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THE ILLUSIVE MIDDLE CLASS/THE ALBANY CLUB/EVE ADAMS

HARPERS
REMAKING
CANADA
Exclusive excerpt from
Les Whittingtons new
book, Spinning History

MEET GRETA
BOSSENMAEIR

CANADAS

TOP SPY
THERES A $50-BILLION
MENTAL HEALTH CRISIS

RELIGIOUS RIGHT

NEVER MORE
POWERFUL

THAN BEFORE AN
ELECTION

CLIMATE
CHANGE
LEADERSHIP
FROM THE
BOTTOM UP
How cities and
provinces are stepping
up without the feds

GAME CHANGER
Rachel Notley defeated a 44-year-old PC dynasty. Heres what
Ottawa needs to know about the new Alberta NDP premier.

$6.99 Summer 2015


Power & Influence
hilltimes.com/powerinfluence

Have you considered the strength of the automotive


aftermarket industry in your constituency?
The sheer potential, benefits, and gains in this
sector should not be overlooked.
Its a $19.1 billion industry,
employing 403,800 Canadians
in all walks of life,
coast-to-coast.

Shift perceptions in your riding.


CONTACT THE AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRIES ASSOCIATION OF CANADA TODAY!

www.aiacanada.com

CONTENTS
COLUMNS
Summer 2015
Vol. 4 No. 3

INSIDE THE POLITICAL TRENCH: MPs expenses


CONNECTING THE DOTS: Trade relationships
CANADAS BIG CHALLENGES: Economic performance
JJ ON GENDER: Jenn Jefferys dissects Hillary Clintons campaign

12
13
14
17

THE AGENDA
The 84th annual Congress of the Humanities and Social Sciences
Alanna Mitchell, Patrick Brown, Brian Jean
Upcoming events

6
8
11

PEOPLE
The Q&A: U.S. Ambassador Bruce Heyman
SPOTLIGHT: CSE chief Greta Bossenmaier
THREE WORDS: Retiring MPs describe their political careers
VISUAL CV: Liberal MP Irwin Cotler
THE LIST: Top 10 Canadian environment leaders

10

26
30
31
32
22

74

PLACES
8,) -0097-:) 1-((0) '0%778,)%0&%2= '09&):)%(%17

The last political club: Torontos Albany Club


WHEN IN: Tips on visiting Rodger Cuzners Cape Breton-Canso riding

50
52

IDEAS
HARPERS
REMAKING
CANADA
Exclusive excerpt from
Les Whittingtons new
book, Spinning History

MEET GRETA
BOSSENMAEIR

CANADAS

TOP SPY
THERES A $50-BILLION
MENTAL HEALTH CRISIS

RELIGIOUS RIGHT

NEVER MORE
POWERFUL

THAN BEFORE AN
ELECTION

CLIMATE
CHANGE
LEADERSHIP
FROM THE
BOTTOM UP
How cities and
provinces are stepping
up without the feds

GAME CHANGER
Rachel Notley defeated a 44-year-old PC dynasty. Heres what
Ottawa needs to know about the new Alberta NDP premier.

$6.99 Summer 2015


4S[IV
-RYIRGI
LMPPXMQIWGSQTS[IVMRYIRGI

On the cover: Rachel Notley


Photograph by Claudine Lavoie
Photography

Health care is the elephant in the room during the next election
THE ESSAY: Why tax cuts dont measure up anymore
We dont need more Parliamentary reform
PM Harper is remaking Canada: excerpt from LES WHITTINGTONs new book

54
56
62
64

CULTURE
COMMONS UNCORKED: Why Canadian wines should be celebrated
TWENTY QUESTIONS with Liberal MP Eve Adams
Cole Baker, the diplomatic chef

78
80
76

Change is coming: Rachel Notley


made history when she became
the first NDP Alberta premier
after more than four decades of
Progressive Conservative rule.
Its been popular to depict
Alberta as this sort of right-wing
place off in the West, she said
recently. But thats not what
it is. Photograph by Claudine
Lavoie Photography

CONTENTS
FEATURES
58 HERES RACHEL NOTLEY
Albertas first NDP premier is smart, tough and confident. Shes a political
game changer.
18 BOTTOM UP CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY
Canadian cities and provinces are working on reducing greenhouse gas emissions
without the federal government.
34 MENTAL HEALTH CRISIS
Why the federal government cant afford to ignore mental health issues.
42 RELIGION & POLITICS
Canada is becoming socially liberal, but the Conservative Party still needs its social
conservative base. How influential are they?
46 THE ILLUSIVE MIDDLE CLASS
Who exactly are the middle class, and what exactly are their issues?

2 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

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CONTRIBUTORS
SIMON DOYLE is a
freelance journalist
in Ottawa who
writes about
business, politics,
and lobbying. He
teaches journalism
at Carleton University
and previously worked as an
editor in various roles at Hill Times
Publishing. Lately, hes monitoring
the words of Finance Minister
Joe Oliver and, unrelated to that,
reading Knut Hamsun.
SNEH DUGGAL is a
freelance reporter
who previously
covered foreign
affairs for
Embassy. She
graduated from
Carleton University
with a bachelor of journalism
degree in 2009, and later worked
at the Edmonton Journal, an
English news radio station in
Rwanda and the Ottawa Citizen.
CHRISTOPHER GULY
is a contributing
writer to The
Hill Times and
has been a
member of the
Parliamentary Press
Gallery since 1993.

MARTHA ILBOUDO
is a freelance
journalist in
Ottawa whose
work has
appeared in
the Ottawa Sun,
Ottawa Business
Journal and Our Homes Magazine.
When shes not chasing her next big
story she doesnt mind getting lost
in a good book or two.

4 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

ANTHONY MARS
JENKINS was born
in Toronto where
he delivered
the Globe and
Mail in his youth,
then worked at
the newspaper as a
cartoonist for nearly 40
years. He now lives in bucolic Mono
(pronounced Moe-no), Ont.
His work can be viewed at
www.jenkinsdraws.com.
ANDREW MEADE is a freelance
photojournalist, spending his time
bouncing between the east coast
and Ottawa. He first experienced
working in a newsroom at the Daily
Gleaner and the Telegraph-Journal
in New Brunswick and has been
published in The Globe and Mail,
Toronto Star and National Post.
When not shooting photos he enjoys
travelling long distances on two
wheels.

ALYSSA ODELL is
a staff reporter
with The Lobby
Monitor. She
earned her
honours bachelor
of journalism degree
at Carleton University in 2011. From
profiling coffee farming in Rwandas
green hills, to reporting on crossborder lobbying and advances in
psychological research, shes always
looking for a new angle and her
camera and knees have the battle
scars to prove it.

ABBAS RANA is the


assistant deputy
editor of The Hill
Times. Born and
raised in Pakistan,
Rana speaks
Punjabi, Urdu, Hindi,
and Saraiki. When not
chasing politicians down on the Hill,
he likes to watch cricket and movies.
In winter, he wonders why he moved
to Ottawa.
KRISTEN SHANE has
spent four years
as an associate
editor with
Embassy and
one year before
that reporting for
The Hill Times. She cut
her teeth reporting for a
weekly newspaper in the booming
metropolis of Kincardine, Ont.
population 7,000home to what
she boasts to be the best sunsets
in the world.
JAKE WRIGHT
joined The Hill
Times in 2002
and has since
covered four
federal elections,
countless political
conventions and most,
if not all, of Ottawas political elite
through his camera lens. In 2010, he
spent three months in Afghanistan
embedded with the U.S. military,
where he never felt more alive.

ED I TORS N OTE

Editor
Bea Vongdouangchanh
Copy editor
Christina Leadlay
Contributors
Simon Doyle
Sneh Duggal
Christopher Guly
Martha Ilboudo
Anthony Mars Jenkins
Andrew Meade
Alyssa ODell
Abbas Rana
Kristen Shane
Columnists
Keith Beardsley
David Crane
Asha Hingorani
Jenn Jefferys
Jacquie LaRocque
Guest columnists
Kevin Page
Adam Taylor
Armine Yalnizyan
Photographer
Jake Wright
Vice-president, Sales and Development
Don Turner
613-688-8825 | dturner@hilltimes.com
Director of Advertising
Steve Macdonald
613-688-8841 | smacdonald@hilltimes.com
Advertising Coordinator
Amanda Keenan
Directors of Business Development
Craig Caldbick
613-688-8827 | ccaldbick@hilltimes.com
Martin Reaume
613-688-8836 | mreaume@hilltimes.com
Advertising and Sponsorship Executive
Ulle Baum
613-688-8840 | ubaum@hilltimes.com
Production Manager
Benoit Deneault
Senior Graphic and Online Designer
Joey Sabourin
Junior Graphic Designer
Melanie Brown
Web Developer
Kobra Amirsardari
General Manager, CFO
Andrew Morrow
Finance/Administration
Tracey Wale
Reception
Alia Kellock Heward
Circulation Manager
Chris Peixoto
Director of Reader Sales
Ryan ONeill
Reader Sales Executive
Matthew Cybulski
Publishers
Anne Marie Creskey
Jim Creskey
Ross Dickson
Published by Hill Times Publishing
2015 Hill Times Publishing
All Rights Reserved. Power & Influence
is published four times a year.
69 Sparks Street, Ottawa, ON K1P 5A5
613-232-5952 hilltimes.com

A day in politics really


can be a lifetime

little more than 10 years ago, I


started covering Parliament Hill
as an intern for The Hill Times.
I shunned Facebook and never read my
news on a smartphone, mostly because
I didnt own one. The 24-hour news
cycle existed and blogs were all the rage,
but the digital age of news had not yet
materialized into what it is today. Cabinet
meetings were announced, the prime
minister and federal scientists talked to the
media and, in 2004, there were no female
party leaders or premiers in power.
Times have definitely changed.
Toronto Star veteran Les Whittington
captures some of the major political
changes over the last decade in his new book
Spinning History: A Witness to Harpers
Canada and 21st Century Choices (page 64).
Since ousting the Liberals in 2006,
[Prime Minister Stephen] Harpers
declarations have been guarded and his
policies incremental. But there is no doubt
that he has been engaged in an overhaul of
the country he once described as the worst
kind of European-style welfare state, Mr.
Whittington writes in Spinning History,
published by Hill Times Publishing. While
often gradual, the changes brought forward
by the Conservatives have touched nearly
every aspect of Canadians lives, from taxes
to environmental concerns to their future
retirement date to health care and Canadas
place in the world. The result has been a
shift of historical proportions in the way the
country operates, its goals, its values and
Canadians shared vision.
Today, there is one female
federal party leader in the
House and three female
premiers in the country,
including newly-elected Rachel
Notley in Alberta (page 58).
She and her New Democratic
Party defeated a 44-year-old
Progressive Conservative Party
dynasty, led by former federal
Conservative Cabinet minister
Jim Prenticean unexpected
and powerful feat. B.C.
Premier Christy Clark and
Ontario Premier Kathleen

Wynne are also leading two of Canadas


biggest provinces and making waves on
the environment and climate change front
by putting a price on carbon (page 18).
Ten years ago, there was barely anything
being done about climate change on the
federal level and there still isnt, says Alanna
Mitchell (The Agenda, page 8). I guess some
things dont always change in politics.
In an election year, however, change
is expected. There are more than 30 MPs
who are not running again, some of whom
spoke to P&I about their careers in Three
Words (page 31), as did accidental MP
Irwin Cotler for this editions Visual CV
(page 32).
For those who still prefer long-form
journalism and analysis to tweets, there are
plenty of in-depth features and op-eds on
important topics in this edition of Power &
Influence. Read Armine Yalnizyans Essay
(page 56) on why tax cuts dont really
measure up when it comes to Canadas
economic future, what exactly is the middle
class (page 46) or Jenn Jeffereys new JJ on
Gender column (page 17) about Hillary
Clintons campaign for president.
Change. Theres been a lot of it recently,
both provincially and federally. But thats
no surprise, given how quickly things do
change. As the old adage goes, a day in
politics is a lifetime.
Bea Vongdouangchanh
bvongdouangchanh@hilltimes.com
@bea_vdc

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

THE PEOPLE, IDEAS & EVENTS INFLUENCING OUR COUNTRY

THE AGENDA
Thinking big in Ottawa
E

ach spring, Canadas leading scholars


and researchers gather at the
Federation for the Humanities and
Social Sciences annual Congress event.
This years event took place from May 30 to
June 5 at the University
Ottawa, where
iversity of O

more than 8,000 academics, researchers,


policy-makers, and practitioners came
together to share findings, refine ideas,
and build partnerships that will help shape
the Canada of tomorrow.
The Big Thinking lecture series was

Stephen Toope
Federation for the Humanities
and Social Sciences president

Azar Nafisi
Iranian-American
bestselling author

Congress is a meeting of the minds. The


PhDs and PhDs-in-training who attend are
among our best and brightest, and Canada
does not have too many. Frankly, we need
more of them.
Canadas knowledge economy needs
transformative power. Business, public,
private and not-for-profit sectors all
demand it. We require a labour force that
includes many people with research-based
skill sets who understand not just the
science of things but the science of people,
including their arts, languages, histories
and ideas.
Todays PhDs in the social sciences
and humanities are some of Canadas best
assets. Some will become the professors
who teach our children and grandchildren.
Many others will work for enlightened
employers in the private sector and in
government, employers who recognize
the vital role that PhDs with advanced
knowledge and skills can play in grabbing
hold of a future marked by rapid change.

I believe that no freedompolitical,


economic or socialcan be realized
without the freedom of imagination and
thought. It is this basic and most human
form of freedom that both promises
and safeguards all those other freedoms.
Because of this, a democratic government
is not only the guardian of peoples
political, social and economic rights, but
also is the representative of the nations
intellectual, spiritual and scientific legacies.
Humanities remind us that imagination
and thought, like human rights and
freedom, transcend the boundaries
of nationality, ethnicity, religion, race
and gender, creating a common space
where we celebrate and respect not just
our differences, but our shared and
common humanity. What more suitable
representation of a people who came
to this land from all parts of the world,
bringing with them the customs and
cultures of their countries of birth, hoping
to create a home that can embody them all?

6 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

an integral component featuring a lineup


of a number of influential thinkers. They
addressed important questions not only
facing Canadians, but also influencing
Canadas place on the world stage. See for
yourself.

Jean Leclair
University of Montral
law professor
The legal and political notions of
rights, sovereignty, social contract,
nationalism, and cultural authenticity
have the common feature of being in
tension with pluralism and imposing
more of a single narrow view of reality.
I have found that federalism, as
a political concept that accepts the
plurality of individual identities,
rather than simply a form of plural
monoculturalism, and that stresses the
nature of relations between people and
groups rather than the essence of being
one or the other, is a more appropriate
concept than others for exploring
aboriginal governance.
As a concept, federalism can better
account not just for the malleable nature
of personal identity, but for the reality
of relationships between Indigenous and
non-Indigenous people in Canadian
political life.

THE PEOPLE, IDEAS & EVENTS INFLUENCING OUR COUNTRY

THE AGENDA
Congress 2015: Big Thinking lecture series

Irene Bloemraad
University of California Canadian studies professor
& Thomas Faist
Bielefeld University sociology professor
Do symbolic politics matter for
immigrant integration, or are they just
empty words?
Take public talk on multiculturalism
and diversity. In Canada, multiculturalism
continues to be celebrated, even under
a Conservative government. In Europe,
public discourse demands that immigrants
embrace a thicker notion of citizenship
to combat concerns regarding excessive
diversity and terrorism. In both cases,
proponents claim that symbolic politics can
lead to better immigrant integration.
Studies of employment seekers using
identical rsums with different names
suggest that visible minorities in Canada

and Europe face discrimination. In


Germany, the children of immigrants are
concentrated in the lowest educational
tracks. In Canada, immigrants have a hard
time catching up economically, even if they
have high education. Multiculturalism, or
the language of robust citizenship, seem to
be empty words. Or worse, it may be a feelgood language policymakers use to avoid
tackling social inequalities.
Still, words hold power. This is
especially true when immigrants and
their children can use those words to hold
decision-makers and their fellow citizens
accountable to ideals. The symbolic content
of citizenship matters.

Monique Proulx
Qubec screenwriter
What do Hasidic Jews from Rue
Durocher on their way to synagogue,
Marie Chouinard rehearsing a dance
routine, and a crowd cheering a Canadiens
goal have in common? Montral. They
have a passion, the drive to excel, and the
search for transcendence that lies in the
soil beneath us. I believe there is a mystical
residue under our feet, infecting us and
setting us ablaze, and that it is our greatest
resourcemuch more so than shale gas.
I came to this belief while tracing the
remarkable story of Montrals origins. It
seems that in dying, Jeanne Mance left her
heart to Montralers. I believe this heart
still beats under the citys arteries, stirring
our desire for the transcendent and our
thirst for beauty.

AP reporter Gannon receives 2015 World Press Freedom Award


AP reporter Kathy Gannon won the
Canadian Committee for World Press
Freedom Award on April 30. The
Timmins, Ont., native, was wounded
last year in Afghanistan covering the
national election. During her speech,
Ms. Gannon said that press freedom
is complicated. Our freedoms are
about the right to tell stories, she
said. We are there to do a job and our
job is to question, to inform, to learn
and understand about our subject,
and to chronicle history accurately so
that future generations will look back
and theyll have an understanding of
events in an accurate way.
P&I photograph by Andrew Meade

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

THE PEOPLE, IDEAS & EVENTS INFLUENCING OUR COUNTRY

THE AGENDA

From backbench
MPs to provincial
party leaders

P
P&I photograph by Andrew Meade

Mitchells one-woman
mission to fix the sea

he federal government has no


sense of urgency when it comes
to addressing climate change, says
award-winning author Alanna Mitchell.
Theres almost a refusal to acknowledge
its happening, Ms. Mitchell tells P&I,
during a recent stop in Ottawa to perform
her one-woman play Sea Sick, based on her
best-selling book of the same name.
Were talking about major policy
changes that need to be made and are being
made in many parts of the world, but not
in Canada at the federal level, Ms. Mitchell
says. I think its exacerbated by the fact
that there is not a plan at the national level
that would see those emissions level go
down. I think it would help people if there
were, if we could envision a plan, if we
knew how much it would cost, you know
get our minds around what the recipe is.
Ms. Mitchell, a former Globe and Mail
environment and science reporter, was
in Ottawa for the National Arts Centres
Ontario Scene festival in May. She takes
her play next to Picton, Ont., at the Festival
Players of Prince Edward County, from July
17 to 19. Later this fall, shes taking it to
Mumbai, India.
In her personal, funny and inspiring
play, Ms. Mitchell talks about the themes
also found in her bookthat the oceans
are where we should be focusing when it
comes to climate change. Oceans cover 70
per cent of the earths surface. One-third of
the greenhouse gas emissions are entering

8 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

them and 80 per cent of the extra heat


created by climate change is absorbed in
the ocean.
She tells P&I that while people
understand how greenhouse gas emissions
affect climate patterns or water cycles, they
dont see or know how it impacts oceans and
why its more dire than one would think.
Part of the reason the ocean is in such
trouble is because of the carbon load in the
atmosphere and thats from fossil fuels,
she says. Its changing the temperature, the
amount of dissolved oxygen and the pH level
of the ocean. The ocean is becoming warm,
breathless and sour is the way scientists put
it. Together thats much worse than if it were
just one of those issues on its own.
Climate Action Network ranks Canadas
climate strategy as the fourth-worst in
the world, ahead of Iran, Kazakhstan, and
Saudi Arabia. Ms. Mitchell says the federal
government needs to move on putting a
price on carbon.
Were putting out too much carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere and a whole
bunch of different sectors of the economy.
We have to have a comprehensive plan to
get that down. It doesnt mean wrecking the
economy, its not this job killing structure that
they keep accusing the other parties of trying
to promote. This is really basic. We need a
price on carbon, she says. This is simple
philosophical rounding out to see those two
pieces that fit together and they chose not to
do that. Its not a mystery how we do this.

atrick Brown
and Brian
Jean were both
backbench
Conservative
MPs, quiet
in their own
respective ways
who had little
Patrick Brown
fanfare while
in the House of
Commons. Now, theyre leading two
opposition provincial partiesMr.
Brown as the Ontario Progressive
Conservative leader, and Mr. Jean as the
Alberta Wildrose leader. Both were the
underdogs in two hard-fought battles.
The Toronto Stars provincial politics
writer Martin Regg Cohn opined just
after Mr. Browns win that he may not be
a household name yet, but nearly 80,000
Progressive Conservatives see him as the
best salesperson the party has ever seen.
Mr. Jean, meanwhile, fought one of
own ex-colleagues,
his ow
former federal
for
Conservative
Cabinet minister
Jim Prentice,
in the recent
Alberta
election which
saw 44 years
of Progressive
Conservative rule
Brian Jean
come to an end.
Elected leader just 10 days before the
provincial campaign began, Mr. Jean led
his party back to respectability to become
the leading standard-bearer for the
provinces right-leaning voters, wrote the
Globe and Mails Shawn McCarthy.
No longer backbenchers in a topdown political environment, such is the
Conservative Party under Prime Minister
Stephen Harper, Both men could
ultimately prove to be shooting stars in
the political firmament, says Toronto Star
columnist Tim Harper.

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THE PEOPLE, IDEAS & EVENTS INFLUENCING OUR COUNTRY

THE AGENDA

Happy City heroes

harles Montgomery is an urbanist. Hes championing


livable cities and calling on planners, city buildersall
everyday Canadians, reallyto become design activists
fixing broken cities and improving lives.
The way we choose to plan and invest in our cities has a direct
impact on every aspect of Canadians lives, he tells P&I. Any
policymaker serious about public health and economic resilience
should be embracing the cause of cities.
Mr. Montgomery, award-winning journalist and author of
Happy City, will be at the Museum of Vancouver on July 9 with
Mark Shieh to discuss these exact issues. Paired with the museums
exhibit Stefan Sagmeister: The Happy Show, the talk is part of a
series of fun and brainy talks exploring happiness.
Mr. Montgomery says that federal politicians should take
note of the urban agenda. When senior levels of government
subsidize urban highways instead of transit, for example, it pushes

10 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

The real heroes of Happy City are regular citizens who


got sick of waiting for other people to fix their cities, says
Charles Montgomery. Photograph courtesy Charles Montgomery

families into neighbourhoods where they spend twice as much on


transportation. When they support rapid transit projects, they enable
more compact development that gives Canadians more choice about
where to live and how to move every day. This is not just good for
family budgets. It keeps people healthier by encouraging walking.
And that means huge savings in healthcare spending.
He tells P&I that anyone can become a design activistit
doesnt need to be lead from top political players. The real heroes
of Happy City are regular citizens who got sick of waiting for other
people to fix their cities, he says. Consider New York City. Many
people credit former mayor Michael Bloomberg with the massive
renaissance in public space in that city: the pedestrianization
of Times Square, the bike lanes, the wonderful plazas and fast
busses that sprung up during his term. The truth is, those
changes happened because a coalition of livable streets activists
and neighbourhood groups carried out a successful city-wide
campaign demanding safer, more social streets. The activists put
the issue on the agenda.

