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Blue Ridge Undergraduate Research Conference
March 26-27, 2010 Lindsey Wilson College Columbia, KY
Table of Contents
Welcome and Acknowledgements..................................................................................................... History of the Blue Ridge Undergraduate Research Conference …………………………………. Brief Biography of the Keynote Speaker, Dr. Mark Harvey………….…………………………… Conference Schedule ......................................................................................................................... Session Schedule................................................................................................................................ Abstracts ............................................................................................................................................
Welcome and Acknowledgements I want to extend a warm welcome to all participants in the Blue Ridge Undergraduate Research Conference. The Conference provides an opportunity for students at colleges and universities in the Appalachian College Association to present their research in a supportive, open environment. For many students, it is a first conference experience. The research that will be presented during the next two days represents a significant investment of time and energy by both students and their faculty advisors. Congratulations to all of you for making the commitment to participate in undergraduate research initiatives at your campuses. The 2010 BRURC includes both oral presentations and posters of undergraduate research. The posters will be displayed on the first floor of Fugitte Science Center. The schedule for presentations is included in the program. Student researchers will also be asked to go to Fugitte 127 for a brief interview after their presentations. The interviews will be posted on the conference website. There will also be a conference blog posted on the conference site (www.lindsey.edu, Academics, BRURC). We want to express appreciation to Dr. Mark Harvey from UNC-Asheville for agreeing to be the keynote speaker for the conference This year’s conference has been made possible by the work of many people. Thanks go to the members of the BRURC Steering Committee which was formed last year with the support of the ACA. Members include Dr. Melinda Dukes (Tusculum College), Dr. Brian Pope (Tusculum College), Dr. Tom Harlow (Tusculum College), Dr. Bettie Starr (Lindsey Wilson College), Dr. Kerry Towler (Tennessee Wesleyan College), and Dr. Rubye W. Beck (Milligan College). Thanks also to Duane Bonifer and his staff for interviewing conference participants. Finally, special thanks to Jennifer Cundiff, the administrative assistant and manager of the Academic Affairs Office at Lindsey Wilson. The conference would not have come together without her hard work and dedication over the past months. Please take time at the end of the conference to fill out the conference evaluation. We hope to improve the conference each year but we need your help to do that. Again, thanks for being with us at the conference this year. We hope to see you next at year’s conference.
Bettie C. Starr Vice President for Academic Affairs Lindsey Wilson College
History of the Blue Ridge Undergraduate Research Conference
Originally called the Southeastern Undergraduate Research Conference, the Blue Ridge Undergraduate Research Conference is committed to providing a forum for southern Appalachian students to present the results to their research in a convenient and interesting setting.
1993, 1994 1995 1996
King College, Bristol, TN Milligan College, Milligan, TN Tenth National Conference on Undergraduate Research University of North Carolina, Asheville, NC Carson-Newman College, Jefferson City, TN King College, Bristol, TN Lee University, Cleveland, TN Carson-Newman College, Jefferson City, TN Maryville College, Maryville, TN Milligan College, Milligan, TN King College, Bristol, TN Tusculum College, Greeneville, TN Lindsey Wilson College, Columbia, KY
1997 1998 1999 2000 2001, 2002 2003, 2004 2005, 2006 2007, 2008 2009, 2010
Lindsey Wilson College, on the behalf of the member colleges, expresses thanks to all of those whose research, advisement of the student researchers, and academic and structural input have made this conference a permanent part of the southern Appalachian educational experience.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College
Keynote Speaker Mark Harvey
Dr. Mark Harvey is Associate Professor of Psychology and Director of Undergraduate Research at University of North Carolina-Asheville. Dr. Harvey earned his B.A. in Psychology from the University of Iowa and his MS and PhD in Social Psychology from Colorado State University. He has taught a number of courses at UNCA including General Psychology: Brain & Behavior, Research Methods I & II, Social Psychology, Environmental Psychology, and Humanities: The Ancient World. Dr. Harvey is on the Board of Directors of the National Conference on Undergraduate Research and has helped direct the Appalachian College Association-UNC Asheville Undergraduate Research Partnership to support undergraduate research in the arts and humanities. His research and professional interests are informal science learning and environmental psychology.
Friday, March 26 (All times Central) 11:30 – 2:00pm 1:00 – 1:45pm Registration ...................................................Hodge Discipleship Center Lobby Opening Session....................................................... Hodge Discipleship Center Welcome ..................................................................Dr. William T. Luckey, Jr., President, Lindsey Wilson College Speaker Introduction............................................................ Dr. Bettie C. Starr, Vice President of Academic Affairs, Lindsey Wilson College Keynote Speaker ................................................................... Dr. Mark Harvey, Associate Professor of Psychology and Director of Undergraduate Research, University of North Carolina-Asheville (NC) Registration .................................................................. Fugitte Basement Lobby Presentation Session I .................................................... Fugitte 131, 118 & 119 Break ............................................................................ Fugitte Basement Lobby Presentation Session II........................................... Fugitte 106, 118, 119 & 131 Poster Session & Graduate School Fair ....................... Fugitte Basement Lobby Dinner & Graduate School Panel...................................Cranmer Dining Center Student Social ................................................ Stir Fry Band, Slider Recital Hall
2:00 – 5:15 pm 2:15 – 3:30 pm 3:30 – 3:45 pm 3:45 – 5:00 pm 5:00 – 6:00 pm 6:00 – 7:30 pm 7:30 pm
Saturday, March 27 (All times Central) 7:30 – 10:00 am 8:00 – 9:15 am 9:30 – 11:00 am 11:15 – 12:00 am Registration ..................................................Hodge Discipleship Center Lobby Presentations Session III ................................................ Fugitte 131, 118 & 119 Presentation Session IV ......................................... Fugitte 106, 118, 119 & 131 Announcement of the BRURC Award for Outstanding Research..........Hodge
Session Schedule at a Glance
Friday, March 26, 2010 Conference Judges: Dr. Mark McKinnon, Lindsey Wilson College Dr. Greg Phelps, Lindsey Wilson College Dr. Erin Wais Hennen, Lindsey Wilson College 2:15-3:30 pm Presentation Session I Psychology ............................................................................................ Fugitte 118 Moderator..................................................... Dr. J. Kevin DeFord, King College Personality Differences Between Distance Runners and Sprinters Daniel Hamilton, King College Dieting and Desire for Weight Loss in Adolescents Felicia Campbell, King College As Age Increases, Does the Importance for Looks in a Potential Romantic Partner Decrease? Rebekah Davis, King College English................................................................................................... Fugitte 119 Moderator............................................ Mr. Jared Odd, Lindsey Wilson College *Presentation Judged for BRURC Award *Writing Center or Dry Cleaner? Perspectives on Writing Centers Hannah Ryann Allen, Lindsey Wilson College *Who’s Got the Beat? Jeffrey Taylor, Maryville College *Then You Will Know the Truth, and the Truth Will Set you Free” Blindness and SelfProtection in the Oedipus, Tragedies and the Self-Protection of the Visually Impaired Adria Nassim, Brescia University Psychology ............................................................................................ Fugitte 131 Moderator..........................................Dr. Brian Hilker, Lindsey Wilson College Does the Mass Media of Today’s Society Effect How We Perceive Ourselves? Jena Rickard, King College Is Life Really Better Blonde? Kara Proffitt, Lindsey Wilson College The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Personality April Williams, King College
