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Anthony Shi 11ALX Chem

INVESTIGATION ON WATER
WAYS SUBSTANCES DISSOLVE & CHANGES THAT OCCUR TO PARTICLE ARRANGEMENT
SODIUM CHLORIDE (SOLUBLE IONIC COMPOUND)
Sodium Chloride, more commonly referred to as salt or table salt, is used in various foods
and medical treatments. Sodium Chloride is a compound which is made of two elements;
a Sodium cation (Na+) and a Chlorine anion (Cl-). As Chlorine is more
electronegative on the period table than Sodium, it attracts more electrons thus is
more negatively charged than Sodium (Fig 1.1). Chlorines electronegativity and
higher charge attracts the bonding pair of electrons more
Figure 1.1
strongly, making the molecule of Sodium Chloride polar.
The composition of Sodium Chloride is connected by an
ionic bond, as sodium is a metal and chlorine is a non-metal.
The dissolving process of Salt is shown by the following balanced equation:
2Na(s) + 2H2O 2NaOH (aq) + H2 (g), or Sodium Chloride + Water Sodium
Hydroxide + Hydrogen
Sodium Chlorides polarity, due to its alternating sodium cations and chloride anions
and waters polarity, following the principle of like dissolves like, causes a reaction
between Sodium Chloride and Water. Water is polar as it has an uneven charge
distribution. As a result of oxygens electronegativity, the oxygen element in the water
molecule is slightly more negative as it attracts the electrons which exist in the
hydrogen part of water, making Hydrogen positive. Waters polarity or uneven charge
distribution allows it to react with Sodium Chloride as the oxygen anions attract the
sodium cations available in the sodium chloride. Similarly, the hydrogen cations attract
the chloride anions. These two negative and positive relationships between Sodium
Chloride and Water allow the sodium chloride to dissolve in water, as well
as
showing a relationship between substances with like characteristics
(polarity).

Figure 1.2
Hydrogen
ions
Oxygen ions

When Sodium Chloride is placed in water, a reaction begins to take place.


Firstly, the water molecules surround the sodium and chloride ions. As
mentioned previously, the electronegative ends of water the oxygen anions surround,
and interact with the sodium cation, while the electropositive ends of water
the hydrogen cations surround and interact with the chlorine anions (Fig 1.2).
Figure
This attraction between water and sodium chloride also causes the ionic
1.3
compound to separate, dissolving into separate Na+ and Cl- atoms. The process
of water
surrounding sodium chloride (Fig 1.3) is also known as creating a hydration shell; this is what causes
Sodium Chloride to separate and also prevents them from forming ionic bonds to become a salt once
again.
As a result of all these processes, the salt is thus dissolved.
The figure 1.2 depicts the reaction where O- anions become attracted by the Na+ cation, and the H+
cations on the water molecule are attracted to the Chloride anion.
The figure 1.3 depicts a hydration shell where Sodium cations are surrounded by water molecules
through the attraction between the negativity and positivity of Oxygen and Sodium, this is similar for
the Chloride ion, as positive Hydrogen ions are attracted to the negative chloride ion.
In a more complex perspective, the process of dissolving Sodium Chloride in water involves a large
amount of movement. When salt is added, before dissolving, it still stays as an ionic compound. Before
being separated by water, the cations & anions of sodium chloride are moving away from the surface in
to the water and pulled back by their opposite ions which are on the surface of the salt. As ions of
sodium chloride are being pulled away, some ions collide with a water molecule, pushing it further
away from the salt, and creating a hydration shell around it, disrupting the attraction to their oppositely
charged ions from the original Sodium Chloride. In this case, Sodium ions which are charged positively

