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Jordan University of Science and Technology

Faculty of Engineering
Civil Engineering Department
Highway Laboratory
CE444 234440
Student name: Huthyfh AbdAlmajeed Alkhtatbeh
Student ID: 20120023203
Student number (S.N) & Group number G.N : ( 24 ) /
( 4 )
Section : 1 ( sun , tue ) ( 2 4 ) ( Highway LAB )
Experiment num & name : experiment # 5 Marshall Mix
Design
Experiment description :

Submission Day & Date : _ 2 / 8 / 2015


Presented to: Prof. Taisir Khedaywi
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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Introduction
The Marshall Method for hot-mix asphalt concrete mix design is a rational approach
to selecting and proportioning two materials, asphalt cement and mineral
aggregates to obtain the specified properties in the finished asphalt concrete
surfacing structure. The method is intended for laboratory design of asphalt hot-mix
paving mixtures.
Mix Design: A matter of selecting and proportioning materials to obtain the desired
properties in the finished construction product.
Stability: The ability to withstand traffic loads without distortion or deflection,
especially at higher temperatures.
Workability: The ability to be placed and compacted with reasonable effort and
without segregation of the coarse aggregate. Too much asphalt cement makes the
mix tender. Too little asphalt cement makes it hard to compact.
Skid Resistance: Proper traction in wet and dry conditions. To get good skid
resistance, use smaller aggregate so there are lots of contact points, use hard
aggregate that doesnt polish and make sure you have enough air voids to prevent
bleeding. Some states now use an open-graded friction course (OGFC) that allows
water to drain to the sides of the pavement, eliminating hydroplaning. But OGFC is
not very durable because of the open pores.
Durability The ability to resist aggregate breakdown due to wetting and drying,
freezing and thawing, or excessive inter-particle forces.
Stripping: Separation of the asphalt cement coating from the aggregate due to
water getting between the asphalt and the aggregate.
Bleeding: The migration of asphalt cement to the surface of the pavement under
wheel loads, especially at higher temperatures.
Fatigue Cracking: Cracking resulting from repeated flexure of the asphalt concrete
due to traffic loads. Thermal Cracking: Cracking that results from an inability to
acclimate to a sudden drop in temperature. To minimize thermal cracking, use the
proper asphalt cement grade.
Abstract
In asphalt mixtures there is some needed properties that depends on the asphalt
content and this experiment is constructed to find the optimum asphalt content to
get the best needed properties such as stability and air voids . Marshall Test method
starts to disappear in many countries and these countries starts to use super pave
method. The Marshal Method starts with preparation of aggregate according to the
properties requirement of the project specifications such as density, grading, voids
analysis and Specific Gravity of aggregate used. The Specific Gravity of the Asphalt
Cement is also according to the requirements. Then the aggregate and the asphalt
will be mixed and compacted.
The mix design must have sufficient asphalt to ensure a durable pavement,
sufficient stability under traffic loads , sufficient air voids to prevent excessive
environmental damage and to allow for a slight addition of compaction by traffic ,
sufficient workability . The final output of the mix design must give you a unique

asphalt content that will give us a balance among all desired properties such as
durability , impermeability , strength , stability , stiffness , flexibility , fatigue ,
resistance and workability . The design we will be considering in our lab is the
Marshall mix design.
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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The Marshall mix design method consists of 6 basic steps :


1) Aggregate selection
2) Asphalt binder selection
3) Sample preparation (including compaction )
4) Stability determination using the Hveem Stabilometer
5) Density and voids calculations
6) Optimum asphalt binder content selection .
In the case of aggregate selection , we often select the aggregates from more than
one source to obtain the final aggregate gradation used in a mix design . Trial
blends of these different gradations are usually calculated until an acceptable final
mix design gradation is achieved , the typical considerations for a trial blend include
;
1) all gradation specifications must be met
2) the gradation should not be to close to the FHWA 0.45 power max density curve ,
if it is then the VMA is likely to be too low , the gradation should deviate from the
FHWA'S 0.45 power max. density curve . Now as for the binder selection , the
binder evaluation can be based on local experience , pervious performance or a set
procedure . The sample preparation , is a key stage in the Marshall mix design , like
other mix designs methods , the use of several trial aggregate asphalt binder
blends ( typically 4 blends with 3 samples each for a total of 12 specimens ), each
with a different asphalt binder content . After evaluating each blend an optimum
asphalt binder content can be selected, in order for this concept to work , the trial
blends must contain a range of asphalt contents both above and below the optimum
asphalt content .The samples of the asphalt binder content are typically prepared at
0.5 % increments . In the next step we will be talking about the compaction with the
Marshall hammer , each sample is heated to the anticipated compaction
temperature and compacted with a Marshall hammer , a device that applies
pressure to a sample through a tamper foot , some of those hammers are automatic
and some are hand operated , the number of blows are typically 35,50,75 on each
size depending upon the anticipated traffic loading .Now we must test our sample
for the stability and flow test , this test provides the performance prediction
measure for the Marshall mix design method . The stability portion of the test
measures the maximum load supported by the test specimen at a loading rate of
50.8mm/ minute . Basically the load is increased until it reaches a maximum then
when the load just begins to decrease , the loading is stopped and the maximum
load is recorded . During the loading an attached dial gauge measures the specimen
plastic flow as a result of the loading . The flow value is recorded in 0.25mm (0.01
inch) increments at the same time the maximum load is recorded .The next step is
the density and voids analysis , in all mix design methods use density and voids to
determine the basic HMA physical characteristics. Two different measures of

