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# Constant Speed / Velocity; acel = 0

= = 1
2

Eg. = 4 + 3

= 8 + 0

1
=
+1 ( 1)
+1

Constant Speed ( = ; = )
In time , angular displacement is ;

## Hence angular velocity = .

Constant Acceleration

Eg. 8 = 8 2 2 + = 4 2 +
where C is an arbitrary constant

Any Acceleration
(constant or non-constant)
x
, =
=

,
x
= lim
=
0

= 2 + ;
1

= + 2 2 ; 2 = 2 + 2
Example: Tut 1 Q1

,
v

2
= lim
=
=
= 2
0

## Constant Angular Acceleration

( = ; = )
=

Acceleration, a
Downwards throughout
=

,
v
=
=

T time to complete
one round
= =

## Speed constant (magnitude of arrows fixed)

[tangential acceleration=0; angular acceleration=0]
However, velocity is changing, (direction
of arrows changing). Hence, change in velocity and
centripetal acceleration are not zero:
2
=
= 2

= + ;

Initial
velocity
Upwards

9.8 / 2

Displacement
Downwards

## It is important to set convention,

either Upwards as +ve or Downwards as +ve and
apply it consistently to displacement,
velocity and acceleration when using equations.

= =

= +
1
= +
2
1
= + ; 2 = 2 + 2
2
But note that is
changing so the magnitude
of is changing.

2
= 2

Resultant acceleration
= a +

## For PH1012, 2015

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

Basic Calculus

Components of vectors
= sin

Velocity change

Torque

## For extended objects in equilibrium:

= 0
= 0

= sin

= cos

tan =

2 = 2 + 2

Relative Velocity

= +
=

Projectile Motion
- Water with respect to Shore

= +

## Impt duration of flight, t

Horizontal: =
1
Vertical:
= + 2 2
Horizontal velocity: =
Vertical Velocity: = +

## Note that the meaning of the

subscripts changes with the
context of the problem.

## - Force pointing from A to B

=
Types of Forces
Weight, mg (due to
gravitational
attraction)

Friction, Fk

Contact Forces
Normal Force,
(90 to surface)

Frictional Force,
=

- static
q
- kinetic, moving
mg

= 0
=
Tension,
= = (Pulling force, in
(sliding down slope)
strings etc, always
pointing away from
objects.)
+
T

## For PH1012, 2015

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

m1
m 1g

T
m2
m 2g

1 = 1
2 = 2
1. Same tension and
for frictionless pulleys

Upthrust,
(= weight of fluid
displaced by obj.)

Viscous Force , =
or =
(depends on velocity of
object moving through
fluid.)
Spring Force ,
(Spring-mass system,
depends on
displacement of mass
from equilibrium
position.
Other Forces
Gravitational Force
Electrostatic Force
Magnetic Force

2 =
1. Upthrust negligible in air here.
2. Set = 0 to obtain
terminal velocity, .
3. Moving in viscous fluid
Moving
use = .
thru air

= 2

mg

Spring Force
=

= +
or = ( + )

Force (thrust)

## Related to Newtons 2nd/3rd Law,

conservation of momentum
=

Stationary helicopter

=0

Newtons laws of
Motion

## Applying force over period of

time
results in change in momentum
= =
(Impulse-momentum relation)

## 1st law: Inertia,

reluctance to
change state of
motion

Conservation of Momentum
(No external forces acting)

=

## 2nd law: Force

proportional to
rate of change of
momentum;
=
3rd law: (Two
objects) Actionreaction pair.
Equal and opposite
forces (of same
nature) acting on
two objects

t
= ; = /
1.
Stop gently (prolong ).
2.
Deliver large pf (maximize F).

Work-Energy theorem:
1
1
2 2 =
2
2
Change in . . =
Conservation of Energy:
. . + . . = . . + . .
1. Zero of G.P.E. is arbitrary
2. + Fx if frictional / dissipative forces present

## Area -> work done -> K.E. change

F

Basics :
Momentum: =
()

1
. . = 2 2

Force: = =

Kinetic energy:
Work done: W = FDx cos q

= 2

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

## Conservation of linear momentum (two body collision):

1 + 2 = 1 + 2
1. Elastic collision (KE conserved): use 1 2 = (1 2 ) also
2. 2-D collision: resolve and apply COLM in both directions
3. When appropriate, use sine rule or cosine rule;
sin2 + cos 2 = 1; tan = sin / cos

## Applying force on object along

diaplacement
results in change in Kinetic energy
= =
(Work energy Theorem)