become attached to the negative oxygen of the water molecule, and Chloride ions which are charged
negatively become attached to the positive hydrogen ions of the water molecule. The water molecules
essentially serve as barriers between the sodium and chloride ions, preventing any bonds from being
formed and separating the sodium and chloride ions, therefore making the salt dissolved. After the
first ions separate, the rest of sodium chloride dissolve, and eventually all of the salt is dissolved inside
the water.
SUCROSE (A SOLUBLE MOLECUL AR COMPOUND)
Sucrose, more commonly referred to as sugar, is a naturally occurring carbohydrate found in many
plants and plant parts. Sucrose is a compound made of three elements; Carbon, Hydrogen, and
Oxygen. Sucrose has oxygen atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms, or in other words; O-H Bonds. Due to
oxygens electronegativity, its areas are slightly more negative, while hydrogen ions are slightly more
positive, thus, O-H bonds are polar themselves. O-H bonds possess strong attractions as they are a
hydrogen bond; they have dipole-dipole attractions among Oxygen atoms in one molecule and
Hydrogen atoms in a neighbouring molecule. As a result of their O-H groups, they are able to dissolve in
water. Due to the polarity of its bonds and overall the molecule, Sucrose is a polar substance.
The dissolving process of Sucrose cannot be shown through an equation, as sugar, unlike salt, does not
disassociate into ions, rather it splits up into individual molecules of sugar, becoming aqueous.
C12H22O11 (s) --------> C12H22O11 (aq)
Similarly to salt, Sucrose is a polar substance; it dissolves
with water. Using the principle of like dissolves like,
sucrose is soluble in water due to its O-H groups, which
make them polar. The characteristic of Sucrose being polar
is the main reason of why sucrose is able to be dissolved
into water. As a result of Sucroses uneven electron
distribution and its polar nature, it is made up of positive
and negative molecules, and possesses a charge. The water
molecules and their hydrogen cations & oxygen anions are
(2.1) Basic structure of a Sucrose
attracted to Sucrose when they come in contact. Sucroses
crystal, as shown, there are many
main composition its many O-H bonds (fig. 2.1), are
O-H Groups which make up the
attracted to the ions in water. Adding water to Sucrose will
molecule.
break the hydrogen bonds which hold sucrose molecules
together, but not the covalent bonds which make up the sucrose molecule itself. The breaking of
sucrose molecules will cause them to be on their own (away from the crystal), in turn, they will react
with water, forming new hydrogen bonds with the water molecules. In figure 2.2, it is shown that the
polar water molecules are attracted the hydrogen and oxygen groups present in the sugar molecule.
These polar water molecules surround these sugar molecules and are carried off into the rest of the
aqueous solution.

During the breaking down of Sucrose into individual molecules, the water surrounds the sucrose
molecules, replacing the sucrosesucrose Hydrogen bonds with sucrosewater Hydrogen bonds. The reason water is
able
to break down these bonds is due to the
relative weakness of sucrose-sucrose
intermolecular forces compared to
sucrose-water intermolecular forces.
The strength of sucrose-water forces,
which are stronger than the original
forces in a sucrose crystal, allows
sucrose molecules to be separated
and
become attached to water molecules.
These
sucrose molecules leave the surface of
the crystal and disperse themselves
as
hydrated sucrose molecules.
Essentially, Sucrose dissolves into water by breaking itself
down into single sucrose molecules as a result of its reaction
with water the breaking down of weaker intermolecular
forces between sucrose-sucrose, and creating new, stronger
hydrogen bonds between sucrose-water. After the dissolving
of the first sucrose molecule, this process is repeatedly done
until there are no more sucrose molecules to be dissolved.
Thus, we have sucrose dissolved in water.

(2.2) Sugar molecules are shown to


be separated from the original
crystal due to a reaction with water;
water carries sugar molecules away.

IODINE (A PARTIALLY SOLUBLE MOLECULAR ELEMENT)