densities are taken : Gmb and Gmm , these densities are then used to calculate the
volumetric parameters of the HMA . Measured void expressions are usually :
1) Air voids ( VTM ).
2) Voids in the mineral aggregate (VMA ).
3) Voids filled with asphalt (VFA).

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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Now the selection of optimum asphalt binder content , this is selected based on the
combined results of Marshall stability and flow , density analysis and void analysis .
Finally we must plot the 6 charts
1) Unit weight vs AC%
2) Stability vs AC%
3) Flow vs AC%
4) Air voids vs AC%
5) VMA VS AC%
6) VFA VS AC%
Now determine the asphalt binder content that corresponds 4% air voids . the
asphalt content at maximum unit weight , the asphalt content at maximum stability
, average of these 3 values are taken . Now using the optimum AC% go into each
curve and compare the values with the specifications.
As stated before the amount of asphalt to be added to the aggregate to form the
blend is either found using the equation or by experience.
In todays experiment we must develop an economical blend of aggregates and
asphalt that meet design requirements, this prepared sample then undergoes all of
the steps of the Marshell mix design stated in the above paragraph.
The dimensions of the Marshall specimens are 2.5 in ( height ) by 4 in ( diameter )
Objectives
The objective to be achieved using the Marshall Method for hot-mix asphalt
concrete mix design is to determine an economical blend and gradation of
aggregates (within the limits of project specifications) and asphalt that yields a mix
having;
1. Sufficient asphalt cement to ensure a durable asphalt concrete surface course.
2. Sufficient mix stability to satisfy the demands of traffic without distortion or
displacement.
3. Sufficient voids in the total compacted mix to allow for a slight amount of
additional compaction under traffic loading without flushing, bleeding and loss of
stability, yet low enough to keep out harmful air and moisture.
4. Sufficient workability to permit efficient placement of the mix without
segregation.

5. Characteristics which allow normal construction operating variations without


falling outside of the specified requirements.
Apparatus and materials
The right grade of asphalt cement
( Relates to fatigue cracking, thermal cracking, stability )
The right type of aggregate
(Relates to stability, durability, stripping, skid resistance )
Flasks
Pycnometer
Marshall specimen molds ; dimensions 2.5 in ( height ) by 4 in ( diameter )
Towel
For compaction test ( Marshall Hammer )

-1
-2
(3
-4
-5
-6
-7

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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

For stability : Hveem Stabilometer and Flow test : Flow meter -8


Water bath -9
oven , Balance , Gloves and Thermometer -10
Test specimens
For preparation of aggregate and asphalt for Marshall Specimens
aggregate with different sizes meet the Marshall criteria and chosen to achieve -1
well graded gradation
also aggregate must have a good properties such as specific gravity, shape,
.hardness and so on
.Asphalt cement that meet the suitable gradation (PG) for project -2
(2.5 inches in height and 4 inches in diameter ) (Marshall Specimens 12)
Procedure
Select aggregate grading to be used (1
Determine the proportion of each aggregate size required to produce the design (2
grading
.Determine the specific gravity of the aggregate combination and asphalt content (3
Prepare the trial specimens with varying asphalt contents (4
Determine the specific gravity of each compacted specimen (5
Perform stability tests on the specimens (6
Calculate the % of voids , and % voids filled with Bitumen in each specimen (7
Select the optimum binder content from the data obtained (8
Evaluate the design with design requirements (9
A range of asphalt contents is used so that complete test data curves are **

obtained ( at least 5 trail mixtures )


