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FACULTY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING,

UNIVERSITI TECHNOLOGI MARA (UITM)

LABORATORY REPORT
Program

Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (Hons) Manufacturing


(EM221)

Course
Course Code
Laboratory Name
Lecturer Name
Title of Experiment
Group

:
:
:
:
:
:

Bachelor of Engineering (Hons) Mechanical (EM220)


Manufacturing Processes Laboratory
MEM564
FOUNDRY
Mohd Ridhwan Redza
Sand Testing Preparation (Green Sand)
EMD5M13

No
Student Name
.
1. USMAN BIN TAIB

Student ID Number
2013233774

2.

NURUL FARHANA BINTI OMAR

2013677274

3.

SHAHEERA DIANA BINTI MOHD SHAROM

2013633416

4.

WAN MUHAMMAD FAIZ BIN WAN AZLAN

2014256308

5.

WAN MUHAMAD AQIL BIN WAN MOHD


NORSANI

2013652164

Signature

Date of Practical Session

Staff Certification (Signature)

Date of Report Submission

Staff Certification (Signature)

KUMPUL
AN

30

Contents
Objectives...................................................................................................................................3
Introduction................................................................................................................................3
Apparatus...................................................................................................................................6
Industrial Apparatus...................................................................................................................9
Procedure....................................................................................................................................9
Results and Data Analysis........................................................................................................10
Discussion................................................................................................................................12
Conclusion................................................................................................................................13
Recommendations....................................................................................................................14
References................................................................................................................................15

Objectives
1. To measure the properties of molding sand, green compression strength and permeability
of green sand.
2. To study about molding process.

Introduction
A basic understanding of the materials that constitute a green sand system
and the required equipment to prepare the material are extremely important to
assure castings quality. Green compression strength and permeability are important
mechanical properties to be considered in moulding preparation. Green sand is
made up from silica sand, bentonite, coal dust and water with ratio of 4 : 2 : 2 : 1.
There are four types of test for sand strength which is compression, shear,
tensile, and over-hang bar test. Based on these four test, compression test is most
widely used and very convenient for routine testing of all types of national bonded
and synthetic moulding sand. Green compression strength is define as stress
required to rupture the sand specimen under compressive loading. The sand
specimen is then taken out of the specimen tube and immediately put on the
strength testing machine to determine the force required to cause the compression
failure. The green sand is generally range of 0.03 to 0.16 MPa.
Permeability is defined as property of sand which permits the steam and other
gases to pass through the sand mould. Permeability of moulding sand is controlled
by several factors such as sand particle size and shape, water content of the
moulding mixture and clay content of the moulding mixture. Coarse grained sands
are more permeable than finer ones. Figure 1 and 2 shows the effect on permeability
based on grain size and water content.

Figure 1 : Effect of grain size permeability


permeability

Figure 2 : Water content on

Permeability is determined by measuring the quantity of air that passes


through a standard compression with rate in cc/min. Standard permeability is
determined by measuring the time necessary for

2000 cm

of air to pass through

the standard specimen while it is confined in the specimen tube with three blows of
standard rammer and under a pressure of 10

gm/ cm2 . If the time is determined

the permeability number can be calculated from the formula :


P=

V .H
. A.T

where,
V : volume of air =

2000 cm3

H : height of sand specimen = 2 inches


P : pressure = 10

gm/cm

A : cross sectional area of the sand specimen =


T : time, sec, for

2000 cm

1 2

air to pass through specimen

The formula reduces to AFS Permeability :


P=

3000.7
T ( sec)

for old machine working


with Hg

The formula reduce to AFS Permeability for Ridscale-Dieter


P=

30557
30557
=
air pressurecm of water time( sec) p t

Apparatus
Materials:

1) Green sand : Made of silica sand, bentonite, coal dust and water.
Equipment:

2) Permeability Machine

: Measures the permeability of the compressed

sand in

the specimen tube. A flow or air is passed

through the

specimen to check its permeability. The

permeability or

rate of the air that will

through the specimen is in


3) Sand Rammer
ramming

pass

cc/min.
: To ram and compress the sand to reproduce
conditions.

