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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.1 (2015) pp.

925-929
Research India Publications;
http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm

Performance Investigation of an Implicit


Instrumentation tool for deadened patients using
common eye developments as a paradigm
S.Vijayprasath
Assistant Professor /ECE
M.Kumarasamy College of Engineering
Thalavapalayam, Karur, India
vijayprasaths.ece@mkce.ac.in

Abstract Pretty much all the impaired persons are discouraged from
utilizing personal computers because of their frailty to make utilization of
a hand-controlled mouse. For this situation, if directional separation of a
mouse pointer can be accomplished, these people would be talented to
tackle the capacities of a mouse without utilizing hands. The same can be
used for wheel chair application also in real time. The arrangement of
this proposed work is to present the mouse cursor control framework
utilizing Electrooculogram (EOG) signals. We acquire the physiological
signals because of eye developments that can be utilized as a pointer to
demonstrate the directional separation and the signal is broke down with
LabVIEW information procurement programming.

Index Terms

Electrooculogram (EOG) , Cursor control, Human


Computer Interaction (HCI), LabVIEW.

I. INTRODUCTION
Numerous illnesses and distinctive wounds can
prompt a lower level of persistent's portability. As a sample,
extensive cerebrum strokes, dystrophy, numerous sclerosis,
and wounds to spinal line can be a purpose behind high
debasement of individual's portability. Despite the fact that
they are of an alternate cause, they all can result in just about
aggregate fixed nature of the influenced individual. This
condition weakens those persons to have the capacity to utilize
basic applications and gadgets as a part of regular life inside
the present day data society.
The inconvenience between human-machine
collaboration can be seen as two capable data processors
(human and machine) endeavoring to speak with one another
by means of a tight transfer speed, exceptionally compelled
interface. Late innovation has been stronger in the machine toclient heading than client to-machine. Utilizing eye
developments as a client to-machine correspondence medium
can help review this irregularity. A client interface focused
around eye development inputs has the potential for speedier
and smoother collaboration than current interfaces, on the
grounds that individuals can move their eyes greatly quickly
and with minimal careful exertion. Eye tracking is a

S.Palanivel Rajan
Assistant Professor /ECE
M.Kumarasamy College of Engineering
Thalavapalayam, Karur, India
palanaivelrajanme@gmail.com

technology in which a camera or imaging system visually


tracks some feature of the eye and a computer then determines
where the desired user is looking through the use of cameras
[4]. Existing methods for eye detection and tracking, as well
as gaze analysis that do not rely on infrared lighting typically
depend on high-resolution images of eyes, often obtained by
pan/tilt/zoom cameras. These approaches require highresolution images of the eyes for appearance or feature based
methods that locate, for example, eye corners, eyelids, or
contours of the iris [2]. There are several EOG based HumanComputer Interface studies in literature. Using horizontal and
vertical eyes movements and two and three blinking signals
are movable robot is controlled. Because the EOG signals are
slightly different for the each subject, a dynamic threshold
algorithm is developed [1]. The problems of existing methods
are by using web camera, cost becomes very high and the
clarity of the picture, we need high pixel camera. The image
processing
techniques
are
preprocessing,
filtering,
equalization and edge detection. In face tracking, pattern of
BTE and Region of Interest (ROI) is tracked with template
and histogram matching. Then the Sum of Squared
Differences (SSD) between a frame that has the features
template and the current frame is calculated. Certain
drawbacks in these systems are to be carefully analyzed where
the above methods cannot be deployed to people of higher
disability because they require fine and accurate control which
is most of the time not possible.
Patients suffering from paraplegia have limited or no
functionality below their neck. They are locked in their own
bodies with almost no communication with the outside world.
In order to impart functionality and/or means of
communication to such patients, attempts are being made to
optimally utilize all the available resources available with the
patient such as eye movement, or even brain activity. Here,
we have obtained the EOG (ElectrOculography) signals from
a subject for different eye movements (up, down, left, right)