Iodine is a chemical element and is the 53rd element on the Periodic Table. Due to its reactivity, it
mostly exists as a diatomic molecule called Iodide; I2. Iodide is a diatomic non-polar covalent molecule.
When one iodine is bonded to another, they are equally distributed, as they share two electrons to
complete a full outer shell.
A mixture of Iodine and Water is shown by:
I2 (l) + H2O (l) <-> OI (aq) + 2H+ (aq) + I- (aq) or Iodide + Water <-> Hypoiodite + Hydrogen
+ Iodine
As Iodine possesses a non-polar nature, it is not very soluble in water, which is polar. However,
although Iodide (I2) is non-polar, there are still small intermolecular forces between I 2 and H2O. Iodine in
general is not very soluble in water, only producing a slightly yellow solution and not producing any
ions when dissolved. When solid iodine (3.1) placed into a beaker of water, only a small amount of
iodine dissolves, and the latter remains as a solid. However, there is still a reaction occurring although
there is still a solid coexisting with the water. During the time where Iodine is inside the water, the
solution is in a state of dynamic equilibrium; precipitation rate = dissolving rate (3.3). The iodine is
continuously being dissolved and turned back into a solid at the same rate, that is, the dissolved
molecules are attaching themselves to the solid and the molecules on the solid are continuously
dissolving into the water solution. The dissolved molecules which are in an aqueous state (separated
from the solid) are moving within the water (3.3). Thus, we say that Iodine is partially soluble, as
although there are parts of the solid being dissolved, it still exists as a solid.
The following is a flow chart depicting the events of an Iodide + Water reaction in a beaker.
1

Iodide is now settled at the bottom of the beaker.


A dynamic equilibrium is occurring where the
IodideThe
inside water is already
iodine
is constantly combining/separating.
Iodide is being
placed
being dissolved, but only a
separated
in a beaker of
water. iodine is moving in the solution.
3
small amount.

SILICON DIOXIDE (A COVALENT NETWORK SUBSTANCE)


Silicon Dioxide, more commonly known as silica, is a compound made of Silicon and Oxygen. It is most
common found in natural conditions as well as in various living organism. It is also the most commonly
type of sand which exists in the world. The molecule of Silicon Dioxide consists of a central atom of
Silicone, bonded with one Oxygen atom on each side. The bonds in Silicon Dioxide are strong covalent
bonds, meaning they share their electrons. In Silicon Dioxide, the electrons are equally distributed, as
both Oxygen ions on each side of Silicon are pulled equally in opposite directions. Since each oxygen
pulls equally hard on the electrons of the molecule, there is an equal distribution of electrons, therefore
making Silicon Dioxide is non-polar.
Silicon Dioxide generally does not come in individual molecules, rather, it forms its own tetrahedral
network of silicon atoms bonded to four oxygen atoms, and oxygen forms two bonds to each silicon

Figure 4.1 Tetrahedral


Structure of Silicon
Dioxide.

atom (Fig 4.1). Silicon Dioxides tetrahedral & covalent network cause the covalent bonds between the
Si-O bonds to be very strong, but weak intermolecular forces which can be broken.
As Silicon Dioxide possesses a non-polar nature, is it unable to dissolve in water which is polar. This is
due to the lack of atttraction between the polar water molecules and the silicon or oxygen atoms,
which, if there was an attraction would allow water molecules to overcome the covalent bonds in Silicon
Dioxide. Like Iodide, Silicon Dioxide still has a reaction, but does not dissolve, making the mixture of
Silicon Dioxide and water to be in dynamic equilibrium. The following equation sums the reaction up,
where Silicon Dioxide and Water reacts to create silicic acid, and silicic acid is continuously dissolving:
SiO2(s) + 2 H2O(l) <-> H4SiO4(s) or Silicon Dioxide + Water <-> Silicic Acid

The above equation demonstrates that the Silicon Dioxide is continuously being dissolved and turned
back into a solid at the same rate; precipitation rate = dissolving rate. At an atomic level, Silicon
Dioxide molecules are being dissolved and attaching themselves back to the original covalent network
substance of Silicon Dioxide. Due to Silicas giant molecule and large amount of covalent bonds in a
crystalline lattice structure, Silica cannot fully dissolve into water. Solubility is generally measured in
relation to the bond strength in the solvent and the solute, which is, in this case, respectively water and
Silica. The extensive network of covalent bonds and their strengths are much stronger than the
hydrogen bonds in water, therefore Silicon Dioxide is unable to be broken down from its crystal lattice
by water and form aqueous ions, making it insoluble.

The following Figure 4.2 shows a melted silicon dioxide in water.