Conservation of Energy

=

F

## e.g. G.P.E. = mgh ,

Work done against friction
: =

x
e.g. E.P.E. = Fx = kx2

## For PH1012, 2015

(Key concepts) Ho SY, SPMS NTU

Circular Motion

## Non-uniform circular motion with constant

angular acceleration ,

= +
= 2 ; ta =
= +

2
2
2
=
=

=
2

= =

q T

Conical pendulum
(Uniform, constant
horizontal circle)
= 0
2
=

= 2

mg

## Same analysis for banking,

planes making turns etc

mg

vbot

At steady speed = 0, = 0
(uniform circular motion, only centripetal accn.)
Turning off fan < 0, < 0

## Vertical circle (Non-uniform)

(consider conservation of energy)
vtop
2
+ =

inwards
mg
+ve
Ttop
Tmid
2
=

vmid mg
Tbot

## Turning on fan > 0, > 0

(Non-uniform)

Tut 6 Q7

= cos =

= sin = =

Electric Field

1

|| =

When a charge q
is placed in the
E-field of charge Q.

() =

() =

## For a system of charges, the electric field

and potential at any point due to charges
q1, q2 etc is given by
= 1 + 2 + 3 +
= 1 + 2 + 3 +

## To sketch E-field or equipotential lines

for system of charges:
1. Check for charge magnitudes and
geometry of charge distribution;
making use of any symmetry.
2. Check for possible any points/lines
with E = 0 or components of E which
vanishes.
3. More field lines entering / leaving
larger charge
4. E-fields lines are perpendicular to
equipotential lines.

## Very often, conservation of energy is used

when the force is not constant when a charge is
moving through a non-uniform E field.

3

## Dipole Field and

Equipotential lines

= ; U = qV
Since the E-field is uniform
(except near the edges),
the force acting on a charge
q is the same anywhere in
the uniform field
=

1.
For PH1012, 2015
(Key concepts)
Ho SY, SPMS NTU

2.
3.
4.

## Sketch arrows to indicate the contributions

from various charges at a point.
Identify charge to point distances for
application of Coulombs law
Identify angles for resolving of E-fields.
Combine E fields vectorially.

Gausss Law: =

d =

d = 0

## Electrostatic Equilibrium (no net motion of charges)

1. The electric field is zero everywhere inside the
conductor (hollow or solid).
2. If conductor is isolated (from external E-fields),
charges reside on the surface.
3. The electric field near the surface of the conductor
points perpendicular to the surface.
4. For irregularly shaped conductor, the surface density
is greatest at locations where the radius of curvature
of the surface is smallest.

= d = 2 =

d =

2 =

a
b

=

d =

4 2 =
(or E =

3
3 2

## For PH1012 2015

(Lecture Summary and Key concepts)
Ho SY, SPMS NTU

convention d +

On Capacitance
Included for completeness,
not required for PH1012

a
a

= . = =
=

Capacitance:
=
=

Potential
Difference:

1 1
=
ln( )
= . =
=
( )
2

=
=
See footnote pg 631 of Giancoli,
=
=
ln( )

)
concerning
ve
signs

. =

Rotational Dynamics
Moment of inertia / Rotational Dynamics

Discrete mass: = 1 12 + 2 22 + + 2 = =1 2
Continuous mass distribution: = 2

## Pure rotational motion

(Involving height change)
Conservation of energy:
+ = +
Newtons 2nd law (rotation)

## For forces acting on

extended objects in general:
=
=
Cannot assume that
and are related.

e.g. = 0
But 0 =

## Parallel Axis theorem

IX = ICM + Mh2

;
;

For a fixed axis in inertia reference frame,
1
1
= = ; = 2 mv 2 2 I2

## For forces acting on extended

objects (rolling without slipping):

=
=
= or =
. . . . +. .
=

1
1
2

+ 2 +
2
2
= or =

(Key concepts)
Ho SY, SPMS NTU

## Non-uniform circular motion with

constant angular acceleration ,
= +
= 2 ; ta =

= 0
= 0

## For forces acting on

extended objects in general:
=
=
Cannot assume that
and are related.

= +

e.g. = 0
But 0 =

## Moment of inertia / Rotational Dynamics

Discrete mass: = 1 12 + 2 22 + + 2 = =1 2
Continuous mass distribution: = 2

## For forces acting on extended

objects (rolling without slipping):
Pure rotational motion
(Involving height change)
Conservation of energy:
+ = +
Newtons 2nd law (rotation)

=
=
= or =

## If the masses are the same, which has larger MI?

Parallel Axis theorem
IX = ICM + Mh2

## Perpendicular axis theorem

= +
Conservation of Angular Momentum

= = ; =

;
;

For a fixed axis in inertia reference frame,
1
1
= = ; = 2 mv 2 2 I2

. . . . +. .
=

E.g.
= + 2

1
1
2

+ 2 +
2
2
= or =

## For PH1012, 2015

(Key concepts, Mechanics II)
Ho SY, SPMS NTU

Total Mass

Center of Mass

Moment of Inertia