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= = 1

2

Eg. = 4 + 3

= 8 + 0

1

=

+1 ( 1)

+1

Constant Speed ( = ; = )

In time , angular displacement is ;

Constant Acceleration

Eg. 8 = 8 2 2 + = 4 2 +

where C is an arbitrary constant

Any Acceleration

(constant or non-constant)

x

, =

=

,

x

= lim

=

0

= 2 + ;

1

= + 2 2 ; 2 = 2 + 2

Example: Tut 1 Q1

,

v

2

= lim

=

=

= 2

0

( = ; = )

=

Acceleration, a

Downwards throughout

=

,

v

=

=

T time to complete

one round

= =

[tangential acceleration=0; angular acceleration=0]

However, velocity is changing, (direction

of arrows changing). Hence, change in velocity and

centripetal acceleration are not zero:

2

=

= 2

= + ;

Initial

velocity

Upwards

9.8 / 2

Displacement

Downwards

either Upwards as +ve or Downwards as +ve and

apply it consistently to displacement,

velocity and acceleration when using equations.

= =

= +

1

= +

2

1

= + ; 2 = 2 + 2

2

But note that is

changing so the magnitude

of is changing.

2

= 2

Resultant acceleration

= a +

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

Basic Calculus

Vector addition

Components of vectors

= sin

Velocity change

Torque

= 0

= 0

= sin

= cos

tan =

2 = 2 + 2

Relative Velocity

= +

=

Projectile Motion

- Water with respect to Shore

= +

Horizontal: =

1

Vertical:

= + 2 2

Horizontal velocity: =

Vertical Velocity: = +

subscripts changes with the

context of the problem.

=

Types of Forces

Weight, mg (due to

gravitational

attraction)

Friction, Fk

Contact Forces

Normal Force,

(90 to surface)

Frictional Force,

=

- static

q

- kinetic, moving

mg

= 0

=

Tension,

= = (Pulling force, in

(sliding down slope)

strings etc, always

pointing away from

objects.)

+

T

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

m1

m 1g

T

m2

m 2g

1 = 1

2 = 2

1. Same tension and

for frictionless pulleys

Upthrust,

(= weight of fluid

displaced by obj.)

Viscous Force , =

or =

(depends on velocity of

object moving through

fluid.)

Spring Force ,

(Spring-mass system,

depends on

displacement of mass

from equilibrium

position.

Other Forces

Gravitational Force

Electrostatic Force

Magnetic Force

2 =

1. Upthrust negligible in air here.

2. Set = 0 to obtain

terminal velocity, .

3. Moving in viscous fluid

Moving

use = .

thru air

= 2

mg

Spring Force

=

= +

or = ( + )

Force (thrust)

conservation of momentum

=

Stationary helicopter

=0

Newtons laws of

Motion

time

results in change in momentum

= =

(Impulse-momentum relation)

reluctance to

change state of

motion

Conservation of Momentum

(No external forces acting)

=

proportional to

rate of change of

momentum;

=

3rd law: (Two

objects) Actionreaction pair.

Equal and opposite

forces (of same

nature) acting on

two objects

t

= ; = /

1.

Stop gently (prolong ).

2.

Deliver large pf (maximize F).

Work-Energy theorem:

1

1

2 2 =

2

2

Change in . . =

Conservation of Energy:

. . + . . = . . + . .

1. Zero of G.P.E. is arbitrary

2. + Fx if frictional / dissipative forces present

F

Basics :

Momentum: =

()

1

. . = 2 2

Force: = =

Kinetic energy:

Work done: W = FDx cos q

= 2

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

1 + 2 = 1 + 2

1. Elastic collision (KE conserved): use 1 2 = (1 2 ) also

2. 2-D collision: resolve and apply COLM in both directions

3. When appropriate, use sine rule or cosine rule;

sin2 + cos 2 = 1; tan = sin / cos

diaplacement

results in change in Kinetic energy

= =

(Work energy Theorem)

Conservation of Energy

=

F

Work done against friction

: =

x

e.g. E.P.E. = Fx = kx2

(Key concepts) Ho SY, SPMS NTU

Circular Motion

angular acceleration ,

= +

= 2 ; ta =

= +

2

2

2

=

=

=

2

= =

q T

Conical pendulum

(Uniform, constant

horizontal circle)

= 0

2

=

= 2

mg

planes making turns etc

mg

vbot

At steady speed = 0, = 0

(uniform circular motion, only centripetal accn.)