Although Silicon Dioxide has been melted, it does not fully dissolve
in water. Melting Silicon Dioxide and breaking its strong covalent
bonds purely makes it into a liquid, but doesnt allow it to dissolve
in water since it still a non-polar substance. As shown, Silicon
Dioxide does not dissolve in water due to its insolubility. A
substance is only fully soluble if the solution is clear. In this case,
the solution is unclear, therefore, Silicon Dioxide is insoluble in
water.

CELLULOSE (A SUBSTANCE WITH L ARGE MOLECULES)


Cellulose is an organic compound of long chains of small molecules. It
is
a carbohydrate made of Oxygen, Carbon, and Hydrogen. It is a key
Figure 4.2 Silicon
component in plant cell walls and is best known for giving wood its
Dioxide Dispersed in
remarkable strength. Cellulose consists of many chains of glucose
Water
monomers. These glucose monomers also produce linear polymer chains, creating interchain hydrogen
bonding. These interchain bonds produce a rigid structure of layered sheets of cellulose, which gives it
its strength. This characteristic of the structure makes it bulky and inflexible, and also makes it
insoluble to water.
Plants are natural producers of cellulose. They use their glucose which is formed by photosynthesis to
create cellulose, by linking many simple units of glucose (Figure 5.1) to form long, flat chains called
polysaccharides. When many cellulose chains connect side by side, they create a cellulose micro fibril.
This linear formation (Figure 5.2) of cellulose creates sheets, which are linked by hydrogen bonds. As a
result of these hydrogen bonds, these sheets of cellulose are particularly strong, allowing plants to be
properly protected, also protecting them from other substances which could weaken their structure,
including water.
Polysaccharides, when paired up, become parallel to each other, and create a crystalline structure
(5.3). As a result of Celluloses crystalline structure, as well as its high molecular weight from having
large amounts of glucose molecules, Cellulose is not soluble.
In Cellulose, there are O-H bonds throughout the molecule. This makes Cellulose polar. However, the
polysaccharides are in fact so strong due to their crystallinity and high molecular weight (requires more
energy), that it makes cellulose insoluble. Instead, when coming in contact with water, substances
which contain cellulose lose strength due to the water molecules weakening the attractions in between
the polysaccharides. A good example of a cellulose + water reaction is paper. When paper is dipped
into water, the cellulose which makes up the paper weakens as the water molecules weaken the bonds.
As shown in figure 5.2, the hydrogen bonds in cellulose are attracted to the hydrogen bonds in water.
The hydrogen bonds in the water, like the Sucrose reaction, carries away the hydrogen and oxygen in
the OH bonds of the cellulose, weakening the overall structure of the molecule. However, as a result of
the other strong bonds in the polysaccharides, the entire structure doesnt break down, rather, it just
becomes weaker.

Thus, we say that Cellulose is insoluble. However, although it doesnt dissolve, the structure of the
large molecule can be broken down by the water.

Figure 5.2 Cellulose


Molecule, consisting of
repeating glucose
molecules. The blue H2O
Figure 5.1 One Polysaccharide Cellulose
molecules represent a
Molecule
reaction between water

Figure 5.3 The long


lines are
polysaccharides which
contain cellulose
glucose molecules.