Presentation Session II History................................................................................................... Fugitte 118 Moderator....................................Dr. Melinda Senters, Lindsey Wilson College *Presentation Judged for BRURC Award *The Indian Politician: John Ross and His Tactics to Prevent Cherokee Removal Casey Cannon, Lindsey Wilson College *Legitimizing Farm Work: The Change in the Definition of Domestic Work Amber Collins, Tusculum College *James Madison – Man of the Common Good Allison Downs, Lindsey Wilson College Psychology ............................................................................................ Fugitte 119 Moderator.......................................................Dr. J. Kevin Deford, King College School Uniforms & Academic Success Laura Sanders Blevins, King College Investigating the Correlation Between Body Mass Index, and Self-Esteem, Authentic Happiness, Satisfaction in Life, Relationships, and Body Esteem Aubrey Gordon, King College Measuring the Loss of Touch Sensitivity in Stroke Patients Lindsey McKay, King College Psychology ............................................................................................ Fugitte 106 Moderator..........................................Dr. Brian Hilker, Lindsey Wilson College Preparation for Family and its Effects on Career Kaitlyn Musick, King College Can Music Influence Your Distance Run? Derek Brown, Lindsey Wilson College The Effects of Movement on Stress Victoria Philbeck, King College Psychology ............................................................................................ Fugitte 131 Moderator.......................................Dr. Bettie C. Starr, Lindsey Wilson College Reducing Stress Through Physical Exercise Amanda Rae Davis, King College Loneliness and Alcohol Abuse Ih Jay Shim, King College Does Author Gender and Topic Affect Perceived Quality of Writing? Kara Feese, Lindsey Wilson College
5:00 – 6:00 pm
Poster Session & Graduate School Fair.................Fugitte Basement Lobby *Poster Judged for BRURC Award Benefitting Homeplace on Green River Jacob Ilg, Lindsey Wilson College *Colonial America 1607-1750 Shana Bowen and Marcus Caesar, Lindsey Wilson College *Depression and Avoidance of Positive Stimuli: An Eye-Tracking Study Marianne Hall, Marilyn Bloodworth, and Esther Jaynese Thornton, Lee University Saturday, March 27, 2010
8:00 – 9:30am
Presentations Session III Biology................................................................................................... Fugitte 118 Moderator............................... Dr. Melissa P. Clauson, Lindsey Wilson College *Presentation Judged for BRURC Award *Synthetic Lethal Screen for Interacting Mutants of the SQS1 Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Samuel Asante, Aaron Ballou, Tara Bangtson, Megan Huckaby, Brittany Taylor, Lindsey Wilson College *Antibiotic Resistance Analysis as a Method of Tracking Fecal Contamination in Norris Reservoir, TN Shelby Kirkpatrick, Lincoln Memorial University Effects of Low Impact Outdoor Activity on Stress David Bevins, King College Psychology ............................................................................................ Fugitte 119 Moderator........................ Dr. Ronald Thornton, Lincoln Memorial University The Influence of Spirituality or Religiosity on Death Anxiety in College Students Kristin Mayes, Lincoln Memorial University Gender Differences Among Anxiety Sensitivity, Heart Rate, and Coping with Humor Cayla Lewis, King College Odor Memory Recall Amanda Rae Davis, King College Psychology ............................................................................................ Fugitte 131 Moderator............................ Dr. Christy Cowan, Lincoln Memorial University What Color is Taste? Color’s Effect on Taste Perception Hannah Sergent, Lincoln Memorial University
Gender Differences in Stress and Coping Emily Light, King College Effect of Time of the Day on Athletic Performance Agnieszka Wojtowicz, Lindsey Wilson College Hostile and Non-hostile Priming Derek Morrow, Lindsey Wilson College 9:45 – 11:00am Presentation Session IV Psychology/Natural Sciences............................................................... Fugitte 118 Moderator........................ Dr. Ronald Thornton, Lincoln Memorial University *Presentation Judged for BRURC Award *The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Perceived Family Support Brittany Hall, King College *Sex Differences in Mate Selection Preferences Craig McCargo, King College *Who’s Faster? A Study of Reaction Times Matthew Pennington, King College Psychology ............................................................................................ Fugitte 119 Moderator..................................................... Dr. J. Kevin DeFord, King College Musical Distractions Hindering Memory Recollection Stephanie Parsley, King College Actual Helping Behaviors: Women vs. Men Zandra Nicely, Lincoln Memorial University Test Anxiety Reduction Through General Education Courses Shanna Kellum, King College Psychology/Social Science ................................................................... Fugitte 106 Moderator............................ Dr. Christy Cowan, Lincoln Memorial University Superstitions of the Appalachian Area Heather Smith, Lincoln Memorial University The Impact of Student Engagement & Self-Esteem on Academic Performance: A Look Into The World of Colleges and Students Christina Tidman, King College Music and Grades Lindsay Delmoral, Tennessee Wesleyan College
Art/Psychology.......................................................................................Fugitte 131 Moderator......................................... Ms. Lori Sargent, Lindsey Wilson College Research Applications Benefitting Homeplace on Green River Sandy Moore, Lindsey Wilson College An Analysis of Purposes for Various Photographic Compositions Amy Crockett, Lindsey Wilson College Student Satisfaction with King College and Students Grade Point Averages Rachael Cook, King College A Sight Unseen: Perception, Body, Image, and Acuity of Eating Disorders Jeff Creely and Stephanie Coleman, Lee University
Blue Ridge Undergraduate Research Conference
Lindsey Wilson College March 26, 2010
*Abstracts have been reproduced exactly as they were received.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Hannah Ryann Allen Lindsey Wilson College Faculty Advisor, Dr. Kate Warrington
Writing Center or Dry Cleaner? Perspectives on Writing Centers While a relatively new introduction to the collegiate world, writing centers are now a part of many college campuses nationwide. Even so, students, teachers, and tutors all have varying perspectives on what the purposes of writing centers are. All of these individuals play a huge role in defining the goals of the writing centers, determining what kind of material is worked on in the writing centers, and establishing the credibility of the writing centers. When these different perspectives clash, it can cause communication issues between professors and the writing centers to arise, it can cause the writing centers to lose credibility, and it can result in mistrust of the writing centers on the student’s part. Working with so many different perspectives on what a writing center should do and how tutors should conduct sessions presents many challenges that must be overcome. With improved communication between these three groups, writing centers can provide better services to students and possibly shed the misconceptions and preconceived notions that students bring to the writing center, in addition to showing teachers that writing centers are a useful service to students if utilized in the correct, most beneficial ways.