THE PEOPLE, IDEAS & EVENTS INFLUENCING OUR COUNTRY

UPCOMING EVENTS

THE AGENDA
Contemporary conversations

merican painter, sculptor, draftsman


and printmaker Eric Fischl will be at the
National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa
on Sept. 10 to discuss his work in a lecture series
called Contemporary Conversations, a public,
moderated discussion. Its part of the U.S. embassy
in Canadas Art in Embassies program.
Mr. Fischls first solo exhibition was in Nova
Scotia. His work depicts the darker undercurrents
of mainstream American life.
The Art in Embassies program features four
contemporary American artists who are exhibiting
in the U.S. ambassadors residence. Marie Watt
and Nick Cave previously participated in the
discussion.

Ivan and Adolf


The 9th Hour Theatre Company has kicked off
its 2015 season with Ivan and Adolf: The Last Man
in Hell by Stephen Vicchio.
The philosophical look at the nature and cost
of forgiveness is being read on stage in alternative
non-theatre spaces such as art galleries, churches,
pubs and a sandwich bar.
With the 70th anniversary of the end of the
Second World War, the play is a timely discussion
of important but controversial issues in todays
political landscape.
What many viewers may find difficult about
this play is that I raise the possibility that even
Hitler someday in the distant future might be
capable of receiving forgiveness, Mr. Vicchio
writes. Clearly this raises one of the major
dramatic tensions of the play, a tension that resides
not only in Ivan Karamazov, Hitlers protagonist
in the drama, but also among many of those who
read or come to see the play. Ought the worse man
who ever lived receive the joys of salvation and the
communion of those he has murdered?
Ivan and Adolf will be read in Ottawa on June
17 at Irenes Pub, 885 Bank St., and at Pressed, 750
Gladstone Ave. Immediately following the staged
readings will be a facilitated discussion with a panel
of artists and guest experts about the content and
themes of the play.

Economic Club events


The Economic Club of Canada is hosting a
series of luncheon events with some of Canadas
top movers and shakers. First up is NDP Leader
Tom Mulcair who will be speaking about how a
stronger middle class builds a stronger Canada on
June 16 at the Hilton hotel in downtown Toronto.
On June 19, the Globe and Mails national public

health reporter Andr Picard will be speaking


about mental health along with University of
Alberta professor Pratap R. Chokka and Ontario
Bar Association president Orlando Da Silva. The
discussion takes place at the Sheraton Suites
Calgary Eau Claire in Calgary, Alta. Mr. Picard,
Mr. Da Silva and psychiatrist Ash Bender will also
be having a similar discussion in Ottawa at the
Fairmont Chateau Laurier hotel on June 22, and at
the Delta Halifax on June 23.

The Walrus talks water


Continuing with its series of bringing together
some of Canadas greatest minds to discuss
interesting and lively topics over 80 minutes, The
Walrus magazines next subject is water: thoughtprovoking ideas about the impact, use, and
health of water in Canadian and global society.
The discussion panel features Oliver Brandes
from POLIS Project, Adle Hurley from the
Munk School of Global Affairs, Stephen Leahy
an international environmental journalist, lawyer
Danika Littlechild, the Canadian Museum of
Natures Andre Martel, Judith Sayers from the
University of Victoria, scientist David Schindler,
and Rob Williams from the Oceans Initiative. The
event takes place at the Belfry Theatre in Victoria,
B.C. on Sept 21.

Broadbent Institute launches


progress tour
The Broadbent Institute has launched a Stand
Up for Progress national tour, featuring Canadas
oldest rebel Harry Leslie Smith. Mr. Smith will be
visiting Victoria, B.C., Calgary, Alta., Edmonton,
Alta., Regina, Sask., London, Ont., and Halifax,
N.S. to talk about Canadas future ahead of the
next federal election.
Im delighted to travel this great country at
this key moment in our history to inspire young
people, says Mr. Smith, author of Harrys Last
Stand: How the World My Generation Built is
Falling Down and What We Can Do to Save It.
I was born in a time of winter and famine 92
years ago in a grim mining town in the North of
England, so I speak as man who has sailed through
the rough oceans of history. My generation built
a strong social safety network, but our greatest
achievements are under threat by the politics of
austerity. I know we can win this fight because we
did it before.
The tour, which will also feature a panel
discussion with other progressive activists, starts
on June 18 in Victoria and ends on July 21 in
London, Ont.

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

11

IN SIDE THE POLI TICA L TRE NC H-MP EXPE N SE S

MPs expenses should


be regularly audited

O
KEITH
BEARDSLEY
Keith Beardsley was a
ministerial chief of staff in
Progressive Conservative
prime minister Brian
Mulroneys government,
worked in former PC leader
Peter MacKays office in 1997
and joined Stephen Harpers
opposition leaders office after
the merger of the PC and
Canadian Alliance parties. He
worked in the Prime Ministers
Office from 2006 to 2008.

ne thing that the current Senate expense


scandal has taught Canadians is that
we cant trust the guidelines that our
institutions have in place to monitor
expenses claimed by our politicians.
Admittedly, the focus is on our senators, but
I doubt they are the only ones that deserve more
scrutiny. The Senate has been an easy target for the
media and MPs. Most Canadians really dont know
what senators do and because they are appointed
hold them in little regard. The good work that they
do, especially in committeeswhich is often superior
to those in the House of Commonsis largely
ignored and overlooked by the media. Hence they are
fun to attack.
But what about the other place, better known as
the House of Commons?
If the public is so gung ho on having the auditor
general go into the Senate, why not do the same to
the House of Commons and MPs office budgets and
expenses, especially their hospitality expenses which
are more than $10,000 each.
My own experience is that the House of
Commons was more diligent, but that doesnt mean
MPs shouldnt be audited.
When the issue first arose, MPs were quick
to denounce the idea of auditing their budgets.
Eventually they came around to the point that the
auditor general did take a look at the House of
Commons procedures and a few sample MPs in 2012.
This was updated in March 2014 so that the House
of Commons now posts their expenses by category
(Members Expenditures Report), but not the detailed
invoices and receipts. All good, but that is not the
same as having an auditor question the expense. To
give one small example, it has long been the practice
for politicians (MPs and ministers) to link travel
to a political event to some item of government or
Parliamentary business. If you are a guest speaker at
a 7 p.m. event in a distant city, you make sure there
are a couple of items on your agenda that can be
considered Parliamentary business. The net result
is the taxpayer paid for your trip, not the riding
association or party. Add up all those trips over the
lifetime of a Parliament and that is a lot of taxpayer
money being used for partisan purposes.
We hold ministers to a higher account, often
requiring them to use the least expensive flight, stay
at inexpensive hotels, watch what they eat (remember
Bev Odas $16 glass of orange juice?), but we dont
apply the same standards to our MPs. It is worth

12 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

If you are a guest speaker


at a 7 p.m. event in a distant
city, you make sure there
are a couple of items on your
agenda that can be considered
Parliamentary business. The
net result is the taxpayer paid
for your trip, not the riding
association or party. Add up all
those trips over the lifetime of
a Parliament and that is a lot
of taxpayer money being used
for partisan purposes.
noting that Stephen Harper insisted that his travel
reflect his agenda. We spent a lot of time calculating
what portion of a trip was government and what
portion partisan, and the party got a bill for the
partisan segment. Harper was relentless in following
up to make sure payment was made by the party. Why
cant the same standard be applied to all MPs travel?
To her credit, for some time now Elizabeth May
has acted responsibly and she has been posting
detailed expenses on her website including invoices
and receipts. If one MP can do it why cant they all?
While this is a nice move on Ms. Mays part, this is still
not as good as a periodic audit by the auditor general.
It is easy enough to do. Auditor General Michael
Ferguson has already stated it can be done with no need
for extra funds for his office operations. If Parliament
with the new fixed election law lasts four years why not
each year take one quarter of the MPs and audit them?
The number from each party to be audited could reflect
the numbers each party has in the House of Commons.
With a majority in the House of Commons, the
party that brought in the Accountability Act (to make
everyone accountable for their actions) could easily
bring in and pass a motion to make MPs accountable
for their spending.
If it is in the public interest to make sure that every
senator be audited (going back several years) why isnt
it in the public interest to audit our MPs and hold
them to the same standard of scrutiny?

TRA DE PA R TNER S-C ONNEC TING THE D OTS

TRADE RELATIONSHIPS
THAT MATTER

Nsight Canadas Election Monitor has been


tracking the issues Canadians care about
and want action from politicians on in the
lead up to the election. While our key data
findings show that the economy remains by far the
dominant issue, it is interesting to see how Canadian
perceptions about trade have shifted and what is
behind the change. Finally, something every region
of Canada can agree on.
A generation ago, debate about free trade
with the U.S. was polarized. One side favoured a
Canada-U.S. pact, while the other featured extreme
fear-mongering that had Canada set to become the
51st state with our identity, our culture, even our
freshwater sold off to American corporations.
The reality is much different. Since the North
American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) came into
force more than two decades ago, our annual GDP
has risen by nearly $1.2-trillion, 4.7 million jobs have
been created, and our trilateral trade in goods with
the United States and Mexico has more than tripled.
And yes, were still a sovereign country with a proud
identity and full control of our blessed resources.
And how do Canadians feel about that? According
to ENsight research, today eight in 10 Canadians
believe trade with countries around the world is
important to Canadas economic prosperity. Four in
10 say its very important.

CANADA-EU TRADE
Fast forward to this generations transformational
trade dealthe trade pact with the European
Unionknown as the Comprehensive Economic
and Trade Agreement or CETA. Canadians
overwhelmingly support it in every region of the
country. Almost six in 10 (58 per cent) say the
ratification and implementation of CETA should
be an urgent or important priority for the federal
government. Just five per cent oppose the pact.
After the success of NAFTA, its easy to see why
Canadians would now support an agreement with
the EU. The benefits touted by governments on both
sides of the Atlantic are echoed by businesses, and
the shared history and values between Canada and
EU countries dont loan themselves easily to fearmongeringat least not anymore.
Does this mean the debate is over and Canadians
support free trade everywhere and with anyone?

THE CHINA PARADOX


A deeper trade relationship with China emerges
as an anomaly in ENsights research findings with

nearly 45 per cent of Canadians describing free trade


with China as not much or not a priority at all.
Canadians appear to question the trustworthiness
of China, remaining uneasy about its human rights
record and its lax intellectual property laws, amongst
other things. It could also be that the benefits
arent clear, especially as Canadas once vibrant
manufacturing sector continues to face challenges,
including cheaper and lower standards for labour
overseas.
Despite the overwhelming opportunities in China
and throughout the fast-growing Asia-Pacific region,
Canadians just arent there yet like they are with
Canadas more traditional trading partners. Yet this
fact also comes with a twist. Two-thirds of Canadians
take the view that Canada needs to identify and
develop new trade opportunities with more countries
and regions, believing we cannot rely solely on the
U.S. market. In fact, fewer than one in five (17 per
cent) believe that we will always rely on the U.S. as
our major trading partner.
With such a clear demand for new opportunities
beyond the U.S., it is no wonder that the federal
government continues to advance its trade agenda.
However, as our research shows, where they go has
a direct link to whether or not Canadians will be
supportive. When it comes to less familiar or less
trusted places and partners, Canadians need to be
convinced that the benefits are real and that they far
outweigh the risks.

JACQUIE
LAROCQUE
&

ADAM
T AY L O R
Jacquie LaRocque is managing
principal and Adam Taylor is
a director at ENsight Canada
(www.ensightcanada.com).
Both are former senior
advisers to Liberal and
Conservative International
Trade ministers, respectively.

THE NEED TO PREPARE THE MARKET


Were not there yet with China, but as
the countries that make up the Trans-Pacific
Partnership inch closer toward the end-game stage
of negotiationsanother trade pact with strong
support across Canadas business communityit will
be important for both governments and businesses to
work together to convince Canadians of the benefits.
Indeed, both need to work together and show clearly
and openly where the opportunities lie, and that the
gets and gains make the gives and pains necessary
to swallow.
As a trading nation, Canadians recognize the need
to dance on the world stage. But when it comes to
becoming a nation of traders, we need to know more
about who were dancing with before well accept.
Preparing the market, a tactic any good corporate
plan undertakes before introducing a new product,
will be critical to moving public opinion. And
without the public onside, no political ambition can
succeed.
Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

13

CA NA DAS BIG C HA LLE NGE S-MA NUFAC T URING INDUSTRY

A HEALTHY
MANUFACTURING
INDUSTRY EQUALS
A BETTER ECONOMY

T
DAVID
CRANE
David Crane is an awardwinning journalist with
special interests in the
economics of globalization,
innovation, sustainable
development and social
equity. He can be reached
at crane@interlog.com.

he useor more accurately, the abuse


of taxpayer dollars by the Conservative
government to conduct a media blitz to
promote the 2015 budget may persuade some
Canadians economic policy is headed in the right
direction. But the reality is that its economic strategy
is not working.
If Canada is to have a healthy and prosperous
economy with the potential for stronger economic
growth and good jobs, it must have an innovative
business sector with a capacity for a higher rate of
productivity growth, one that can deliver higher wages.
In particular, it must have an innovative and dynamic
manufacturing sector. This is not happening.
A recent report from management consulting
firm Deloitte warned that rapid advances in key
technologies are poised to disrupt many of the
industries that anchor our economy. Yet, it found,
the majority of Canadian businesses arent prepared
for the coming age of disruptionand many of the
unprepared wont survive.
Based on a survey of 700 corporationsresource,
manufacturing and servicesthe consulting firm
found that many corporations didnt even realize
they were investing less than their peers in research
and development and new technologies. Of the 700
corporations, only 13 per cent met the consulting
firms definition of preparedness for the future.
Another 23 per cent were taking some but not
sufficient steps, while the 64 per cent were either
totally unprepared or were struggling with their
preparedness efforts.
Highly-prepared firms are focussed on innovation
and R&D, and pursue national and international
markets. While Deloitte did not single out
manufacturing, it is in manufacturing where Canada
has its biggest challenges. Manufacturing is critical
because it accounts for a large share in Canadas
exports, tends to have higher productivity, carries out
more than 40 per cent of business spending on R&D,
and supports much activity in high-value business,
professional and technical services.
Two recent indicators show that many
manufacturers are failing to innovate for future
competitiveness:
Business spending on R&D is continuing to
decline when it should be increasing, the opposite
of what is happening in other advanced economies.

14 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

According to Statistics Canada, manufacturers


plan to invest $6.4-billion in R&D this year,
compared to $6.8-billion last year and 2013. In 2007,
manufacturers spent $8.4-billion on R&D and a
record $9.2-billion in 2001. If inflation were taken
into account, the decline would be even greater.
Manufacturers are under-spending on new
machinery and equipment for innovation despite
advantageous tax and tariff policies. Last year,
manufacturers spent just $14.7-billion on new
machinery and equipment, but in pre-crisis 2007,
they spent $17.4-billion. Again, adjusting for inflation,
the decline would be even greater.
Earlier findings by Statistics Canada shows that
from 2010 to 2012, 74.8 per cent of manufacturing
firms could be considered innovative, compared to
81.2 per cent in the years 2007 to 2009. Firms could
meet the test of innovation simply by reporting
they had engaged in organizational innovation,
as many did. But as Statistics Canada reported,
this shift towards organizational innovation may
reflect enterprises choosing to reduce their costs by
optimizing current operations through reorganization
rather than by introducing new logistics, distribution
or production methods.
While much of the onus for a more innovative
manufacturing sector falls on the shoulders of
manufacturers themselves, public policy also needs to
focus much more on the future of our manufacturing
industries. This means focusing on both scale and
scope in manufacturing. We need businesses that
can grow to sufficient size to compete in a world
of rapid technological change and intense global
competition, and we need companies with the scope
to invest in ongoing innovation, with new products
and processes.
Yet our political parties dont understand what is
really going on in the world of manufacturing and
pay limited attention to it.
One of the first tasks of the government we
elect in October must be to make manufacturing
a top economic priority if we are to achieve better
economic performance. The election campaign,
in the meantime, provides the opportunity for
politicians to tell us how they would restore a
healthy manufacturing industry in Canada, with the
good jobs, decent wages and profitable returns that
successful manufacturing can deliver.

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NOW AVAILABLE
In this new book, veteran Toronto Star political journalist
Les Whittington chronicleswith remarkable clarity and a coplike, straight-up tonethe hallmarks of Prime Minister Stephen
Harpers government. Its a concise, insiders guide on how the
government has changed Canada over the last 10 years.

LES WHITTINGTON

SPINNING
HISTORY
A WITNESS TO
HARPERS CANADA AND
21ST CENTURY CHOICES

A must read.
Don Newman

Les Whittingtons book,


Spinning History is well-written,
substantive, and it packs a punch.
Kate Malloy, editor of The Hill Times

BOOKS
hilltimes.com/HT-books

HILLA RY C LINTON-JJ ON GE NDER

Why some women cant support


Clintons bid for U.S. presidency

y now, the whole world has heard that


Hillary Clinton is poised to inject the first X
chromosomes into the Oval Office.
Domestically, Alberta Premier Rachel
Notley recently elected a caucus of 47 per cent women
while simultaneously shattering a male-led 44-year
old Progressive Conservative dynasty.
Some might say we are at the precipice of great
change for women. The challengewhich many
young feminists of the fourth-wave, intersectional
influence can attestis the need to swallow the disdain
for Hillary Clintons imperialism, her corporate
involvement, and her privilege in order to support her.
Many say they are incapable of ignoring the
visceral sense of conflict Clinton stirs up. Repeatedly
and anecdotally, comments such as Well, I support
her, because shes a woman. But I dont feel great
about it, or I wish there was another option, can be
heard.
This seems counterintuitive for any advocate for
womens social progress and equality of the genders to
be against a woman advancing politically, doesnt it?
How could the feminist movement not unequivocally
rally behind someone like Hillary Clinton? Shes paid
her dues, right?
The conflict is certainly not pertaining to her
gender or her work ethic. To claim Clinton has not
earned her time in the sun would be utterly absurd.
Its more complicated than that.
The conflict can be attributed to three primary
factors:
1. The toxic ideological divide within contemporary
feminism.
When Kimberl Crenshaw coined the term
intersectionality a few years back, in many ways the
womens movement found new wings. Some might
even say the fourth wave was born.
Unfortunately, like in politics, the intersection
of ideology in feminism breeds conflict. And every
ideology has its dogmatic enforcers. With the advent
of horizontal debate platforms like Twitter, we see
contemporary feminisms and marginal identities
competing for attention by the hour.
As a result, we see women leaders like Hillary
Clinton attempting to please everyone; an impossible
feat, of which shes likely well aware. Unfortunately for
her, Clinton will always be white, and will always be of
high socio-economic privilege.
2. No matter how much she hides it, Clintons
corporate history will follow her.
Simone de Beauvoir once said that the capitalist

system is inherently sexist, patriarchal, and hierarchical.


From her humble beginnings as a corporate
lawyer, Clintons complex, neo-liberal interests will
forever plague her feminism.
Among recent secretaries of state, Clinton was one
of the most aggressive supporters for U.S. corporations;
those of which whose capitalist prosperity also resulted
in the symbiotic growth of The Clinton Foundation.
More than $100-million in donations to the
foundation have come directly from corporations.
No matter how robust her portfolio of
accomplishments in American philanthropy and
as a humanitarian, it is impossible to discount this
relationship. This will never be a strong selling point
Jenn Jefferys is an Ottawain feminist communities with which Clinton strives to based digital communication
identify.
strategist and freelance

JENN
JEFFERYS

3. You guessed it. Bill.


Just a couple weeks before she made her bid for
presidency official, Michael de Adder published an
editorial cartoon of Clinton with semen on her dress.
The Lewinsky scandal happened almost 20 years ago.
Though de Adder promptly pulled his cartoon after it
stirred so much backlash, the image was telling.
Former U.S. president Bill Clinton was nearly
impeached after his deceit both to his wife and to the
American people came to light. Though the familys
sex life and marriage are really none of anyones
business, it became our businessespecially since
it systematically destroyed the life of then 22-yearold White House intern, Monica Lewinsky, who was
thrown under the bus and hid from the public eye for
decades afterward.
You wouldnt think this would have such an
impact on Hillary Clinton as a democratic nominee
or presidential candidate so long after the fact, but it
does. And it always will.
A womans choice to stay or to leave an adulterous
or an abusive relationship is her choice. However,
many feminists are incapable of seeing the first
choice as feminist; rather, it is commonly perceived as
exceedingly disempowering and even contaminating to
womens social progress.
Its no question that Clinton has the tenacity to
inspire women to lead politically and otherwise. She
will always be revelled as a political force to be reckoned
with, and for that, she should be commended.
The success of #Hillary2016 will be determined
by her ability to be cognisant of her own privilege,
and her ability to humanize herselflowering
herself to a more accessible, sensitive and empathetic
place where contemporary feminists of every ism
can relate to her.

writer. She writes about


politics, social media and
social justice, often through
a contemporary feminist lens.
Follow her on Twitter at
@JennJefferys.

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

17

STEPPING

UP
How cities and
provinces are
moving on climate
change without
the federal
government

B OTTOM UP C LIMATE C HA NGE POLICY-FEAT URE

At the December UN summit in Paris, its leadership


that will count, and Canada is falling behind.
BY SI M ON D OYLE

teven Guilbeault was 25 years old when he attended


his first conference of the parties (COP), the
diplomatic meetings where member states gather
to advance the UN climate change framework.
It was COP 1, held in 1995 in Germany, and Mr.
Guilbeault, the founder of Quebec environmental group
quiterre, stayed in a gymnasium in east Berlin with about
600 young people and students as he attended the COP
with a youth group.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change,
a UN research group, was releasing its second report,
warning that global warming was real and largely due to
human activity. It was a very high moment of my young
activist career, Mr. Guilbeault says.
He has since attended about 15 COPs, and one of the
lasting things he took away from COP 1 was how necessary,
yet complex, international climate negotiations are. A
big lesson for activists was that they couldnt empty their
quivers on national and international targets. They had to
go local.
We needed to not put all our eggs in that basket.
Its important, but we need to work with our local
governments, our provincial or municipal governments, to
move things along, he says.
This years meeting, COP 21, will be on Nov. 30 to Dec.
11 in a suburb of Paris called Le Bourget. Its considered
the most important meeting yet, the last chance for states
to commit to a treaty and emissions reductions through
which they can try to avoid dangerous climate warming of
more than two degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels.
The role of subnationals, or regional governments
under federal states, wasnt an issue back in 1995 at COP
1. But after the failure of states to fulfill the goals of the
Kyoto Protocol emissions reductions treaty, states such as
California started leading change. Cities, communities,
and subnational governments have been driving the
conversation. For COP 21, theres a lot of talk about

the role of subnationals, which will have a day at the


conference dedicated to their input.
Provinces and states like Ontario, Tasmania and
California, as well as big cities, dont have direct input
into the treaty text, but they will have indirect negotiating
leverage. They have the power to stand up and expose
any inaction by their federal governments and to contrast
regional state actions with that of their federal leaders.
In most cases, subnationals are also part of federal
delegations, giving them negotiating powers with their
federal representatives. The more theyre doing regionally,
the more they can advocate and lever action federally.
I see provincial leadership driving some of what
gets talked about nationally, says British Columbia
Environment Minister Mary Polak, referring to the
upcoming Paris Summit, where B.C. will have a delegation.
There is certainly an international interest in the role of
subnationals.
British Columbia, Manitoba, Quebec, Ontario, and
about 20 other subnational governments, from Tasmania
to Catalonia, joined a special climate change compact at
COP 20 in Lima, Peru last year, agreeing that they have a
critical role in climate change and have authority over key
aspects of climate policy including energy, transportation,
and the built environment.
The regional governments agreed to submit
standardized data to provide a clearer picture of local
contributions around the world and to collaborate more
on climate policies.
Subnational governments around the globe have been
trying to pressure their federal governments, some of them
more successfully than others. The state of South Australia,
which has pushed the federal government to support more
renewable energy such as wind, held a summit in Adelaide
in May, where federal and regional leaders agreed to work
more closely on renewable energy use, energy efficiency,
and adapting to climate change.