REL ATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE SOLUBILITY OF SUBSTANCES IN WATER AND THE POL AR
NATURE OF THE WATER MOLECULE
The polarity of a molecule is defined by whether its ends form electrical poles. For example, Water, one
of the most polar substances, has a positive end, and a negative end; the positive hydrogen ions and
negative oxygen ion form an electrical pole. A non-polar molecule does not have charges at the ends,
as electrons are distributed symmetrically and equally.
In reference to solubility, the principle of like dissolves like is used. Non-polar substances, such as
Kerosene, are insoluble with polar substances such as water. As a reference to the
compounds/elements in this report, polar substances such as Sucrose, Sodium Chloride are soluble in
water, while non-polar substances such as Silicon Dioxide are insoluble in water.
In the process of dissolution, the particles of a solute e.g. salt, separate from their neighbours (the
other ions in the compound) and move in between the spaces of the solvent particles. In this case, as
water dissolves salt, the separated salt ions; the cation Na and anion Cl, become attracted to the ions
of the water, that is, they become surrounded as water creates a hydration shell around the ion,
separating them from the substance. Here is a following diagram for a clearer understanding:
At the start of the dissolving process, the solute
still exists as one solid; that is, the particles are
still all together as one crystal or compound.
After water comes in contact with the
substance, the solute then separates its ions,
becoming surrounded by the solvent, and thus
becoming dissolved into the solute. In water,
polar molecules dissolve by overcoming their
bonds with water molecules, then the water molecules create new hydrogen bonds.
The forces of attraction which once kept the solute together are broken by the water molecules, and
new bonds are formed between the solvent and a solute.
The polar nature of a water molecule is defined by having an oxygen anion and hydrogen cations, as
well as an unequal distribution of electrons; that is, the ends of the ions have charges. The ions within a
polar molecule are determined their charge by its electronegativity. In water, as oxygen is more
electronegative than hydrogen, oxygen is slightly more negative as it attracts the electrons which are
present on hydrogen, this then makes hydrogen slightly positive. As the water molecule has positive
and negative ends, the solute in which it reacts with is dissolved through these bonds. Substances such
as sodium chloride are polar as well due to having negative and positive ends.
During a preliminary chemistry class, an experiment was conducted to determine what types of
substances are soluble in water. The following are a few results from the practical which were soluble in
the substances.
Dissolved
By

Substance

Polar/Non-Polar

Soluble?

Water(P)

Sodium Chloride

Polar

Yes

Water(P)

Iodine

Non Polar

No, Partially

Water(P)

Sucrose

Polar

Yes

Kerosene(
NP)

Iodine

Non Polar

Yes

Kerosene(
NP)

Sodium Chloride

Polar

Not

Kerosene(
NP)

Sucrose

Polar (?)

Yes

Kerosene

Non Polar

No

Water(P)

As shown in the results, polar substances are more soluble with water, while Kerosene is more soluble
with non-polar substances.

Therefore, the solubility of substances in water and the polar nature of water is directly related. The
polar nature of water allows it to be soluble with other polar substances which have a charge. In the
case of Sodium Chloride, water is able to dissolve Sodium Chloride as it is able to separate the solutes
particles and create hydration shells around it, along with the electronegativity of Sodium and positivity
of Chloride which attract the Hydrogen and Oxygen ions in water.

RELIABILITY OF THE FIRST-HAND AND SECONDARY


INFORMATION COLLECTED
To write a report, information was collected in order to fully understand the concept of
polarity and water solubility. Information was found from a wide range of sources
including the internet, and a firsthand experiment.
In terms of firsthand information, a practical was performed in order to test the
solubility of different substances in water. In the preliminary chemistry class, we
performed an experiment by placing several different solutes into water, then
recording the results. We then repeated the experiment by placing the solutes into
kerosene. This was done in order to differ the reactions of substances between polar
and non-polar solvents. The experiments results were not reliable. In the experiment,
we only performed the experiments twice, with each attempt different solvents. Other
than that, we did not repeat the experiments thus we could not fully confirm that the
results were correct. Also, as a result of a lack of scientific knowledge, and a touch of
human bias, the results we collected could have been affected, as some of the
substances which we though were soluble were actually meant to be insoluble. Thus,
a misidentification of whether a solution was fully dissolved and whether the
substance was truly soluble served as a great consequence to the results. However,
overall the results we gained seemed to match the research we had conducted. Our
results were compared with other students, and for most of the results, we assumed
them to be correct as they were the same with other students.
After this experiment, me and my partner scientist will learn to perform the
experiment at least twice, to average the results and ensures that random errors are
minimised and outliers can be disregarded or removed. Random errors such as a
misplacement of substances, can be prevented by repeating the experiment.
Repeating the experiment will ensure the results and therefore fully confirm whether
what we have measured is reliable or not.
In terms of second hand information, the textbook and internet served as large
sources of information for understanding the solubility of different substances of water
as well as polarity. As always, the information on the internet is not always true, as it
could be falsely written by writers, or overall just have inaccurate information.
However, overall I believed the second hand information to be fairly reliable. Crossreferencing with different sites, articles and the textbook and matching several types
of information decently ensured that the information was reliable. However, finding
the correct sites, and reliable textbooks were a core part of finding reliable
information, as it is never reliable to collect information from only one source e.g.
Wikipedia. Using government sites, reputable sites, as well as sites and textbooks

which are recommended by the Chemistry teacher, served to be great sources of sites
which would allow an allocation of clear and reliable information.
If I were to repeat this collection of information, I would look for more reliable sources
such as government sites and textbooks which would ensure my information to be
correct.