Samuel Asante Aaron Ballou Tara Bangtson Megan Huckaby Brittany Taylor Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Melissa P. Clauson
Synthetic Lethal Screen for Interacting Mutants of the SQS1 Gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae The SQS1 gene (Squelching of Splicing suppression gene) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces a gene product involved in RNA processing of both rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) and mRNA (messenger ribonucleic acid) and is non-essential. mRNA processing involves the removal of introns (intervening RNA sequences) with the splicing together of exon RNA to produce a mature RNA that once capped and polyadenylated may be transferred to the cytoplasm of a cell for translation into protein. Splicing of premRNAs is conducted in a large ribonuclearprotein complex called a splicesome. A synthetic lethal screen has been undertaken to isolate interacting factors of the Sqs1p polypeptide. A synthetic lethal screen uses a color sectoring assay to identify interacting factors of known gene products. Currently, isolation of non-sectoring yeast colonies representing strains containing mutations in genes whose products are possible RNA processing factors is underway.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College David Bevins King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin Deford Effects of Low Impact Outdoor Activity on Stress
The effects of low impact, outdoor activity were observed on a sample from the population of King College undergraduate students. Using a pre and post test design and gathering survey data, heart rate, and blood pressure, the stress levels of the individuals were measured. Once these measurements were taken, the pre-activity stress levels were compared with the post-activity stress levels as a means of evaluating the effect of low impact outdoor activity. The statistical analysis comparing the multiple stress level measurements showed a significant effect on the levels of physical exertion and consequently stress.
Laura Sanders Blevins King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin Deford School Uniforms and Academic Achievement
The purpose of this research was to measure how parents feel about the impact of school uniforms upon their child’s academic achievement. A random sample of parents from local public and private schools were asked to complete a survey. The survey consisted of 15 questions and encompassed general demographic information as well as personal opinion questions. The majority of parents felt that school uniforms are or could be a positive influence on their child’s academic performance. Many of the public school parents felt that their children spent too much time on their appearance and less time on their academics. The majority of these parents also felt that school uniforms would promote a sense of community and pride in their children. Private school parents were pleased with their children wearing uniforms and felt that the uniforms fostered academic success in their child. They contributed this to a feeling of community, pride and the self esteem they felt the uniforms brought to their child. The lack of competition and increased focus on academics was another positive for those families whose children wore school uniforms. Whether the wearing of uniforms provides a direct link to better academic achievement is not conclusive, however, previous research supports that there are fewer discipline problems and higher attendance rates when uniforms policies are put into place.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Shana Bowen and Marcus Caesar Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Melinda Senters Colonial America 1607-1750
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries North America was tri-racial. Natives, European whites, and Africans co-existed as their cultures clashed and competed for superiority. Women of each culture held tight to any empowerment or independence that they were able to maintain, while White European men continued the laws and customs of their patriarchal homeland and emerged as the most dominant. European women were typically confined to the home and subservient to their families and male counterparts, although some found employment outside the home and were active in public life. Although slavery was an oppressive institution, African women were resilient. They faced a subordinate life of slavery, yet demonstrated agency by maintaining their names and culture. The Native way of life was by far the most beneficial for women. Native women had a strong influence within their tribes and families. They experienced great independence and had multiple responsibilities which were crucial to the survival of the clan. Although women of each culture shared a common submissiveness to the whims and wishes of white European males, they were able to persevere through these struggles and thrive in various aspects of life.
Derek Brown Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. David Ludden
Can Music Influence Your Distance Run? The Influence of Classical and Rock and Roll Music on Distance Run In this study, forty men were divided into two groups (Classical and Rock and Roll). Each group was exposed to either classical music or Rock and Roll music while running for thirty minutes on treadmills. Although the Rock and Roll group ran further on average than the classical group, the difference was not statistically significant when the data were subjected to a two-sample t-test. It is possible that the sample size may have been too small to accurately test this hypothesis.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Felicia Campbell King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Dieting and Desire for Weight Loss in Adolescents
The prevalence of dieting and desire for weight loss was examined in male and female adolescents. The participants responded to Stotland & Zuroffs’ Dieting Beliefs scale along with other demographic questions. Participant’s recorded their daily food intake and physical activities for one week and that was compared to their basal metabolic rate, the minimum calorific requirement in an individual. The prevalence of dieting and desire for weight loss was comparable to results in past research showing a significant difference between males and females. Females were dieting more than males and they also had a stronger desire for weight loss. Males were found dieting, but dieting in order to gain weight. The significant findings between the male and females are emphasized and discussed in relation to previous research.