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

19

POST-2020 EMISSIONS
PLANS AND ACTION RATING

CANADA
Canada has committed to reducing its emissions by 30 per
cent from 2005 levels by 2030.
In 2007, Prime Minister Stephen Harper pledged to cut
GHG emissions by 65 per cent below 2006 levels by 2050.
In 2009, through the Copenhagen Accord, Mr. Harper
promised to reduce Canadas emissions to 17 per cent
below 2005 levels by 2020.
Climate Action Tracker rating: Inadequate

UNITED STATES
President Barack Obama says the country will reduce
greenhouse gas emissions across the economy by 26-28
per cent below 2005 levels by 2025. The country says it will
make best efforts to lower the emissions by 28 per cent.
As part of the plan, the U.S. plans to cut carbon dioxide
emissions from power stations by 30 per cent from 2005
levels by 2030.
Climate Action Tracker rating: Medium

CHINA
China said in November 2014 that its emissions will peak
by 2030 as its non-fossil energy sources rise to at least 20
per cent of the total mix by the same time.
Climate Action Tracker rating: Medium

RUSSIA
Russia has pledged to reduce greenhouse gases to 70-75
per cent below 1990 levels by 2030.
Climate Action Tracker rating: Inadequate

JAPAN
Japan is expected to submit an INDC indicating a plan to
reduce emissions 20 per cent below 2013 levels by 2030, or
the equivalent of 11 per cent below 1990 levels by 2030.
Climate Action Tracker rating: Inadequate

The Climate Action Tracker rating, complied by international


climate groups, indicates how well the country is doing in reducing
emissions and acting on its commitments.
Sources: Open Climate Network; World Resources Institute; Yale
Center for Environmental Law & Policy; Climate Action Tracker

Just as Australian subnationals are trying to push Prime


Minister Tony Abbott into a tougher stance on climate
change, they were disappointed to see, during the summit
in Adelaide, an op-ed by Mr. Abbotts chief business adviser,
Maurice Newman. He wrote an opinion column in The
Australian saying the UN didnt have enough evidence to
support futile climate change policies and that climate
policy is not about facts or logic. Its about a new world
order under the control of the UN.
Internationally, environmental groups have also put more
emphasis on local and regional action, encouraging bottom-up
approaches. Steve Rayner, influential director of the Institute
for Science, Innovation and Society at Oxford University,
penned an important paper on the matter in 2010 following
the Kyoto failure, entitled How to Eat an Elephant. Climate
policies, he argued, should start with the lowest, local level, and
work their way up. Its the kind of approach that leads to cities
and subnationals to create standard green policies or even their
own carbon trading systems.
In Canada, the failure to fulfill the Kyoto Protocol under
the former Liberal government was a sign that provincial
lobbying would be necessary to encourage federal action.
Then, delays and a lack of priority on climate change
from Prime Minister Stephen Harpers Conservative
government crystallized the importance of the provinces.
As environmental groups saw more opportunity in the
provincial capitals, so did provincial premiers in their
power to have regional impacts.
Canadas provinces have been introducing various
measures to price carbon emissions. British Columbia
introduced a carbon tax in 2008 under then-premier
Gordon Campbell, offset with tax reductions. At $30 per
tonne of CO2 equivalent emissions, it remains in place
under Liberal Premier Christy Clark and will apply to plants
in the provinces emerging liquefied natural gas industry.
Similarly, Quebec, under former Liberal premier Jean
Charest, announced plans in 2012 to join a cap-and-trade
program with California, which became effective in 2014.
California expanded the agreement on May 19 when it
signed agreements with British Columbia, the U.S. states of
Oregon, Washington and Vermont, as well as the Mexican
states of Baja California and Jalisco, and Wales, Brazil,
Germany and Spain. Together, the 12-member group
represents 100 million citizens and $4.5-trillion of GDP.
They agreed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to at least
80 per cent below 1990 levels by 2050.
Ontario Liberal Premier Kathleen Wynne said this
spring that Ontario will also join the multi-state cap-andtrade program, under which companies are given emissions
quotas. If they exceed them, they must purchase carbon
credits at market rates; if they come in below their quotas,
they can sell their extra credits. Over time, the caps are
lowered, effectively reducing emissions, while government
revenues from selling the credits are reinvested into green
infrastructure and clean energy programs.
Just following Ms. Wynnes announcement, Canadas
premiers met in Quebec City for a climate change summit
at the invitation of Quebec Premier Philippe Couillard. Save
for the Alberta and P.E.I. leaders, who were campaigning in

B OTTOM UP C LIMATE C HA NGE POLICY-FEAT URE

provincial elections, the premiers agreed to recognize the scientific


consensus that greenhouse gas emissions must be reduced to avoid
global warming of more than two degrees Celsius.
The premiers identified 2050 as an important marker and
recognized carbon pricing as a tool for governments, according to
the summit declaration. They recognized that transitioning to a
resilient and lower-carbon economy by 2050 is necessary to ensure
the sustainable development of provinces and territories.
Its part of Canadas bottom-up approach to addressing
climate change, Christiana Figueres, executive secretary of the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the
UNs international climate change treaty, said in a speech at the
Quebec City summit.
We already see the leadership of the provinces taking very
different routes, very different measures, using very different
tools, Ms. Figueres said. The provinces should continue to work
together, she added, to build consensus in order to enable a
much, much better fertilized ground for the federal government
to be able to make the decisions.
The premiers are also working on a Canadian energy
strategy, which they plan to release before the Paris Summit
and after provincial leaders meet again in July. There is some
speculation about whether other Canadian provinces could join
the California cap-and-trade program before Paris and what
environmental policy changes may happen in Alberta under its
newly elected NDP government. Rachel Notley, the provinces
new premier, campaigned on tougher environmental standards.

quiterre founder Steven Guilbeault attended his first UN conference


of the parties on climate change meeting in 1995. We need to work
with our local governments, our provincial or municipal governments,
to move things along, he says. Photograph courtesy quiterre

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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

21

FEAT URE-B OTTOM UP C LIMATE C HA NGE POLICY

TOP 10
ENVIRONMENTAL LEADERS
DAVID SUZUKI
Mr. Suzuki, 79, remains a force in Canadian
environmental conversations. Hes a household name
who polls well in Canada and spent much of the past
20 years campaigning on climate change. He didnt
win much love from Conservatives when, in 2011,
the Ontario Liberals pulled an online video endorsement
from Mr. Suzuki because of controversy. The author of more than
50 books, rumour has it this Phd has given out the odd hug at
signings. The Nature of Things is still going, and so is Mr. Suzuki.
Not many environment ministers dont want a picture with him.

TZEPORAH BERMAN
Environmentalists consider Ms. Berman a master strategist
and campaigner who can produce results. Now a strategic adviser
to environmental organizations and First Nations, she worked
with Greenpeace in the 1990s to help organize logging blockades
in Clayoquot Sound, B.C. Former Liberal premier Gordon
Campbell appointed Ms. Berman to his Green Energy Task Force
in 2009 to help with renewable energy recommendations.

STEVEN GUILBEAULT
Mr. Guilbeault is influential within the environmental
movement and gifted at effectively bridging inside lobbying and
activism. The 1994 founder of Quebec environmental group
quiterre, he gets the attention of politicians and is one of the
most influential people on the environment file in Quebec.

GERALD BUTTS
Mr. Butts, top adviser to Liberal Leader Justin
Trudeau, is former president and CEO of
environmental group WWF-Canada. Mr. Butts is
a smart strategist interested in carbon pricing who
is pivotal to Mr. Trudeaus position on the issue. A
confidante of the leader, he will be informing the partys
approaches to energy and the environment.

KATHLEEN WYNNE
About a year ago, B.C. Premier Christy Clark was talking up
her plans for developing liquefied natural gas in the province.
Now shes more than happy to talk about the provinces carbon
tax. Its one example of how much the conversation has changed
when it comes to putting a price on carbon, and environmentalists
say Ms. Wynne has been key to that shift. Together with Quebec
Premier Philippe Couillard, Ms. Wynne is bringing attention to
Canadas role at the Paris climate change summit in December.
Environmentalists say her intentions are strong and they want to
see what actions will support them.

22 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

ELIZABETH MAY
Ms. May is a tireless advocate for the environment
and climate change policy. Despite an embarrassing
moment at the Parliamentary Press Gallery dinner
this spring, she continues to be an influential player
in Ottawa and nationally. She rose to prominence
after winning the Green Party leadership in 2006 and
then unseating Conservative cabinet minister Gary Lunn in 2011
in the B.C. riding of Saanich-Gulf Islands.

ALLAN ADAM
Chief Adam is head of the Athabasca Chipewyan First Nation,
probably the most powerful local force for environmental
protection in the Athabasca region of the Alberta oil sands. Chief
since 2007, Mr. Adam helped organize a tour with Neil Young last
year that advocated against the expansion of the oil sands which
helped raise funds for the First Nations legal defence fund. This
chief is more influential now that the NDP has won government
in Alberta: Mr. Adam is close to Premier Rachel Notley.

MEGAN LESLIE
The federal NDPs environment critic is also the
partys deputy leader and has the ear of NDP
Leader Tom Mulcair, the most popular federal
political leader in Quebec. On that front,
Ms. Leslie has been important to the partys
campaign platform development as it relates to the
environment. The Halifax MP is a founding member of the
Nova Scotia Affordable Energy Coalition, where she helped
broker a settlement deal with Nova Scotia Power Inc. on energy
efficiency programs.

MERRAN SMITH
The director of Clean Energy Canada, Ms. Smith is a bridgebuilder. The Vancouver-based group takes what it calls a strange
bedfellows approach, trying to close gaps between industry,
government, and civil society to practically advance climate and
energy policy. The group has been active on carbon pricing,
and recently released a report on how governments can more
effectively sell a carbon pricing plan.

PRESTON MANNING
A stalwart Conservative policy wonk, Mr. Manning
is an environmentalist who walks the talk,
environmental advocates say. The former Reform
Party leader and now president of the Manning
Centre for Building Democracy is influential as
an informal adviser to Conservatives and through
organizations like Sustainable Prosperity, and Canadas Ecofiscal
Commission. Conservatives could make the harnessing of market
mechanisms to environmental conservation their signature
contribution, Mr. Manning said in 2014.
Note on methodology: Background interviews with
environmentalists helped produce the above list. National influence,
actions and results were used as key criteria.
by Simon Doyle

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Ontario Premier Kathleen


Wynne announced in April
that the province would join
a cap-and-trade system with
Quebec and California. Ontario
and other provinces, and other
subnationals, are stepping
up and joining this global
movement, she says.
P&I photograph by Jake Wright

Ahead of Paris, more provinces are looking aligned, particularly


Ontario and Quebec, which are both talking about being part of a
global movement on climate change.
In April, as Ms. Wynne announced the provinces plans to join the
cap-and-trade program, she said: Ontario and other provinces, and
other subnationals, are stepping up and joining this global movement.
Similarly, Mr. Couillard said at the Quebec Summit: We must act at
the local level in order to participate in this global movement against
climate change, including carbon pricing and many other methods.
The wild card between now and Paris is the federal election
expected in October, which could change governments or reduce
Mr. Harpers power to minority status, under which he would need
the support of opposition parties to govern.
Green Party Leader Elizabeth May says she hopes there will be
a new government come the next federal election, given the most
recent indication that Canadas targets will be less ambitious than
U.S. President Barack Obamas.
The negotiations in Paris need leaders who can push for
greater collective will, Ms. May says. But Europe is dealing with
economic instability and eurozone politics while the United States
is preoccupied with trying to negotiate a nuclear deal with Iran and
fighting the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria.
Its critical that we change government before the Paris
conversations and before we get to Paris, which is a very short
timeline, Ms. May says. [We should] start to do what we used to do,
which is to play a leading role in upping the ambitions, and twisting
arms throughout the room, to get other countries to agree to more.
She says Canada has a long way to go and must come forward
with ambitious targets. Canadas still basically at 2005 levels,
despite our commitment to go to 17 per cent below them [by
2020], Ms. May says.
As much as the provinces can lead, the federal government
is a necessary partner, says Glen Murray, the Ontario minister of

24 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

Environment. He says the federal government collects most taxes


in Canada, and its trade and infrastructure policies are major
determinants in greenhouse gas reductions.
Where the federal government puts its money and whether
or not its putting a price on carbon is a huge factor, Mr. Murray
says, adding there is a need to invest in clean infrastructure like
renewable power, green buildings and clean rail systems.
We can make a lot of progress without them, but ultimately to get
to the goals that we need to get to, they have to have policies that are
aligned with reducing greenhouse gas emissions, Mr. Murray says.
Emissions reduction plans will be a point of negotiation at the
Paris Summit, as will contributions to the Green Climate Fund, a
resource to help developing countries shift to cleaner energy, away
from coal, and adapt to climate change by building infrastructure
for extreme weather and rising seas.
Canada has committed US $300-million to the fund.
Comparably, Australia has committed US $200-million while the
United States has offered US $3-billion and the United Kingdom US
$1-billion. Total pledges to the fund amount to about US $10-billion.
Canada played a leadership role on the international stage
by committing a significant amount of funding to the Green
Climate Fund last year, Shane Buckingham, a spokesperson for
Environment Minister Leona Aglukkaq, says by email.
The federal government, which opposes pricing carbon, says its
sector-by-sector approach is working. Mr. Buckingham points to
regulations on the transportation and electricity sectors and says
the government is acting on a plan to limit emissions growth from
more powerful hydrofluorcarbons, the worlds fastest-growing
greenhouse gas emissions.
In its Paris Summit climate action plan submitted to the
UN, called an Intended Nationally Determined Contribution
(INDC), Canada committed to reducing its emissions by 30 per
cent from 2005 levels by 2030, a weaker target than that of the

B OTTOM UP C LIMATE C HA NGE POLICY-FEAT URE

United States or the European Union, and


a disappointment to environmental groups
who point to trendlines showing Canada
will not meet its 2020 targets.
The government has proposed
regulations to reduce emissions from
methane in unconventional oil and natural
gas projects, as well as natural-gas-fired
power plants and producers of chemicals
such as nitrogen fertilizers. But the
Conservative government is not imposing
emissions regulations on the oil sands.
While the Conservative government
did not include a single reference to
climate change in its 2015 budget plan,
Mr. Buckingham emphasizes that Canadas
share of global greenhouse gas emissions
is smaller as others increased their output,
and that the country now accounts for
just 1.6 per cent of global greenhouse
gas emissions whereas the United States
accounts for about 15 per cent.
At Paris, its leadership that will count,
and Canada is falling behind. The Climate
Action Tracker, a ranking of international
emissions reductions actions by climate
groups, places Canada in the inadequate
category, behind China, Chile, the United
States, Brazil, Indonesia, Mexico and
others, all of which are ranked in the
medium category.
Such items will be up for discussion
at Paris, where Canadians can look for
provincial delegates from Ontario, Quebec,
Alberta, British Columbia, Nova Scotia,
New Brunswick, Manitoba, and probably
Alberta. Subnationals will meet with each
other and negotiate with their federal
delegates. Municipal leaders from around
the world are also expected to attend, such
as Vancouver Mayor Gregor Robertson.
Reaching a new climate deal is a
complex process, and even the strongest
advocates are realistic about what can be
achieved at the summit.
Alluding to research by the IPCC, Ms.
Figueres noted at the Quebec City Summit
that if governments want to keep the
temperature increase to below two degrees,
global emissions must peak within the next
10 years and then be reduced to carbon
neutrality over the next 50 years. The Paris
Summit, she said, needs to be recognized as
a first effort.
Its already clear that the sum total of
all INDCs will not be enough to keep the
world below two degrees, Ms. Figueres said.
We have to accept that Paris is not a onetime effort, that the COP in and of itself is
not going to solve climate change, she said.

What Paris needs to do is put


us on a safe pathway.
Mr. Guilbeault will also
be there in December. Hes
expecting a summit that
will deliver an important
agreement, but it wont be
enough.
We will have something,
Mr. Guilbeault said. We
wont have the debacle that
we saw at Copenhagen, and
it will set the stage for the
collective and the countries to
hopefully move forward at a
faster pace.

Where the federal government


puts its money and whether or not its
putting a price on carbon is a huge
factor.We can make a lot of progress
without them, but ultimately to get
to the goals that we need to get to,
they have to have policies that are
aligned with reducing greenhouse
gas emissions.
Ontario Environment Minister
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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

25

THE Q&A-BR UC E HE YMA N

I met him over dinner and it


absolutely changed my life
U.S. Ambassador
Bruce Heyman
on Canada-U.S.
relations and how
U.S. President
Barack Obama
changed his life.

BY BEA VONGDOUANGCHANH

ruce Heyman was a successful


Chicago businessman and
investment banker who had
worked at U.S. financial giant
Goldman Sachs for 33 years when
he first met Illinois Democratic Senator
Barack Obama in February, 2006.
I met him over dinner and it
absolutely changed my life in terms of
participating in the election process in the
States, Mr. Heyman tells P&I. So many
of the meetings I had attended with the
president and the first ladywho were
not the president and the first lady at the
time, senator and Michelleit was a call
to action. It was a continuous, So what
are you going to do to give back to your
country? and when given this opportunity,
we couldnt say no.
Mr. Heyman, 57, was a mega-bundler
and raised millions of dollars for Mr.
Obamas two presidential campaigns. He
served on Mr. Obamas National Finance
Committee in 2012. A longtime Democrat,
Mr. Heyman has donated more than
$180,000 to political causes, including

Born in the U.S.A.: Bruce Heyman says, Every single day, I get up and think about what ways
can we enhance this relationship. Its something that I would say is my number one priority.
P&I photograph by Jake Wright

$96,000 to the Democratic National


Committee and more than $36,000 to the
Goldman Sachs PAC.
President Obama appointed Mr.
Heyman as the U.S. ambassador to Canada
in March 2014. In the year that hes been
here, the Canada-U.S. relationship has

26 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

been mixed. Hes had to stickhandle


controversial issues such as the Keystone
XL pipeline, country of origin labelling
trade disputes and joint military missions
fighting terrorism abroad.
Earlier this year, Globe and Mail
reporter Campbell Clark wrote that Mr.

BR UC E HE YMA N-THE Q&A

Heymans had a rough year and the current


Conservative government has given him
the cold shouldermostly because of the
U.S. governments rejection of Keystone,
something the Canadian feds have been
heavily lobbying for south of the border
putting a chill on what normally is a warm
and close cross-border relationship.
But Mr. Heyman says the relationship
is thriving and complex, and that the
record so far speaks for itself.
There are no two countries in the world
that have as committed a focus to shared
prosperity as the U.S.-Canada relationship
as our two countries do, he tells P&I in an
interview at his office at the U.S. embassy
in Ottawa. We work together, weve built
things together, but were also family. We
come very much from the same beginnings
and you meet people across this country and
immediately they come and either they tell
me a story about a vacation they had, or a
family member whos living in the United
States, or dual citizenship, and you just
realize the importance of the relationship
and we should never underestimate how
important that is to both the United States

and Canada to having a best friend and


ally right next door with this very large
wonderful shared border.
Mr. Heyman spoke to P&I about how
influential the Canada-U.S. relationship
remains, his time so far as ambassador and
what he misses about Chicago. The Q&A
has been edited for length.
Whats your top priority as ambassador?
My top priority is every day enhancing
the U.S.-Canada relationship. There are
so many ways to do that. So every single
day, I get up and think about what ways
can we enhance this relationship, whether
its through trade, whether its through
energy and the environment, whether its
through cultural diplomacy or geopolitical
affairs, or just reaching out and being in the
general public. Its something that I would
say is my number one priority.
A Globe and Mail article last month
said theres a chill in the Canada-U.S.
relationship. Do you agree?
I think the record says something
very different. Were getting things done,

not only just a little bit, but were having


record amounts of tradeweve done
$759-billion worth of trade this last year.
Were cooperating together on geo-political
issues such as ISIL and Ukraine and Ebola.
Were working together on energy and the
environment and were working together
in so many other ways that I would say that
the record shows were getting things done.
How would you describe the state of the
Canada-U.S. relationship right now, then?
Id describe it as thriving. Its good,
its complex, and like any relationship you
would have, whether its with a family
member, or whether its between two
companies, or two countries, large complex
relationships have opportunities and some
challenges. But there are significantly more
opportunities and good things happening
between the U.S. and Canada than any of
the challenges.
Do you think the Keystone pipeline issue
has strained the relationship at all?
Its clear that this is an important
issue for Canada. You know, we are still

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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

27

THE Q&A-BR UC E HE YMA N

U.S. Ambassador to Canada


Bruce Heyman says his year in
Ottawa has been one of the best
of his life so far, but he misses
the Athenian Room in Chicago.
P&I photograph by Jake Wright

Rapid fire with


Bruce Heyman
Hows your year in Canada
been so far? Its been one of
the best years of my life.
Whats a typical day like for
you? Now, what I have learned
is there is no typical day. Every
day is so different. I would say
that half the time Ive been
here, I havent been in Ottawa.
Ive been travelling the country.

going through the process of making a


decision, whether or not its in our national
interest to give a permit, and whenever
you have something thats pending like
thisone side or another wants to have an
outcomeits something that people focus
on. Im cognizant of how people feel about
it. Its definitely a topic that comes up very
frequently in our conversations?

things were most proud of is we just


recently signed the pre-clearance border
agreement. Both of us have worked very
hard to get that done. I think thats an
example of getting something done that is
important to both of our countries and an
example of a good working relationship. I
have only the highest regard for Ambassador
Doer and the good work that hes doing.

Will President Obama approve Keystone?


You know, its up to the State
Department. At this stage of the game, this
has been a transparent, vigorous, objective,
very comprehensive process. Weve had
over 2,500,000 comments that have come
in, we have done environmental studies
and supplemental environmental studies,
and weve reached out to the various
agencies. At this stage of the game, the
State Department will have to come and
make its decision. We dont have a date
or timeline specifically for that and we
dont know what the decision will be, but
when its decided, I can assure you Ill be
communicating that.