Link

Typ
e

Auth
or

Date
Acces
sed

Title
Site/Book

N/A

Dat
e
Writ
ten
N/A

https://www.chem.wi
sc.edu/deptfiles/genc
hem/sstutorial/Text7/
Tx75/tx75.html
http://www.lenntech.
com/periodic/water/s
odium/sodium-andwater.htm
http://preparatoryche
mistry.com/NaCl_flas
h.htm
http://study.com/acad
emy/lesson/what-issodium-chloridedefinition-structureformula.html
https://en.wikipedia.o
rg/wiki/Sucrose
http://www.middlesch
oolchemistry.com/les
sonplans/chapter5/le
sson4
http://socratic.org/qu
estions/how-do-polarcovalent-bondsdissolve-in-water
http://chemed.chem.
purdue.edu/genchem
/topicreview/bp/ch18/
soluble.php
http://chemistry.elmh
urst.edu/vchembook/
150Anpcovalent.html
http://web.mst.edu/~
gbert/ANIMATED/Asol
y.HTML

Site

29/8

Chem Wisc

Interactions
of
Water
Molecules;
Electrolytes
Nonelectrolytes

Site

N/A

N/A

29/8

Lenntech

Sodium (Na) and Water

Site

Mark
Bisho
p
John
Willia
ms

N/A

29/8

An Introduction
to Chemistry

Dissolving Sodium Chloride

N/A

29/8

Study.com

What is Sodium Chloride?

Site

N/A

N/A

29/8

Wikipedia

Sucrose

Site

N/A

N/A

29/8

ACS
Chemistry
Life

Site

Ernes
t Z.

29/8

Socratic

How do polar covalent


dissolve in water?

Site

N/A

Jun
29,
201
4
N/A

30/8

Bodner
Research Web

Solubility

Site

N/A

N/A

30/8

Elmhurst

Non Polar Covalent Compounds

Site

N/A

N/A

30/8

Dissolution

Site

Danie
l
M.
Dobki
n

N/A

30/8

Educational
Technology
at
University
of
Missouri-Rolla
Enigmatic
Consulting

http://www.enigmatic
consulting.com/semic
onductor_processing/
CVD_Fundamentals/fil
ms/SiO2_properties.h
tml
http://chemistryform
e.wikispaces.com/Sili
con+Dioxide
http://antoine.frostbu
rg.edu/chem/senese/
101/consumer/faq/wh
at-is-cellulose.shtml
http://www.sciencecl
arified.com/CaCh/Cellulose.html

Site

N/A

30/8

ChemistryForM
e

Silicon Dioxide

Site

Preeti
&
Puja
N/A

N/A

31/8

General
Chemistry
Online!

What is cellulose?

Site

N/A

N/A

31/8

Science
Clarified

Cellulose

Site

of

For

Title of Article
(if applicable)

wi
a

Why Does Water Dissolve Sugar?

Silicon Dioxide:
Applications

bon

Properties

http://www.encyclope
dia.com/topic/cellulos
e.aspx#1
http://www1.lsbu.ac.
uk/water/cellulose.ht
ml

Site

N/A

N/A

31/8

Encyclopedia

Cellulose

Site

N/A

31/8

Water Structure
and Science

Cellulose

http://www.chemguid
e.co.uk/analysis/chro
matography/paper.ht
ml
http://socratic.org/qu
estions/how-ismolecular-polarityrelated-to-solubility

Site

Marti
n
Chapli
n
N/A

N/A

31/8

ChemGuide

Paper Chromatography

Site

Ernes
t Z.

23/6
/15

31/8

Socratic

How is Molecular Polarity related


Solubity?

Boo
k

H.
Steph
en
Stoke
r

30/8

General,
Organic,
Biological
Chemistry

and