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.1 (2015)
Research India Publications;
http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm
and then designed a model to identify these distinct
movements. After this, these signals were used for control of a
computer mouse.
Our proposed paper is arranged as follows: Section 2
describes the system concept, proposed methodology for
signal acquisition & then Section 3 later provides the
experimental results obtained using our algorithm.
II. METHODOLOGY
The main venture of procuring signs begins with situating
of terminals emulated by signal modeling. At that point the
signals are transformed into the LabVIEW board to the PC as
demonstrated in the flow diagram. The arrangement of
electrodes is paramount for securing a decent flag structures
the eyes. The Electrooculogram is the measure of potential
between the cornea and the retina of the eye called the
corneal-retinal potential (CRP). This potential is produced
because of the hyper-polarization and depolarization of retinal
cells. Amid the methodology the cornea secures a moderately
positive potential as for the retina. Data about the changing
position and the rate of speed of the eye development can be
obtained by the arrangement of terminals around the eyes. The
EOG is procured utilizing a bi-channel electrode arrangement
framework, to be specific level and vertical channels.
It is paramount to keep the cathodes equidistant from the
middle of the face for the EOG to be appropriately focused. In
a comparative manner, an electrode is placed over the
eyebrow and beneath the eye for both the left and right eyes.
These four electrodes are utilized for vertical location. In spite
of the fact that it is conceivable to locate vertical movement
with only two anodes, more noteworthy affectability qualities
are attained utilizing four terminals, accordingly
accommodating more precise recognition because of the more
noteworthy dipole actuated. In addition, in order to control
the clicking of a mouse pointer, two electrodes were used, one
on each side of the jaw, as input for the EMG. The clenching
of the jaw is best detected at the ends of the jaw in the cheek
area.
A. Electrode placement

Two channels EOG enhancer was produced for the


procurement of flat and vertical eye development signals. For
the electrode arrangement conspire as demonstrated in Fig. 1,
the positive flat channel terminal (H1) was set on the right
canthus of the right eye and the negative level channel anode
(H2) was put on the left canthus of the left eye. Also the
positive vertical channel terminal (V1) was put 2cm over the
cornea and the negative vertical channel cathode (V2) was set
1cm underneath the cornea of the eye. The normal reference
sign was taken from the reference anode (R) set on the temple.
The eye keeps up a voltage of +0.4 ~ 1.0 mv as for retina
(because of the higher metabolic rate at the retina contrasted
with the cornea). This cornea-retinal potential is generally
adjusted to the optic pivot. Henceforth it pivots with the
bearing of look. It can be measured by surface electrodes set
on the skin around the eyes. Surface anodes are both
noninvasive and modest and will function admirably for the
reasons of EOG recordings. The electrodes were picked with
the worry of securing the eyes from risky components
.
EOG Signal Electrodes

Band pass filtering

EOG Signal Amplification

NI-DAQ
Fig.2 Method of generating EOG signals

B. EOG Signal Amplification


Instrument amplifier IC Ad620 having a flexible increase was
utilized. At first, out of band frequencies were uprooted by
band pass sifting in the cutoff run between same that of the
valuable EOG sign reach i.e., 0.1-30Hz. The preamplification
stage emulated an alternate instrumentation intensifier with
the flexible increase kept up between 0 -500. Further,
concealment of the low recurrence segments was carried out
by usage of 10Hz low pass filter. Since, all the hardware
utilized DC sources and the frequencies over the 10Hz were
rejected so the part of surrounding clamors because of 50Hz
power line interference was ignored. The analog output
available was digitized by using analog-to-digital converter IC
ADC0804 and its output was provided to the input of the
encoder IC HT640.
The EOG and the EMG amplifies have the same fundamental
design. Both circuits are focused around the fundamental bio-

Fig.1 Positioning of Electrodes

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.1 (2015)
Research India Publications;
http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm
potential amplifiers. The bio-potential speaker has three
sections to it, each one stage helping the general addition. The
initial two stages are known as the preamplifier and serve as a
high include impedance stack on the terminals. This
preamplifier must have low clamor, and along these lines it is
applicable to keep the increase low in the preamplifier stages
in light of the fact that any commotion that exists may be
intensified alongside the craved signal. This untimely
enhancement makes it hard to recognize the genuine signal
and may immerse the signal. Moreover, it must be coupled
straightforwardly to the terminals to give ideal low-recurrence
reaction and to minimize charging impact on coupling
capacitors from input bias current.
III. EXPERIMENAL RESULTS & DISCUSSION
The red lines in the figures shows the signal acquired
from the horizontal (H) channel and the black lines show the
signal acquired from the vertical (V) channels. The Fig. 3
shows the R-L eye movements executed by the subject for
5sec. The phenomenon involved behind this resultant is that
during the straight ahead eyegaze, equilibrium is established
in the eye dipole and EOG output is zero. While when the eye
gaze is shifted to right, the positive potential is picked up with
respect to the second electrode and similarly, the reverse is
resultant when the eyegaze is shifted to left. The visualization
of the acquired signals on the computer screen confirmed the
occurrence of well defined EOG peaks