Theres a lot of talk about Canada


diversifying its trading partners away
from the U.S. Whats your take on that? Is
this something thats on Americans or the
U.S. governments mind?
I would say a strong Canada is in the
United States best interest and a strong
United States should be in Canadas best
interest. As next door neighbours, we want
both of our two countries to thrive next
door to each other. For Canada to diversify
and to have new customers for its products
and services I think is a good thing for
Canada. Its not a matter of in place of the
relationship with the United States; its in
addition to. Im a big promoter of free trade
in the world and growing those trading
relationships.

The Financial Post in January said


Canadas Ambassador to the U.S. Gary
Doer is ruffling some feathers and that
theres a rift in Washington. Do you think
the relationship is still influential on
either side of our borders?
Ive gotten to know Gary very well and
we have a very good working relationship.
Ambassador Doer and I are working on
tackling a number of issues. One of the

What do you think of Hillary Clintons


bid for president? Will she win?
In my role, I have to be apolitical.
There are a lot of qualified individuals I
think, and I think shes one of the qualified
candidates for president, but its a long way
between now and November of 2016. This
one Im going to have to sit out.

28 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

What are you reading these


days? I just finished Two Days
in June by Andrew Cohen. I
had the opportunity to chat
with him extensively about
the book. It really gave me an
insight into President [John F.]
Kennedy, speech writing and
the importance of delivering
a message, and how that can
impact our society.
What do you miss about
Chicago? I miss my friends
and the acquaintances we
have. I miss my favourite little
Greek restaurant down at
the end of the street that I
went to every Sunday night
for almost 20 years. Its called
the Athenian Room. I just miss
the walks along the lake, which
we had done quite a bit, but
Ive replaced those with walks
along the river here.
What can people expect at the
July 4th party this year? The
July 4th party is going to have a
focus on the visit of the old, but
also the new rising automobile
market and therell be some
surprises on the grounds
and enjoyment of motor city
rising and the renewal of both
Canada and U.S. automobile
industries but also some fun
around that.

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SPOTLIGHT-GRE TA B O SSE NMAIER

MEET CANADAS TOP SPY


Greta Bossenmaier is the ninth chief and also the rst
woman to head the CSE in its more than 70-year history

National Defence, having earned


s chief of Canadas
a masters degree in operational
super-secret
research from Stanford University
Communications
in California. Prior to her
Security Establishment,
current post, she was the senior
Greta Bossenmaiers day-to-day
associate DM of International
job is not quite like something
Development as well as the
out of a John le Carr spy novel,
associate DM of Foreign Affairs
but it is intense.
and executive vice-president at
Its about leadership. Its
Canada Border Services Agency.
about accountability. Its about
She has come to have a very
high-level management, says
strong reputation within the
Hill & Knowlton Strategies Ray
senior ranks of the federal civil
Boisvert, who spent 30 years at
service. Shes been through fire
the Canadian Security Intelligence
in various jobs. Shes kind of
Service, working in counterproven herself in those previous
terrorism. What [CSE] does is
positions, so she has a lot of
tangible and real. Its extremely
respect and trust, Mr. Wark says.
well guarded. It involves some of
Four months into the job,
the highest levels of engineering
Mr. Boisvert says she will have
and technology, mathematicians,
some challenges in this postcryptologists and it engages
Edward Snowden world where
threats around the globe. Its
people perceive their privacy
a fascinating place to be and
is under attack and there is an
now she is the chief. Its a very
abuse of power at intelligence
important role.
agencies. In addition to providing
Mr. Boisvert, who worked
government leaders with timely
with Ms. Bossenmaier indirectly
and relevant intelligence,
when she was the deputy
Ms. Bossenmaier will have
minister of the Afghanistan
to maintain public trust and
Task Force in the Privy Council,
accountability.
describes her as collaborative
Shell have to push the
and hardworking. Shes the
envelope thats not traditionally
ninth chief and also the first
Greta Bossenmaier, pictured recently at the Senate National Security
Defence Committee on Parliament Hill. P&I photograph by Jake Wright
done in those roles and
woman to head the CSE in its
particularly now with this
more than 70-year history.
government, where bureaucrats dont say much of anything, he
University of Ottawa professor Wesley Wark notes that
says, adding she should demystify what the agency does.
previously, all heads of the CSE were professional signals
Mr. Wark agrees: Shell have to try to explain the agency to
intelligence officers until 1999 when former deputy minister Ian
Parliamentarians and to the public. She might have to do more
Glen was appointed from outside the agency. He tells P&I thats
media work than has been typical in the past, but most of her
because the government wanted a senior bureaucrat who could
performance on the job will remain like CSE, deeply secret.
interact with other DMs within the security and intelligence
Meanwhile, Mr. Boisvert says that Canada is punching above
portfolios both domestically and internationally.
its weight in the Five-Eyes intelligence community of Australia,
The job is political and diplomatic, and is about defending
Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States.
and promoting CSEs interests within the government of Canada,
I think Canada is well-respected in that area so the burden
explaining CSE, coordinating CSE activities with other agencies,
for her is to maintain that. Within government, largely, signals
Mr. Wark says. Ms. Bossenmaiers office is at CSE in the new Taj
intelligence provides some of the most highly sensitive, privileged
Mahal, but shell spend a lot of time downtown doing those kinds
information available to any government. Shes effectively the
of functions.
purveyor of that, he tells P&I. Thats important and speaks to
Prime Minister Stephen Harper appointed Ms. Bossenmaier
influence. by Bea Vongdouangchanh
chief on Feb. 9. She began her public service career as a scientist at

30 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

THREE WORDS-PEOPLE

A life uncommon
BY ASHA HINGORANI

fter years of late night votes, evenings filled with receptions and events, and weekends of
shaking hands, doling out promises, and constituent case work, more than 30 MPsa few of
them ministerswill be retiring from politics. Theyre leaving a job thats had them under a
microscope for years for a life thats back to normal.
Power & Influence reached out to those not running in this years federal election and asked them
to describe their political career as Members of Parliament in three words. Some have been sitting in
the House of Commons for decades and some just a few years, but each provided a unique glimpse
of what their time in the public light means to them.

9
P&I photographs by Jake Wright

1. Conservative MP Diane Ablonczy (Calgary-Nose Hill, Alta.): Caring for Canada.


2. Conservative MP Peter Goldring (Edmonton East, Alta.): Privileged, Principled, Plebeian.
3. Conservative MP Rick Norlock (Northumberland-Quinte West, Ont.): Honour. Privilege.
Responsibility.
4. NDP MP Joe Comartin (Windsor-Tecumseh, Ont.): Dream come true.
5. Conservative MP Maurice Vellacott (Saskatoon-Wanuskewin, Sk.): Sense of Calling.
6. Independent MP James Lunney (Nanaimo-Alberni, B.C.): Privilege to Serve.
7. NDP MP Jean Crowder (Nanaimo-Cowichan, B.C.): Feminist, Fearless, Fun.
8. Liberal MP Ted Hsu (Kingston and the Islands, On.): Parliament > 1.
9. NDP MP Libby Davies (Vancouver East, B.C.): Passion. Love. Airplanes.

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

31

PEOPLE-VI SUA L CV

Irwin Cotler
BY KRI ST E N SHA NE

self-described radical hippie when he started his first job on Parliament


Hill in 1968, Irwin Cotler is set to retire from politics after more than 15
years as a Liberal MP.
The Montrealer and former law professor leaves a legacy of building bridges across
party lines to advocate for human rights and jailed dissidents around the world.
Hell step off the Hill this year with a fistful of honorary degrees and accolades,
including being named Parliamentarian of the Year by Macleans magazine in 2014.
Alas, the title of 2005 world Jewish table-tennis champion still eludes him.

1999 THE ACCIDENTAL MP

2001 TURNER, AN EARLY INFLUENCE

Its hard to picture it if you look at him now, but Mr. Cotler was once the stereotypical
radical hippie. With long hair and horn-rimmed glasses, he arrived fresh from Yale Law
School at his first job in his late 20s as a special assistant for then-justice minister John
Turner from 1968 to 1970.
With a big picture of Che Guevara in his office, he worked alongside fellow Liberal upand-comers Lloyd Axworthy, Jerry Grafstein and David Smith.
He recalls visiting then-U.S. attorney general John Mitchell, a Nixon administration
official whom Mr. Cotler describes as conservative and uptight.
You let people who look like that work for you? the U.S. politician told his Canadian
counterpart, according to Mr. Cotler.
Hes my resident radical. Everybody needs one of those, Mr. Turner replied.
Mr. Cotler credits Mr. Turner as an important influence on his life as a person committed
to the institution of Parliament.
Mr. Cotler was on hand, alongside Mr. Grafstein, as a new MP at the unveiling of Mr.
Turners prime ministerial portrait in Parliament in May 2001. P&I photograph by Terry McDonald

2004 GAY-MARRIAGE DEBATE


Same-sex marriage was one of the stickiest
issues Mr. Cotler dealt with while Justice
minister from 2003 until the fall of Paul Martins
government in 2006.
Courts in several provinces were ruling that
same-sex couples had the right to marry, but
public opinion was divided and the debate was
rancorous. Even Mr. Cotlers wife disagreed with
him publicly.
Mr. Cotler is proud of having crafted the
Civil Marriage Act, which became law in 2005.
He says he thought it struck the right balance
between protecting religious leaders who didnt
want to be involved in same-sex marriages, while
still confirming the equality of gays and lesbians.
P&I photograph by Jake Wright

32 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

I was actually an accidentally elected MP, Mr.


Cotler tells P&I, as modest as ever.
He was a law professor and human rights lawyer,
and perfectly happy. But then the sitting Liberal MP in
Mount Royal, Que., was appointed to the Senate and
people started asking Mr. Cotler to run. He says he
wasnt interested at first.
Within a few hours of the nomination deadline,
the three candidates who had submitted nomination
papers all withdrew and supported his candidacy, so
there were no nominees.
And so somebody said to me, Look, the sitting
member only had a year left in her mandate.
Why dont you go to Ottawa and look upon it as a
sabbatical? Itll make you a better law professor.
One year turned into almost 16 after Mr. Cotlers
wife, Ariela, told him that if he really wanted to make
a contribution he should stay for at least one term on
his own.
He won that first by-election easily with nearly 92
per cent of the vote and continued to do so except for
a squeaker of a race against the Conservatives in 2011,
when many of his Liberal colleagues were defeated.
Photograph courtesy Irwin Cotler

VI SUA L CV-PEOPLE

2005 PING-PONG DIPLOMACY

Some of the most prominent news coverage Mr. Cotler received was
during his cabinet tenurenot for a law or scandal, but for table tennis.
He joined the Canadian team for the Maccabiah Games, the Jewish
Olympics that happens every four years in Israel. They had an opening in
table tennis that no one had applied for, says the MP, so he was their man.
The whole thing got crazy, he says, because as Justice minister he
was on his way to the Games with a stop in Strasbourg, France, to work
on a treaty. While in Strasbourg, he got an urgent call to come back to
Canada because of a Senate hearing on same-sex marriage.
So I fly back to Canada and then I fly back again to Israel. And I arrive
just about two hours before my game. And I see the guy who I drew for
the first round, who ends up getting the gold medal. And I watched him
practice and I knew I didnt have a chance.
But a CBC reporter caught one of his good volleys on camera and it
aired on the news, prompting a swell of media interest.
That was the best coverage I got. P&I photograph by Jake Wright

2011: CO-OPERATION
ACROSS THE AISLE
Mr. Cotler is one of those rare MPs who
isnt afraid to speak his mind, even if it means
breaking with his own party or co-operating
across the aisle.
He says this last term since 2011 in
opposition has been the most satisfying in

terms of plans hes seen to fruition. Hes worked


with MPs from other parties to bring attention
to human rights abuses in Iran.
Earlier this year, Mr. Cotler received crossparty support for a motion to explore sanctions
against those responsible for the detention,
alleged torture and death of a Russian lawyer
who uncovered alleged fraud by Russian officials.
And hes commended the Conservative

government, represented at a 2011 ceremony


by cabinet ministers Jason Kenney and John
Baird, pictured, for signing an international
protocol on fighting anti-Semitism.
People want to see us working for the
public good. And where that public good is best
accomplished by collaborating across party
lines, then I think we have to explore those ways
of doing it. P&I photograph by Jake Wright

2015: LEAVING 
PARLIAMENT
Mr. Cotler, who turned
75 in May, announced last
year that he wouldnt run
for re-election in 2015.
Even before the last
election, he said he began
to feel the need to give
the floor to a younger
generation.
After leaving Parliament,
he says, hes looking forward
to continuing his work
defending political prisoners
and human rights.
The cases and causes
dont go away.
P&I photograph by Andrew
Meade

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

33

FEAT URE-ME NTA L HEA LTH

HIDDEN
HEALTH CARE
CRISIS
Why the federal government
cant afford to ignore mental
health issues

Twenty per cent of


Canadians will face
a mental health
challenge, creating
an economic cost
of $50-billion
annually.

BY A LYSSA O D ELL

ohn Gulak is a successful lawyer from Calgary, an avid photographer, cycler, nonfiction writer and father.
Hes also a recovering cocaine addict, who 10 years ago was more likely to be
found spending his days servicing his addiction and doing his best to hide it from the
people around him.
I think of addiction as an obsession and compulsion, says Mr. Gulak, describing what
the field of medicine has known for years: addictioneverything from alcohol and drugs to
gambling or anything elseis a mental illness.
You begin to lose your life to it, he says.
Addiction results from physical changes in the brain, impacting the way it orders and ranks
priorities, regardless of the consequences. The root cause of substance abuse disorders is still
not entirely clear, although research suggests both social and genetic factors may be at play.
Unhappiness over the years about his career choice was just one small factor among many
that eventually saw Mr. Gulak overwhelmed by drug addiction. Poor coping skills and coming to
terms with his sexual orientation late in life were also contributors, he says.
Its part of that inability to soothe ourselves or calm ourselves from within, so we look for
something on the outside to help us take the edge off the stresses of daily living, he tells P&I.
Scientific understanding of the human brain is evolving. We now know that the very same
networks that process physical pain inside the brain are activated when a person experiences
emotional distress. Yet as a country, Canada is far from parity between spending on physical
and mental healthcare, even as mental illness continues to be the leading cause of workplace
disability claims overall.
I think that in the healthcare system its kind of the poor cousin, in terms of where we
allocate resources, Mr. Gulak says.
One in five Canadians will experience a mental health or addiction problem in any given
year, creating an estimated economic cost of $50-billion annually.
While strides are being made to combat stigma associated with mental illness and
build the evidence base on how best to treat it, health advocates say more leadership is still
required from all levels of government to get care to those who need it most.

34 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

FEAT URE-ME NTA L HEA LTH

(TOP) John Gulak, vice-president of legal and fun at Prairie


Merchant, is a recovering cocaine addict. I look upon it
now as an experience that I learned quite a bit from. As
difficult as the experience was I think that Im a better
person for it. That heavy lifting just made me stronger.

A great deal of progress has been made on a number of fronts,


says Louise Bradley, president of the Mental Health Commission of
Canada (MHCC).
Established by the Conservative government in 2007 and funded
by Health Canada, the MHCCs mandate is to serve as a catalyst for
improving the mental health system and changing the attitudes of
Canadians about mental health issues.
The commission has gained international acclaim for several
initiatives, including developing the Mental Health Strategy for
Canada and the National Standard for Psychological Health and
Safety in the Workplace.
Although neither national strategy has made its way into official
public health policy, the federal Treasury Board did make an
agreement with the Public Service Alliance of Canada in early 2015
to use the workplace standard in a review of contributors to mental
health disability claims in the civil service.
Ms. Bradley says the past several years have seen a pick-up
of conversations on mental health issues on social media and an
increase in the number of well-reported stories being told in the
mainstream media. Younger Canadians have also become more
engaged, she says.
One organization with 70 or 80 staff is not going to change
the face of mental health, Ms. Bradley is quick to admit. However,
she sees the MHCCs role of bringing together diverse stakeholders,
science-backed solutions and knowledge exchange opportunities as
critical.
The Conservative governments spring 2015 budget renewed
the commissions mandate for another 10 years past 2017, after its
2008 budget provided a one-time fund of $110-million to support
research demonstration projects and to develop best practices to
help Canadians facing mental health and homelessness challenges.
Liberal MP Hedy Fry, her partys health critic, says further details
are needed on the MHCCs renewal, including whether funding
levels will remain the same and if the government intends to act on
the commissions findings.
What is the point of renewing the Canadian Mental Health
Commission for another 10 years if youre not going to implement
the kinds of recommendations they make? Ms. Fry says.
Michael Bolkenius, Health Minister Rona Ambroses
spokesperson, notes that the federal government has invested
heavily in mental health and neuroscience research with almost

Photograph courtesy of John Gulak

(BOTTOM) Mental Health Commission of Canada president


Louise Bradley, pictured in this file photo, says the
watershed awareness moment for mental health issues
hasnt hit yet because there is still a stigma around it.
P&I photograph by Jake Wright

36 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

ME NTA L HEA LTH-FEAT URE

$1-billion since 2006. He says alongside support for the


commissions renewal, the government plans to continue
to invest in research and work with mental health
stakeholders.
Questions regarding MHCC funding and plans to
implement its recommendations were not returned.
I salute the commission for its work, and I salute
the government for renewing its funding, but its time
for action, says NDP MP and opposition health critic
Murray Rankin.
According to workplace mental health advocate Bill
Wilkerson, the Mental Health Commissions extended
mandate and the 2015 federal budget signal continued
focus on education, prevention and early detection of the
symptoms of mental illness.
The purpose of the Mental Health Commission is
not to solve the medical dimensions of the mental health
crisis in Canada, and believe me it is a crisis, says Mr.
Wilkerson.
For him, its only one crucial half of a mental
healthcare solution, and sends a broad message that the
issue is far from resolved.
What is not addressed in that budget, or is not
addressed period, is the actual improvement of medicallybased mental health care or psychologically-based health
care, he says.

Mr. Wilkinson says that while money is being poured


into basic brain researchresearch that is starting to
show how intertwined mental illness and other physical
conditions really arethose findings simply arent being
translated into clinical care accessible by the average
Canadian.
Because physical pain and emotional pain are processed
by the same networks inside the brain, for people living
with mental illness, emotional distress can be just as real as
a severe burn or bump to the head.
Mental illness is fundamentally a physical property.
Brain function is not some sort of invisible thing, says
Mr. Wilkerson. Ive seen depression on an MRI picture,
for example, and it is there. Its a colouration and a
whole variety of streaks, and it looks like the night sky
before a storm.
For all our better understanding of the neurological
components of mental illness and the stigma that
surrounds it, Mr. Wilkerson maintains that the referral
time to psychiatrists in Canada is disturbingly lengthy,
and accessibility is an issue as psychological care is still
delivered through private arrangements outside the health
care system.
It is possible for us to integrate mental health into
health care as an integral part, says Ms. Fry, adding that
she feels the federal government needs to set an example on

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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

37

FEAT URE-ME NTA L HEA LTH

MENTAL HEALTH BY THE NUMBERS

20%

Number of Canadians who will experience


a mental illness or problem each year

$50-billion

Estimated cost to Canada due


to mental illness annually

26.3%

In a large national survey, portion


of people identified as having a
mental disorder, who say they
arent getting the care they need

4,000

Canadians who die by suicide


each year

impacted profoundly
24,000 Canadians
by death by suicide each year
every death, six to 10 other
to 40,000 (for
individuals are affected)

30%

Amount of short and long-term


disability claims accounted for by
mental health illness and problems

500,000

Employed Canadians unable


to work due to mental health
problems on any given week

3 to 4

The number of times Canadians in the


lowest income group are more likely
than those in the highest to report
poor to fair mental health

70%

Portion of mental health problems


that have onset during childhood
or adolescence
Sources: Canadian Mental Health Association
and Mental Health Commission of Canada

this front and convene an annual federalprovincial-territorial premiers meeting to


help address access to care.
This is something we cannot afford
to ignore anymore, and we need to act
together, she says.
Despite building momentum, Ms.
Bradley says she doesnt think mental
health has hit its watershed awareness
moment yet.
Stigma is still a particular concern,
since it can prevent or delay patients from
seeking the care they need, or cause them
to ignore or suppress their problems.
A recent national survey cited in the
MHCCs Mental Health Indicators Report
found that more than one quarter of people
who had a mental health condition said
they were not getting the care they need,
which could be due either to concerns
about associated social stigma or a true
preference to manage their conditions
themselves.
Theres a real fear that if you disclose
or acknowledge even to yourself that
you have some issues and problems,
that somehow thats going to put your
professional credibility into question,
says Mr. Gulak, who was 42 years old and
working at a large corporate-commercial
Calgary law firm at the time of his active
addition issues.
Forty-two per cent of Canadians are
unsure whether they would socialize
with a friend who has a mental illness,
according to the Canadian Medical
Associations 2008 national report on
health care. Fifty-five per cent say they are
unlikely to enter a spousal relationship
with someone living with a mental health
problem.
Improving access to mental health
services, admits Ms. Bradley, is going to
be a challenge.
The reality is that we are reducing
stigma all the time, so people are now
willing to go for help only to find there
isnt a door to walk through, she says,
adding that of all developed countries,
Canada spends the least amount of health
dollars on mental health.
Examining how much we spend
on mental health and wellness is one
component, but Ms. Bradley says
buy-in from other stakeholders such
as corporate Canada and insurance
providers is just as important.
I think it is irresponsible to say that it
is just a government issue, she adds.

ME NTA L HEA LTH-FEAT URE

Mr. Wilkerson, who co-founded the


Global Business and Economic Roundtable
on Addiction and Mental Health, supports
the idea of a federal-provincial first
ministers conference on mental health care.
I think theres a leadership role for the
government of Canada for sure, says Mr.
Wilkerson, who was active in asking the
federal government to renew the MHCCs
mandate.
Karen Cohen, CEO of the Canadian
Psychological Association, says her
association has been really supportive of
the commissions work and agrees that a
federal-provincial meeting of first ministers
on the issue could help.
In Canada we have huge barriers to
accessing evidence-based care for mental
health issues and disorders, she says.
Because health care is delivered
provincially and territorially, but funded in
part through federal transfer payments, Ms.
Cohen says more collaboration between all
parties is required before better access to
mental health services is realized.
Otherwise were just going to get better at
delivering what we already deliver, she says.
With the support of a close friend, Mr.
Gulak did eventually disclose his struggles
to his employer and took time off to attend
a treatment program. But instead of the
judgment he had feared, he found the
reality was that most people in his life just
wanted to do what they could to support
his recovery.
Physical changes in the brain involved
in addiction are difficult or impossible to
reverse, and Mr. Gulak quickly realized
that unlike a broken bone or infection
that can heal over weeks and months,
paying attention to his mental wellness and
addiction issues would be crucial for the
rest of his life.
Its the same kind of thing that
someone whos diagnosed as a diabetic
has to learn to deal with, and live with and
accept, he explains.
To avoid falling back into familiar
patterns, Mr. Gulak decided he needed a
change of pace.
A decade after his life revolved around
active addiction, he is close again with
his son and spends more time on creative
projects like photography and a 2014 book
he wrote in partnership with the Canadian
Mental Health Association in Calgary. Sick to
Death of the Silence tells the personal stories
of 15 different Calgarians living with mental
illnesses or with loved ones affected by them.

