to point connections between all devices on the network. It is most secure and reliable network. In this topology each machine are connected to each other by using an individual wire. That‘s why there are the multiple possible paths to send data from one location to another location. In this topology data is transfer at in much faster rate, It also reduces concentration network traffic. It‘s the advance technology of the star topology.
ADVANTAGES – (1)High Speed Communication: - Using mesh topology high speed exchange of information is possible between the source and the destination device. (2)High Stability: - For large network connections, the mesh topology extremely useful as it allows multiple paths on the large network. (3)High Reliability: - As network connectivity doesn‘t depend anyone device so that the mesh topology is highly reliable.
DISADVANTAGE(1)The physical lay out of the mesh topology is complicated. The complexity of the topology is directly proportional to the number of devices to be connected. (2)The reconfiguration of new machine is typical.
(3) Mesh topology involves high maintainers.
-COMPONENTS OF LANThe various LAN components are(1) NETWORK OPERATING SYSTEM:- A network operating system is a collection of software and associated protocols that allows a set of ‗autonomous computers‘, Which are inter connected by a computer network to be used together in a convenient and cost effective manner. It others many capabilities including-
Allows user to access the various resources of network host. Controlling access show that only authorized user can access the resources. A network operating system user is aware each of their files is kept and can transfer the files from one machine to another. (2) Network Interface Card (Nic):- A chip base circuit use to connect the P.C to a network or server. The cark is activated by loading software on the P.C. It is printed circuit board that is installed in a vacant slot in the computer. The back of the card contains a physical interface for connecting between computers resources connected to the network.
(3) BRIDGES:- A network device that connects network following the same set of protocol known are Bridge. Besides sending message to hardware address, The Bridge may need to reformat the packets containing these messages while crossing the network with different sizes of data frames.
(4)GATEWAYS:- It is device that connects multiple networks using different protocols and route packets among them. For a LAN connecting to the internet, the router is called the Gateway. Gateways normally operate at the network layer of the OSI model.
(5)ROUTER:- It provide connectivity between WAN and LAN network with different topologies or networks using different network standards. Routers operate at the network layer of the OSI model. This device contains its own process to produce exact pat, on which data is send and contain the routing table, which decides the most efficient path to send each data from one
place to another. If one route is busy, it decides to forward a message by using less busy routes. Thus router acts like a traffic controller in the network.
(6) HUB:- Hub is a connecting device, which is used to create star topology network into a small LAN. This device provides port to port communication. The hub operates at the physical layer of OSI model. In this type of network if one device failure other device doesn‘t go down. There are two types of Hub(1) Active Hub (2) Passive Hub
PASSIVE HUB: - This hub performs only port to port communication and does not provide amplification. ACTIVE HUB: - Active hub performs both tasks amplification and port to port communication.
(7) REPEATER: - It is a device, which used on physical layer. This device can‘t attach to dissimilar types of network, It only extend the extending network segments from one location to another. The major draw back of this device is that it can‘t filter the bad signal to the next works on homogeneous network not on Heterogeneous.
MODEM: - The term modem stands for modulator/Demodulator; It is usually reserve for analog modem. Modem is a communication device that enables a computer to transmit data (information) over a standard telephone line. Because a computer is digital (works with discreet electrical signals representing binary 1 and 0) and the telephone is analog, so modems are needed to convert digital into analog and vice versa (reverse). In order to make the communication effective, It is required that-
(1)Whatever is communicated by the source, should reach the destination in the same order and in the original state. (2)It is necessary to convert the digital signal into analog and make powerful so that it cab be transmitted. Modems are the devices, which are most suitable for this task that is by converting signal digital into analog and vice versa (analog into digital). Modem can be classified on the basis of the speed. (A) Low speed modem- Which can operate up to the speed of 600 bits/sec. (B) Medium speed modem- Which cab operates up to the speed of 1200 to 3000 b/sec. (C) High speed modem- Which can operate over the speed of 20 kb/sec.
ON THE BASIS OF CIRCUITORY THE TYPES OF MODEM-
(A)Internal (B) External.