4) Universal Strength
Testing Machine

: To measure the strength of the green sand


when compresse

Hand Tools:

5) Vernier Caliper

: To measure the height of the sand specimen

6) Specimen Tube
shape, its

: To place the sand, in order to achieve its cylindrical

standard test sample shape and before ramming under the sand

rammer.

Industrial Apparatus
In the industry, the apparatus used varies than what is used in the faculty
laboratory.

1)

In this is experiment, the sand in rammed using a simple sand rammer.


The sand that is rammed is only for the shape of the specimen tube. In the
industrial use however, air sand rammers are used, such as the Kawasaki
KPT-2 Industrial Air Rammer. Air sand rammers can provide powerful
blows to ram various shapes of flasks and molds. This way a much larger
production can be achieved compared to the simple sand rammer in the
faculty laboratory.

2) The universal sand strength testing machine is the faculty laboratory are
not electronic, therefore zero and parallax error can occur if the values are
not read properly. In industrial applications, the universal sand strength
testing machines are electronic, such as supplied by Simpson Analytics
Electronic Universal Sand Strength Model 42104. This eliminates zero and
parallax error and a more precise reading of results.
3) As for the permeability machine in the faculty laboratory, it is also not
electronic, and errors can occur when taking the readings. In industries, it
is much more advanced as it is electronic like the Simpson Analytics

Absolute Permeability Tester Model 42501. This way, the results obtained
are much more accurate.

Procedure
1. The green sand was prepared by mixing it again with water to increase its water
quantity in the sand and placed it into a container.
2. The green sand was scooped onto electronic scale and the weight of the sand was
recorded.
3. The casing was cleaned thoroughly to ensure there was no unwanted sand in it.
4. It was transferred into the casing with its bottom covered using a funnel.
5. The casing and the green sand was placed onto ramming device and rammed for 3
times to compact the sand.
6. The cover was removed and the casing was placed into permeability machine and
tested for its permeability and the reading were recorded
7. The green sand was removed from its casing and the length of the specimen is
measured using Vernier calliper.
8. If the length was higher or lower than the limit which is 50.675 to 50.925 mm, steps 2
to 6 were repeated.
9. If the length is acceptable, the specimen was transferred into sand universal sand
strength testing machine. The strength of the specimen was recorded.

Results and Data Analysis


Sand
Permeability
Weight (g)
(cc/min)
145.03
148.07
148.63
149.16
149.3
155.41

64
62
65
68
65
70

Height of sand
(mm)
48.86
50.3
50.9
51.34
51
53.6

Sand Weight (g) vs Height of sand (mm)


158
156
154
152
150
Sand Weight(G) 148
146
144
142
140
138
48.86

50.3

50.9

51.34

51

53.6

Height of sand (mm)

Calculation:
P= (V. H)/ (p. A. T)
The theoretical properties of permeability for green sand are;
V: volume of air = 2000 cm
H: height of sand specimen = 2 inches = 5.08cm
P: pressure = 10 gm/cm
A: cross sectional area of the sand specimen =1in = 6.4516 cm
T: time, min, for 2000 cm air to pass through specimen = 1min

P=

VxH
PxAxT

P=

2000 x 5.08
10 x 6.4516 x 1

P=157.48 cc /min

Percentage Error of Permeability


Experimental Value,

Theoretical Value,

Percentage

Pexp (cc/min)
65

Ptheory (cc/min)
157.48

Error (%)
58.72

Percentage of error =

Experimentalvalue Theoreticalvalue
x 100
Theoreticalvalue
65 157.48
x 100
157.48

= 58.72 %

Discussion
The experiment was executed to analyze the green compression strength and the
permeability of molding sand. Both of these properties are very important to determine the
optimum moisture content to produce a good green sand casting mold. Permeability is the
rate of air flow through the specimen. By getting the permeability value, we can determine
the type of molten metal that is most suitable to be used for the green cast molding. If the
permeability number between 0-50 cc/min, it is considered too low and the range between
150-300 cc/min considered too high. Permeability within the ranges of too low and too high
can lead to defects in the cast when poured into the mold later on. The optimum range for
the permeability for the green sand is 80-150 cc/min. The green compression strength on the
other hand, is referring to the stress required to rupture green sand specimen under
compression loading. The strength is obtained by using universal sand strength testing
machine. The ideal strength of green sand is generally in the range between 0.03 to 0.16
MPa.