Casey Cannon Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. David Moore
The Indian Politician: John Ross and His Tactics to Prevent Cherokee Removal As the leader of the Cherokee Nation in the early nineteenth-century, John Ross faced overwhelming odds in combating the U.S Government on the issue of Cherokee removal. Ross used his intellect to fight the U.S government with rational arguments, instead of violence. He was a leader for the Cherokees, but more importantly, a resourceful politician. In 1838, Cherokee Indians were beginning to realize that a forced removal from their home in the south east, an area that many white settlers wanted for themselves, to the west was quickly becoming a reality. Ross used numerous arguments as proof that the Cherokees had rights to the land, and that they were capable of taking care of it. Ross argued that the Cherokees were becoming more “civilized” and could assimilate into a white man’s culture. He also contended that the politicians had a parental obligation and appealed to their democratic sentiments, and his years in Washington D.C. had given him the skills needed for white politics. Ross and the Cherokees ultimately lost their battle and were forced out west on the Trail of Tears, but his struggle still remains important today.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Amber Collins Tusculum College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Angela Keaton
Legitimizing Farm Work: The Change in the Definition of Domestic Work Abstract-At the beginning of the twentieth century through the Great Depression, middle-class white women were reconstructing their identities rooted in the home. Rather than expressing a desire to flee the sphere of domesticity, these rural women instead sought to identify and validate their domestic work as a legitimate means of employment. While historiography of women during this time period stresses that women were eager to leave the home, the private letters, bulletins from federal labor departments, and surveys from the Department of Agriculture present a story of women who were happy with their lives, especially their work, in the home. In my research, I explore how rural, middle-class, white women appealed to federal agriculture and labor programs as a means to achieve legitimacy for traditional, female work roles in the home. The paper uncovers the efforts of these women to bolster the domestic work of women and at the same time illustrates the expectations of female citizens in regard to federal assistance in the pre-New Deal era.
Rachael Cook King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Student Satisfaction with King College and Student’s Grade Point Average
The purpose of this study was to investigate how King College students’ satisfaction was related to their grade point averages (GPA). Student satisfaction was measured in 2 ways: by an overall satisfaction question and then by averaging a series of questions related to satisfaction with King College. These questions included topics such as academic issues, campus environment, campus life, communications, services, safety, and how confident the students are with emergency precautions (bomb threats, fire, emergency weather precautions, traffic accidents, physical injury) on campus. The students’ gender, living status (whether they live on campus or off), employment status (whether employed in a job relevant to their field of study), parents (whether or not their parents went to college), and involvement with clubs/organizations on campus were also taken into account. Overall, student satisfaction and grade point averages did not have a significant correlation; however, certain demographics were significantly related to satisfaction of individual topics.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College James E.C. Creely Stephanie Cole Lee University
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Heather Quagliana A Sight Unseen: Perception, Body Image, and the Acuity of Eating Disorders
The goal of this experiment was to study the mechanics of awareness—with special focus on expanding on the concept of body image, extra-personal perception, and its correlation with increased incidence of eating disorder. The researchers analyzed the reaction and sight patterns of individuals afflicted with eating disorders when confronted with images of body flaws. The experiment intended to find significant visual phenomenon that would account for increased awareness of body flaws in others as a function of severity. The experiment included __ participants, __ female. Subjects watched 6 randomized images for 2 seconds and completed an eating disorder diagnostic test. Their mean average for duration of time spent lingering on problem areas was then calculated and compared to reveal if differences in the amount time spent by the subjects ED positive was more than those not struggling with ED. For our experiment those participants with ED spent more time observing body flaws than those who did not. Further research is necessary to determine it such a correlation could be used in the future as a non survey based diagnostic for those with un-established eating disorders.
Amy Crockett Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Ms. Lori Sargent An Analysis of Purposes for Various Compositions
Homeplace, a small but historically significant farm that is nestled in the corners of three counties in south-central Kentucky, was selected as the site where a series of photographs were taken college classes, seventeen of which were selected for their various approaches to composition, subject matter, mood, light color, and details. A survey instrument was developed, and 75 college students and 10 community members surveyed for their reactions to the photographs. This research project analyzed the results of the survey and indicate that high contrast close-up photos were preferred by college students and therefore may be more effective in attracting students to learn about and get involved with Homeplace, and a combination of close-ups and broader, more traditional landscapes may be recommended for attracting the general public and informing them about the farm.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Amanda Rae Davis King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Odor Memory Recall
The purpose of this experiment was to determine if odors aid in memory recall. This research experiment is exploring whether having an odor present during a study session and during a test session will bring about more accurate memory recall. King College students were the participants used for the experiment. The experiment consisted of four different conditions. Two conditions consisted of an odor being emitted throughout the testing room, while the other two conditions did not have an odor present. The participants either read or heard a short story as the second independent variable, and then afterwards they took a multiple choice test to measure their memory recall. Six demographic questions were asked to the participants to see how each individual preferred to study and how much they studied. The findings did suggest a difference in memory performance for males and females. These findings will be further explored in relation to the varied cues and presentation types.
Amanda Rae Davis King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Reducing Stress Through Physical Exercise
The purpose of this research study was to examine the relationship between the amount of physical exercise and perceived stress in college students. The study is looking to see if there is a significant correlation between the amount of physical exercise that college students partake in, and the perceived stress that they feel. King College students were the participants in the study. The Perceived Stress Scale was used to measure the participants stress. Eleven demographic questions were asked to differentiate the athletes from the non-athletes, and to determine the amount of physical exercise each participant thought they partook in during a week’s time. The findings suggest no significant relationship between perceived stress and physical exercise. These findings will be discussed in relation to previous research that explored these variables.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Rebekah Davis King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord
As Age Increases, Does the Importance for Looks in a Potential Romantic Partner Decrease? When people get older, do they believe physical appearance is less important for a potential romantic partner than when they were younger? A sample of college students and older adults was taken to assess the differences in age groups for finding a mate. The participants were asked to fill out a survey to find out what they believe to be true about traits related to mate preference. They filled out the survey and handed it back into the researcher. The results found that the participants who were younger found potential partners through clubs. This was one place the older group did not look for partners. Another result was that no matter what age, out of the six things that were rated in importance, money tended to be one of the least important things. Future research that could be done may include finding out the difference for younger and older gays and lesbians.
Lindsay Delmoral Tennessee Wesleyan College Music and Grades
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Kerry Towler
The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between participation in music lessons and grade point average. Base on the research, students in music lessons do better in math and reading. This indicates that there is a strong and reliable association between music education and higher grade point averages. Participants were college students between the ages of 18-26. A t test was applied to evaluate the hypothesis: If music lessons do enhance a student’s ability to achieve higher grades, then grade point averages for students who have taken music lessons will be higher in ACR classes.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Allison Downs Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Melinda Senters James Madison and the Common Good
In the 1780s, the Articles of Confederation were rapidly failing. They had only created a “firm league of friendship” with no central authority to enforce the law. Elected delegates from each colony had met at two conventions with the hopes of fixing the government yet neither proved successful. At their close, James Madison called for a new convention, later known as the Constitutional Convention, whose sole purpose would be to design a new government. James Madison made it clear that he was concerned first and foremost with the common good. Before the convention Madison made his plans well known to his acquaintances George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. At the Constitutional Convention Madison formalized his ideas with the introduction of the Virginia Plan. After the adoption of a new government James Madison wrote of serious of essays known as the Federalist Papers to defend his plan. Throughout this process Madison never lost faith that his ideas would promote the common good despite his doubts in the new constitution, his failure to achieve all of his goals, and strong opposition from those who felt Madison was only destroying the common good. His talent as a leader and his persistence truly makes James Madison a man for the common good.