At least 3 replicates are the minimum number required for each asphalt content **
: Preparation of Aggregate
Aggregate Are dried to constant weight at 105 C to 110 C and sieved using sieve (1
. analysis into the required fractions
After drying, the aggregates are weighted while the container is placed at the top (2
of the balance. (For each group 3 samples of aggregate blend were prepared
. according to the aggregate distribution given in the lab)
:Preparation of the Marshall Specimen
.Get The Marshall specimen Mold ( 2.5" height*4" diameter ) (1
The asphalt was placed in the oven @ 150 C . for not more then 1 hour (2
. The mold is placed in the oven (3
The specimens of aggregate were placed in the oven for 24 hrs @ 150 C (4
Place the aggregate sample into the pan (5
Place the aggregate on the heater , a hole was made at the center of the (6
aggregate
The asphalt is place at the hole made , according to the weight specified for each (7
. group
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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The asphalt mixed with the aggregate using a large spoon until the mixture (8
. becomes homogenously mixed
Put a filter paper at the bottom of the mold ( in order to remove excess asphalt , (9
to make sure the required weight is achieved
Now place the mixtures into the mold after applying some oil on the interior ( 10
surface of the mold , add a filter paper on the bottom of the mold . Place the
mixture inside the mold while mixing and compacting in order to ensure no
segregation occurs
Place the mold under the Marshall hammer , now apply the no. of blows (11
. depending on the traffic
Blows for light Traffic 35
Blows for medium traffic 50
blows for heavy traffic 75
The compaction using the Marshall hammer is to be raised 18" then dropping it (12
. down by its own weight on the specimen
.The mold is reversed upside down and then compaction is repeated (13
The specimen is taken out and subjected to air flow in order to cool (14
Using chalk write your group # on the specimens (15
The specimen is then placed the stability-flow machine, turn the machine on, a (16
curve is drawn by the machine. (Temperature of specimen = 60 C)
: Determination of the Gmb
Weight the specimen dry in air using a balance ,g A (1
Place the specimen in the basket submerged in the water for 3-5 minutes , record (2
the weight using the balance C
Now take out the sample and dry it using a towel , now weight the specimen (3

using the balance B


Gmb =A/B-C
Determination Of Gmm
After leaving the sample in the oven (1
Weight 500g mass of the dry sample in air (2
Now weight of the pycnometer filled with water , using the balance A (3
. Now weight the mass of pycnometer filled with water and 500g sample (4
Find Gmm= 500/500+A-B
Test results
This procedure was originally developed by a bituminous engineer with the
Mississippi State Highway Department, Bruce Marshall. The U. S. Army Corps.
of Engineers improved and added to the procedure as well as developing mix
design criteria. The method documented in ASTM D 1559 and AASHTO T245
is applicable only to mixes with maximum particle sizes of 25 mm (1) or less.
The method can be used for both laboratory design and field control. An
:asphalt mix design consists of two basic issues
a) based on the gradations of the constituent aggregates to be used in the
mix, determine the proportions of each aggregate that will produce a blended
gradation that meets the required grading specification (we will use the
grading spec. given in the sieve analysis lab, which is for HL3 from the OPSS
.Spec.)
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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------b) Determine the optimum asphalt cement content that will satisfy the
Asphalt Institutes mix design criteria (we will consider the bulk specific, the
Marshall Stability and the percent air voids in the compacted paving mixture
in determining the optimum asphalt content). In addition to the gradation of
the constituent aggregates, it is also necessary to know the bulk ASTM
specific gravities of the coarse and fine aggregates, the apparent specific
gravity of the mineral filler and the specific gravity of the asphalt cement in
order to be able to determine the percent air voids, voids in the mineral
aggregate (VMA), voids filled with asphalt (VFA) and the effective asphalt
:content. This lab is organized into five segments (1 5 ) in the lab
sieving and blending of stock aggregates into twenty-two 1200 gram 2 (1
,batches using the proportions determined to produce the required grading
Manufacturing 18 compacted test specimens (3 trials at 6 different asphalt (2
,contents) and two loose specimens
Measuring and calculating the bulk specific gravity of each compacted (3
,specimen and the maximum specific gravity of the loose specimens
Measuring the Marshall Stability and Flow of each preheated, compacted (4
specimen and
Performing all the necessary calculations, plotting the required graphs, (5
determining the optimum asphalt content and evaluating the mix properties
.according to the Asphalt Institutes criteria

Aggregate gradation used


Table 1 ( aggregate gradation used in the experiment )
sieve
size
inches

sieve
size
mm

1"

25

3/4"

19

1/2"
3/8"
#4
#8
#16
#50
#100
#200
Pan

12
9.5
4.75
2.36
1.18
0.6
0.3
0.15
0.075
Check

%
passing
100
(90100)
(71-90)
(56-80)
(35-56)
(23-38)
(13-27)
(5-17)
(4-14)
(2-8)
0-0
..

