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Part 2 - Engineering

Characterization of Earthquakes
and Seismic Hazard
Ultimately what we want is a seismic intensity
measure that will allow us to quantify effect of an
earthquake on a structure.
Sa

Sd

Sd

Period

Period

T given

Probability of exceedence

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Earthquake Environment
Sources of Earthquakes
Meteor Impact
Volcanoes
Reservoir Induced
Well Injection
Tectonic
Associated with
continental drift

at edges of continental
plates
mid-continent
mid-ocean ridges

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Earthquake Occurrence

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Earthquake Fatalities

Total: 22711

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Earthquakes in the US

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US Earthquakes

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Large Earthquakes in 1900s

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Largest Earthquakes in US

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Finding Historic Earthquakes and Faults


Many www sites have data
bases to locate past
earthquakes in a region.

See www.usgs.gov
http://www.wsspc.org/links/li
nks.html#maps
/www.consrv.ca.gov

2001 Event
1819 event

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Finding Faults

United States Geologic


Survey (quadrangles)
California Division of Mines
& Geology (Alquist Priolo
Special Study Zones)
Geologic reconnaisance

South San Francisco.


San Andreas Fault

Berkeley, Hayward Fault

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Elastic Rebound Theory


Fault

Straight
Fence

Initial Time

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Elastic Rebound Theory


Fault

Straight
Fence

Initial Time

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Elastic Rebound Theory


Fault

Fault Offset
13 ft

Straight
Fence

Initial Time

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Elastic Rebound Theory


Fault
d
time
B

Straight
Fence

d
time

Initial Time

Permanent
Displacement

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Faulting
Fault length and offset can be significant
Event
1906 San Francisco
1959 Chile
1971 San Fernando
1857 Fort Tejon

Length
250 miles
600 miles
15 miles
--

Offset
21 feet
-3 feet
49 feet

Fault
Epicenter

Epicentral
Distance

Epicentral distance Vs. distance to fault trace

Distance
to fault

Site

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Basic Types of Faulting


Surface Faulting

Strike-slip
Dip slip

Normal
Reverse

Combinations
Mid-Plate events - No
apparent fault rupture due to
depth or cover by alluvial
deposit
Subduction zones - Common
in Japan, Mexico, Pudget
Sound, South America

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Subduction Zone Faulting

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Major Faults in
California

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Faulting in Northern and Southern CA

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Earthquake Shaking in Bay Area


1906 San Francisco

1989 Loma Prieta

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Terminology
A
B

Site

Epicenter (ground surface)


Surface trace
O

D
A

Section EE

Hypocenter (start of rupture)


E
OA - Epicentral Distance
OB - Hypocentral Distance
OC - Distance to surface trace
OD - Distance to rupture

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Seismic Hazard
Hazard depends on size,
location and frequency of
occurrence of earthquakes near
building site, and characteristics
of ground shaking produced.

Region
Site

Ground shaking due to a


particular event depends on:
Source Mechanism
Travel Path
Geological/Local Soil Effects
Soil-Structure Interaction

Building
Site

Mechanism Travel Path

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Regional Seismicity
Estimated based on:
Tectonic Features (Potential
estimated from local faults Length, annual movement,
etc.)
Historic Events (frequency of
occurrence, gaps)
Statistical analysis of similar
regions

Region
Site

Frequency
x% probability
in y years

Not a
good site
Magnitude

Map

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Generic Seismic Source Regions


Basin & Range
Tectonic Province

Wasatch

Quebec

Cascadia
Subduction
New England

San Andreas

New Madrid Region

Charleston, SC

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Motion Depends on Source Mechanism


Source Effects
Type of fault: Strike slip
or thrust (relative
horizontal and vertical
movement)
Rupture process
(continuous and regular
vs. multiple and irregular)
Directivity effects
(Doppler effects)
Near-source
phenomenon -- fling

Direction of Rupture

Higher frequency
Lower frequency waves
RUPTURE SLOWER THAN SOUND

Fault
Offset

NEAR FAULT MOTION DIFFERENT

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Near Source Effects


Acceleration

d
t
A

Fault
Offset

Rupture

Velocity

Displ.

t
trupture

Following Rupture

Fault parallel
displacement
offset often
corresponds
to velocity
and
acceleration
pulses with
duration
trupture

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Fault Perpendicular Motions


Acceleration

Velocity

High Shear
Stresses at Tip of
Rupture

Displ.

trupture

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Surface

Travel Path Effects


Wave Propagation

P Waves
S-Waves
Surface Waves

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Travel Path Effects - 2

Site 2

Reflection
Dispersion
Attenuation
Focusing

Site 3
Site 4

Site 1

Travel Paths

Fault

Ground Acceleration, g

Intensity reduces with


distance
Longer predominant
period of motion at
distance
Longer apparent
duration at distance

Distance, km

ag
Time

Time

Time

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Local Soil Conditions


Soil acts like dynamic oscillator

Sa

Surface
Soil
Rock

Sa

Firm

T
Soft

Softer, deeper or weaker soil


will have longer predominant
frequency content

Rock

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Travel Paths: WUS vs CEUS


MMI VII: Considerable
damage to poorly
built structures

Flat and
uniform geology
Mountains and
Irregular
Geology
Mountains
and

complex geology

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US Seismic Hazard
Firm Soil

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Soil-Structure Interaction
Combination of:
Inertial Effects - Mass of
structure influences overall
response of soil structure
system (Stiff and heavy
buildings on soft soil)
Kinematic Effects -Flexibility
of soil influences dynamic
response of structure (tall,
light buildings on soft soil)
Effective damping (yielding
of soil, radiation, uplift, etc.)
See Section 5.8 FEMA 368

Structure
Soil

Structure

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Qualitative Comments on Ground Motions


Four General Types of Motions:
Single shock - small magnitude,
close event
Moderately long, irregular motion
- moderate to large magnitude
event recorded on firm ground at
moderate distance from fault.
Long motion with pronounced
predominant period - soft,deep
soil
Large pulse (often most easily
seen in velocity or displacement) moderate to large event recorded
at close distance

accel.
time
accel.
time
Ts

accel.

time
accel.
time

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32%g

Some common records


Short effective duration

1940
Imperial Valley
Earthquake
Vertical motion:
Less intense
Higher frequency

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1985 Chile Earthquake


Rock Site

Soil Site

60 sec

120 sec

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Near-Fault CA Records
80%g

Vertical > horizontal

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Comments
Motions in different regions can differ substantially.
Motions can vary regionally (fault mechanism and
travel path) and by soil condition for the same event.
Motions recorded at sites in very close proximity can be
quite different.
Ground motions have three (six) components, not one.
Components in different directions will differ (vertical
has much higher frequency content, two horizontal
components differ).

How can we characterize earthquakes for design?


Do we design differently for different types of ground
motions?

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