Internal- Internal modems are inserted inside the computer. External- External modems are kept out side the computer.
TYPES OF CONNECTION Dial up ISDN Leased line
(1)Dial up- The dial up modem usually attached with traditional telephone line. Thus by using the dial up modem (connection). We can connect to a computer on the network via traditional phone lines. To access the internet via a phone line the concept is connect your computer to the telephone system using a traditional phone line. In this method we dial into an ISP (internet service provider) to establish a link on internet. To start works you can run on a communication program to dial up the phone and establish a connection with in a remote internet host. Once the connection is established, you log on the server by typing your user name and password.
(2) ISDN ( Integrated services digital network)- ISDN is a type of telephone service to allow the user to connect you computer the user to connect your computer at a speed which is faster because it is digital. The main characteristics of ISDN are-
(a) In ISDN the multimedia data that is voice and image is transmitted voice and image is transmitted over the telephone lines. It was first launched in Singapore in 1990. (b) In ISDN the main advantage is to send voice data and image to independent channels simultaneously. While in normal telephone line on cell/channel is possible at one time. (c) ‗Mantra‘ online is the first private ISP. In India the various service providers‘ are- Dot, MTNL, and VSNL e.t.c.
(3) Leased line–(a) A dedicated link or leased line is a permanent connection over a telephone line between modem pointers to another modem pointer. (b) With a dedicated link you‘re P.C and LAN is connected to internet all time. BROADBAND In a network system in which the band with of the media sub divided by frequency into multiple channels and can support the concurrent transmission of different types of signals such a video, data and audio. The main characteristic of broad band system areUse multiple careers (channel). Can use higher frequencies. Hardware more computer and expensive.
A data type communication channel is a path through which communication path is establishes using various types of transmission media. Following are the main types of communication media.
Twisted pair cable- (1) These cable are 22 to 26 awg (American wire guage) copper wires,
which are wrapped to each other and found in pairs. (2) Widely used because of low cast and performance can be used for both analog and digital signal. (3)There are two types of twisted pair cable exist UTP and STP. UTP (unshielded twisted pair cable) and STP are commonly there are in five categories. The difference between UTP and STP has an extra Jacket to protect itself from an EMI (Electro magnetic ignorance). (4) The first two categories used for telephone network and rest there used in computer network. (5) Cat1=226 mbps and Cat1 to rest=10 to 100 mbps.
CO- AXIL CABLE
(1) The sore of co-axial cable consist of a solid copper wire which is surrounded by insulative material. The insulator is enclosed by cylindrical is covered in a protective insulating sheet. (2) In this cable two metal shares the same axis so it is called co-axial cable. (3) The data speed of this cable is 155 mbps. (4) This cable is costly than twisted pair cable. The installation of this cable is simple. (5) There is two of co-axial cable thin and thick co-axial cable. (6) The limitation of this cable is 175 meter to 1 km. (7) Provides a high performance communication path for application requiring bulk transfer rate. It is mainly used in LAN.
FIBRE OPTIC CABLE
(1) Latest development in technology has made it possible to transmit data using pulses of light (2) The fiber optic cable works on light pulses of electrical pulses. (3) In place of media, vacuum hallow, fiber cylinder present, which is covered by cladding. (4) a light pulse can be used to represent one binary value by absence of the pulse signal and optical transmission system consist of mainly three components. (A) Light source (B) Transmission medium (c) Light dedicators
Light source- It produce light pulses whenever an electric pulse is applied. Transmission medium- It is a thin wire or glass fiber or fused silica. Light dedicators- It generate electric pulses when light falls on it.
(5)It is an expansive cable; installation of this cable is not easy it carry 2 GB/s of data up to 25 kilometers. (6)Attenuation and EMI is about to ‗0‘. (7)FDDI (fiber disc distribution interface) network is the example of fiber optic cable. Descript by SANJAY NANDA SIR Written by RAHUL YADAV Student of B.COM II UNIVERSITY OF ALLAHABAD
OXFORD OF THE EAST