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1) A horizontal force of 10 N acts on an object of mass 5 kg resting on a horizontal surface

(Fig.). The object slides along the surface with an acceleration of 1.5 ms 2. What is the
magnitude of the frictional force acting between the object and the surface?

(a) 0.5 N
(b) 2.5 N
(c) 5 N
(d) 7.5 N
(e) 10 N
Since the acceleration of the object is 1.5 ms2, the resultant force (F) acting on the object is
7.5 N, as obtained from the equation, F = ma where m is the mass (here 5 kg) and a is the
acceleration (here 1.5 ms2).
As the applied force is 10 N, the magnitude of the opposing frictional force must be 10 N
7.5 N = 2.5 N.
(2) An electron moves in a region of space where a constant electric field exists. Other fields
in the region are negligible. Which one among the following graphs shows the momentum
(p) of the electron as a function of time (t)?

Since the electric field is constant, the electric force acting on the electron is constant. By
Newtons second law, the force is equal to the rate of change of momentum. Therefore, the
rate of change of momentum of the electron is constant. In other words, the slope of
themomentum versus time graph must be constant. This means that the graph must be a
straight line with non- zero slope.

[If the slope is zero as is the case with the straight line graph shown in (e), the momentum is
constant, meaning that there is no force on the electron. Graph (e) is therefore not the
correct option].
Therefore, the correct graph is (a).

(3) An object of mass m is resting on an inclined plane of inclination . The angle of friction
between the object and the plane is 2 and the coefficient of static friction is . What is the
magnitude of the force of friction acting between the object and the inclined plane?
(a) mg cos
(b) mg cos
(c) mg sin
(d) mg sin
(e) mg cos2
The object will start sliding along the incline only if the angle of the incline is 2 (since the
angle of friction is 2).
[Note that = tan where is the angle of friction]
Since the object is resting on the inclined plane, the frictional force is just sufficient to
counteract the component of weight of the object down the plane. This is equal to mg sin.
Therefore, the correct option is (c).
(4) If the object in question No.3 above just starts moving up the incline on applying an
external force on it, what is the minimum magnitude of the external force?
(a) mg sin
(b) 2mg sin
(c) mg cos
(d) mg sin + mg cos
(e) 2mg cos
For making the object move up the incline, the component mg sin of its weight along the
plane has certainly to be overcome. In addition, the frictional force mg cos also has to be
overcome. Therefore, the minimum magnitude of the external force to be applied on the
object is (mg sin + mg cos) as given in option (d).
[Note that mg cos is the component of the weight of the object normal to the inclined plane
and therefore mg cos is the frictional force].

(5) A 75 kg wt firefighter slides down a vertical pole with an acceleration of 2 ms 2 directed


vertically downwards. What is the upward reaction force exerted by the pole on the
firefighter? Acceleration due to gravity is 10 ms2
(a) 775 N
(b) 750 N
(c) 725 N
(d) 700 N
(e) 600 N
The real weight (mg) of the firefighter is 7510 N = 750 N
Since the firefighter is sliding down with an acceleration a, his weight as felt by the pole, is
(mg ma) = (750 150) N = 600 N.
The pole will exert an upward reaction force of magnitude 600 N on the firefighter.
[If the pole is perfectly smooth, the firefighter will fall freely (even if he grips the pole), he
will become weightless during the downward trip and the pole will not exert any reaction
force on him]
Today we shall discuss a few simple multiple choice practice questions on wave motion
including sound. Often your knowledge and understanding of basic principles will be tested
in the AP Physics Examination and the questions I give below are meant for this.
(1) Here are a few common waves:
(i) Infra red waves (ii) Microwaves (iii) Light waves (iv) Sound waves
Which of the above waves can propagate through vacuum?
(a) (ii) and (iii)
(b) (i) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (1) and (iv)
(d) (iii) and (iv)
(e) None
Infra red waves microwaves and light waves are electromagnetic waves and hence they do
not require any medium for their propagation. Sound waves are mechanical waves which
require a material medium for their propagation. The correct option is (b).
(2) When a sound source moves past a listener,
(a) the pitch of the sound decreases continuously

