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FHU3524 WOOD ADHESIVES AND ADHESION

TECHNOLOGY
SEMESTER 2, 2014/15
LAB REPORT 3 & 4
DETERMINATION OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF RESINS PART 1 & 2

Name

:WAN ABDUL RAHMAN BIN WAN ZAMANI

Matric No.

:181072

Lecturer

:DR. UMMI HANI ABDULLAH

Instructor

:MS. AISYAH HUMAIRA ALIAS


MR FARIBORZ HASHEMI
MR AMIN MORADBAK

INTRODUCTION
Resins can be classified into two types, natural and synthetic resin. Natural resins are extracts
of the vegetable or animal origin. These include rosin (gum, wood or tall oil rosins from tree and
plant exudates; wood extracts; or by products from paper manufacturing), fossil resins such as
amber; mined resins such as shellac as secretion product from an insect; and their main
derivatives.
An adhesive in a broad sense is a substance which can bind two surfaces together by adhering
them strongly. Adhesives find their frequent application because they weld two surfaces rapidly
Urea formaldehyde (UF) adhesives are thermosetting when heated, Phenol formaldehyde (PF)
are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with
formaldehyde.

1. NON-VOLATILE CONTENT (SOLIDS CONTENT)

The solid content of adhesives is an important parameter for the possibilities for our products
and production. The solid content influences drying time, moisture effects on substrates and
mostly of less importance shrinking.
Solid content describes how much water we can expect in water-based adhesive. Most typical
adhesives have a solid content around 50%. Starch based adhesives mostly have a solid
content of 5-20% and some synthetical products up top 80 or 90%. Dextrine based adhesives
can be around 70% solid content. Animal-glue (gelatin, protein adhesive) mostly has a solid
content of 60-70%. These adhesives have an application temperature of ca. 70 degrees celcius.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the non-volatile content (solids content) of resins.

MATERIALS:

Petri Dish

Analytical Balancer

Oven

Phenol Formaldehyde Urea Formaldehyde

METHODS:

1.

The first step is weight (use for decimals) the empty petri dish.

2.

Weight for two petri dish. It is one for Urea Formaldehyde (UF) and one for Phenol
Formaldehyde (PF).

3.

Then tare the analytical balancer.

4.

Add 5 grams of Urea Formaldehyde (UF) and 5 grams of Phenol Formaldehyde (PF) for
each petri dish.

5.

Put the petri dish into the oven for 1 day at 100+5C

6.

Weigh and record the data.

2.GEL TEST FOR LIQUID RESINS


INTRODUCTION
Gel time is another term that is often used interchangeably with pot life, although there are
some differences. Both terms are used to describe the thickening of an epoxy after it is mixed,
but gel time is often tested at elevated temperatures as well. Gel time is determined by heating
the epoxy and observing when it starts to become gel-like, though not quite fully cured. It will
most likely be at a higher viscosity the end of it pot life measurement. This value can be useful
for manufacturing purposes if one needs to move a part before the cure is complete, but does
not want any shift in a component placement. It is not, however, a standard quality control test
and should be determined experimentally in each application, if needed.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the amount of time needed to gel or cure a sample of resin.

MATERIALS:

Test tube

Beaker

Analytical balancer

METHODS:
1.

Take a test tube and place 5 grams of Urea Formaldehyde to be tested into it.

2.

Place the beaker in the hot water plate. That is the boiling water on it. Put the test tube
that are already UF inside there.

3.

Record timing and stir the resin at all times with a glass rod until the resin gels and starts
to come out from the side. Then stop the timing.

3.DETERMINATION OF pH OF LIQUID RESIN

INTRODUCTION
Ph as we know a measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, numerically equal to 7 neutral
solutions, increasing with alkalinity and decreasing with acidity, The pH scale commonly in use
ranges from 0 to 14. Every adhesives or resins have a ph value which is acidity or alkalinity.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the pH resin.
MATERIALS:

Phenol Formaldehyde Urea Formaldehyde

pH meter

METHODS:
1

Calibrate pH meter with buffer solutions having 4.0 then with pH 10.00. Weigh 50grams
of resins in a 100ml beaker. Determine the pH of the resin by immersing the electrode
into the resin. Record the reading after 3-5 minutes.