From the graph of Mass of Green Sand(g) vs Height of Green Sand(mm), it is


observed that the height of green sand increases with respect to the mass. In addition to
that, the permeability of the green sand also increases. This happens because when the
mass increases, the volume will increase. Increasing the volume in the green sand will lead
to the decrease of the tight packing of green sand, thus increasing the permeability.
Based on the experimental results we obtained, the permeability of the green sand is
65 cc/min. The result is below the optimum range value. The value needs to be slightly
higher for a more optimum permeability. Based on the theoretical calculation however, the
permeability value is 157.79 cc/min. The permeability of experimental result is much lower
compared to theoretical value with a percentage error of 58.72%. These discrepancy in
values could be due to the errors that occurred in our experiment. As for the compression
strength, the value of strength is 0.0903 MPa, which in the range of ideal compression
strength.
From the result of green sand strength of 0.0903 MPa, we can then determine the
suitable material that can be used as the molten metal. The ideal molten metal must have
the melting temperature is between 500-1000C for this strength. As the range of the melting
temperature is considered as low, the suitable material that can be used is non-ferrous metal
as the molten metal. Some examples of non-ferrous metal that can be used are Aluminium,
Zinc and Tin.
Addressing the discrepancy of the values that we obtained in the experimental and
theoretical values, it could be to the errors that could have occurred while performing this
experiment. One of them could be due to how the specimen been produced. In the process
of ramming the sand into the specimen sample tube, the sand rammer should perfectly
clean as if there were any leftover sand on it, it will affect the volume of green sand and also
its height. In addition to this, parallax error could have contributed in our discrepancy in
results. From this experiment, the parallax error could have occurred when taking the height
of specimen by using the vernier caliper. Apart from that, the parallax error also could have
occurred when taking reading on the universal sand strength testing machine. Besides this,
surrounding environment could have also affected the specimen. After the ramming test, the
specimen might have been left too long before conducting the permeability test and the
characteristic of the green sand specimen might have changed.

Conclusion
It is clearly proven in this experiment that the green compression strength and
permeability test is crucial in obtaining the most optimum sand mold before proceeding for
mold preparation and pouring of molten metal. If the sand specimen is not within the
optimum permeability range value of 80-150 cc/min, the cast will exhibit defects, like gas
defects as the air and steam are not able escape when the molten is poured into the mold.
As for the green compression strength, it is too crucial for the value to be in the optimum
range of 0.03-0.16 MPa as for it to be able to withstand compression loading and will not
rupture upon the pouring of molten metal. By knowing the strength of the green sand mold,
we can determine suitable melting point that the green sand mold can withstand and
subsequently what molten metal can be used for the cast. It is essential to prepare the most
suitable mold before proceeding to pour the molten metal suitable based on its strength and
permeability. Errors that have occurred in this experiment must be avoided in the future to
produce and obtain the most accurate results. Parallax error which is the most recurring
error in the experiment must be eliminated by making sure the readings are taken parallel to
eye level and in bright light. The preparation of the specimen also must be done properly
and with care to ensure it does not contaminated by environmental factors.

Recommendations
During conducting this experiment, there are few recommendations to improve
the accuracy of this experiment :
a) Green sand produced must have right composition of silicon sand, bentonite,
coal dust and water for sand casting quality.
b) The sand specimen can be placed in closed area to prevent the loss of
moisture that will cause drying of the sand specimen.

c) The rammed sand specimen must be handled carefully and avoid too much
force during handling in order to get accurate height of the sample.

d) Carefully remove or take out the sand specimen from specimen tube to
prevent the specimen from rupture.

e) Right amount of water must be added to the sand to ensure the sand
specimen is not too wet or too dry for the bonding of the green sand.
f) Sand specimen must be rammed only three times to obtain accurate height
for strength testing.

References
1. American Foundry Society. (2001). Mold And Core Handbook Third Edition.
2. Bureau Of Indian Standards. (1997). Methods Of Physical Tests For Foundry
Sands.
3. Pn Rao. Manufacturing Technology