Kara Feese Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. David Ludden
Does Author Gender and Topic Affect Perceived Quality of Writing? 120 Lindsey Wilson College students participated in this study. The students were given one of four papers. Two papers were identical and about diesel mechanics but with a male or a female author. The other two papers were identical and about elementary education but with a male or female author. Participants then answered ten questions using a 7-point scale about the paper. Only the question, “How would you grade this paper?” is the target question and graded the author. The data suggests that males are “graded” higher on diesel mechanics, while females are “graded” higher on elementary education.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Aubrey Gordon King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord
Investigating the correlation between body mass index, and self esteem, authentic happiness, Satisfaction in life, relationships, and body esteem. AResearch has shown that body mass index can have a negative effect on a person’s overall life satisfaction (McCreary & Sadava, 2001). The components of life satisfaction that have been investigated pertain to the differences in gender and perception of each gender. This research extends into the different factions of life satisfaction: relationships, body esteem, happiness, and life satisfaction. Data were attained from King College students. A sample of men and women were surveyed who attend the institution of King College. Although over weight men tended to have more of a positive relationship to life satisfaction, happiness, relationships, and body esteem compared to underweight men, underweight women rated themselves to be happier, have better life satisfaction, better relationships, and greater body esteem then overweight women. There has been sufficient cause for further exploration into this area because weight gain can be a cause of serious health problems (Roberts, R. E, Strawbridge, W. J., Deleger, S. & Kaplan, G. A., (2002).
Brittany Hall King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Perceived Family Support
The purpose of the research was to determine the relationship between a college student’s self-esteem and the amount of support they perceive from their family. Using the Rosenberg’s Self-Esteem Scale and the Perceived Family Support Scale, the student’s level of self-esteem and their perceived level of support was tested. The results indicated that there is a positive correlation between a student’s self-esteem and the overall amount of support they perceive from their families. This study’s conclusion showed that as the perceived amount of support increased, so did the student’s self-esteem. Further studies could be conducted to see what other variables perceived family support could affect, and what other factors affect their self-esteem.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Marianne Hall, Marilyn Bloodworth, and Esther Jaynese Thornton Lee University Faculty Advisor, Dr. Heather Quagliana Depression and Avoidance of Positive stimuli: An Eye-Tracking Study Past research on depression and eye-tracking indicates that depressed individuals selectively attend to negative visual stimuli. Based on this research, as well as data from exploratory research, this project further investigated selective avoidance of positive visual stimuli in depressed individuals. Utilizing Tobii Eye-tracking equipment, we monitored the gazing patterns and visual attention of 58 college students. The eye-tracking slide show included pictures of groups of individuals with various expressions, individuals with smiles, and individuals with neutral expressions. The participants also completed the Beck Depression Inventory II. The relationship between one’s depression score and the time spent gazing at smiles was investigated and will be evaluated for a correlation. Further research could investigate the possibility of eye-tracking equipment being utilized as an assessment tool for depression, as well as the implications for modifying the focus of psychotherapy to include making the client aware of any selective avoidance and attention to positive or negative stimuli.
David Hamilton King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Personality Differences between Distance Runners and Sprinters
The purpose of this research is to evaluate personality differences between distance runners and sprinters. Before designing the experiment, I interviewed two track coaches to get their opinions on whether there will be differences between the two groups. Both coaches agreed that there would be significant differences in the groups on procrastination and personality traits. For this project I administered surveys on procrastination and personal attributes to 10 distance runners and 10 sprinters. In the two groups, there were five men and five women in each of the subgroups to keep answers consistent between sexes. The surveys were handed out to the athletes on a personal basis and returned to me after they were finished. To test levels of procrastination between the two groups I used the procrastination lickerd scale (Lay, 1986) for student populations. There was no significant difference between distance runners and sprinters in the area of procrastination. The rest of the study will address significant differences between the two groups in other aspects of personality.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Jacob Ilg Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Ms. Lori Sargent
Cultivators: Historical Research and Applications Benefitting Homeplace on Green River Cultivators have been an important implement in the history of farming. This study focused on learning about the purpose and changes in cultivators and the company that made an example cultivator, researching contemporary recommendations for restoring farm equipment, completing a restoration, and developing an informational display. The cultivator is part of the permanent collection of Homeplace on Green River, an educational farm that is near campus, and will be displayed with the educational poster in the farm’s implement museum.
Shanna Kellum King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Test Anxiety Reduction through General Education Courses
High school students have many decisions to make when choosing their ideal institution for higher education. Among these choices is whether or not to attend a liberal arts college. Is there justification in taking many classes unrelated to the major field of study? This research project aims to answer that question by demonstrating that general education courses reduce the amount of test anxiety experienced by students. The reduction of test anxiety can improve many students’ grades on those tests by allowing the student to remember what she studied. The study includes students having completed above 50 hours of general education courses and students having completed less than 40 hours of general education courses. The study implements a test anxiety scale and a heart rate monitor as measures of anxiety when the student is taking an exam. These findings suggest that some liberal arts students experienced a decrease in test anxiety, while others were unaffected.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Shelby Kirkpatrick Lincoln Memorial University
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Joanna Badara
This study evaluated the presence of E. faecalis in recreational waters and tracked its source using antibiotic resistance analysis. Enterolert was used to measure levels of E. faecalis in water samples collected from four marinas. The levels were compared to the EPA standard, among marinas, and among summer holidays. No statistically significant differences were found. Two libraries of antibiotic resistance patterns were created employing isolates from human sewage (human library) and cattle sources (cattle library). Antibiotic resistance patterns from isolates collected from marinas were then compared to the libraries and classified using discriminant analysis. The major source of fecal bacteria was determined to be human.