LABORATORY 4
4.WATER TOLERANCE (STICKY MATTER)

INTRODUCTION
On this experiment students has to test the stickiness (adhesion) of household "glues" to
determine strength or weakness of the substance to stick two surfaces together. This is for
physical property of matter, the main function is to explain usefulness of a manufactured product
depends on its function for a particular purpose.
MATERIALS:

Beaker

Urea Formaldehyde

Test Tube

METHODS:
1.

Measure 10ml of Urea Formaldehyde into a 100mL test tube that have cool water.

Stir the UF. Add water in portion of 10mL each and thoroughly mix and check the
cylinder sides for the presence of sticky matter.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As shown in table 1 the result for the physical properties of UF and PF resin of 4 test that are
already done. It is for the test solid content, gel test, pH and sticky matter.

Samples

Solid Content %

Gel Test (min)

pH

Sticky Matter (mL)

Urea
Formaldehyde

40.7177

9.14

8.29

30

Phenol
Formaldehyde

64.3780

NA

12.98

NA

Table 1 : The physical properties of UF and PF resins

Table 1 shows the variation of 4 test for solid content, gel test, pH and sticky matter of
the Urea Formaldehyde (UF) and Phenol Formaldehyde (PF). The percentage of solid content
test for UF is 40.7177%, while for PF is 64.3780%. It is show the percentage of solid content
test for UF is higher than PF. According to the gel test, it just do for UF only. That is UF take for
9.14 minutes for the resins become to the gel onto the hot water plate. The pH values of UF is
lower than PF. The pH value for UF is 8.29 in the alkaline condition, while the pH values for PF
is 12.98 also in alkaline condition. Where we can see, the pH values are higher, the solid
content also become higher. And then, the result for sticky matter is 30mL that are use for the
resin presence of sticky matter. It is just do for UF only. The opposing effects of gelation and
viscosity limits the tendency to cross linking action and the spread ability of the adhesive at
these pH ranges otherwise rapid cross linking would make the adhesive become invisible solid,
unable to flow and spread on the adherents for ease of bonding.

QUESTIONS:
1. Compare and discuss the properties of all resins that you have tested
The resins that we used to tested is urea and phenol formaldehyde. The difference from the
colour is urea formaldehyde is white in colour whereas phenol formaldehyde is dark brown in
colour. Similarities both resins is synthetic resin.

2.What is the relationships between solids content, pH value, and curing time.

Relationships

Effect

Solid content

Influencing drying
time

Moisture effects on Less important


substrate
shrinking

pH values

Influencing in solid Higher ph number To determine the ph


content percentage will give higher
scale, acidity or
solid conten
alkalinity depends
on condition used

Curing time

Solid content
affecting the cure
time of resins

The time taken


adhesive to cure

Importance

The moment
adhesive become
harden and
solidifying adherent

3. What is the ph of urea formaldehyde resins and phenol formaldehyde resin and their
relationship with gel time?
The ph that were tested is the urea formaldehyde reading is 8.29 and phenol formaldehyde is
12.98 its show similarities between both resin is alkalinity because more than 7 ph is alkaline
and less than ph 7 is acidity. The relation with gel time is the determination of resins when
heated and observing when it starts to become gel-like it looks not colourless especially urea
formaldehyde The relative el times of PF and UF , as well as taking consideration the relative
rate constants of PF autocondensation. Figure 2 shows that relationship of gel time to pH for UF
and PF resins.

Figure 2 Relationships of gel time to pH for UF and PF resins.

CONCLUSION

The conclusion can be made from this experiment shows that the urea formaldehyde (UF) resin
and phenol formaldehyde (PF) can be prepared at acidic and alkaline conditions (pH 8 and 13)
for use as an adhesive. The experimental results show that such preparations have high
adhesive strength, high solid content (64.3780%) for PF and (40.7177%) for UF, moderate gel
time, enough for it to spread on the surface of the adherends and set in a short time to bond the
adherends strongly. The open vessel reactor was found suitable and may be adopted for smallscale industrial preparation. The pH values of UF resin is lower than PF resin, it also same with
percentage of solid content. Where the percentage of solid content UF are lower than
percentage of solid content PF resins. Here we can say, the higher pH values, the percentage of
solid content are also become higher.