%
retained
in
between

% passing
( mid point
)

%
retained

100

95

60

60

80.5
68
45.5
30.5
20
11
9
5
0
.

19
32
54.5
69.5
80
89
91
95
100
.

14.5
12.5
22.5
15
10.5
9
2
4
5
100%

174
150
270
180
126
108
24
48
60
1200

234
384
654
834
960
1068
1092
1140
1200
grams

weight in
between

cumulative
weight retained
0

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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Marshal criteria
Table 2 (Marshall Criteria of aggregate gradation used in mix design method)

sieve size in
1"
3/4"
1/2"
3/8"
#4
#8
#16
#50

Marshall criteria
sieve size mm
Minimum
25
100
19
90
12
71
9.5
56
4.75
35
2.36
23
1.18
0.6
5

Maximum
100
100
90
80
56
38
17

#100
#200
Pan

0.3
0.15
0.075

4
2
0

14
8
0

011

09

07

% reni f tnecrep

05

noitadarg etagergga

mumixam

muminim
03

01
10.0

1.0

01

001
01-

(mm) ezis eveis

Figure 1 ( percent finer V.s sieve size for minimum and maximum Marshall
criteria and aggregate gradation used )
Page 8

Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------The specific gravity that were calculated used specific gravity formula
Table 3 (specific gravities of materials used in Marshall Mix method: bulk
specific gravity of aggregate, effective specific gravity of aggregate and
specific gravity of asphalt cement)

Input
Gsb
Gse
Gb

materials properties
2.52
2.593
1.017

Table 4 (first results, properties of materials proportions)

Grou
ps
I
II
III
IV

asphalt % by
total
weight of
mixture
Pb
4.5
5
5.5
6

weight of
asphalt /1200
grams of
aggregate

aggregate % by
total weight of
mixture
PS

absorbed asphalt %
by total wt.
of aggregate Pba

95.5
95
94.5
94

1.136163297
1.136163297
1.136163297
1.136163297

56.54450262
63.15789474
69.84126984
76.59574468

effective
asphalt
content % by
total wt of
mixture Pbe
3.414964052
3.920644868
4.426325685
4.932006501

Table 5 ( Gmb and Gmb-ave of specimens used in the experiment )

Group
s

II

III

IV

specime
ns

A ( weight of
dry
specimen in
air ) g

B ( weight SSD
specimen in air
)g

C ( weight of
specimen
submerged in water
)g

1201.6

1223.4

669.6

1216.6

1239.4

680.4

1175.4

1193.4

653

1198

1212.9

668.2

1182.3

1195.1

667.6

1181.9

1194.3

660.5

1186

1200.2

659.3

1237.3

1253.1

691.3

1196.6

1207.6

666.5

1172.3

1187.4

654

1214.8

1223.5

680.5

1190

1204.5

663.9

Gmb
2.1697363
67
2.1763864
04
2.1750555
14
2.1993758
03
2.2413270
14
2.2141251
41
2.1926418
93
2.2023851
9
2.2114211
79
2.1977877
77
2.2372007
37
2.2012578
62

Gmb (ave)
2.1737260
95

2.2182759
86

2.2021494
21

2.2120821
25

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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table 6 ( Gmm calculation and unit weight of specimens used in the


experiment )

Grou
ps

A.C % by
total
weight of
mixture

weight of
loose
aggregate
coated
with asphalt (
g)

A (weight of
pycnometer
full
of water) ( g
)

B ( weight of
pycnometer +
loose aggregate
coated with
asphalt + water)
(g)

4.5

500

1827.8

2121.8

II

500

1827.8

2119.3

III

5.5

500

1827.8

2117.8

IV

500

1827.8

2115

Gmm

2.427184
466
2.398081
535
2.380952
381
2.349624
06

Unit Weight of
mixture
KN/m^3
= ( Gmbave*9.807)
21.31773182
21.75463259
21.59647937
21.83325057

Table 5 ( volumetric analysis of Marshall specimens )

