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Christian Joni S.

Gregorio
II 4 BFE
Foundations of Education
Prof. Jerick Ferrer

CONFUCIANISM

1. Introduction to Confucius and


Confucianism.
1.1. Confucius is one of the most
known and influential of Chinese
philosophers.
1.2. His ideas about creating social
and political harmony through good
governance, proper human relations
and individual moral development
shape Chinese thought and history
for many centuries.
1.3. He did not pretend to be a
prophet, but dedicated his whole life
to save the mankind.
1.4. Confucius promised those who
followed him no great riches, no
secrets for worldly power or fame.
Instead of gold or glory, he spoke
only of a dreama world where
happiness, good, and peace would
replace misery, evil, and war.
1.5. Confucianism is humanism, a
philosophy or attitude that is
concerned with human beings, their
achievements and interests, rather
than with the abstract beings and
problems of theology. Humanism is
the belief that human beings are
teachable, improvable and
perfectible through personal and

communal endeavor especially


including self-cultivation and selfcreation.
1.6. Confucianism was never
intended to be a religion. It has no
revelatory sacred writings, no
priesthood, no doctrine of an
afterlife, and frowned on asceticism
and monasticism.
1.7. Confucianism has been the chief
cultural influence of China for
centuries.
2. Ancestry, Childhood and Youth
(551-523 B.C.)
2.1. Confucius was born in
the town of Tsou, in the
county of Changping in the
country of Lu (now Shantung
Province).
2.2. His early ancestor was
Kung Fangshu (member of
the Royal State of
Song/Sung)
2.3. His great grandfather
moved to Lu, fleeing the
turmoil in Song to the
country of Lu, where they
became impoverished.
2.4. Shuliang Ho was the
Father of Confucius by extramarital union.
2.5. Confucius was born in
answer to his parents prayers
at a sacred hill called Ni,
thus, they named him
Chiu/qiu.

2.6. Soon after he was born, his


father died
2.7. As a child, Confucius used to
play at making sacrificial offerings
and performing ceremonies.
2.8. In spite of his familys financial
problems, Confucius received a good
education in music, arithmetic,
calligraphy, and other disciplines
2.9. He left his country and headed
to Chou to study the ancient rites and
ceremonies
2.10. At around 19, he got married,
he earned a living tending stable
animals and keeping accounts for
granaries of Baron Chi.
2.11. But soon divorced his wife and
had an aloof relationship with his son
and daughter. (They died before
Confucius)
2.12. In his twenties, he became a
teacher and gathered a group of loyal
disciples.
3. Between Thirty and Fifty (522-503 B.C.)
3.1. Confucius returned from Chou
to the country of Lu, and more
disciples came to study under him.
3.2. At the age of 35, due to a
conflict between the rulers of 2
different countries, Confucius left his
country and went to the country of
Chi, where he worked as a secretary
to Baron Chao Kao, in the hope of
establishing a connection with the
duke of Chi

3.3. The Duke of Chi was very


impressed with Confucius and
wanted to give him some sort of
power but other nobilities were
plotting against him so he was forced
to return to his country.
3.4. The number of his students
rapidly grew.
4. The Period of Great Power (502-496
B.C.)
4.1. During his 50s/ early 50s,
Confucius was made magistrate of
Chungtu by Duke Ting/Ding
4.2. Then he was promoted to the
office of the secretary of Public
Works (or Labor) then later on
became the Grand Secretary of
Justice.
4.3. Confucius disciple named Tselu
was made Secretary of the Barony of
Chi
4.4. At 56, Confucius, from Grand
Secretary of Justice, he was
promoted as the Chief Minister
4.5. After 3 months of being Chief
Minister, people started to strictly
follow the rules
4.6. This frightened their rival
country (Chi) because of the worry
that the country of Lu with
Confucius having some power might
dominate.

4.7. Due to political disagreements


and internal conflicts, he resigned his
post at fifty-five and left the province
of Lu.
5. Five Years of Wandering (496-492 B.C,)
5.1. In the company of his disciples,
Confucius left Lu and traveled in the
states of Wei, Song, Chen, Cai, and
Chu, purportedly looking for a ruler
who might employ him but meeting
instead with indifference and,
occasionally, severe hardship and
danger
5.2. When he was in Wei for the
second time, the duke was pleased to
see him but did not put him in power
5.3. If someone will put me in
power, I shall need only one month
(to lay the foundation for a new
order) and in three years time, I shall
accomplish great results
5.4. So he left Wei because he felt
that he couldnt accomplish anything
in Wei and decided to go back to
Chen.
6. In Extremities between Chen and Tsai
(491-489 B.C.)
6.1. After a year, Confucius left
Chen to go to Tsai and wandered
there for 3 years.
6.2. The rulers of Chu sent for
Confucius but the rulers of Chen
and Tsai heard of this and wont let
it happen. So, they surrounded
Confucius with soldiers.