Cayla Lewis King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Kevin DeFord
Gender Differences Among Anxiety Sensitivity, Heart Rate, and Coping with Humor This study investigated anxiety sensitivity and how humor was used to cope in different situations. The aims were to determine if there was a significant difference between males and females, to establish a possible correlation between anxiety and humor, and to determine if there was a relationship between heart rate and a higher level of anxiety sensitivity. The Anxiety Sensitivity Index-Revised and the Situational Humor Response Questionnaire were used to measure the variables along with a measure of heart rate. Anxiety sensitivity and humor were investigated in 35 individuals, and heart rate was measured in 10 individuals before and after they completed the survey. The data showed no association in the anxiety sensitivity levels, humor usage, and heart rates comparing males to females. There are several reasons that the data did not yield a significant difference. Because of the growing awareness of this topic, there should be further research conducted pertaining to anxiety sensitivity, heart rate, and situational humor usage as anxiety is normally present in individuals’ lives.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Emily Light King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Gender Differences in Stress and Coping Among College Students
This study was completed to determine if there are gender differences in stress and coping among college aged students. Two measures were used. The first measure was the Perceived Stress Scale (Cohen & Williamson, 1988) which measured the amount of stress that each participant believed that they had been under over the past month. The second measure was the Brief COPE model (Carver, 1997) which determined the coping strategy of each participant. These coping strategies were self-distraction, active coping, denial, substance use, use of emotional support, use of instrumental support, behavioral disengagement, venting, positive reframing, planning, humor, acceptance, religion, and self-blame. The participants in this study were students from King College. More females than males participated in this study which is typical to the King College population. There was not a significant difference in gender with perceived stress but there was a significant difference in some coping strategies. Females reported using more emotional support while males tended to use acceptance as a coping strategy. While I did not find a significant difference in gender with respect to avoidant coping, a previous study done by Eschenbeck et al. (2007) found that boys were more likely than girls to participate in avoidant coping.
Kristin Mayes Lincoln Memorial University
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Christy Cowan
“The Influence of Religiosity or Spirituality on Death Anxiety in College Students” Although past research in death studies and death anxiety is inconclusive, recent research confirms that death anxiety is negatively correlated with religious worship. The results of this study confirm this hypothesis (t(88) = -3.99, p = .000). On average men express statistically less death anxiety than women. Although the majority of the sample was female (N=67 females and N=23 males), men generally reported having a slightly higher level of death anxiety than women. However, this finding was not statistically significant. The death anxiety mean for female participants was M = 40.82, SD = 13.88, the death anxiety mean for male participants was M = 45.78, SD = 20.30. Future research is needed to establish the relationship between death anxiety and sex and between different religious affiliations and death anxiety in both men and women.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Craig McCargo King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Sex Differences In Mate Selection Preferences
This research of sex differences in mate selection preferences was designed to see what characteristics males and females find most desirable in choosing a potential mate. Participants in the present study will be made up of King College students ranging from the ages of 18 to 24. There will be a representative sample of females and males so that there will be no bias and the best results can be obtained. Many of the participants will come from psychology courses and receive course credit for the efforts. A 4-point Likert scale will be used to measure the characteristic traits males and females prefer in a mate. There are 15 characteristics in which the participants will choose from. The qualities measured by this scale include traits such as caring, compassion, honest, hardworking and selfish. These results showed that certain traits were significantly more important for females than males. Additionally, some traits were more important for males compared to females. The results were very supportive of previous research done in mate selection.
Lindsey McKay King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Measuring Touch Sensitivity
This project is the result of experimentation based on touch sensitivity differences between participants who have and have not suffered from a stroke. Approximately 30 nursing home patients were asked to participate in research. The patients were chosen by the medical staff at random with an equal number of stroke and non-stroke patients. Touch sensitivity was tested by using a medical swab to stimulate touch sensation receptors on designated areas of the body. The medical swab was the instrument of choice because one end displays a cotton texture and the other end is a wooden stem. The difference between the two textures was used as a means of testing two levels of the participant’s touch sensitivity. Results were observed and the data analysis supported the hypothesis. Stroke patients were found to have a greater loss of touch sensitivity than non-stroke patients Some stroke-patients could not even feel the stimulation with either end of the swab whereas non-stroke patients were not only able to feel the stimulation; they were also able to differentiate between the two ends of the medical swab. Additional research may be very useful in further understanding the effects that a stroke has on one’s sensory activity.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Sandy Moore Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Ms. Lori Sargent
Research Applications Benefitting Homeplace on Green River Homeplace is a farm that is in the early stages of development as an educational facility. This study involved researching and developing Homeplace informational materials in collaboration with community members. The result was two projects designed for two very different purposes. First, a Quest brochure was designed in collaboration with a poet from the community. It will be used to teach school-age children about the history of farming and guide them through a scavenger hunt to learn about the purposes of each part of the Homeplace farm. The section of historic information, choice and development of drawings and the layout of the brochure were collaboratively researched and developed. The second part of this research project was to develop an instructional poster to inform the public about the history, construction, restoration and future plans for the use of one of the buildings on Homeplace. Research involved photographing the bank barn at Homeplace, researching historic information, and working with Homeplace board members to design a poster that will be used on the farm and website. This poster serves not only as a model for other posters now under development that will inform the people about the buildings they are visiting, but also to assist the board of directors in attracting community members to volunteer and donate funds for the restoration of the farm facilities.
Derek Morrow Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. David Ludden Hostile and Non-hostile Priming
There are many words used and events that happen in a day that can influence individuals, changing their aspect on subjects, life in general, and their moral beliefs. On a daily basis, most individuals will watch something on TV, or witness an event with their own eyes that will change their views or how they look at things. Priming individuals to do certain actions or believe certain things is used everyday with advertisements. Individuals can also be primed to show hostility. The purpose of this experiment is to test hostile priming. Thirty-six students at Lindsey Wilson College were recruited for this experiment. Participants randomly received either hostile scrambled sentences or non-hostile scrambled sentences. Both groups of participants read the same character story. Then, participants were instructed to rate the character from the story using a 7-point trait scale. Based on the data, it cannot be inferred that participants primed to hostility would display more hostility than those not primed to hostility.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Kaitlyn Musick King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Preparation For Family And Its Effects On Career
Are women’s career decisions being influenced by their anticipation of their future family more so than men? This study will search for the differences in men and women with regard to how they prepare for family and career differently. In addition, this study will also look at similarities between gender roles and the pursuit of family and career. Forty King College students, both male and female, participated in this study where they were asked to complete three surveys. These three survey measures were used to evaluate gender role ideas, traditional or non-traditional roles in marriage, and how realistic one is about future multiple roles (Wietzman, 1996; Battle & Wigfield, 2003; Mason, 1975). It is hypothesized that women are preparing for family and it is affecting their career decisions more so than men. A strong correlation was also found between the Career and Family Scale and the Multiple Roles Scale r (40) = .725, and thus there is a significant correlation. An r=.634 indicates a strong correlation between Family and Career Scale and the Traditional versus Non-Traditional scale. In addition, a two-tailed independence samples t-test was conducted to test the following hypotheses. There is a significant difference between men and women with regard to preparing for multiple roles. There is not a significant difference between men and women with regard to preparing for multiple roles. I found my t- value to be greater than my r-critical of 0.304. Thus I must reject my null hypothesis and accept my hypothesis that there is a significant difference between men and women with regard to preparing for multiple roles.