Mr. Gulak now works with former


Dragons Den star Brett Wilson out of his
Prairie Merchant investment firm that focuses
on a mix of business and philanthropy. His
official title is vice-president of legal and
fun, and its a better fit for his skills and
temperament, he says.
I look upon it now as an experience
that I learned quite a bit from. As difficult
as the experience was I think that Im a
better person for it. That heavy lifting just
made me stronger.

Mr. Gulak agrees that in the past several


years hes seen a lot more conversation
happening surrounding mental health, but
thinks there is still a long road ahead.
We seem to accept that the human
hip can break, or need to be replaced or
be repaired, or the knee, or the eyes, or the
hearing, and yet we still seem to have this
problem admitting that our brain might
need some help or might not be working
quite right, he says.
Its part of the human experience.

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Anti-abortion protesters on Parliament Hill in May. P&I photograph by Andrew Meade

BALANCING ACT
I
In a landscape where
much of Canada is
becoming socially
liberal, the Conservative
Party must keep social
conservatives happy, but
not give them too much in
order to maintain power.

42 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

BY SN EH DUGGA L

n 2006, a few months after Prime Minister Stephen Harper formed


a minority government, Marci McDonald wrote in The Walrus that
Canadas religious rights influence on the Conservative Party was real,
and it was rising.
Charles McVety, then-Canada Christian College president, and others
on the religious right are equally convinced that Harper is one of their
own, she wrote, quoting David Mainse, founder of Christian talk show
100 Huntley Street, as saying, Weve got a born-again prime minister.
Ms. McDonald assessed that the religious right sees Mr. Harper as
an image-savvy evangelical who has been careful to keep his signals to
them under the media radar, but they have no doubt his convictions run
deepso deep that only after he wins a majority will he dare translate the
true colours of his faith into policies that could remake the fabric of the
nation.
Fast forward to early 2015 at the tail end of the Conservatives first
majority government.
James Lunney, first elected in 2000 in the B.C. riding of NanaimoAlberni as a Canadian Alliance MP and re-elected four times subsequently
as a Conservative, announced in March that he would be leaving his
Conservative caucus to sit as an Independent MP until the next election.
In a statement on his website, Mr. Lunney said that some are trying to
undermine freedom of religion in Canada. In an April interview with the
Huffington Post, Mr. Lunney noted the persecution of Christians around the
world. And its coming right to our own doorstep here by intolerant people
within Canada who are trying to cut Christians out of law, medicine and
politics, he was quoted as saying.

RELIGI ON & POLI TIC S-FEAT URE

Mr. Lunneys departure refutes some of the theo-con ideas


about Mr. Harper and his party, says Carleton University political
science professor Jonathan Malloy. But while it doesnt necessarily
show that theres no influence going on now, it does say a lot about
how closely social conservatives are managed by the party, he says.
What I think that shows is, frankly, the diversity and the kind
of lack of coherence within this movement called the Christian
right, says Robert Joustra, assistant professor of international
studies and director of the Centre for Christian Scholarship, at
Redeemer University College in Hamilton, Ont.
When it comes to the so-called Christian right and its
relationship to the political landscape in Canada, one thing can be
said for sure: its complicated.
Many political observers agree that the Christian right has some
degree of sway when it comes to the sitting government and its
policies, but the extent of this influence is debatable. The term
Christian rightitself is one that elicits a myriad of opinions.
In the years after Mr. Harper first took office, articles claiming
that the Conservative Party was pandering to the religious right
flooded newspapers and the internet. A 2007 Vancouver Sun
article noted Mr. Harpers connection to the evangelical Christian
and Missionary Alliance denomination, but also stated that he
virtually never talks publicly about his Christian beliefs, leaving
many to speculate on the intertwining of religion and politics.
When evangelical advisers joined the prime ministers team,
questions were raised about whether Mr. Harper shared their
theocon beliefs.

WHAT IS THE CHRISTIAN RIGHT?


Mr. Malloy admits that the Christian right is a very hard
to pin down concept, because it ranges from people who are
very political and vocal to others who are religious and socially
conservative, but not as militant about their views.
While its difficult to draw exact boundaries, the Christian right
maps onto evangelical Christians to a great extent and those who
are socially conservative, Mr. Malloy says.
There is a difference between Canada and the United States.
Evangelicals in the U.S. tend to form a fairly cohesive group that
is generally Republican and right-wing on not only abortion, but
also taxes, for example. But while evangelicals in Canada tend to
be fairly conservative on abortion and same-sex rights issues, their
views tend to vary more when it comes to taxes or government
spending, Mr. Malloy says.
Ms. McDonald, author of The Armageddon Factor: The Rise of
Christian Nationalism in Canada, agrees that theres a difference
in Canada and the U.S., with the religious right in Canada being
made up of evangelicals, conservative Catholics and conservative
ethnic groups.
Mr. Joustra notes: I would actually use the word religious right
rather than Christian right partly because of the somewhat more
multicultural landscape of Canada and the strong influence of
immigration and diaspora communities.
Traditionally speaking, the Christian right or social conservatives
usually refer to people with conservative social moral values, who
put a lot of emphasis on family and religion, says Gerry Nicholls, a

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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

43

FEAT URE-RELIGI ON & POLI TIC S

communications consultant who formerly worked with Mr. Harper


at the National Citizens Coalition, but he notes that there are, of
course, different intensities.

DEBATING THE CHRISTIAN RIGHTS INFLUENCE


The religious right is never more powerful than before an
election, says Ms. McDonald, adding that individuals within this
grouping are essential to the Conservative base.
An income-splitting tax break, which was one of Mr. Harpers
2011 campaign promises, was delivered in this years federal
budget. Ms. McDonald argues that this was aimed at the religious
right, which believes that children are best with two parents, where
the mother stays at home. She adds that, interestingly, the policy is
being put into place just before the upcoming federal election.
After axing the Liberals proposed universal daycare program,
the Conservatives have put in place child care benefits and
childrens fitness tax credits, other signs of the government trying
to appease the religious right, Ms. McDonald says.
Mr. Malloy agrees. Those are very big for this base, and they
make up for not moving on issues like abortion, he tells P&I.
When Mr. Harper talks about family and the importance of
family, that is indicating to social conservatives that he respects and
understands them, Mr. Nicholls says, noting social conservatives
do have power and influence within the Conservative Party, but
not nearly as much as the Christian right has with the Republican
Party in the U.S.
He argues that those running in the Republican primary have
to really consider social conservatives and what they say because
they represent a powerful force within the Republican Party.
[In Canada], they do represent a force, they do have some
power and I think a lot of conservative politicians have to worry
about keeping them happy, but they dont have the power that they
can actually dictate party policy, he tells P&I.
But Mr. Nicholls says that in a landscape where much of
Canada is becoming socially liberal, it really is a balancing act for
the Conservative Party.
The party has to keep social conservatives happy, but without
giving them too much.
They have influence to the extent that Harper cant ignore
[them], he has to do some things for them and we see that every
once in a while, Mr. Nicholls says.
He points to Mr. Harpers unfailing support for Israel,
something he thinks the government is doing partially to make
social conservatives happy.
One reason for this could be that some Christians believe the
second coming of Jesus Christ will not occur until the children of
Israel are returned to their land and in control of it, says Dennis
Gruending, a former NDP MP who writes a blog about religion
and politics. He said there are close ties between some Jewish and
Christian organizations.
Mr. Gruending noted in his 2011 book, Pulpit and Politics:
Competing Religious Ideologies in Canadian Public Life, that religious
conservatives have developed a well-established network of likeminded individuals and organizations that have helped to elect Mr.
Harper and can be found roaming in Ottawas halls of power.
He says conservative Christian groups are often seen on Parliament
Hill. He says, however, that he doesnt believe Mr. Lunney sitting as an
independent is going to mean other Christian conservative groups are
going to abandon the Conservatives Party.

44 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

The persecution of Christians


is coming right to our own
doorstep here by intolerant
people within Canada who are
trying to cut Christians out of
law, medicine and politics.
Independent MP James Lunney

Fighting the persecution of Christians by the Islamic State


through speaking out and making military commitments is also
likely scoring points within evangelical circles, Mr. Malloy says.
This is a very big issue for evangelicals.
Joe Jordan, a senior consultant with Capital Hill Group and a
former Liberal MP, says that the Christian right has been prominent
for a long time, such as through influencing the discussions within
caucus; but it seems as though their clout is waning because firstly,
the majority of Canadians are not operating on extremes and
secondly, some issues are going before the courts, causing these
debates to be much more public.
Mr. Joustra said while the religious right might be on the radar
of the government, it isnt disproportionately influential.
Theyve made very little in the way of forward progress on
many of the core issues, says Mr. Joustra, which includes abortion
and same-sex marriage.
Andre Schutten, legal counsel with the Association for
Reformed Political Action Canada, says Christians, just like any
other groups in society, try to have influence on political parties.
The group tries to meet with all parties, although Conservatives
likely more often, but they also try to get constituents to reach out
to their MPs directly on issues.
Theres been a bit of fear in the Christian community in recent
years, Mr. Schutten says, pointing to a recent decision by the
Ontario College of Physicians and Surgeons requiring pro-life
doctors, for example, to refer patients for abortions.
Its mind-blowing how ... ruthless it is for the state to impose
that on a doctor, how incredibly that infringes on their freedom of
conscience, Mr. Schutten tells P&I.
Among the beliefs of the faith-based group is that God has a
certain design for society, where the government has authority over
certain things, the family has authority over raising children and
teaching morality and the church is given authority for things like
caring for the poor.
He argues that they are positive contributors to society, but said
it rubs him the wrong way to see a continuing narrative implying
that Christians are this negative influencing force either for
Conservatives or governments generally.
Christian influence is no more or no less than any other group,
he says, adding, however, that theyre not as strong as they once were.
The reality is that Christians are just smaller, there are just a
lot less of us, at least the ones [who] have a more traditional view
of things.

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Young people growing up today will be earning less than their parents and their grandparents, says Liberal Leader Justin Trudeau, pictured in
Gatineau, Que., in May announcing his partys plan for child care and a new tax bracket for incomes over $200,000. Photograph courtesy Adam Scotti

Political parties are fighting the next election on middle class


issues, but who exactly are the middle class, and what exactly are
their issues? Its a broad, wooly term that doesnt mean much

The illusive middle class


BY S I M ON D OYLE

ts a sign of the times that theres a rock


band in Sacramento, Calif., named
Middle Class Rut. One of their songs,
Pick Up Your Head, seems to refer to
middle class angst, questioning how to play
the hand youre dealt when it just dont
feel right.
Middle Class Rut is speaking to the
middle class, not just in the United States,
but in Canada too. North of the border,
the middle class is watching machines take
their jobs. Theyre feeling stressed for time
and facing the deepest income inequality

since the 1940s. At the same time, theyre


carrying debt, trying to save for retirement,
and working long hours in a limping
economy.
No wonder all of Canadas political
leaders, like their cousins in Washington,
are talking about the middle class. This
large group of voters has become the
centrepiece of Canadas next federal
election, scheduled for Oct. 19.
Middle-income earners are making less,
and young people growing up today will
be earning less than their parents and their

46 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

grandparents, says Liberal Leader Justin


Trudeau.
NDP Leader Tom Mulcair accuses the
government of increasing inequality and
balancing the budget on the backs of the
middle class.
Prime Minister Stephen Harper says, If
you want to fight for the middle class, you
do it by putting more of their money back
in their pockets.
Politicians, even economists, dont have
a single definition of the middle class. Its
sometimes defined as families who earn

THE MIDDLE C LASS-FEAT URE

Prime Minister Stephen Harper says, If


you want to fight for the middle class,
you do it by putting more of their money
back in their pockets. P&I Photograph by

NDP Leader Tom Mulcair accuses the


government of increasing inequality and
balancing the budget on the backs of
the middle class. P&I Photograph by Jake

Jake Wright

Wright

between 50 per cent and 150 per cent


of Canadas median income. Theyre
seen as families who can save for
retirement and afford a home.
The NDP has said the middle class
is the middle 60 per cent of income
earners, or those between the top 20
per cent and the bottom 20 per cent.
The Finance Department has indicated
a family earning up to $120,000
before taxes would be included in the
middle class. The Liberals say someone
who earns annual taxable income of
$44,701 to $89,401 is middle class. Like
working families, its a broad, wooly
term that doesnt mean a whole lot
except to Canadas political leaders, and
thats because most Canadians identify
as being middle class. Ahead of a fall
federal election, fixating on the plight
of the middle class sounds good to a
large group of voters who are feeling
insecure about their welfare.
The middle class has been
losing out relative to high earners in
the economy, says Charles Beach,
economics professor emeritus at
Queens University.
While Canadas middle incomes
have grown, and the middle class
is better off than 30 years ago, the
number of workers in the middleincome group has been falling. At the
same time, top earners are making
more money. The shift was greatest
between the late 1970s and about 2000,
though its still happening now, Mr.
Beach says.
One way to look at it is Canadas
middle class is shrinking. According

to research by Mr. Beach, the


percentage of workers who earned
less than half of Canadas median
income in 1970 was 23.3 per cent,
a number that rose to 27.4 per cent
in 2005. During the same period,
the share of workers whose earnings
were more than two times Canadas
median income has risen from 9.4
per cent to 17.2 per cent.
Canadas income inequality hasnt
been so high since the 1940s, according
to Thomas Piketty and Arthur
Goldhammer in their book Capital
in the 21st Century. The Conference
Board of Canada gave the country
a grade of C in a recent report on
income inequality, ranking Canada 12
out of 17 peer countries.
Parallel to that, the overall quality
of jobs in Canada is on the decline.
The countrys part-time jobs and selfemployed have grown faster than fulltime employment since about 1990,
reducing Canadas employment quality
to a record low, according to a CIBC
employment quality index.
Good quality manufacturing jobs
are also falling, giving way to less
lucrative jobs in services, Mr. Beach
says. On top of that, machines are
slowly taking away good quality jobs,
particularly in manufacturing.
Boston Consulting Group said in
a report this year that within 10 years
automated tasks by robots will rise by
10 per cent globally, and that Canadas
adoption rate will be higher due to the
Canadian manufacturing sectors high
cost of labour and concentration in

$68,860

$68,410

$69,860

$72,240

$74,540

Median total income

2008

2009

2010

2011

2012

Median amount of debt held


(in 2005 constant dollars)
TOP 20 PER CENT
1999:

$52,253

2005:

$53,000

Per cent change:

29.5

MIDDLE 20 PER CENT AVERAGE


1999:

$47,867

2005:

$62,513

Per cent change:

30.5

BOTTOM 20 PER CENT


1999:

$7,719

2005:

$10,000

Per cent change:

1.4

Income of Canadians
Median after-tax income for families of two or more
people was $68,000 in 2011, virtually unchanged
from 2010. This was the fourth consecutive year without
significant change in after-tax income.
When comparing 2007 (the year prior to the recent
economic downturn) to 2011, after-tax income increased from
$66,700 to $68,000.
Two-parent families with children saw an increase
in median after-tax income from $81,100 in 2010 to
$83,600 in 2011. There was no significant change in the
median income for other family types. The median after-tax
income for non-senior families (those where the person with the
highest income was younger than 65) was $73,300 in 2011,
while for senior families it was $49,300. The median aftertax income for female lone-parent families was $39,900.
For the unattached, median after-tax income was
$25,800 in 2011, unchanged from 2010. Among this
group, non-seniors had a median income of $26,700, while
seniors received $24,200.
Source: Statistics Canada

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

47

FEAT URE-THE MIDDLE C LASS

transportation, an area more likely to use


robotics.
Increasingly, tasks that are routine or
that can be made routine are being taken
over by machines. That means the people
who did those tasks either drop out of the
labour market or they have to move to
other kinds of jobs that are typically lower
paying, Mr. Beach says.
Its another reason for Canadian
middle-income earners to feel less secure
about their employment in an economy
damaged by the oil price shock. That
insecurity can also affect their working
hours and job flexibility. Economists
note that people who feel less secure in
their jobs tend to work harder to make an
impression, weakening their negotiating
position with employers.
Add in rising costs for education and
housing, household debt at record levels,
and the need to save more for retirement
due to longer lives, and Canadas middle
class is feeling under pressure.
An Ipsos poll of 1,000 Canadians for
HSBC in September 2014 found that 15 per
cent of respondents said they plan to work
until they die and 27 per cent said they

THE MIDDLE C LASS-FEAT URE

will not be leaving behind wealth for their


children. Where these kind of sentiments
exist, Canadas political parties are trying to
tap into them.
Most Canadians and Americans are
richer than their previous generations,
which also affects how they feel. Middle
class people feel like they have less time
when they have money to spend, says
Daniel Hamermesh, economics professor
emeritus at the University of Texas at
Austin who has studied the cultural
relationship between incomes and time.
Spending money might involve shopping,
attending a sporting event, eating out, or
travelling.
As you get richer, you spend more and
more money chasing the same amount of
time. You feel like youre rushing around.
This is something that didnt exist 100 years
ago, except for the extremely small wealthy
class, says Mr. Hamermesh. Its a curse, if
you will, of a rich society, which despite all
our complaining, we are in North America.
Technology is an additional stressor.
While middle class workers view their time
as currency, work is never far away when
theyre carrying it around on a mobile

Average income on Canadians, by province, 2013

device, often cutting into their leisure or


family time. Despite how they feel, Mr.
Hamermesh says, workers around the world,
Canada included, are not working longer
hours than before, and in fact middle class
employees have more job flexibility than in
the past.
While Canadians remain optimistic
about the economy, polling by Ekos this
year showed that Canadians were lacking
optimism about future generations. When
asked whether the next generation will be
better off, worse off, or about the same,
57 per cent of respondents answered
worse and only 13 per cent said better.
The number of people self-identifying as
middle class has also fallen, from 67 per
cent in 2002 to 47 per cent in 2014.
For the political parties, successes and
failures with those self-identifying middleclass voters will depend on Canadians
pre-existing political persuasions. Do
they want tax reductions, investments in
infrastructure, higher taxes on the rich?
Mr. Harper and the Conservatives
are positioning themselves as the
party of security, covering personal
security, financial security (read low


Poorest 20% Lower-middle 20% Middle 20% Upper-middle 20%
Richest 20%
Canada
$17,267
$41,707 $66,397
$100,260 $226,792
Newfoundland & Labrador
$17,042
$40,010
$64,769
$97,566
$207,733
Prince Edward Island
$16,135
$35,954
$56,895
$84,381
$171,197
Nova Scotia
$16,468
$37,562
$60,001
$88,822
$17,5234
New Brunswick
$15,861
$36,075
$57,298
$84,923
$168,278
Quebec
$15,726
$36,023 $57,447
$87,225 $185,155
Ontario
$18,745
$44,787 $72,111
$108,928 $247,521
Manitoba
$16,899
$39,070 $62,992
$93,371 $198,223
Saskatchewan
$16,802
$39,174 $64,333
$97,388 $219,360
Alberta
$22,457
$51,964 $81,663
$122,294 $291,260
British Columbia
$16,769
$40,276
$64,699
$97,511
$212,944
The Territories
$22,384
$55,743
$90,020
$129,492
$242,944
Source: Environics Analytics
taxes), and homeland security, says
David Coletto, head of polling firm
Abacus Data. Mr. Mulcair and the NDP
are focused on fairness, promising
the middle class their fair share and
services like childcare. Mr. Trudeau and
the Liberals are positioning themselves
as the party concerned about income

inequality, economic growth, and better


opportunities for the middle class.
In the fall, middle class voters will
have some choices to make. The parties
solutions are wide-ranging, with voters
viewing middle class issues as anything
from tax cuts to better care for seniors.
As if worrying about their own financial

situation wasnt enough, many middleincome earners, due to demographic shifts,


are feeling additional pressure to take care
of their parents and find long-term care.
Middle class problems arent just
economic issues, Mr. Coletto says. They
finally got rid of their kids, and now they
have to worry about their parents.

Labour force survey estimates


Number of women and men employed,
aged 15 and over (Persons x 1,000)

18,000
16,000
14,000
12,000
10,000
8,000
6,000
4,000
2,000
0
1994

Legend:

Employment*
Full-time employment**
Part-time employment***

1995

Notes:

1996

1997

1998

1999

The Labour force survey collection of tables is large with many


possible cross-tabulations for the 10 provinces and other
geographic regions. To ensure respondents confidentiality, detailed data are suppressed. Data for Canada, Quebec, Ontario,
Alberta and British Columbia are suppressed if the estimate
is below 1,500; for Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia,

48 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

2000

2001

2002

2003

New Brunswick, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, if the estimate


is below 500: and for Prince Edward Island, under 200. For
suppression levels within census metropolitan areas (CMAs)
and economic regions (ERs), use the respective provincial suppression levels above. While suppressing to protect respondent
confidentiality has the added effect of blocking-out the lowest-

2004

2005

2006

2007

quality LFS data, some remaining non-suppressed data in


these very large LFS CANSIM tables may be of insufficient
quality to allow for accurate interpretation.
* Number of persons who, during the reference week, worked
for pay or profit, or performed unpaid family work or had a job
but were not at work due to own illness or disability, personal

2008

2009

2010

2011

or family responsibilities, labour dispute, vacation, or other


reason. Those persons on layoff and persons without work but
who had a job to start at a definite date in the future are not
considered employed. Estimates in thousands, rounded to the
nearest hundred.
** Full-time employment consists of persons who usually

2012

2013

2014

work 30 hours or more per week at their main or only job.


Estimates in thousands, rounded to the nearest hundred.
*** Part-time employment consists of persons who usually
work less than 30 hours per week at their main or only job.
Estimates in thousands, rounded to the nearest hundred.
Source: Statistics Canada

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

49

The Albany Clubs dining room.


Photograph courtesy Joe Martin

THE LAST POLITICAL CLUB


The 133-year-old Albany Club of Toronto, founded by Canadas
first prime minister, is a club like no other. Its a home away
from home for politicians, businesspeople, and political
junkies, all connected through their conservatism.
BY SN EH DUGGA L

oe Martin was at the Albany Club of


Toronto with his wife and mother-inlaw on a quiet evening several years
ago when he heard a man, whose back was
toward him, with a very distinctive voice
speak at the table beside them. I said to
my mother-in-law: former [British] prime
minister Harold Wilson is at the next table,
says Mr. Martin, the private clubs historian
and a member since 1968. She said, Dont
be so silly. I said, No, hes here.
It isnt unusual to see well-known
powerful people walk through the doors
of what members call the last political
club in Canada. Inside the club, youll find
politicians, businesspeople and political
junkies, but what binds them together is
conservatism.
The clubs homepage states that former
prime minister John A. Macdonald, a
founding member, and other Conservative
prime ministers are celebrated within the
walls of the club.
In fact, the clubs signature event each
year is a black tie dinner in honour of
Macdonald.
What the members really like is that
they are having an informal lunch and a

Albany Club historian Joe Martin, left, is pictured with Tom Hockin, centre, and Prime
Minister Stephen Harper, right, at one of the private clubs John A. Macdonald dinners.
Photograph courtesy Joe Martin

[Member of Parliament] or [Member of


Provincial Parliament] comes in, says Mr.
Martin.
They are almost like groupies in that
respect, so I would be surprised if you ever
saw a member of the club who hadnt been
active [politically] in some way.
In fact, he says, I joined for the
very simple reason that I was an active
conservative and it made perfect sense for
me to join.

