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02.0 Persuasion & Communication


Willi Zimmermann

Documentation: Cialdini (Text in your


documentation)

Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

Aims
The student should become familiar
with persuasion & use it in
communication
Be able to figure out how he/she
can create commitment

Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

Message
Learn more about persuasion - it will
help you become more successful at
achieving your goals!

Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

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Structure
A. Persuasion
B. Robert Cialdini
C. His six principles

Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

A.) Persuasion

Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

Main points
Persuasion
Can change receivers with symbols
Is a strategy of problem-solving
relying on "appeals" rather than
force

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What is persuasion?
Process of Change
Baseline level -> "persuasion" -> new level
Persuasion seeks change

Requires Communication
Sources use messages and channels to change
receivers
Implies uncertainty, mutuality, and freedom

Changes Attitude
Persuasion seeks internal change, not external
External change may follow
Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

Short review
Persuasion
Process of Change
Requires Communication
Focuses upon Attitude
Source of communication produces a change in
receiver attitude

Attitude
Evaluation of object of thought
Mental yardstick of good-to-bad
Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

B. ) Robert Cialdini

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Robert Cialdini
He is an authority on persuasion and
influence
One of major his major books Influence:
Science and Practice and Influence:
The Psychology of Persuasion
Social psychologist at Department of
Psychology at Arizona State University
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C) His six principles of influence


1. Reciprocity
2. Scarcity
3. Authority
4. Consistency
5.Liking
6.Consensus (Social Proof )
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1. Principle of Reciprocity
Reciprocity: People try to repay in
kind
In general, this goes for
cooperation, trust, empathy, help

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2. Principle of Scarcity
Scarcity: Opportunities seem more
valuable when they are less
available
People value what is scarce
Losses or lost opportunities can be
very persuasive

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3. Principle of Authority
Authority: People tend to defer to
legitimate authorities as decisionmaking short-cut

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4. Principle of Consistency
Consistency: Once people make a
choice or take a stand, when they
encounter personal or
interpersonal pressures they tend
to behave consistently with that
commitment
People fulfill written, public, and
voluntary commitments
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5th Principle: Liking


People like those
who like them
A weaker argument
will convince people
who like you

Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

5th Principle: Liking

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(continued)

Physical attractiveness
We assign to good looking
individuals favourable traits like
Talent
Kindness
Honesty
Intelligence
Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

5th Principle: Liking

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(continued)

Similarity -> if physical attractiveness


is not the issue?
Then, we like people who are similar to
us in areas like
Opinions
Personality traits
Background
Lifestyle

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5th Principle: Liking

(continued)

Compliments
As a rule, we tend to believe praise and to
like those who provide them
We seem to have an almost automatic
positive reaction to compliments

Contact & cooperation


The effect of liking familiarity plays a role in
decision making
We are more disposed towards things we have
had contact with
Willi Zimmermann, Business communciation, AIT 2015

5th Principle: Liking

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(continued)

Association
Positive association
If hostility (negative association),
unfamiliarly, then cooperative learning
seems promising
Rule against undue liking -> dissociate
for example dealer from merits of the
deal and decide based on merits (after
consideration)
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6th Principle: Consensus


Also: Social Proof)
People follow the lead
of similar others
(Social comparison
theory)

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6th Principle: Consensus (continued)

We use to decide, to believe, to act by looking at


what other people are doing or believe
Social proof is most influential under two
conditions:
1. Uncertainty (unsure, ambiguity) - we look at others and
assume these actions as correct
2. Similarity: people are more inclined to follow the lead of
similar others

Reduce influence of social proof: Sensitivity to


counter-evidence & others are not sole basis for
our decisions

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Reference
Cialdini, Robert, B.
Influence: Science and Practice (5th
Edition) 272 pages
Publisher: Prentice Hall; 5 edition (August
8, 2008)
ISBN-10: 0205609996

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