(b) the pitch of the sound increases continuously


(c) the pitch of the sound remains unchanged
(d) the pitch of the sound increases suddenly
(e) the pitch of the sound decreases suddenly
The pitch (frequency) of the sound as heard by the listener when the source of sound moves
towards the listener, is greater than the actual frequency of the source (in accordance with
Doppler effect). The apparent frequency (n1) of the sound in this situation is given by
n1 = nv/(v vS) where n is the actual frequency of the source, v is the speed of sound
and vS is the speed of the source.
The pitch (frequency) of the sound as heard by the listener when the source of sound moves
away from the listener, is less than the actual frequency of the source. The apparent
frequency (n2) of the sound in this situation is given by
n2 = nv/(v+vS)
Therefore, when a sound source moves past a listener, the pitch of the sound decreases
suddenly [Option (e)].
[You may click here to see a useful post in which the equations to be noted in this section are
given].
(3) A fighter plane moves away from a radar installation at a speed equal to twice the speed
of sound. If the real frequency of the sound emitted by the fighter plane is n, what is the
apparent frequency of the sound of the plane as heard by an observer at the radar
installation?
(a) zero
(b) 3n
(c) n/3
(d)n/2
(e) 2n
This is a case of Doppler effect produced when the source of sound moves away from a
listener. The apparent frequency (n) of the sound in this situation is given by
n = nv/(v+vS) ) where n is the actual frequency of the source, v is the speed of sound
and vS is the speed of the source.

Since vS = 3v in the present case, we obtain


n = n/3, as given in option (c).

(4) Tuning fork A has a small piece of wax attached to one of its prongs (Fig.). When this
fork and another fork B of frequency 286 Hz are excited together, 3 beats per second are
produced. The wax on the fork A is now removed and the two forks are again excited
together. The number of beats per second is found to be 3 itself. What is the frequency of
fork A when the wax on it is removed?
(a) 286 Hz
(b) 289 Hz
(c) 283 Hz
(d) 280 Hz
(e) 292 Hz
The beat frequency is the difference between the frequencies of the forks. Since the fork A
without wax produces 3 beasts per second with the fork B of frequency 286 Hz, the
frequency of fork A must be either 289 Hz or 283 Hz. If the frequency of A is 283 Hz, its
frequency when loaded with wax will be less than 283 Hz and it will produce more than 3
beats per second when excited together with for B. Therefore, the frequency of fork A must
be 289 Hz [Option (b)].
[What happens is this:
When the fork A is loaded with wax, its frequency gets reduced from 389 Hz to 383 Hz and
it produces 3 beats per second when excited together with fork B of frequency 286 Hz.
When the wax on the fork A is removed, its frequency becomes its original frequency 289 Hz
and once again it produces 3 beats per second when excited along with fork B of frequency
286 Hz].
(5) A wave has amplitude A given by
A = 2b/(b c + d)
Then the condition for resonance is
(a) b = d and c = 0
(b) b = 0 and c = d

(c) b = c = d
(d) b = c and d = 0
(e) b = c + d
The amplitude A will be infinite when b = c and d = 0. Therefore the condition for resonance
is given in option (d).
Posted by MV at 9:12 AM 0 comments
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Labels: beats, Doppler effect, resonance, sound, wave motion (including sound), waves
THURSDAY, APRIL 10, 2014

AP Physics C - Multiple Choice Practice Questions on Circular Motion


and Rotation
If I have seen a little further it is by standing on the shoulders of Giants.
Sir Isaac Newton
A significant number of students in any class have the wrong notion that circular motion
and rotation (or, generally angular motion) is a somewhat difficult section. But you can rest
assured that this section is as interesting and simple as any other section of your choice,
provided you have a clear understanding of the basic principles. You will find the useful
formulae and many questions in this section, posted earlier on this site, which can be
accessed by clicking on the label, circular motion and rotation below this post. Since the
number of posts displayed in each screen is limited, you will have to make use of the older
posts tabs to access all the posts.
Here are some more multiple choice practice questions (with solution) on circular motion
and rotation:

(1) A thin uniform iron rod of mass M and lengthL is resting on a smooth horizontal surface.
Two small objects each of mass m and traveling with uniform speed v in opposite directions
at right angles to the length of the rod collide with the two ends of the rod simultaneously as
shown in the adjoining figure. If the objects get stuck to the rod after the collision and
continue to move along with the rod, the angular impulse received by the rod is
(a) mvL
(b) 2mvL
(c) mvL/2

(d) mvL/4
(e) mvL/12
The angular impulse received by the rod is equal to the change in the angular momentum of
the rod. Since the rod is initially at rest, the change in the angular momentum of the rod is
equal to the angular momentum supplied by the two objects.
Because of the collision, the rod will rotate about a normal axis through its middle and the
total angular momentum of the objects about this axis of rotation is mvL/2 + mvL/2, which
is equal to mvL.
Thus the angular impulse received by the rod is mvL.
(2) In the above question, if m = M/6 and v = L ms1, then the time taken by the rod to
rotate through radian is
(a) 1 sec
(b) 2 sec
(c) /2 sec
(d) sec
(e) 2 sec
Because of the collision, the rod will rotate about a normal axis through its middle with an
angular velocity given by
I = mvL where I is the moment of inertia of the rod and the masses m and m at its
ends.
[Note that we have equated the final angular momentum of the system (containing the rod
and the masses) to the initial angular momentum].
Since v = L the above equation gets modified as
I = mL2
After the collision, the rod and the masses move together and the total angular momentum
is given by
I = [(ML2/12) + 2m(L/2)2]
[The first term within the square bracket above is the moment of inertia of the rod about a
central axis perpendicular to its length and the second term is the moment of inertia of the
two masses].

From the above two equations, we have


mL2 = [(ML2/12) + mL2/2 ]
Since m = M/6 the above equation becomes.
M/6 = [(M/12) + (M/12)] = (M/6)
Therefore = 1 radian/sec.
Therefore, the time taken by the rod to rotate through radian is sec.
(3) The angular momentum of the electron due to its orbital motion in the hydrogen atom is
directed
(a) along the direction of motion of the electron.
(b) opposite to the direction of motion of the electron.
(c) radially outwards.
(d) radially inwards.
(e) normal to the plane of the orbit.
The correct option is (e). The angular momentum vector is the vector product (cross
product) of the radius vector r and the linear momentum vector p (of the electron). The
angular momentum vector rp is perpendicular to both r and p. Therefore, the angular
momentum of the electron due to its orbital motion must be directed normal to the plane of
the orbit.

(4) A solid cylinder of mass M and radius R is mounted on frictionless bearings so that it can
rotate about its horizontal axis (Fig.). A light inextensible string, one end of which is fixed to
the cylinder, is wound round the cylinder and carries a sphere of mass M. Initially the
system is at rest. On releasing the sphere, it moves down under gravity and the cylinder
starts rotating. What is the speed of the sphere after it has descended through a distance h?
(a) (2gh)
(b) (4Rgh/3)
(c) (4gh/3)
(d) (2Rgh)
(e) (4gh)
The gravitational potential energy lost by the sphere (on falling through the height h)
is mgh. This can be equated to the kinetic energy gained by the cylinder and the sphere.
Therefore we have
Mgh = Mv2 + I2 where v is the speed of the sphere on falling through the
distance h, I is the moment of inertia of the cylinder about its axis and is the angular
velocity of the cylinder.
[Note that the sphere
has rotational kinetic energy].

has translational kinetic

energy

and

the

cylinder

Since I = MR2 and = v/R we can rewrite the above equation as


Mgh = Mv2 + ( MR2)(v2/R2)
Or, gh = (v2/2) + (v2/4) = 3v2/4
This gives v = (4gh/3)
(1) A single turn plane circular conducting loop of area A and resistance R is placed in a
uniform magnetic field of flux density B which has a time rate of change. The plane of the
loop is perpendicular to the magnetic field. If the emf induced in the loop is V, the time rate
of change of the magnetic flux density is
(a) V/A
(b) V/RA
(c) RV/A
(d) A/V
(e) AR/V
The induced emf V is given by

V = /t where is the change of magnetic flux occurring in a small time t.