50 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

The clubs president, Scott Munnoch,


who has worked for former prime minister
Brian Mulroney and Ontarios former
premier Mike Harris, joined the club as a
young conservative in the 1980s.
Its allowed me to grow a bunch of
friends of all ages, 20 years older than
I am, 20 years younger than I am ...
but the one common bond we have is
conservative politics, Mr. Munnoch tells
P&I.

THE A LBA NY C LUB-PLAC E S

HOME AWAY FROM HOME

IS IT A PLACE OF INFLUENCE?

Leave it to the clubs historian to say it


best: That place reeks of history. The past
lives at the Albany Club.
The Albany Club was formed in 1882
and moved into its current location on King
Street a little more than 15 years later.
The rooms, like in most clubs, have a
traditional look to them, with dining tables
covered with white linen, framed pictures
on the wall and chandeliers up above. The
club also boasts a rooftop patio.
Its sort of meant to be your home away
from home, and many people use it that
way, says Mr. Munnoch, who is at the club
almost every second day.
Members rave about the number of
events the club hosts. Recently there was a
Blue Jays luncheon featuring the famous
Carlos Delgado. Others include a Mothers
Day brunch, a Fathers Day barbecue,
cooking classes and breakfasts with federal
ministers Jason Kenney and Joe Oliver.
Membership fees can be hefty, with a
local member paying about $2,700 each
year. Different fees apply to younger
members and students.
Originally it was a gathering place for
likeminded men, but that changed in
1976 when the club started to allow women
as members. What turned it around was
former prime minister Joe Clark refusing
to speak at the club because women werent
allowed there, Mr. Martin says.
The club hasnt been without other
controversy. The club received attention
in 2011 after Conservative MPs emailed
invitations to members of the Conservative
caucus, inviting them to come out and
meet the clubs board of directors on
Parliament Hill.
NDP MP Charlie Angus raised concerns
about informal lobbying after pointing out
that four of the directors were registered
lobbyists.

It depends how you define influence,


says Mr. Munnoch, who is a senior counsel
with Temple Scott Associates.
There are members of the club who
are influential in their own right, whether
in political, business, or academic [circles],
but within the walls of the club, everybody
is an equal member.
He says the clubs goal isnt to assert
influence on others or release political
statements, but rather to provide members
with a chance to interact, network and
socialize.
Were simply a social club within our
own walls.
So it really comes down to the people
who frequent the conservative hub. All
one needs to do is look aroundor to the
next tableto get a glimpse of power or
influence.
Several federal cabinet ministers are
members of the club including Labour
Minister Kellie Leitch, Government House
Leader Peter Van Loan and Treasury Board
President Tony Clement, who is also on the
clubs board of directors.
When Republican New Jersey Governor
Chris Christie visited Canada for a couple
of days in December, he made a pit-stop at
the Albany Club.
He thought it was important enough
to drop in, Mr. Martin says.
Others like former Canadian prime
minister Arthur Meighen, who was dubbed
as a powering intellect, used to go to the
club and eat lunch at the same table every
day, Mr. Martin says.
Former Alberta premier Jim Prentice
was a guest speaker at the club in January
and former prime minister Brian Mulroney
will be speaking in the fall.
Speakers at the John A. MacDonald
dinner have included Prime Minister Stephen
Harper and Saskatchewan Premier Brad Wall.

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VFHQHU\'RPLQLTXHVKRXOGEH\RXUUVWFDOO

Scott
Munnoch, a
former staffer
to prime
minister Brian
Mulroney, is
the Albany
Clubs
president.
Photograph
courtesy Scott
Munnoch

What do they talk about? Whatever


suits their fancy.
They are at liberty to say whatever they
like because these are all off the record,
Mr. Martin tells P&I. I remember [Mr.
Wall] making a little joke about that when
he was giving [an] address. He said, This
is a wonderful opportunity for exposure
in Toronto, I can come speak at the Albany
club and nobody will know.
As for Mr. Harpers speech, Mr. Martin
says he had never seen another speech like it.
He had over 30 standing ovations,
Mr. Martin says. Before he got up to
speak, he wasnt that popular at the Albany
Club, because he was from the West and
this is a very Toronto club, but when he
demonstrated that he knew the history of
the Conservative Party at least as well if
not better than the people in the audience,
thats why they gave him a standing
applause.
The leader of the Conservative Party
will always be invited to speak at the club,
whether they are the prime minister or
leading the opposition. All conservative
provincial premiers are invited to speak
along with the leader of the party in
Ontario.
Its a club that is concerned with
political power, Mr. Martin says.

DM Dominique Milne
BROKER

C: 613 864 5566


O: 613 842 5000
Dominique@DominiqueMilne.com
www.DominiqueMilne.com

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Chief Security Analyst at TwelveDot

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

51

PLAC E S-CA NA DAS EAST C OAST

When In Cape Breton-Canso, N.S.

Cuzner explains the magic of Glen Breton single


malt whiskey, coal mines and Stan Rogers

iberal MP Rodger Cuzner is one of the few MPs whos well known for his sense of humour.
Respected on both sides of the aisle even when he takes shots at the Conservatives and the New
Democrats in his humorous Members Statements at the start of the daily Question Period, the
59-year-old was first elected in 2000 in the riding of Cape Breton-Canso, N.S. Hes been re-elected four
times and is currently the vice-chair of the House Human Resources, Skills and Social Development
Committee. Here, he gives ABBAS RANA the run down on his riding with his East Coast charm.
DONT settle for number two. Cape Breton is the number one
island destination in the continental U.S. and Canada.
DO eat fabulous fresh lobster and snow crab right out of a shell.
DONT ever make the mistake of calling a fiddle a violin.
DO catch the spirit from our many spiritsGlen Breton Single
Malt Whiskey, Sea Fever Rum or Fortress Rum.

DONT forget to keep your head down as you go underground


and under the Atlantic in the coal mine at the Glace Bay Miners
Museum.
DO take stock: Yasgurs Farm in New York has Woodstock,
Arichat on Isle Madame has Cods stock, a great weekend of music
and Acadian cultural events.

DONT miss a chance to check out the Cape Breton Screaming


Eagles Major Junior Hockey League Team. Star NHLers like MarcAndr Fleury, James Sheppard and Adam Pardy got their start there.

DO step back in time by walking through the streets of the


Fortress of Louisbourg, a 17th century reconstructed fortress and
the crown jewel of our National Parks System.

P&I Illustration by Anthony Jenkins

DONT forget to hit Stanfest in Canso, one of Canadas great


folk festivals named after the lengendary Stan Rogers. The festival
draws folk acts from around the world.

DONT miss the chance to experience a pow wow or one of the


many festivals at one of our areas five Mikmaq [First Nations]
communities.

DO it both ways: First time bikers ask which is the best way to go

DO put on your dancing shoes and join a square set at Celtic

around the iconic Cabot Trail? Many go one way, then overnight
it, then go back around the other way on day two. Double your
pleasure.

DONT miss the opportunity to play [in] three of the top


100 golf courses in the world with Cabot Links, Cabot Cliffs and
Highland Links. The experience borders on life-altering.

Colours held each October, celebrating the breathtaking fall


colours and our proud Celtic roots.

DONT come to the East Coast without visiting Baddeck, the


home of Alexander Graham Bell and National Historic site that
celebrates his achievements.

dOr Lakes are in the heart of our beautiful island.

DONT forget that Cape Breton is referred to as the only living


Celtic Culture in North America. A visit to the Gaelic College in St.
Anns affirms this.

DO have a whale of a time with whale watching tours in

DO check out the Red Shoe Pub in Mabou, owned and operated

DO sail North Americas largest inland sea. The majestic Bras

Chticamp on Cape Bretons beautiful west coast.

52 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

by Heather Rankin of the famous musical family, the Rankins.

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IDEAS-HEA LTH CA RE

Elephant in the room


The unwillingness to accept the challenges
facing our health care system is not a
sustainable policy or political option.

T
KEVIN

PAGE
Kevin Page was Canadas first
Parliamentary Budget Officer,
serving in the role from 2008
to 2013. He is currently the
Jean-Luc Ppin research chair
at the University of Ottawa.

he late Canadian-American economist John Kenneth Galbraith was


often asked why economists make
predictions. Sometimes he responded by saying because they are asked to, while
other times he said something a little funnier
like to make astrologists look good. It is a
very safe bet that there will be a federal election in the fall of 2015. It is also a very safe bet
that all political parties are trying to figure out
what key policy issues will shape the electoral
outcome.
At the risk of making astrologists look
good, I think political parties will need to
focus on a number of key issues this year in
order to be successful at the ballot box. Like
people everywhere, Canadians are concerned
about pocket book issues. Economic and job
growth is slow. Our resource and manufacturing industries are going through significant
adjustment.
Our quality and standard of living will
also depend importantly on good public
policies (social, environmental, foreign) and
institutions. Without policy change, income
disparities will grow as we make a transition
to a more knowledge-based society. Without
policy change, the damage to our environment and economy will grow from climate
change. We need to have a 21st century discussion on what values will underpin our relations with other countries on development,
on trade and security. We need to renew our
political institutions to tackle these issues and
to restore confidence and trust.
Mark Twain wrote a story in 1882 called
The Stolen White Elephant. If there was an
elephant in the room among the big public
policy issues leading up to the 2015 federal
election, I think it could be health care.

54 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

The federal government has virtually


ignored the health care file. There is nothing
about health care in the 2013 Speech from the
Throne. To address federal fiscal sustainability
issues, the government reduced the escalator
on the Canada Health Transfer (CHT) and
transferred the budget issue to the provinces.
There have been no federal-provincial discussions on health care renewal. The proposed
spending initiatives for health care in the 2015
budget (e.g., innovation, seniors, and mental
health services for First Nations) are useful but
they pale in comparison to the much larger
reductions in the 2012 budget. Not to let other
political parties off the hook, we are still awaiting substantive proposals from the opposition.
The polling numbers posted on the
Canada Health Coalition website suggest that
when politicians go knocking door-to-door
in the 2015 federal election campaign they are
going to get an earful about health care. From
Nanos Research (2014), we learn that more
than nine in 10 Canadians agree or somewhat
agree that the federal government should take
a leadership role in healthcare (up five points
in the past two years). A strong majority of
Canadians (seven in 10) oppose linking funding to the strength of the economy as well as
treating all the provinces the same regardless
of their needs (almost seven in 10 oppose). A
strong majority (80 per cent) are supportive
of making our public system stronger (Nanos
2014) and this includes a plan for prescription
drugs (EKOS, May 2013).
The unwillingness to accept the challenges
facing our health care system is not a sustainable policy or political option.
In 2011, the Canadian Medical Association
wrote a document about health care transformation. They made the case that our system

HEA LTH CA RE-IDEAS

is facing challenges on two fronts: in meeting


the legitimate health care needs of Canadians
and in being affordable for the public purse.
They said the founding principles of Medicare
are not being met today, either in letter or in
spirit. This is not a battle just about money. In
both 2008 and 2009, the Euro-Canada Health
Consumer Index ranked Canada 30th of 30
countries (the U.S. was not included in the
sample) in terms of value for money spent on
health care. Canadians deserve better.
In March 2012, the Senate Social Affairs,
Science and Technology Committee published a review of the previous 10-year health
care accord. It revealed that real systematic
transformation of health care systems across
the country had not yet occurred, despite
more than a decade of government commitments and increasing investments. The report
highlighted that more progress needs to be
made in the areas of primary care reform,
establishing electronic health records, health
human resources planning, and catastrophic
drug coverage.
The challenges facing health care are
complex. We need our federal leaders to come

to the table with the provinces and the health


industry. We need our leaders to be builders. The witnesses that came to the Senate
committee talked about breaking down silos
between sectors, building compatible systems,
governance and funding arrangements and
shifting more focus to prevention of disease
and injury. Analysis by the Parliamentary
Budget Office has shown that the cash related
to the CHT as a percentage of provincial and
territorial health spending will continuously
fall from 20 cents on the dollar. The current
arrangements are no longer supporting the
Canada Health Act.
Health care is a major component in the
Canadian economy. We will need new policy
directions from political leaders and the
health industry. With these directions in place,
the economists can get to work and look at
options at rebalancing spending and taxation
between levels of government and looking at
changes to programs like CHT, equalization
and aboriginal health. Back to the words of
Mr. Galbraith, we will do this work because
we will be asked to (not because we want to
make astrologists look good).

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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

55

Finance Minister
Joe Oliver delivered
the 2015 budget in
April with several
tax cuts. P&I
photograph by
Jake Wright

POLICY
WITH PURPOSE
Why tax cuts dont measure up anymore

P
ARMINE

YALNIZYAN
Armine Yalnizyan is senior
economist with the Canadian
Centre for Policy Alternatives.
Follow her on Twitter
@ArmineYalnizyan.

urpose. Most people have struggled with the


concept in the course of their lives, usually
in the form of a question: What am I doing?
What am I doing it for? Whats the point?
The word purpose sprang to mind as I
heard the Liberal Partys policy response to the
Conservatives Family Tax Cut. Of course theres
some worth in comparing different types of tax cuts
by their scale or design, and no doubt other ideas
will be presented as the 2015 election draws closer.
But what if a contest thats supposed to be about the
purpose of government gets stuck in a tax cut rut?
Purpose is too important a concept to sit quietly
in the background as news about the economys
performance takes centre stage.
The governor of the Bank of Canada talks about
our economic track record of late as one of serial
disappointment. The International Monetary Fund
(IMF) has cut its quarterly global growth forecast
13 out of 16 times since mid-2011. It makes you
wonder: what is the purpose of economic growth,
and what happens if it doesnt materialize?
Last October, the IMF said the global economy
might never return to its pre-crisis growth rates.
Thats because population aging is colliding
with sub-par recovery. Other nations are aging
more rapidly than Canada, but tough choices are
coming to a neighbourhood near you. Seniors
have lower incomes and spend less than the rest of
the population. Canadians aged 65 and over will
increase as a share of the population from about 15
per cent today to about 25 per cent over the next 20

56 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

years. Some people will continue to work past age


65, but this wont reverse the underlying squeeze
play: if nothing else changes, it wont be long before
growing needs will vie for shrinking public revenues.
We have time to prepare, but the political stress
test has already started.
Canadian municipalities face an estimated
infrastructure deficit of $172-billion for roads,
bridges, water purification and waste water systems
alone. This is simply the repair bill for what our
parents generation built. It doesnt include the
infrastructure needs of a growing, increasingly
urban populationthings such as additional public
transit, affordable housing and child care.
While other nations race to build the worlds
best high-speed train, we argue about who will pay
to fix crumbling bridges in our big cities. Instead,
our governments are in a race to give you your
money back. When political parties focus on tax
cuts, what theyre really saying is: We dont want to
do the heavy lifting of building and maintaining the
economy. Go shopping.
The oft-repeated refrain that you know how to
spend your money better than the government doesnt
take into account that governments buy something
that you cant, namely the quality of life in your
community. Government expenditures create things
that couldnt otherwise exist, for example our justice
systems. Pooling our risk and purchasing power can
create huge efficiencies, like single-payer health care.
Government spending can transform whole societies,
as it does through public education, or electricity grids.

THE E SSAY-IDEAS

Its not that giving cash back to corporations or


families with children or people who want to save is
bad. But when did cash-back thinking become the first
thing that governments and parties looking for your
vote put on offer?
A few extra bucks in the wallet wont help us deal
with the three biggest threats to our current quality of
life: infrastructure deficits, rising health care costs and
climate change.
The Conservatives latest budget addresses these
looming concerns with tax cuts, trade and balanced
budgets. The economic action plan has been replaced
by an economic distraction plan. Lets look at each
promise in turn.
The pledge to avoid deficits is wrapped in the homily
about not burdening our children with costs we refused
to deal with ourselves. The countrys infrastructure
deficit falls into exactly this category. Preaching balanced
books while failing to address crumbling infrastructure
passes on unnecessary costs to our children, with the
burden guaranteed to be heavier for them than the
one we face today. Thats because the cost of public
borrowing today is at unprecedented lows (and unlikely
to stay at those levels for the next 10 years), and we have
not yet hit peak labour shortages, which will come.
A focus on trade will also not preserve our quality
of life. Economic growth is slowing globally for reasons
related to population aging. Every nation is looking for
ways to get around this dilemma by shaving costs, spurring
domestic growth and taking advantage of trade. Canada is
unlikely to get more out of the bargain if the primary boost
to the economy depends on exports. We are importing
more with each passing quarter, too. Canada entered the
recession as eighth largest economy in the world, though
our population is much smaller than the others. At last
count we were in 11th place. Trade is important, but it is
not enough to keep us ranked in the top tier of nations.
Finally, tax cuts are a quick and easy response to the
financial squeeze that families and companies always

feel. That squeeze has tightened on most households


because of a sub-par recovery. The inflation-adjusted
median hourly wage in Canada was lower in 2014 than
in 2009, the heart of the recession. Slow growth and
population aging means that governments focused on
tax cuts as their cure for what ails you are preaching
false economies. Theyll put some money in your pocket
today, but theyll have to take more out tomorrow.
Tax cuts at the levels being discussed in Canada
represent huge opportunity costs. Using the same
amount of money, we can fund more lasting ways to put
cash in our pockets, and improve both the economy and
our quality of life. Here are just a few ideas on how to
accomplish that:
Canadian governments spent $12-billion on
prescription drugs in 2012. We should consolidate our
purchasing power and negotiate better price-per-volume
deals with suppliers. That would free up money for
population health initiatives like oral health measures
Canadians spent $13-billion on dental care in 2012
which could reduce preventable dental decay. Your
grandma is right: an ounce of prevention is worth a pound
of curean adage that applies to infrastructure too.
Around the world, the evidence shows that expanding
access to high quality, subsidized early childhood
education more than pays for itself. Economist Pierre
Fortin calculated that for every $100 spent on child care
by the Quebec government in 2008, $104 was returned
in new revenues. The federal government also saw a
windfall of $43. Thats because child care increases
the opportunity for low-income parents to take up
work when it wouldnt otherwise make financial sense.
But theres more to it than that. The early childhood
education approach focuses on helping all pre-schoolers
become ready to learn. With long-anticipated labour
shortages becoming the norm, well soon need all hands
on deck. What are we waiting for?
Continued on page 71

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

57

RAC HEL N OTLE Y-FEAT URE

Game changer
She toppled a 44-year Progressive Conservative dynasty to become
Albertas first NDP premier. Smart, tough, confident and level-headed,
Rachel Notley is opening up a new chapter in her provinces story
and maybe Canadas too, writes CHRISTOPHER GULY

C
NDP Premier Rachel Notley formed
a majority government in Alberta
in May. Shell be a confident and
determined representative of her
provinces interest in dealing with
Ottawa, says Robin Sears. Photograph

hange comes in different colours, as Rachel Notley has


already demonstrated in the nascence of her term as
Albertas 17th premier.
Her swearing-in ceremony to become the provinces
first NDP first minister was an unprecedented outdoor public event
that attracted thousands of cheering supporters to the grounds of
Albertas legislature on a hot, sticky Sunday afternoon in late May.
For nearly 44 years, Albertans had grown accustomed to a
string of Progressive Conservative leaders take the oath of office as
premier in much more staid indoor surroundings.
Yet in less than a month between her partys astounding victory
in the provincial election and her ascending to the job as premier,
Ms. Notley has dramatically broken with Canadian tradition
and, as she stated in her post-swearing-in speech, opened up a
new chapter in the story of Albertaif not Canada, too. The PC
dynasty her NDP toppled had by last August set a record as the
party with the longest stretch in government in Canadian history.
Now its Premier Notleys turn to make history and set records:
her 12-member cabinet, including herself, is smaller than any
during the PC era.
Yet few Canadians outside Alberta had heard of this political
game-changer before the provincial election campaign.

Born in Edmonton on April 17, 1964, Ms. Notley is a political


amalgam of Jack Laytonthe late and former federal NDP leader
she has credited as being a personal hero of hersand Grant
Notley, her late father and a predecessor Alberta NDP leader. Both
men were populists.
The elder Notley, who was killed in a plane crash in October
1984, became the first Alberta New Democrat MLA when he
won a seat (on his fourth try) in the 1971 provincial election.
He sat as the sole NDP in the Legislative Assembly until 1982
when his eventual leadership successor and best friend, Ray
Martin, won the second seat for the party that formed the
runt official opposition to Peter Lougheeds mega-majority PC
government.
Ms. Notleys personal appeal translated into Albertas NDP
forming a majority government with 54 of 87 seats in the
provincial legislature.
Robin Sears, a former NDP national director and former chief
of staff to Ontarios first NDP premier, Bob Rae, says that Ms.
Notley is a fascinating combination of nature and nurture also
as her mom was an American intellectual activist and she grew
up in a very socially conscious and politically engaged family
environment from her very earliest days.

by Claudine Lavoie Photography

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

59

FEAT URE-N OTLE Y

SHE SORT
OF JUST
LEAPT
ONTO THE
STAGE
AS IF SHE
WAS A
SEASONED
VETERAN

In a 2007 Edmonton Journal profile of the thenpolitical rookie, Ms. Notley credited her dad with
giving her a sense of the strength of will than the
politics. He had, she said, this phenomenal hard
work ethic, this steely-eyed determination. It was:
dont talk about it, just do it.
Mr. Sears, who knew Mr. Notley and
campaigned with him, describes Ms. Notley as
very smart, very tough, very confident, and very
level-headed. In addition, he says, She has a very
Prairie Canadian outlook. Shes not ostentatious,
but shes not deferential. Shes not arrogant, but
she knows she is smart and very well educated. Its
that very Canadian combination of things that I
think shes an icon of.
Mr. Sears says he was quite impressed by her
campaign, having won the NDP leadership only
six months before the May provincial election.
She sort of just leapt onto the stage as if she was a
seasoned veteran.
A graduate of York Universitys Osgoode Hall
Law School, Ms. Notley pursued a career in labour
law prior to entering the Alberta legislature in
2008 as one of two NDP MLAsechoes of her
fathers legislative situation from the past.
As a lawyer, she worked for unions representing
members in Alberta and British Columbia on

Lobby
coalitions
are forming
to inuence
the policies
of tomorrow

workers compensation, and occupational health


and safety issues. In B.C., she also served as a
ministerial assistant to then-NDP attorney general
Ujjal Dosanjh and helped expand the provinces
family laws to recognize same-sex couples before
the feds and other provinces followed suit.
But to affect change, its optimum to help write
laws as a legislator than interpret them as a lawyer.
And the pull of politics was perhaps something
unavoidable for Ms. Notley, whose pursuit of
public service is driven by a family passion.
Her Massachusetts-born mother, Sandy, a
devout Anglicanwith a steady moral compass
and a deep social conscience who died in 1998,
was her biggest political inspiration at home,
according to that Journal profile.
After winning the provincial riding of
Edmonton-Strathcona in 2008, Ms. Notley easily
won re-election four years later and earned the
distinction of being the only Alberta MLA to
secure the highest share of the vote in that election.
Last October, she also easily won the provincial
leadership race on the first ballot with 70 per cent
of the votes. And this May, Premier Notleys NDP
won its majority with 41 per cent of the vote.
Now comes the hard part: governing.
The premier plans to make good on her

Knowledge is the ammunition you need.