Group
s

A.C % by
total
weight of
mixture

4.5

II

III

5.5

IV

Gmb (ave)

Gmm

2.1737260
95
2.2182759
86
2.2021494
21
2.2120821
25

2.4271844
66
2.3980815
35
2.3809523
81
2.3496240
6

Air voids in
compacted mixture
% of total volume.
VTM
10.44248488
7.497891385

Voids in
Mineral
Aggregate
VMA
17.6226817
1

voids filled
with
asphalt( %of
VMA)
VFA
40.74406467
54.20999802

7.509724322

16.3745164
17.4193967
2

5.853784763

17.4858255

66.52268568

56.88872327

Table 6 ( stability and flow analysis of Marshall specimens )


Grou
p
I

II

III
IV

AC%
1
2
3
1
2
3
1
2
3
1

4.5

5.5
6

stability ( KN )
100
132
147
120
131
162
109
137
132
139

stability ave
( KN )
126.3333333

137.6666667

126
125

Flow
( mm )

24
28
32
36
40
48
34
44
36
36

Flow ave
( mm )
28

41.33333333

38
38.66666667

2
3

40
40

113
123

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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Discussion
First of all we are going to discuss the gradation used in this experiment,
when plotted the curve fits exactly between the maximum and minimum
Marshall Criteria therefore we can classify our gradation as well graded,
which means all particle sizes are available also from the (percent finer
sieve size ) graph we can see that the selected gradation is fallen within
.Marshall criteria
As for the compaction test that is achieved on the Marshall specimen, the
compaction effort should correspond to that attained in the field after years
of traffic, the standard compaction effort should yield an air void of 4%, this
value was selected as an avg between two limits 3-5%, at low air void
content, load is transmitted by bitumen not by aggregates, and at high air
content , air and water will be allowed to circulate in the mixture . The main
aim of the process of compaction is to optimize the packing of the aggregate,
uniformly distribute the bitumen and air voids , minimize residual air voids .
This ensures that a good bond will exist between bitumen and aggregates,
high friction between aggregate particles is achieved , and a consistent and
stable mixture system is formed . Good compaction also provides increased
resistance to deformation, higher durability under traffic for the wearing
, course , reduced risk to water penetration
From the following obtained plotted curves we can notice the following
:trends
the stability value increases with increasing asphalt content up to a maximum and then the stability decreases, from the figure we find that the
. max-stability occur at AC%= 5.1%

Figure 2 ( OAC% determination due to stability )

Page 11

Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the flow value must consistently increases with increasing asphalt content but we fined that the flow value after AC%=5.5% is decreases may be due to
.error determination of asphalt content or problem in the mixing proportions

wolF egareva s.V CA%


8.1
57.1
7.1
56.1
6.1
55.1
5.1
54.1
4.1
53.1
3.1

5.4

5.5

5.6

the curve of unit weight of total mix follows the trend similar to the stability curve , except that the maximum unit weight normally (but not always )
occurs at a slightly higher asphalt content than the maximum stability as we
.fined in our experiment AC% at max-unit weight = 5.9%

Figure 3 ( OAC% determination due to unit weight )


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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


-------------------

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the percent of air voids steadily decreases with increasing the asphalt content , ultimately approaching a minimum void content also from the figure
. we fined that the asphalt content % at 4% air voids equals to 6.6%

Figure 4 ( OAC% determination due total air voids in mixture )

the VMA generally decreases to a minimum value then increases with . increasing the asphalt content

%AMV s.V %CA


81
5.71
71
5.61
61
5.51

5.4

5.5

5.6

Figure 4 (voids in mineral aggregate curve)


Ways to Increase VMA
Reduce the dust content .1
Open the aggregate gradation .2
Gap-grade the aggregate blend .3
Increase manufactured sand .4
Reduce flat-and-elongated particles .5
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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------the VFA curve , the curve steadily decreases with increasing asphalt content , We can see that the VFA curve is concave upward , the VFA cannot be
increased above the maximum without increasing or otherwise changing the
. compaction effort

AFV s.V %CA


21
01
8
6
4
2
0

5.4

5.5

5.6

Figure 6 (voids filled with asphalt)


.
Table 7 (optimum asphalt content analysis of Marshall Specimens and overall
mixture properties)

Curve
s

AC%
valu
e

air
voids

6.6

stability

5.1

unit
weight

5.9

NMAS=
mm
19

optimum
Asphalt
content
( OAC )