Adria Nassim Brescia University
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Ellen Dugan-Barrette
Then You Will Know the Truth, and the Truth Won’t Set You Free: Blindness and Self-Perception in the Oedipus Tragedies and the Self-Perception of the Visually Impaired This paper examines Oedipus’ self-perception in relation to his blindness as depicted in Sophocles’ Oedipus the King and Oedipus at Colonus and the self-perception of today’s individuals with visual impairment. I examine how hubris, self-confidence, and the time of the onset of Oedipus’ blindness a role for both Oedipus and the visually impaired in becoming accustomed to their disabilities. I also consult recent psychological studies regarding the self-perception of the visually impaired as compared to Sophocles’ depiction of Oedipus and attempt to determine whether Sophocles’ characterization of Oedipus’ personality accurately fits that of an individual who experiences sudden vision loss. Critical sources have consistently demonstrated that Oedipus does not have a literal disability so much as he does a figurative one. He is not necessarily blind to the physical appearance of his environment, but he is blind to the implications of his fate. As his blindness illustrates, Oedipus must be humbled by loss in order to actually begin to experience life as one is sincerely meant to experience it. This paper illustrates that Sophocles’ depiction of Oedipus--his mannerism, depression, and temper--is consistent with an individual who has experienced sudden vision loss.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Zandra Nicely Lincoln Memorial University
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Christy Cowan Actual Helping Behaviors: Women vs. Men
Helping behavior of participants was recorded in a natural setting. Past research shows helping behavior strongly related to one's mood, bystanders, and how familiar the participants are to those seeking help. The components studied in this research were: Gender (women vs. men), Type (individuals vs. groups), Helped (help vs. no help), and Burdened (participants having bags or books of their own affecting helping). This was to observe different populations to see what participants helped and did not help the confederate. Those burdened helped less than those who were free to help. Participants helped more when they are alone rather than in groups. Men help more than Women. The hypotheses were confirmed. Social psychologists continue to study helping behaviors of people.
Stephanie Parsley King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin Deford Musical Distractions Hindering Memory Recollection
In this experiment, participants were tested on their short-term memory. With a 5 minute time period, participants were asked to study two lists of words, “relax”, and recall what they studied. Participants were not subjected to music while they study one list; however, they may study and recall the second comparable list with the presence of either “Mmmbop” by Hanson or “Hallelujah” by Kate Voegele. The majority of the participants used serial recall by remembering the words in pairs or three’s; however, since there was not a requirement to remember record the words in order, free recall was also used. Preliminary results show that without the presence of music, participants are recalling 100% of the words. Consequently with the presence of music, participants’ recollection is down to 80-90%.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Matthew Pennington King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord
Who is Faster, Athletes or Video Gamers? A Study of Reaction Times The present study examined the possibility that participation in a collegiate level organized athletic activity has a positive effect on decreasing reaction times over individuals whose only activity was playing video games. College students, athletes and non-athletes participated in the experiment. The experiment used the Donders reaction-time paradigm to test each individual in three areas: simple (yes or no stimulus), recognition (correct/incorrect stimulus), and choice (picking a stimulus from a field) reaction time. Overall, athletes had significantly faster reaction times versus the non-athletes; with each sport having widely varied times when compared to each other. This data seems to suggest that participation in a collegiate level athletic activity can help improve cognitive function with respect to reaction time. There is also data done that is supported by previous research that would suggest that long-term participation would decrease the amount of time need for a reaction.
Victoria Philbeck King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord The Effects of Movement on Stress
The purpose of the following study is to explore the effects of motion on anxiety levels in the human body. The following experiment was done using the King College Dance Team, Corps for Christ ministry dance team, and the King College Cheerleading Team. The age ranges of these groups were from 18-23 years old, consisting of all females. The following populations were mixed and randomly selected and put into two groups. Group One was given direction to stretch and dance for twenty-five minutes prior to filling out the anxiety index questionnaire. Group two, which served as the control group, was given no direction and was asked to not participate in any movement exercises for twenty-five minutes. The groups were compared to determine the difference in anxiety levels between the two groups. 1.) There was a significant difference in anxiety levels found between groups one and two. 2.) There was not a significant difference in anxiety levels between groups one and two.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Kara Proffitt King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Is Life Really Better Blonde?
The present study investigated the relationship of women’s hair color on life satisfaction, self-esteem, interpersonal interaction anxiety, and social physique anxiety. Approximately 50 college-aged women were put into two groups, brunette and dark headed women and blonde headed women. These women were put into the groups by self-report. They all took the same four surveys depicting the four qualities being measured. The purpose was to see if either hair color dominated positively or negatively in any of the four fields. With extensive findings, the research showed no difference among the hair colors on any of the four attributes. In the first test on life satisfaction, there was no significant difference between the two groups, p>.05. In the second test on self-esteem, there was no significant difference between the two groups, p>.05. In the social physique anxiety scale, p>.05, concluding that there is no significant difference. In the last test on interpersonal interaction anxiety, it also showed no significant difference, p>.05. Contrary to popular media expectations women with blonde hair did not significantly differ in any of the four measures compared to brunettes or dark headed women. Popular media suggests that life was better for women with blonde hair in different ways, but in this study blonde headed women scored the same as the women with brunette or dark hair.
Jena Rickard King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord Does the Mass Media of Today’s Society Effect How We Perceive Ourselves?