Turning off fan < 0, < 0

(consider conservation of energy)

vtop

2

+ =

inwards

mg

+ve

Ttop

Tmid

2

=

vmid mg

Tbot

(Non-uniform)

Tut 6 Q7

= cos =

= sin = =

Electric Field

1

|| =

When a charge q

is placed in the

E-field of charge Q.

() =

() =

and potential at any point due to charges

q1, q2 etc is given by

= 1 + 2 + 3 +

= 1 + 2 + 3 +

for system of charges:

1. Check for charge magnitudes and

geometry of charge distribution;

making use of any symmetry.

2. Check for possible any points/lines

with E = 0 or components of E which

vanishes.

3. More field lines entering / leaving

larger charge

4. E-fields lines are perpendicular to

equipotential lines.

when the force is not constant when a charge is

moving through a non-uniform E field.

3

Equipotential lines

= ; U = qV

Since the E-field is uniform

(except near the edges),

the force acting on a charge

q is the same anywhere in

the uniform field

=

1.

For PH1012, 2015

(Key concepts)

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

2.

3.

4.

from various charges at a point.

Identify charge to point distances for

application of Coulombs law

Identify angles for resolving of E-fields.

Combine E fields vectorially.

Gausss Law: =

d =

d = 0

1. The electric field is zero everywhere inside the

conductor (hollow or solid).

2. If conductor is isolated (from external E-fields),

charges reside on the surface.

3. The electric field near the surface of the conductor

points perpendicular to the surface.

4. For irregularly shaped conductor, the surface density

is greatest at locations where the radius of curvature

of the surface is smallest.

= d = 2 =

d =

2 =

a

b

=

d =

4 2 =

(or E =

3

3 2

(Lecture Summary and Key concepts)

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

convention d +

On Capacitance

Included for completeness,

not required for PH1012

a

a

= . = =

=

Capacitance:

=

=

Potential

Difference:

1 1

=

ln( )

= . =

=

( )

2

=

=

See footnote pg 631 of Giancoli,

=

=

ln( )

)

concerning

ve

signs

. =

Rotational Dynamics

Moment of inertia / Rotational Dynamics

Discrete mass: = 1 12 + 2 22 + + 2 = =1 2

Continuous mass distribution: = 2

(Involving height change)

Conservation of energy:

+ = +

Newtons 2nd law (rotation)

= (about pivot)

extended objects in general:

=

=

Cannot assume that

and are related.

e.g. = 0

But 0 =

IX = ICM + Mh2

;

;

For a fixed axis in inertia reference frame,

1

1

= = ; = 2 mv 2 2 I2

objects (rolling without slipping):

=

=

= or =

. . . . +. .

=

1

1

2

+ 2 +

2

2

= or =

(Key concepts)

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

constant angular acceleration ,

= +

= 2 ; ta =

= 0

= 0

extended objects in general:

=

=

Cannot assume that

and are related.

= +

e.g. = 0

But 0 =

Discrete mass: = 1 12 + 2 22 + + 2 = =1 2

Continuous mass distribution: = 2

objects (rolling without slipping):

Pure rotational motion

(Involving height change)

Conservation of energy:

+ = +

Newtons 2nd law (rotation)

= (about pivot)

=

=

= or =

Parallel Axis theorem

IX = ICM + Mh2

= +

Conservation of Angular Momentum

= = ; =

;

;

For a fixed axis in inertia reference frame,

1

1

= = ; = 2 mv 2 2 I2

. . . . +. .

=

E.g.

= + 2

1

1

2

+ 2 +

2

2

= or =

(Key concepts, Mechanics II)

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

Total Mass

Center of Mass

Moment of Inertia

(about an axis)

Discrete

Continuous

(Key concepts)

Ho SY, SPMS NTU

10

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