LabVIEW is a graphical programming environment utilized


by a large number of architects and researchers to create
refined estimation, test, and control frameworks utilizing
instinctive graphical symbols and wires that take after a
flowchart. The product apparatus executed in the outline for
information securing is LabVIEW, chosen basically for its
tremendous graphical capacities and adaptability in
configuration.
The signal was obtained with an AT-MIO-16 NI-DAQ
connector; this was the National Instruments information
procurement data board. Three channels are utilized for mouse
pointer identification. The main channel was utilized for flat
recognition, the second channel for vertical identification and
the third channel for click discovery. The last part of the
LabVIEW programming segment is the graphical show that
gives a reenactment to the mouse pointer control. The
information from both the Vertical list and the even record are
perused into individual shows so it could be prepared and
showed graphically.
The starting venture of investigating the eye developments
utilizing EOG electrodes was clarified above and next given
us a chance to examine the applications of eye developments
for incapacitated patients.

Fig.5 Front panel design using LabVIEW

Fig.3 EOG Signal acquisition

The primary part signifies a nearby variable which gets the


qualities from the LabVIEW utility used to interface the
machine to a DAQ. The second icon represents the filter
which is configured as written in previous section. The third
icon is an output that will display a chart in the front panel in
which the user can see the filtered signal in real time.
After the signal was separated, it was to be partitioned into
edges with 400 specimens each. This stage is essential on the
grounds that the signs are not all the same length,
consequently by utilizing the surrounding process all the signs
will have the same length. Once the length of our information
arrays was standardized, the amplitude of the signal must be
standardized also. The signal must be brought into the scope

Fig.4 Eye Movements

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.1 (2015)
Research India Publications;
http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm
of zero to five volts to empower the simple to computerized
converter to perform investigation on it. Diverse squares
utilized as a part of the front panel, for example, the wait
function VI holds up until the millisecond counter checks to a
sum equivalent to the information you tag. The Filter Express
VI processes a signal through channels and windows. The
waveform chart shows one or more plots of equitably
examined estimations. The Write to Measurement File
Express VI composes a document in LVM or TDM record
design. Construct table changes over a sign or signs into a
table of information that rundowns the amplitude of each one
signal and the time information for each one point in the
signal. While loop rehashes the sub-outline inside it until the
restrictive terminal, an info terminal, gets a specific boolean
esteem.

Consequently by placing electrodes to the left and right and


above and below the eye, horizontal and vertical movements
can be obtained. The output of the second and third stage is
processed into the final stage, the LabVIEW data acquisition
software tool and the personal computer.

Fig.8 Pattern analysis front panel design


IV. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The LabVIEW project decides in which course an individual
is looking and whether the client is clicking on the mouse
pointer. A future application of the machine mouse controlled
by eye framework incorporates mounting non-sticky
electrodes on eye glasses. This gives a versatile and easy to
understand method for connecting electrodes to the face. To
get the face mouse to work inside a genuine working
framework, programming mouse drivers would need to be
composed so that the machine would comprehend the control
of the mouse.

Fig.6 Eye movement analysis front panel

Discrimination of eye movements can be used for automatic


wheel chair movement for highly disabled patients as shown
in output figure 7. Moreover pattern matching can be added to
recognize the right individual to work this model. The strategy
for getting pictures is demonstrated in figure 8. Furthermore
for the constant application we need to consider contrast
between Automatic and intentional squint signals to uproot
impact of such false trigger (for select piece event). For
genuine application for deadened patients the block matrix of
a range of activity should increase and so also precisely
movement detection and respective selection of block event
should occur.
Fig.7 Output results for eye movement application

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International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, ISSN 0973-4562 Vol. 10 No.1 (2015)
Research India Publications;
http://www.ripublication.com/ijaer.htm
[15] Shubhodeep Roy Choudhury, S.Venkataramanan, Harshal
B. Nemade, J.S. Sahambi,Design and Development of a
Novel EOG Biopotential Amplifier , IJBEM -Vol. 7, No.
1, 2005.

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