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Policy Map:
Charts of the
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on a policy le

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Your guide to the
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stories shaping
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60 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

RAC HEL N OTLE Y-FEAT URE

campaign pledge to raise Albertas minimum hourly wage from


$10.20 to $15 over three years.
She has said she will not pursue the Keystone XL or
Northern Gateway pipelines, which federal NDP Leader
Thomas Mulcair also opposes, and will instead focus on the
Energy East pipeline and the Trans Mountain expansion to the
West Coast.
Mr. Sears says that he believes Ms. Notley will surprise many
in the federal Conservative government because she will develop
a good relationship with the oil patch. I was very surprised
when I was out there and talking to a bunch of senior oil people,
how much they detested the ancient regime. They were really fed
up with the Tories, even at the senior levels of the industry, and
so they really want to give her a chance to find common cause
with them on a variety of issues and I think shell make a strong
effort to do so, and I think that will be a bit of a shock to some
folks here in town on the blue team, he tells P&I.
Ms. Notley also plans to balance Albertas budget
straddled with a $5-billion deficit this yearby 2018-19, or a
year after Jim Prentices Tory government forecasted.
Albertas new NDP government plans to deliver its first
budget this fall.
And at some point Premier Notley will meet with Prime
Minister Stephen Harper, whose new riding of Calgary Heritage
is where the NDP holds a majority of the provincial seats.
Dimitri Soudas, who served as Mr. Harpers communications
director, has some advice for Ms. Notley, who gave herself cabinet

responsibility for international and intergovernmental relations.


Dont go to war publicly with any prime minister, says
Mr. Soudas, who now serves as chief operating officer of the
International Economic Forum of the Americas. People are so
used to politicians bickering that it doesnt get you new votes.
Instead, Mr. Soudas advises Premier Notley to follow the
approach taken by two former premiers: Gary Doer (NDP) of
Manitoba and Gordon Campbell (Liberal) of B.C., who now
hold the countrys top diplomatic posts in Washington and
London, respectively.
Although both men didnt always see eye-to-eye with Mr.
Harper, theirs was not a confrontational relationship in public,
Mr. Soudas points out.
He adds that by contrast, the worst relationship Mr.
Harper has had with any premier was with Newfoundland and
Labradors Danny Williams, a Progressive Conservative.
Mr. Sears says Ms. Notley will take after former premiers
such as Peter Lougheed and Allan Blakeney who have a
very firm view of their rights, especially with respect to
resource revenues and an openness to negotiate but not to
be run over. Shell also find common cause with other
first ministers on climate change, he says. I think shell be
a confident and determined representative of her provinces
interest in dealing with Ottawa.
As for her staying power, Mr. Sears remarks that shes
mentioned privately to friends: I intend to be premier for a
good long while.

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

61

P&I photograph by Jake Wright

PARLIAMENTARY
REFORM PARADOX
There are no best or better systems of government
or electoral systems. Each involves trade-offs.

R
BRUCE M.

HICKS

Bruce M. Hicks is the BMO


visiting fellow and an
adjunct professor at the
Glendon school of public
and international affairs at
York University.

eforming the House of Commons has been


on the political agenda in Canada for several
decades.
Some of the ideas for reform that most of the
political parties have committed to have failed to
deliver.
For example, a decade ago Jerome Black and I
did a study of candidates and political parties about
the issue of fixed election dates. Our colleagues at
the Institute for Research on Public Policy did the
same of Canadians. A majority of politicians and
Canadians support the idea. The Conservatives
went on to become the government, brought in
legalisation to set a fixed election date and then
broke the law in the next two elections. This years
election will be the first to follow that law.
When it comes to Parliamentary deliberations,
Canada has long been acknowledged to be the most

62 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

constrained when it comes to party discipline. Most


votes are whippedthe party leaders, or whips,
tell MPs how to vote and at committee the same
party leadership, particularly on the government
side, manages the debate through the committee
chair and the Parliamentary secretary.
The Mulroney government mandated the
McGraw Committee look into the matter and
even implemented some of its recommendations
(such as removing Parliamentary secretaries from
Commons committees) only to backtrack several
years later. Paul Martin committed to replicating
the British practice of identifying which votes were
freer through the use of lines (one, two or three
lines on the Parliamentary Order Paper to indicate
a votes importance) so that MPs were not obligated
to vote with the Cabinet on matters that were not
essential to the governments agenda.

PA RLIAME NTA RY REF ORM-IDEAS

When the McGraw committee was


holding its hearings, a clerk from a
Parliament down under was actually
confused when a Canadian MP asked
him about free votes. He queried: arent
all votes free? MPs are directly elected,
how can anyone force them to vote a
particular way? Two decades later his
legislature is looking into how to relax
party discipline in order to allow for
more free votes in light of their own
institutional developments.
One of the questions we asked
candidates and MPs a decade ago
was one of free votes. We found that
the majority of politicians wanted
more free votes, but what was more
interesting was that opinions were not
consistent by party. The Liberals and
NDP were more divided.
Allan MacEachen, who was the
Liberal House leader during much of
the Trudeau years, pointed out that in
the 1960s and 1970s the purpose of free
votes was not to allow MPs and senators
to vote their conscience. It was to ensure
that a vote on a divisive issue would not
come back to haunt the party in the
next election. The party didnt have to
take an official position. It was MPs and
senators who freely voted to legalize
sodomy or abortion.
At the time of our study, Canadian
society had evolved and was continuing
to evolve. The issue wasnt whether
homosexuality should be a criminal
offence, but whether same-sex marriage
should be legalized. On these modern
social issues the party leadership was
more in tune with where the country
was going than were many of the
backbench MPs. Whipping the vote

The Publics versus Candidates Views on


Whether There Should Be Fixed Election Dates
71%

90%

90%

Bloc
Qubcois

Public

Conservative
Party

10%

29%

10%

92%

75%

44%
New
Democratic
Party

Liberal
Party

Green
Party

25%

56%

8%

Sources: Public: Canadian Election Study (2004); candidates: Canadian Candidate Survey (2004).
Note: n = public: 1,645; candidates: 552. Figures may not add to 100 due to rounding.

Candidates Views on Whether MPs Should Be


Allowed to Vote Freely, by Party (%)

Continued on page 73

Strongly
agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

48

43

24

38

32

16

42

34

52

36

11

38

38

19

Source: Canadian Candidate Survey (2004)

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B ook E xc erpt-IDEAS

Prime Minister Stephen Harper, pictured in Ottawa


at Garneau Secondary School, in January 2015. Les
Whittington says Mr. Harper is remaking Canada.
P&I photograph by Jake Wright

Canada has changed under PM Stephen Harper. From taxes, to the environment,
to Canadas place in the world, the changes have affected every aspect of
Canadians lives, writes LES WHITTINGTON in a new book, from which an
exclusive excerpt appears here. The result has been a shift of historical
proportions in the way the country operates, its goals, its values and Canadians
shared vision.

remaking canada
How Harper has changed our country for better or worse
anadians had never been exposed to anything like the
constant, all-encompassing promotional campaign
mounted by the Harper government. While his wooden
aura made for a pronounced contrast with former
prime minister Brian Mulroney, whom most people would see as
the consummate pitch man, it was in fact Harper who was by far
the most adept purveyor of partisan images, political messaging
and myths. He unabashedly ran a continuing election campaign,
exploited advertising beyond anything ever experienced in

64 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

Canada, and tailored government and prime ministerial


functions to explicitly suit the public relations aims of his party.
On top of that, Harper harnessed these promotional tools for
an ongoing strategy the end of which was nothing less than the
reshaping of the way Canadians thought about their heritage and
the meaning of their history.
Central to this effort was advertising. The Conservatives
broke new ground in Canadaand probably North America
by using advertising to demean and personally undercut their

opponents before an election had even been called. They also used
Canadians tax dollars to tell the public on a nightly basis about
the great things the government was doing. By 2014, the cost of
these promotional ads was more than $500-million. Whether
personal attack ads are effective or not, its obvious they cheapen
and besmirch the political process. But as there are no limits on
advertising spending outside of an election period, the only way
this will end is through public rejection of the practice.
Advertising, of course, is only part of the suite of modern
political communications tools with which parties identify groups
of the electorate and design policies and messaging to appeal to
them. No one doubts this highly sophisticated approach pays
dividends and, in fact, refashioned the way politics is conducted.
But what has this kind of information management brought
us? To take just a few examples: While Canadians have been told
constantly that they are living in one of the best-performing
economies among developed nations, the entire underpinning
of the public conception of economic thinkingthat those who
work hard can prosper and build a better life for themselves and
their childrenis eroding. The middle class is spinning its wheels.
General unemployment is consistently too high and the youth
jobless rate has skyrocketed. Housing prices, driven up in part
by policymakers desperate need to keep interest rates ultra-low
to prevent the weak post-recovery economy from faltering, have
shot beyond the affordability expectations of most young people.
Well-paying, secure manufacturing jobs have disappeared by
the hundreds of thousands and the country has transitioned
toward an economy increasingly built on low-paying, temporary
employment. And unions that have fought to protect jobs with

decent wages, benefits and pensions have been systematically


vilified and attacked. And squeezed by rising living costs
including ubiquitous user feesmillions of Canadians are eyeing
retirement with little if any pension savings.
Meanwhile, the one per cent made up of CEOs and other highincome earners at the top of the heap continue to accumulate an
even larger and outsized percentage of the countrys wealth.
This is the reality of Canada in an era defined by neoconservative, let-the-market-fix-it thinking. But is it being given
adequate attention in Parliament, the countrys national policymaking body? Many would agree it is not, principally because the
reality runs counter to the governing partys political narrative.
Political parties are not about to renounce todays consumerstyle marketing, boutique tax cuts, modern image-making
and advertising. So, looking ahead, one would think that
sooner or later, Canadians will be facedboth collectively and
individuallywith important choices about how politicians
and their organizations conduct themselves and how they
communicate with the public. In the wider sense, such reckonings
would seem inevitably to be about priorities, standards of
conduct, accountability, the parameters of acceptable debate and
responsibilityboth on the part of political actors and individual
Canadians.
Propaganda, of course, thrives on ignorance, apathy and
cynicism, and is likely to continue to do so unless there is a new
level of engagement by the public. This is a tall order in a country
where nearly half of adults cant be bothered to vote.
In the meantime, it falls to everyone with a stake in Canadas
democracyincluding teachers, community leaders, candidates for
office, social activists and writers and broadcastersto confront
the ascendancy of propaganda on the national political scene. This
means demanding accountability, straightforward information,
more openness and honest assessments of Canadas problems from
national leaders. There are many thousands of people making those
demands nowon websites, blogs and other media. But reversing
the current trend toward information control and manipulative
political messaging will require a much bigger, concerted effort.

Media wars
In general, there was no doubt that the national media
in Canada had over 20 years or so become more politically
conservative, thanks in part to Conrad Blacks creation of the
death-defying National Post and the expansion of the right-wing
Sun empire to include most of the countrys newspapers. This
development was in turn overtaken in the 2014 newspaper fire

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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

65

IDEAS-B OOK EXC ERPT

Harper has made it a policy of


moving incrementally but constantly
in a more conservative direction
sale when Postmedia, despite its massive debt load, bought the
Suns 175 English-language newspapers, giving Postmedia CEO
Paul Godfrey control of all but a few of Canadas English-language
dailies. But the more right-wing tinge to Canadas media never
seemed to register with the faithful around Harper and his cabinet
colleagues. Many of them remained convinced that the media were
inexorably against them.
Toward the end of 2014, with an election year looming,
the Prime Ministers Office went a step further in its efforts to
control the message. For the first time, PMO staffers began asking
reporters in advance of Harper press conferences what question
they planned to ask. If a reporter refused to reveal the substance
of his or her question, the reporter was left off the list of those
who would be called on to question Harper. PMO staffers claimed
this tactic would enable the prime minister to provide better,
fulsome answers. But everyone knew it was really about enabling
Harper to respond to topics he was happy to talk about and avoid
questions that would put him on the spot. The prime minister,
according to some, had no use for press conferences because they
were unscripted events beyond his control. And all indications are
that Harper had little time for those who argued that he should
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to Canadians. What people had to say about him may have been
pretty much beside the point anyway.
Mulroney cared too much about what people thought of him,
but the PM doesnt care at all what people think of him, one source
said. Maybe, this person added, he should care a bit more.
Commenting on the uproar over how the Duffy-Wright affair
was handled by Harpers office, some observers said it was poetic
justice for a group of people who never expected their actions to be
exposed to public scrutiny.

CABINET CONFIDENCES
Cabinet ministers came and went, but as Harpers tenure as
prime minister eased into its 10th year, speculation naturally
turned to which Conservative frontbenchers might be in a position
to replace him as leader when, and if, he decided to give it up.
High on any list of would-be replacements was of course
Jason Kenney. A tough-minded Albertan with little patience with
government spending on notions of social good, Kenney had
demonstrated exceptional political abilities when as Immigration
minister he launched a highly successful campaign to realign
Canadas legions of newcomers toward the Tories instead of their
traditional allegiance to the federal Liberals. His accomplishments
helped the Harper team break through in the suburbs of Toronto
and provided an important edge in Harpers long-sought majority
election victory in 2011. In a rare bit of public praise, Harper
mentioned Kenney as the prime minister explained to an American
audience in 2014 how the Conservatives have transformed Canada
into a more right-wing country.

B OOK EXC ERPT-IDEAS

Weve made it a policy of moving incrementally but constantly


(in a more conservative direction) in our eight and a half years in
office, Harper said in a question-and-answer session at Goldman
Sachs in New York. So, look, I think weve moved and I think the
country has moved with us.
Harper went on to say the key to this
transformation and his partys electoral
success was its appeal to Canadas
immigrant population. Speaking of how
this was accomplished, he said, My
colleague Jason Kenney phrased it this
wayhe said (it was done) by turning
people who were small c conservatives
into big C conservatives.
This is a huge transformation, the
prime minister added.
Unlike Harper, Kenney had personality
to burn. He liked to amuse reporters with
tales of his experiences among the superelite of the North American and European
corporate and political communities at, for
example, the annual secretive Bilderberg
conference. At one Bilderberg dinner,
where the seating arrangement was done
in alphabetical order, the man dozing off
on Kenneys shoulder was none other than Henry Kissinger. As
for the woman across the table, Kenney said she only stared down
her nose when he politely tried to inquire about why she was in

attendance at the Bilderberg meeting. Sir, I am the Queen of


Spain, she said.
Kenney, who defied Harpers wishes and voted in the
Commons in favour of a private members bill that many saw as
a stalking horse for anti-abortion measures,
had the social conservative chops to
make him a favourite with the right-wing
Conservative base that would determine
Harpers successor. But whether this would
serve the party well in a national election
was another matter. Part of Harpers success,
after all, lay in his ability to tap into the social
conservative voting base while largely steering
clear of abortion and other social issues dear
to their hearts. Some said Kenney would
likely become the next Conservative leader
but wouldnt be able to keep up his partys
electoral successes.
Harper gave Kenney a striking vote of
confidence by naming him to the Defence
portfolio. With the Conservatives fashioning
their re-election effort around an appeal to
the publics fears in a period of rising terrorist
outrage, this put Kenney as the director of
Canadas military response to Islamic State in
a position to maximize the Harper campaign message.
As for Tony Clement, he was always seeking reassurance that he
might have what it takes to someday challenge for the partys top

The prime
minister,
according to some,
has no use for
press conferences
because they
were unscripted
events beyond
his control.

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

67

IDEAS-B OOK EXC ERPT

Commitment by countrys political


leaders to bigger, forward looking
and courageous ideas long overdue
job. But Clement, who had run against Harper for the leadership
of the newly formed Conservative Party in 2003, was not terribly
popular among those around Harper. After the Conservatives won
a majority in 2011, Clement was given the decidedly uncharismatic
job of running the federal Treasury Board.
Peter MacKay, who had won the Progressive Conservative
leadership convention in 2003, was well-liked among the partys
rank-and-file and theoretically one of the potential frontrunners
in any contest to replace Harper. A poll in late 2014 found that,
among self-identified Conservative voters, MacKay was a runaway
favourite to become the next Conservative standard bearer. But his
stature may have been battered by his handling of the jet fighter
procurement miscue and his collisions with the Supreme Court
once he took over at Justice. Some felt he was coasting or not up to
the intricacies of the complicated justice file.
Then there was his unfathomable embroilment in mid-2014
with womens advocates over the lack of female jurists. Asked why
there werent more women judges, MacKay reportedly came up
with an answer that would have made Don Draper cringe: Women
just arent applying because they are worried that being a judge
would cut into the time they spend with their kids. MacKay, a new
father, seemed somehow to project his own feelings onto women

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in a way most considered antediluvian: At early childhood, theres


no question, I think, that women have a greater bond with their
children, MacKay reportedly said.
Despite MacKays apparent popularity, there was little reason to
think he would be suitable to the right-wingers who made up the
base of the Harper-run party.
Also on the leadership contender list was James Moore,
the fluently bilingual British Columbia MP. He is one of the
group of single white males, along with Kenney and Baird,
LES WHITTINGTON

SPINNING
HISTORY
A WITNESS TO
HARPERS CANADA AND
21ST CENTURY CHOICES

Spinning History: A Witness


to Harpers Canada and
21st Century Choices by Les
Whittington is available in
hard copy and as an eBook
from Hill Times Books.
www.hilltimes.com/HT-Books

A must read.
Don Newman

who were propelled into prominence in the Harper regime.


But in late 2012, Moore married Courtney Payne, a staffer in
Harpers office. A former talk show host, Moore at 24 became
the youngest MP ever elected in B.C. He has been a solid, if at
times transparently partisan, performer for the Conservatives. In
the Heritage portfolio, he managed to regain some respect from
the arts community in the wake of Harpers devastating remarks
depicting artists as gala-attending, taxpayer-subsidized elitists.
And as Industry minister he tried to stand out as a champion of
consumers with his unprecedented head-on political confrontation
with the big cellphone providers.
Moore could not be ruled out in a field where no one stood
out as inheritor of Harpers duel capabilities: Right-wing enough
to champion the current Conservative base while at the same
time adopting an incremental, practical sounding message that
could still win over swing voters. By early 2015, as the government
dispensed with tradition in its unwavering determination
to clear the way for re-election, Moore for a bit became the
de facto Finance minister to cover up for Joe Olivers lack of
communications skills.
Lisa Raitt, another potential leadership hopeful, helped
define the Harper governments approach when as Labour
minister in 2011 she used back-to-work legislation, or the threat
of such legislation, to put an end to a Canada Post lockout and
a strike at Air Canada. Despite the bitter personal antagonism
that marked recent years in the political trenches in Ottawa,
Raitt managed to project a likeable persona and an aura of
reasonableness. And she seemed to have survived the unenviable
job of defending Ottawas regulatory capabilities in the
aftermath of the 2013 rail disaster that killed 47 people in Lac
Mgantic, Que. However, whether Raitt had the killer instinct to
fair well in the take-no-prisoners contests at the very top of the
political pyramid was unclear.
By 2015, the future of the Conservatives leadership was
surrounded by question marks. Looking at the way the party

B OOK EXC ERPT-IDEAS

The contenders: (From left) Jason Kenney, Tony Clement, Peter MacKay, James Moore and Lisa Raitt are the top Conservatives seen as
leadership contenders when Prime Minister Stephen Harper steps down from the job. P&I photographs by Jake Wright

identified with Harper and his personally tailored right-wing


approach, one had to wonder if any of the obvious candidates
for leader would even be able to hold together the coalition of
right-wingers he forged 12 years earlier. There was also the matter
of which of the Harper cabinet ministers would survive with their
reputations intact long enough to get a shot at the Conservatives
top job. Some felt after nine years in office Harper might be
thinking of quitting while he was ahead. But most doubted be
would leave 24 Sussex Dr. until the voters said the lease was up.

LOOKING AHEAD
Since ousting the Liberals in 2006, Harpers declarations have
been guarded and his policies incremental. But there is no doubt
that he has been engaged in an overhaul of the country he once
described as the worst kind of European-style welfare state. While
often gradual, the changes brought forward by the Conservatives
have touched nearly every aspect of Canadians lives, from taxes to
environmental concerns to their future retirement date to health
care and Canadas place in the world.

The result has been a shift of historical proportions in the


way the country operates, its goals, its values and Canadians
shared vision. Modern Canada was built in the second half of
the last centuryinspired by progressive values, a shared sense
of collective national purpose and a commitment to social
justice through generous government assistance programs. But
it is unclear to what extent Canadians still believe in this sort of
concept of Canadas national community.
Some would say there is no turning back, that Canadians
attitude toward government has evolved toward a more Americanstyle individualism and the decline of North American prosperity
has forced governments into a new era of austerity. Harper himself
said he believes the country has with his encouragement become
more Conservative.
Many Canadians of all political persuasions believe the Harper
government has ignored or failed to adequately address some of
the most pressing problems the country facesproblems such
Continued on page 79

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Continued from page 57


The IMF recently pegged Canadas
annual subsidies to the coal, oil and gas
industries at $34-billion. What if that
kind of largesse was focused on renewable
energy industries instead? The whole
world is looking for energy sources that
emit less carbon and technologies that
conserve or use energy more efficiently.
Some oil companies are now calling
themselves energy companies. Canada
could become a 21st century energy
superpower globally by pivoting our focus
from Energy East to Energy Least.
Instead of focusing on deficit
and debt reduction, the feds should
be taking the unique opportunity
of historically low interest rates to
save Canadian taxpayers moneyby
borrowing on behalf of provinces
and municipalities that are fixing and
building infrastructure. Thus sayeth
David Dodge, former deputy minister of
finance and Bank of Canada governor,
and the man who steered the mid-1990s
project of cutting deficits and debt. His
point is simple: if the feds fail to borrow

now, it raises costs for todays taxpayers,


and those of tomorrow. When Canadas
infrastructure galloped ahead half a
century ago, the federal government was
an equal partner. It needs to play that
role again today.
The federal government can reduce
costs, improve quality of life and raise
prospects for future growth by using its
strength, not giving it away. The current
plan for the future is to shrink the federal
governments role in the economy to
levels last seen in the 1950s.
The vaunted triple A credit rating
that Finance Minister Joe Oliver waves as
proof of fiscal competence has no value if
it is not used. And theres no plan to use
it. The feds current goal is to eliminate
deficits, run surpluses and reduce the
debt to GDP ratio to 25 per cent.
Instead of looking at the bottom line,
lets look at the horizon line. Lets give
economic policy a real purpose.
Its time to move beyond tax cuts.
They are yesterdays answer to yesterdays
problems. Their only purpose is to help
parties get elected, but at a cost that is far
too high for our future.