Since = BA we have
V = BA/t
The time rate of change of the magnetic flux density is B/t = V/A
(2) A long straight power line carries a current I which decreases with time at a uniform
rate. A plane circular conducting loop is arranged below the power line as shown in the
figure. Which one among the following statements is true?

(a) No current is induced in the circular


loop.
(b) A uniformly decreasing current is induced in the loop.
(c) A uniformly increasing current is induced in the loop.
(d) A steady current is induced in the loop and it flows in the anticlockwise direction
(e) A steady current is induced in the loop and it flows in the clockwise direction
Since the current in the power line is changing, the magnetic flux linked with the circular
loop is changing. Therefore there must be an induced current in the loop. The induced
current in the loop must be steady since the rate of decrease of magnetic flux is steady
(because of the uniform decrease of current in the power line).
The magnetic field lines produced by the current in the power line are directed normally
into the plane of the loop. Since the current in the power line decreases with time, the
induced current in the loop must supply magnetic flux lines in the same direction, in
accordance with Lenzs law (for opposing the reduction of the flux). Therefore the induced
current in the circular loop must flow in the clockwise direction [Option (e)].
The following questions are meant for AP Physics C aspirants:

(3) Two horizontal conducting rails AB and CD of negligible resistance are connected by a
conductor BC of resistance R. Another conducting rod PQ of length L and negligible
resistance can slide without friction along the rails (Fig.). The plane ABCD is horizontal and
a constant magnetic field B tesla acts perpendicular to the plane ABCD. A small constant
horizontal force F is applied on the slider PQ perpendicular to its length so that it slides with
a constant velocity v. What is the value of the velocity v?
(a) FR/BL
(b) FR/B2L2
(c) FR/B2L
(d) FR/BL2
(e) FR2/B2L2
On applying the force F, the rod PQ starts to move from rest with an acceleration. When the
rod moves the magnetic flux linked with the circuit PBCQ changes and an emf is induced in
the circuit. Obviously this is the motional emf BLv.
[Note that when a conductor of length L moves with velocity v at right angles to a magnetic
field of flux density B, the motional voltage generated between its ends is BLv].
Since we have a closed circuit PBCQ, the emf BLv drives a current I through it. PQ is
therefore a current carrying conductor moving at right angles to a magnetic field. A
magnetic force ILB acts opposite to the direction of motion of the conductor (in accordance
with Lenzs law). The opposing magnetic force goes on increasing with the increase in
velocity of the conductor until the magnitude of the magnetic force becomes equal to that of
the applied force F. The conductor thereafter continues to move with the terminal velocity
acquired by it. The velocity of the rod after the initial accelerated motion is now constant.
Equating the magnitudes of the applied force F and the magnetic force ILB we have

F = ILB
But I = BLv/R
Therefore F = B2L2v/R
This gives v = FR/B2L2
(4) An inductance L and a resistance R are connected in series with a battery and switch S as
shown in the figure. The switch is closed at time t = 0. Which one among the following
graphs gives the variation of the voltage VL across the inductance as a function of time t?

There will be a voltage drop across the inductance only if the current in it changes. When
the switch is closed the current in the series LR circuit will rise rapidly initially and will
finally settle at the final maximum value.
[The final maximum current I0 in the LR circuit is V0/R where V0 is the emf of the battery.
The current I in the LR circuit during the growth at any instant t is given by
I = I0[1 eRt/L] where e is the base of natural logarithms]

Since the rate of variation of current is maximum initially, the voltage induced in the
inductance is maximum initially. The rate of variation of current is non-linear and finally
becomes zero. Therefore, the emf induced in the inductance finally becomes zero and the
variation of the voltage VL across the inductance as a function of time t is correctly
represented by graph (b).
[Note that graph (d) is incorrect since the variation of the voltage is linear].