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NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Root Locus Method Part 1


D Bishakh
Dr.
Bi h kh Bhattacharya
Bh tt h
Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering
IIT Kanpur

Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc - Funded by MHRD

Module 3- Lecture 16

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

ThisLectureContains
OpenandClosedLoopTransferFunction
GeometricInterpretationofaTransferFunction
EvaluationofaTransferFunction
RulesofRootLocus

Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc - Funded by MHRD

Module 3- Lecture 16

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 3- Lecture 16

Recall Open and Closed Loop Transfer


Function

Open Loop Transfer Function:

KG ( s ) H ( s )

Close Loop Transfer Function:

KG ( s )
1 KG ( s ) H ( s )

G(s) given, H(s) Given, Select the Gain K and vary until you receive the desired
response.
response

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 3- Lecture 16

Geometric Interpretation of Evaluating a


T
Transfer
f Function
F
ti
ConsideraTransferFunctiontobe:

T (s)

( s z0 )
( s p0 )

rp

rz
p

p0

z
z0

Thepoleandzeroareplottedinthesplaneasshown.Themagnitudeof
the transfer function is the ratio of the zero and the pole length (rz /r
thetransferfunctionistheratioofthezeroandthepolelength(r
/ rp )
)
andthephaseofthetransferfunctionisZ p .

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 3- Lecture 16

Evaluation of a Transfer Function


Consider a Transfer Function to be

( s 1)
F ( s)
s ( s 2)

Evaluate the function at a test point s = -3+j4, i.e. find out the magnitude and
phase of the transfer function at the test point.
Following
g the geometric
g
technique
q or using
g simple
p complex
p
algebra
g
you
y may
y
find out that :
Zero length - 20, z = 116.60
Pole at Origin: Pole length 5, p1 = 126.90
P l att -2:
Pole
2 P
Pole
l length
l
th 17,
17 p2 = 104.0
104 00
Magnitude of the transfer function:
20
F (s)
0.217
5 17
Total Phase = 116.6
116 6-(126
(126.9+104)
9+104) = -124
124.6
60

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 3- Lecture 16

Objective of Root Locus


Without Factorizing 1+KG(s)H(s) Every Time Can We Find Out The
Location Of Closed Loop Poles and Comment On Stability?
Answer: Yes, Get The Root Locus

Characteristic Equation of the closed loop system

1 KF ( s ) 0
1 KG ( s ) H ( s ) 0, Or
F ( s) G ( s) H ( s)
1
Or F ( s )
K
ThephaseconditionforF(s)is
1
j
statedintheequationbelow
q
Also F ( s ) F ( s ) e F ( s ) , F ( s )
whichisfurtherusedfortheroot
K
locusplot.

<F(s) = (2k+1)1800

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

If

F(s)

(s zi)
i 1
n

For any Values of F(s)

(s pi )
i 1

Z
Zero

F ( s)
Pole
F ( s ) Zero

Lengths
L
h
Lenghts
angles Pole angles

Module 3- Lecture 16

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Numberofrootloci
Numberofrootloci asmanyasopenlooppoles
Originatpoles
Root Locus of the Open Loop Transfer Function

Module 3- Lecture 16

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Symmetryalwaysabouttherealaxis.
m open loop poles to finite zeros
Termination as K mopenlooppolestofinitezeros
Oftheopenloopsystem,nmnumberofpolesapproachzeroesatinfinity
Oftheopenloopsystem,n
mnumberofpolesapproachzeroesatinfinity.

Root Locus of the Open Loop Transfer Function

Module 3- Lecture 16

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

RealaxisSegment: Rootlocusexistsontheleft
RealaxisSegment:
ofanodd numberofrealaxisfiniteopenlooppolesandzeroes

Root Locus of the Open Loop Transfer Function

Module 3- Lecture 16

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 3- Lecture 16

Special References for this lecture


Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Frankline, Powell and Emami, Pearson
Control Systems Engineering Norman S Nise, John Wiley & Sons
Design of Feedback Control Systems Stefani,
Stefani Shahian,
Shahian Savant,
Savant Hostetter
Oxford

JointInitiativeofIITsandIISc Fundedby
MHRD

11

NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System

Module 3- Lecture 16

Special References for this lecture


Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Frankline, Powell and Emami, Pearson
Control Systems Engineering Norman S Nise, John Wiley & Sons
Design of Feedback Control Systems Stefani,
Stefani Shahian,
Shahian Savant,
Savant Hostetter
Oxford

JointInitiativeofIITsandIISc Fundedby
MHRD

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