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PA RLIAME NTA RY REF ORM-IDEAS

The Publics versus Candidates Views on Who


Should Have the Final Say on the Constitution

60%
20%

56%
26%

PUBLIC*

PUBLIC**

60%
Liberal
Party

40%

22%

Continued from page 63

meant moving forward. NDP leader Jack


Layton whipped his party during free votes
on the basis that human rights should
not be subject to majoritarian voting; and
Quebec Cabinet minister Clifford Lincoln
told Quebec in 1998 that a right is a right
is a right.
So therein lays the paradox of
Parliamentary reform.
On the one hand, free votes allow
MPs to represent the views of their
constituents, which is arguably one of
the few democratic elements in Canadas
Parliamentary system. On the other, it
allows for MPs to push a narrow agenda
that may not reflect the views of the
majority of Canadians to which the
political party might be more sensitive.
Where one comes down on this debate
depends on ones concept of representation.
U.S. president James Madison famously
argued that an elected representative was
a delegate. He or she should vote the will
of constituents. British statesman Edmund
Burke argued that an MP, upon election,
is a trustee for the nation, and should put
the interests of the whole ahead of other
agents and advocates. He felt election
promises were not even binding.
Having said all that, party control is
not a dichotomy; it is a continuum and the
amount of control exercised at the centre

New
Democratic
Party

81%
Green
Party

86%

18%

20%

14%
Conservative
Party

19%

52%

78%

BloC
Qubcois

48%

in Canada most people agree is excessive,


particularly on the government side.
Where free votes might be useful is not
on social issues, which are grounded in
questions or human rights and personal
liberties. It is on government policy which
increasingly in the post-Sept. 11 era
infringes on rights in order to advantage
the power of the state.
When French political philosopher
Montesquieu identified that there were
three distinct arenas of governance
judicial, legislative and executivehe was
not advocating for a republic, but rather
examining the British model which Canada
inherited.
In the British model, the prime minister
is chosen because he or she is the leader of
the political party that has the most seats in
the legislature. But he or she is the head of
the executive branch and not the legislative.
He or she derives legitimacy because of
the support of an independent legislature.
As such, the PM should never be allowed
to control two branches of government,
and yet in Canada he or she controls both
Parliament and the government.
It is telling that when we ask Canadians
who should have the final say, Parliament
or the courts, when it comes to the
constitutions, everyoneeven candidates
for Parliamentsay it should be the courts.
And yet increasingly the government is
both challenging the courts decisions

Sources: Public: Canadian


Election Study* (2004);
Howe and Northrup**
(2000); candidates: Canadian
Candidate Survey (2004).
Note: n = public*: 1,645;
public**: 628; candidates: 559.
Figures may not add to
100 due to rounding.

and being overtly partisan during the


appointment process (something only
partially explained by Conservative Party
candidates being outliers when it comes to
judicial independence).
The logical conclusion of Montesquieus
reasoning was that there needed to be a
separation of powers. The legislative branch,
the judiciary and the executive needed to be
separate so there were checks and balances.
A republic was better than a Parliament.
I teach my students that there are no
best or better systems of government or
electoral systems. Each involves tradeoffs. One needs to decide between, for
example, stability or ensuring that diverse
policies and multiple political parties get
represented. But recent developments have
raised doubts about this dispassionate
academic reasoning.
The Canadian Senates contribution to
Parliament was its independence. Yet the
Mike Duffy trial for alleged fraud, breach
of trust and bribery has exposed just how
involved the Prime Ministers Office is
in decision-making internal to the body.
Parliamentary reform, which has always
been focused on making the legislative
branch more independent, is an idea whose
time had come.
We dont need new reform ideas.
We just need to implement the ones that
political parties have committed to for
decades.

Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

73

Lawn

Summer
Each July, politicos dressed in costume
gather at the Elmdale Lawn Bowling
Club to raise money for Cystic Fibrosis
Canada. Its the roaring 20s meeting
modern lawn bowling. Get ready for

P&I photograph by Jake Wright

Nights

BY M A R TH A I LB OUD O

here is a lot to be said about the art of rolling


a perfect strike. It requires a great deal of
concentration, precision, well-practiced
hand-eye co-ordination and not to mention a little
bit of luck on your side. Now imagine replacing the
thundering sounds of bowling balls rapidly spinning
down wooden lanes and envision instead the quiet
serenity of plush greens, cool summer evenings and
period costumes from the roaring 1920s. This is not
your usual bowling night with friends: this is Lawn
Summer Nights.
A unique and fun-filled event, Lawn Summer
Nights is a tournament aimed at raising money for
and bringing awareness about cystic fibrosis, a genetic
disease that causes various effects on the body, but
mainly affects the digestive system and lungs. Since

74 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

its inception two years ago, Lawn Summer Nights has


gained popularity amongst those in the Ottawa political
circle looking to lend a hand and a voice to the cause.
Greg MacEachern, vice-president of government
relations at Environics Communications, says Lawn
Summer Nights is a great opportunity for people of
all political stripes to come together and socialize.
You have people from the business community,
political community, he says. Ottawa is very much
a government town, but the event has been a great
opportunity for people who might not have otherwise
met to hang out for an evening.
Emily Gringas, one of this years co-chairs on the
Ottawa organizing committee, tells P&I: Its meant
to be for young professionals, to get them engaged in
community involvement and outreach.

LAWN B OWLING-C ULT URE

Tiffany MacLellan participated in last years fundraiser


for Cystic Fibrosis at the Elmdale Lawn Bowling Club.
P&I photograph by Jake Wright

including Vancouver, Victoria, London, Toronto, Ottawa, Calgary and


This years Lawn Summer Nights bowling in Ottawa will take
Halifax. Its raised more than $1-million for Cystic Fibrosis Canada.
place at Elmdale Lawn Bowling Club and will run July 8, 15, 22
Every week in Canada, two children are diagnosed and one
and 29 to raise funds for Cystic Fibrosis Canada. The now-familiar
person dies from cystic fibrosis. Of the Canadians who died in 2012,
1920s and 30s theme will return. From 1930s music to drinks and
half were under the age of 32, making fundraising events such as
the like, this event has quickly become the ideal social event for
Lawn Summer Nights critical in helping support those living with
Ottawas young professionals.
and battling the disease. Its why its an important political issue, says
For former participant Nicole Van Oosten, who got involved
Sara Spence, community engagement coordinator
first as a volunteer through consulting and
at Cystic Fibrosis Canada.
auditing firm KPMG and who later signed up
Its quite important for us to reach many
with a few of her girlfriends, the event strikes
different sorts of people across Canada, one of
the perfect balance between being active and
them being people within our Parliament, she
socializing; which only contributes to its fun
tells P&I, noting that there is support from a lot
and lighthearted atmosphere, all while raising
of MPs, political staff and lobbyists for the annual
money for a good cause.
fundraiser. The Hill Times, Canadas government
I think this event is extremely important.
and politics newsweekly, is also a media sponsor.
As young professionals, I think that our
That that sort of world is able to come out is
opinion and what we care about today
great for us because we then are able to hit another
definitely makes an impact on everyone else in
target audience which is people in government and
our field as well as younger people and older
we can really spread that awareness.
people who look to us for guidance, says
Meredith Taylor, left, former PMO
Mr. MacEachern says that outdoor events such
Ms. Van Oosten. I definitely think that this
staffer, organized the first Lawn
as Lawn Summer Nights is a welcome change
demographic is probably the most influential
Summer Nights in Ottawa. She
from other Hill events and directly makes an
in spreading the word.
is pictured with Lois Graveline,
impact on those who take part. If you look at
Participants in the tournament register
right, Cystic Fibrosis Canada
regional executive director of
the track record of people who worked in politics
in teams of four in a round robin-style of
Ontario North and East.
around Parliament Hill you do tend to have a
tournament where teams are paired with
P&I photograph by Jake Wright
lot of type A personalities, a lot of overachievers
opposing teams. They play three to four games
that go on to do other great things in their [lives]
each night during the event. On the last night,
teams are broken up into tournament-style brackets to get down to whether with organizations or with charities, he says. To have
such intimate knowledge of the effect of cystic fibrosis on such
the final game.
a demographic and such a group in Ottawa I think is extremely
Lawn Summer Nights began in Vancouver in 2009 as a tribute to
Eva Markvoort, a 25-year-old B.C. woman who died of cystic fibrosis helpful. Theyve got this cohort that is extremely well informed
about the disease and invested in providing solution.
in 2010, and has since expanded to seven cities across the country

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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

75

PEOPLE-C OLE BAKER

Cole Baker has been the chef at


the Swedish embassy in Ottawa for
12 years. Hes previously worked
at the Canadian UN mission in New
York and for the Belgian and French
embassies. His favourite guilty
pleasure food is potato chips.
P&I photograph by Andrew Meade

THE DIPLOMATIC CHEF


Cole Baker has cooked for prime ministers and royalty, from parties of five
to 450. But hes really just a humble guy who likes to forage for fresh food.
BY KRI STE N SHA N E

ungry onlookers pepper Cole Baker with questions


and a photographer snaps photos as he moves around
his small stainless-steel kitchen clad in a white chef s
uniform, sauting hissing vegetables in a skillet as a flame leaps
up from the stovetop.
The Swedish ambassador to Canada, his boss, pops in and
out of the kitchen where Mr. Baker is preparing a lunch of
asparagus and mushrooms topped with greens and an ooeygooey egg.
Despite the chaotic environment, the chef doesnt miss a beat.
Hes serious and focused, with none of the puffed-up personality
of celebrity chefs you see on TV.
Having spent the better part of the past two decades working
for diplomatic missions, he rolls with the punches: whether
its a lunch for fivelike todayor 450, the number of guests
that were set to fill Swedish Ambassador Per Sjgrens lawn
overlooking the Ottawa River on June 4 when Sweden celebrated
its national day.
Mr. Baker started cooking more than 30 years ago to further
his desire to travel, working first in Toronto, near where he grew
up, and then in Belgium.

76 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

After hed returned to Canada and set up in Ottawa, he was


approached one day while running the well-respected (now
closed) Domus Caf by the Canadian ambassador to the United
Nations at the time, Robert Fowler, and his wife, Mary. They
needed someone to work for them at the mission in New York.
Working there under a busy foreign minister, Liberal Lloyd
Axworthy, Mr. Baker learned to be ready for anything. He recalls
one night getting a call at 9 p.m. to prepare a lunch for 40 at
the mission, which had no in-house kitchen, the next day. He
booked it to the grocery store and got to work.
He went on to work for the Belgian and French embassies in
Ottawa, and at the Swedish official residence for the last 12 years.
Thats meant cooking a lot more than just the stereotypical
Swedish meatballs for high-profile guests like former prime
ministers (Jean Chrtien, several times), princes and princesses.
Its all the same for me, he says, as vegetables sizzle in the
background.
Working for different countries has meant adapting his style to
fit the hosts tastes and countrys cuisine. Mr. Sjgren says he likes
to eat lunches with lots of greens and fish. The two work together
to plan menus.

Were very pleased to have such a good chef. It means a lot to


us, says Mr. Sjgren.
While he gained experience cooking French and Belgian food
in Belgium, Mr. Bakers main Swedish resources used to come from
recipes, restaurant menus and images he could find online. Hed
never been to Sweden.
The light bulb came on during a weeklong training trip to
Sweden in 2012, during which he visited markets, took a breadmaking course and spent a day working at a top Swedish restaurant.
It just all fell into place and it started letting me do modern
Nordic food, he explains.
He used to have a hobby farm and forage for ingredients. That
personal style meshes with the Swedish culture of foraging.
I feel like being exposed to this, its just given me permission to
just do what I want to do, he tells P&I.
He has an outdoor garden at the sprawling Rockcliffe Park
residence, and in the spring grows herbs in the house. He also started
saving kitchen scraps in a plastic bucket that gets taken regularly
from his kitchen to a farm in Dunrobin, just outside of Ottawa, to be
used for chicken feed. In return, the embassy gets the eggs produced
by those chickensthe ones he used in the days lunch.
Mr. Baker describes his style as letting the food speak for itself,
fresh from the garden or the land: trying to bring out its own best
natural flavour.
Whatever is presented, I just try not to mess it up, he says,
humbly.
And it shines through the food: with few sauces or heavy creams,
he makes light and delicious Swedish-local fusion fare.

P&I photograph by Andrew Meade

RAPID FIRE WITH COLE BAKER


Top summer ingredient? Peaches. They arent really
Swedish, but the peaches here are excellent.
Salty or sweet? Salty.
Favourite food at Ikea? Swedish anchovies. In Italy, they
pack them in salt to cure them. But in Sweden theyre
brined, so there are all these spices in with them.
Favourite guilty-pleasure food? Chips, potato chips.
Hottest Swedish food trend now? Going out and foraging
for food. I think thats something thats embedded in the
culture. Every ambassador whos come through here,
they live in Stockholm, but they all know a good place to
pick mushrooms or berries in the woods.

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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

77

C ULT URE-C OMMON S UNC ORKED

UNIQUE TERROIR:
WHY CANADIAN WINES SHOULD BE CELEBRATED

O
ASHA
HINGORANI
Asha Hingorani is the editor
of Parliament Now, which
closely covers the business
of the House and Senate.
Shes working on completing
her sommelier credentials at
Algonquin College. She hopes
to use her writing and wine
training to expose Canadas
great wine treasures.

ur prosperous agricultural industry is


instrinsicly linked in Canadian heritage, like
making love in a canoe is written on all our
bucket lists. Quebec fromage, Saskatchewan barley,
British Columbia blueberries, and Alberta beef are
all classic Canadian-made and grown masterpieces.
But how about starting the conversation on Canadian
wine, which is certainly an agricultural treasure and
much sexier than grain?
In 2017 Canada will celebrate its 150th anniversary,
and well reminisce on events in our history that have
built Canada into the very best country in the world.
Conservative MP Rick Dykstra, a red wine lover
who represents St. Catharines, Ont., says Canada
150 must celebrate not only its wines, but also the
entrepreneurship exposed by Canadian winegrowers.
From a Canada 150 perspective and from a
Niagara perspective we are going to use the wine
industry and the results of the wine industry, whether it
be agriculture, rural. We have farmers that have become
entrepreneurs from a truer sense of the word and from
a double ended perspective, first they own farms and
second they are now running a wine industry that is
competing against some of the best wines in the world,
says Mr. Dykstra whose riding is right in the middle
of the Niagara Peninsulas wine appellations. I think
there is ample opportunity for the agriculture sector to
play a significant role in the wine industrys growth and
obviously in celebration of Canada 150.
From British Columbias Okanagan Valley,
Ontarios Niagara Peninsula, Nova Scotias Annapolis
Valley to the Eastern Township in Quebec, Canadian
farmers are crushing grapes, fermenting juice and
making prize-winning products that are competing
and seducing palates worldwide.
Mr. Dykstra says its important to steer policy in
ways that are going to benefit and contribute to the
success of the industry.
If the approach we took in the Olympics [Own the
Podium] is any sign, I mean were seeing the same kind
of results in the wine industry. The more dedication,
investment and attention we pay to the wine industry,
the greater the results are going to be, he says.
In many markets worldwide Canada is known and
praised for its icewine. In Korea, especially with the
success of the Canada-Korea Free Trade Agreement
signed on Sept. 22, 2014, Canadian icewine is
regarded as a luxury. But, Canadian vintners produce
much more than icewine.

78 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

Niagaras Chardonnay, Okanagan Valleys cab


franc, and Nova Scotias sparkling wine, all embody
particular aromas and flavours to their respective
regions terroir.
Michelle Rempel, Canadas minister of state
for Western Economic Diversification and current
student of the U.K.-based Wine and Spirits Education
Trust, (an internationally recognized program for
sommelier training), wrote an article that appeared in
a Canadian wine industry publication on the concept
of terroir, the idea that the place where the grapes for
wine are grown is essential to the wines character, and
why its so important for the Canadian industry.
Ms. Rempel wrote, Winemakers who have invested
in quality and into terroir have dramatically increased
the quality and competitiveness of the wine our
country produces. For the consumer, this means seeing
Canada on the label of a bottle of wine is associated
with a luxury, high-end product. This is a big evolution
from the perception of Canadian wine in decades past.
She noted that the Canadian wine industry faces a
challenge in brand recognition in a competitive market.
A focus on terroir and wine produced from Canadian
vistas might just be the magic our industry needs
to grab the attention of the Jancis Robinsons of the
world, she stated, referring to the famed British wine
writer who edited the Oxford Companion to Wine.
So this summer, pick up a Niagara Chardonnay
and pair it with a few Nova Scotia oysters, or sip on
an Okanagan Valley cabernet sauvignon with a thick,
grilled Alberta striploin steak. Challenge your palate
and who knows? Maybe youll love that chard so
much that you can finally cross off canoe lovemaking
from that bucket list.

The more dedication, investment and attention we pay


to the wine industry, the greater the results are going
to be, says Conservative MP Rick Dykstra, enjoying a
Henry of Pelham baco noir. P&I photograph by Jake Wright

B OOK EXC ERPT-IDEAS

Continued from page 69

as unacceptably high youth unemployment, a pension crisis, the


wilting manufacturing sector, the need for a national effort to
move the economy fully into the 21st century, climate change,
record-high household debt and escalating health-care costs.
As one looks ahead, it is clear the next government will face
a wide range of fundamental choices about the kind of country
Canadians want and the development of policies and principles in
nearly every area of lifeeconomic, social, environmental, judicial,
international, etc.
What is long overdue is a commitment by the countrys political
leaders to bigger, forward-looking and courageous ideas about how
to build for the future in a way that makes Canada more than the
sum of its parts. Can the country be motivated to address climate
change in a concerted, positive way based on a strategy to make
renewal energy and exportable green technologies a winner over the
long term? Can Canadas economic energy be harnessed to move
beyond old-fashioned manufacturing technologies or dependence
on natural resources? Why after all these years, to take just one
example, have governments failed to find a way to build a highspeed rail line linking Quebec City to Windsor? Hoping the private
sector will somehow take the initiative in building a better country
while governments reduce taxes and skirt their responsibilities has
been proven to be a recipe for a weakened economic fabric, slow
job growth, widespread public discouragement about the future
and increased benefits only for those at the very top of the societal
pyramid. Canadians deserve a better response to these issues.

Les Whittington covers national economics and politics in the


Parliamentary bureau of the Toronto Star. P&I photograph by Jake Wright

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Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

79

PEOPLE-THE BAC K PAGE

2 0 QU E STI ON S

EVE ADAMS

Liberal MP Eve Adams has been working hard to win her partys nomination in the Toronto
riding of Eglinton-Lawrence, and insiders say its paying off for the former Conservative who
shocked politicos in February when she crossed the floor. Here, the former Mississauga city
councillor, first elected to the House of Commons in 2011 in Mississauga-Brampton South,
Ont., talks about her determined moms immigration story, flying cars, and Marie Curie.
people! What is your most treasured possession? A chair from
hat is your idea of perfect happiness? Sitting on the
the chamber of the provincial legislature from my former boss? A
grass with my son making out shapes in the clouds.
beautiful art piece from another former boss? Lucien Bouchards
What is your greatest fear? That you cant win them
Canadian flag when he set up the BQ? My beloved items are not
all. For instance, when a constituent comes to me in distress
tangible. Its the squeal of laughter from people I love the most.
about themselves or a family member, that we might not be able
What do you regard as the lowest depth of misery? Losing a
to fix the situation. Which living person do you most admire?
child. To a much lesser extent, being betrayed by a friend. What is
My mom. She is the definition of resilience. Shes strong and
your favourite occupation? I love being a mom and I love being a
determined. When her dad didnt pay for her to go to school in
Member of Parliament. I love being with people. Whether we are
the communist 1950s, she put herself through school. She became
striking up a conversation at the grocery store or in Parliament,
a statistician. My mom got herself out of communist Europe and
I love hearing everyones stories. They fret about their mothersbecame an entrepreneur (and amazing mom) in Canada. She
in-law. They worry about their kids. They talk about tomorrow
started by pumping gas in cold Sudbury with a playpen in the
with hope. What is your most marked characteristic? Tenacity.
variety store. We have letters from Hungary demanding she return
Resilience. Giving up is just not an option. What do you most
to serve prison time and give her unborn child (my brother) to
value in your friends? Loyalty; an understanding of hard work and
become a ward of the state. What is your current state of mind?
an ability to balance everything with a sense of humour. Through
Energized, driven and optimistic. Which words or phrases do
it all, your friends are your friends. Who are your favourite
you most overuse? Lets get er done. Which talent would you
writers? Lawrence Hill, Sandor Petofi, Ernest Hemingway. I have
most like to have? To have invented flying cars, already! The
a decent collection of juvenilia, the adolescent writings of famous
Jetsons gave us hope and yet when I sit in GTA gridlock, I
authors. Who is your hero of fiction? Spock or Jean-Luc from
look at vehicle movements, lane capacity, higher order
Star Trek. But it often depends on what I am reading at
transit capacity and secretly curse that flying cars are
the moment. Right now Im still very taken by Aminata
cost prohibitive today. If you could change one thing
Diallo in Lawrence Hills Book of Negroes.
about yourself, what would it be? I work about 18
Hers is such a compelling story of
hours a day and I truly love it. But it wouldnt hurt to
strength, endurance and determination.
drop that to 14 hours a day! What do you consider
Throughout her struggles, she never loses
your greatest achievement? Personally, it is my son,
her warmth or compassion. Who are your
Jeff. He is about to turn 10, yet when thinking of
heroes in real life? I find unsung heroes most
him, I often visualize an ultrasound picture of
compelling, like Malala Yousafzais father
him. As only a mom will tell you, he bears a
who defied authorities and societal norms
striking resemblance to that ultrasound pic.
simply to provide a basic education for his
Professionally, it is hard to choose, but I think
daughter. Its also the Canadian immigrant
it would be a toss up between spearheading
who works through the night as a janitor for
the Hire A Veteran campaign as
years, but ensures that her child grows up
Parliamentary secretary at Veterans Affairs
in peace and graduates from a Canadian
so that we could help find well-paying
university. Which historical figure do you
employment for young vets coming
most identify with? Marie Curie. She won
home from Afghanistan. I also love being
the Nobel prize in an era when women were
invited back to the parks, community
not welcome in universities. She is perhaps
centre, daycare and pools I helped to
the most classic example of women being
build as a city councillor. Where would
told they dont belong, when in fact they do
you most like to live? A place to live, a
belong and they can certainly excel. What
place to grow, Ontari-ari-ario! Ive lived
are your favourite names? Jeffrey, Ryan,
in Hamilton, Sudbury, Simcoe, London,
Alexander, Horvath. What is your motto?
Ottawa, Toronto, Mississauga, Oakville and
One more door and then we can finish up! is
Im now moving into Eglinton-Lawrence.
P&I illustration by Anthony Jenkins
This is one great province with great
usually said at around 9:30 p.m.

80 Power & Inf luence Summer 2015

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