The purpose of this research is to investigate how the media that our society views each day can have an effect on the self-esteem and body image of women. The main types of media that expose such pressures are television shows and movies, commercial advertisements, and fashion magazines. College-aged women were put into two groups, one group was given a magazine article that’s main focus was thinness, while the second group was given a neutral article. After reading the articles, the participants were given four surveys depicting the four qualities being measured. These included: the Body Esteem Scale (Franzoi, 1994), Measure of Body Apperception (Antoni & Carver & Petronis & Weiss, 2003), the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (Rosenberg & Wylie, 1974), and The Dieting Beliefs Scale (Scotland & Zuroff, 1990). The culmination of facts obtained by my research suggests there is no significant difference between the attitudes of young college women in relation to the two types of magazine articles that the participants viewed. I believe there was no effect with the different magazine articles because magazines are not the society’s most popular type of mass media and a lot of the attitudes of women are influenced by their environment and the people in which they surround themselves.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Hannah Sergent Lincoln Memorial University
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Christy Cowan
What Color is Taste?: Color’s Effect on Taste Perception Olfaction has often been researched in association with gustation. But, what about the impact color has on gustation? The researcher has sought to identify the relationship, if one exists, between color and taste perception. Jell-O was used as the medium for this experiment. The control group received five samples of regularly colored Jell-O; the experimental group received the same five flavor samples of color altered Jell-O. The sequence the Jell-O flavors were presented for both groups, with their color pattern: lime (green, blue), cherry (red, purple), pineapple (yellow, orange ), orange (orange, red), and blueberry (blue, green). The researcher hypothesized that those in the experimental group would have a more difficult time identifying the true flavor of the Jell-O than did those in the control group; thus color does effect taste perception. The research was statistically significant, particularly for the blueberry and lime flavors. Further investigation is needed in this area to determine exactly what role color plays in taste perception.
Ih Jay Shim King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin Deford Loneliness and Alcohol Abuse
Why do people drink alcohol? Some people drink less and others drink moderate amount which they can handle. When people drink less or the amount that they are able to handle, there is no problem. However, people sometimes drink too much for some reasons. One reason why people drink too much is when they are in bad moods (Kehoe, 1986). Another reason would be that people only drink for social occasions (Peplau & Perlman [Eds.], 1982). I wanted to figure out which reasons lead people to drink. The purpose of this project is to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption and loneliness. For loneliness, it was divided into four types; sexual, friendships, family, and larger groups. To evaluate this relationship, I collected data using the Differential Loneliness Scale from participants, who were over 21. The relationship between the loneliness and alcohol abuse was not significantly correlated. For alcohol related questions, depression was frequently chosen as a reason for those participants who drink. Also, females tended to be more careful in drinking less than males. The results from the loneliness scale suggest that most people reported that they feel lonely in at least one area in four relationships, which are sexual, friendships, family, or larger groups in society. The results from my experiment and the results from previous research had similarities, but differences, also.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Heather Smith Lincoln Memorial University
Faculty Advisor, Dr. Christy Cowan Superstitions of the Appalachian Area
The effects of gender and age on the level of superstitious beliefs were investigated. A sample of 30 participants from the Appalachian area (15 females and 15 males) was recruited that were split into three age groups (18-35, 36-60, and 61 plus). The participants were given a survey that contained 48 common superstitions that were compiled from the internet. They were asked to state if they believe in them, alter their behavior for them, and rate how superstitious they perceive themselves to be. The hypotheses were that females would be more superstitious than males and that superstitious beliefs increase with age. Although the hypotheses were disconfirmed, one significant effect was found between the youngest group and the oldest group. The oldest group had the highest amount of superstitious beliefs, the youngest group had the second highest amount, and the middle age group had the lowest amount. The results of this research indicate that age does have an effect on superstitious beliefs while gender does not.
Jeff Taylor Maryville College Who’s Got the Beat?
Faculty Advisor, Dr. William Phillips
This argument is a condensed version of my Maryville College senior thesis, approved and recommended as exemplary by Dr. William Phillips, my faculty advisor. “Who’s Got the Beat” addresses the current difficulties in Beat Scholarship revolving around confusion over such basic issues as membership, purpose, and aesthetics. The purpose is to address and restructure the current understandings of Beat Literature through the aforementioned three basic issues. The membership of the movement is limited to those coming into adulthood at the end of the Second World War with a further cap restricting membership to those beginning their literary career before 1958. Members of the Beat Generation must, also, have had a native, first-hand experience of post-War America to unify the Beat response to American culture. The American response within a specific time period is what led the Beat Generation to pursue a means of discovery and transmission of new values that are valid for a new American counterculture. The factors indicative of Beat Literature are an anti-academic literature, bop-inspired (spontaneous) composition, and non-Western spirituality. These three elements provide a dynamic spectrum within which the career of a Beat writer may be gauged. Assessments of Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg display the validity of this framework, while Gary Snyder is presented as the fulfillment of the Beat ideal.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Christina Tidman King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord
The Impact of Student Engagement and Self-esteem on Academic Performance: A Look Into the World of College Students This study explored the correlation between academic performance, student involvement, and selfesteem. Previous research has pointed to positive correlations between two of the three variables, but no recent research has tried to correlate all three together in college age students. It is hypothesized that all three variables are positively correlated to each other: academic performance to student involvement, student involvement to self-esteem, and self-esteem to academic performance. Each participant participated in a survey of forty-two questions. The questions consisted of four demographic questions, two questions concerning academic achievement, sixteen questions concerning student involvement on campus, and twenty questions related to self-esteem. The implications of the research were that on average academic performance, student involvement, and self-esteem were unrelated. However, when comparing student involvement with the second test of self-esteem, there was a significant negative correlation.
April Williams King College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. J. Kevin DeFord The Relationship Between Self-Esteem and Personality
The purpose of this research was to identity what traits were related to low self-esteem and what traits were characteristic of high self-esteem. The five traits looked at were extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, Current Thoughts Scale, and a Five-Factor Personality Inventory were administered to 30 King College students. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Current Thoughts Scale were used to determine whether participants were classified as having low or high self-esteem, and the Five-Factor Personality Inventory was used to identify the personality traits exhibited by each of the participants. Based on the data collected, participants with low self-esteem are more introverted, conscientious, and neurotic whereas participants classified as having high self-esteem are more extraverted and open to experience. These findings are important because they are similar to the results from previous research. The results also show that there is a relationship between self-esteem and personality.
BRURC, March 26, 2010 at Lindsey Wilson College Agnieszka Wojtowicz Lindsey Wilson College
Faculty Advisor, Dr. David Ludden Effect of Time of the Day on Athletic Performance
The purpose of this experiment is to examine whether the running performance of Lindsey Wilson athletes is better in the morning or in the afternoon. In this experiment, 20 Lindsey Wilson student athletes run 1400 meters distance at 8 am in the morning and at 5 pm in the afternoon on the next day. The results showed that athletes from Lindsey Wilson College performed better in the afternoon but there were no significant results.