5.866666667

mixtur
e
proper
ties

values at
optimum
Asphalt
content

comments
( if met Marshall criteria
or not )

air voids

6%

out of Marshall range

stability

1250

less than Marshall criteria

unit
weight

21.78

Flow

39

within Marshall range

VMA

17.5

out of Marshall range

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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Conclusion

from the results shown in figures and tables we can conclude that all tested *
Marshall specimens was failed and all of them were not met the Marshall criteria
also the observed optimum asphalt content present was very high and will causes a
. problems in the mixture when used like bleeding
the VFA was found to be decreasing with the increasing in AC% so that this result *
will not be acceptable may be due to errors in determination of specific gravities of
.materials used or obtaining experiment data
*Mix design is a matter of selecting and proportioning materials to obtain the
desired properties in the finished construction product.
*Gmm is the ration of the wt. in air of a unit volume of an uncompacted bituminous
paving mixture to wt. of an equal volume of water.
*Gmb is the ratio of the wt. in air of a unit volume of compacted specimen of HMA
to wt. of an equal volume of water.
*We must have sufficient asphalt to ensure a durable pavement.
* We must have sufficient stability under traffic loads.
*Sufficient air voids 4%, a value between 3-5%, the upper limit to prevent excessive
environmental damage and the lower limit to allow for a slight of additional
compaction due to traffic.
*The final output of the mix design must has desirable properties like , durability ,
impermeability , strength, stability ,etc.
* Impact compaction is used in the Marshall mix design method with 50 standard
drops for medium traffic .
*The dimension of the Marshall specimens are 2.5 height by 4 diameter.
*According to the standard we must have at least 5 trial mixtures, with at least 3
replicates for each asphalt content.
*In term of aggregate selection, we have different types of gradation, well ,poor and
dense.
*Well gradation must be used to achieve a good mix design specimen.
*The best gradation is one that produces a mixture with high density.
*Stability can be defined as the maximum load resistance in N or lb.
*Flow is defined as deformation that occurs in the specimen at load action.

Page 14

Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Calculations
Sample of calculation for aggregate , Sieve #8:
Passing weight specification limits = 23 38 %
Passing middle point (average) = (upper limit + lower limit) / 2
= (23 + 38) / 2 = 30.5 %
Retained percent = 100 passing middle point = 100 30.5 = 69.5 %
Percent in between = retained #16 retained #8 = 80- 69.5 = 10.5 %
Weight in between = percent in between * total weight of aggregate
= 10.5 % * 1200 = 126 g
Cumulative weight = previous weight + weight in between
= 834 + 126 = 960 g
Sample calculation of asphalt , group # 4:
Assume weight of asphalt = x
Then x / (1200 + x) = 6%
x = 77 grams
Sample calculation for ( Marshall specimen #1) , group #4 :
Gmb= A / ( B C ) = 1214.8 / ( 1223.5 - 680.5 ) = 2.237 .
We take the average for the three samples and it was = 2.212 .
Stability & flow values from the millimeter paper.
Stability = 1130 N
Flow = 40 * ( 0.25 mm ) = 10 mm
G mm = 500 / ( 500 + A B )
= 500 / ( 500 + 1827.8 2115 ) = 2.35
G se = ( 1 - pb ) / ( 1 / G mm - pb / Gb )
= ( 1 - 6 / 1200 ) / ( 1 / 2.35 - ( 6 / 1200 ) / 1.017) = 2.593
G sb = ( * + * + * ) / 1200 = .
A.V % = 100 * ( 1 - Gmb/ G mm)
= 100 * ( 1 - 2.212 / 2.35 ) = %.
V.M.A % = 100 - W agg. * Gmb / ( W mix * G sb .) 100
= 100 - 1200* 2.212 / ( 1214.8 * 2.52 ) * 100 = 17.5 %.
Absorbed asphalt = ( G se - G sb ) * Gb / ( G se* G sb) = 1.136% of aggregate
Asphalt content (AC%) according to stability = 5.1 %
Asphalt content (AC%) according to unit weight = 5.9 %
Asphalt content (AC%) according to air voids = 6.6 %
** The average value of AC% = 5.9 % by weight of the mix.

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Experiment # 5: Marshall Mix Design


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-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------References

.AASHTO (American association of state highway and transportation) *


.Asphalt Institute Standards *
pavement analysis and design book - by ( Huang ) 4th EDITION *
pavement material and design laboratory notes for civil engineering application by *
Eng. Maha Shunnag
. pavement materials and design notes by Dr. Khalid Ghuzlan
* Wikipedia polished researches

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