6.3. Confucius was able to get out of


this difficulty with the help of the
King of Chu.
6.4. Confucius left Chu and headed
again back to Wei. (He was 63 this
time)
7. Further Years of Wanderings (488-484
B.C.)
7.1. When he was in Wei, he had
many disciples who were in the
government.
7.2. Kung Wentse of Wei asked
Confucius about Military tactics but
he politely declined.
7.3. Then he decided to leave Wei
7.4. Confucius returned to Lu in 484
B.C .and spent the remainder of his
life teaching, putting in order the
Book of Songs, the Book of
Documents, and other ancient
classics, as well as editing the Spring
and Autumn Annals, the court
chronicle of Lu
7.5. He traveled for thirteen years
from state to state seeking to
persuade political leaders to adopt
his teachings before returning to Lu.
Although many lords respected him,
no one gave him a position.
8. Scholarly Labors and Personal Habits of
Confucius (484-481 B.C)
8.1. In his old age, Confucius
developed a love of study of
different books.

8.2. Confucius taught poetry, history,


ceremonies and music to 3,000
pupils of whom 72, had mastered the
Six arts (ceremonies, music,
archery, carriage-driving, reading
and mathematics)
9. His Death (479 B.C.) and Posterity
9.1. Confucius said to Tsekung while
he was ill: For a long time the world
has been living in moral chaos and
no ruler has been able to follow me
9.2. Seven days afterwards he died at
the age of 72 or 73.
9.3. For generations sacrifices were
offered at the temple of Confucius
9.4. The belongings of Confucius
were preserved in the Confucian
Temple and all the princes and high
ministers paid respects first at the
Confucian Temple before assuming
office.
9.5. Confucius who was but a
common scholar became
acknowledged Master of scholars for
over ten generations
9.6. All people in China who discuss
the six arts, from the emperors,
kings, and princes down, regard the
Master as the final authority
9.7. Confucius was recognized as a
unique figure, a sage who was
ignored but should have been
recognized and become a king

10. How his life effected his Philosophy.


10.1. The ending of the Zhou
Dynasty in China was marred by
warring factions within the empire,
harsh rule by the power wielding
elites, and to some extent, political
chaos. Confucius, lived during these
times and sought for an
understandable and capable way of
ruling.
10.2. The moral and social order was
in a state of decay. Confucius sought
a way to restore the cultural-political
order. He believed that reform would
come through educating the leaders
in the classics and in his philosophy.
10. Confucian Ethics: Outline
10.1. The Basis of Ethical Thought
in Confucianism
10.2. Virtue Ethics in Confucianism
10.3. Ethical Particularism: the
Golden Rule and the Silver Rule.
10.4. Conception of Civil Society in
Confucian Thought
11. Confucian Virtues
11.1. Ren
11.2. Li
11.3. Shu
11.4. Xiao
12. Right Ordering of the State
13. Some Quotes from Analects of Confucius
about the Junzi.

14. Good Government


15. Evaluation of Confucius Political
Thought in the Western Democracy and
China.
16. Critiques

Note: Sir, I know all things that was written


here in my written report will not be tackled
because of shortness of time. However, I
wish you can help me breakdown this report
so I can manage to fit this topic/report in
one session. Thank you.

References
1.
Brubacher, John S. Modern
Philosophies of education. New York:
Mcgraw Hill Book Co., 1978.
2,
Duka, Cecilio D. Historical,
Philosophical, and Legal Foundations of
Education. Quezon City Phoenix Publishing
House.

3.
Gutek, Gerald L. Philosophical and
Ideological Perspective in Education. USA:
Allyn & Bacon, 1997.
4.
Quito, Emerita S. The Merging
Philosophy of East and West. Manila: De La
Salle Press, 1991.
5.
Tullo, Doris D. Historical,
Philosophical, legal, Technological
Foundations of Education. Mandaluyong
City. National Bookstore, 1991.

6.
Yao, Xinzhong An Introduction to
Confucianism. United Kingdom. Cambridge
University Press, 2000.
7.
http://www.slideshare.net/tan_ong_davidbry
an/confucius-report
8.
http://www.patheos.com/Library/Confuciani
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