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5.

9 Standard Communication Interfaces


Serial communication is often used either to control or to receive data from an embedded
microprocessor. Serial communication is a form of I/O in which the bits of a byte begin
transferred appear one after the other in a timed sequence on a single wire. Serial
communication has become the standard for inter computer communication.
5.9.1

RS-232

RS232 is the most commonly used, because almost every computer is equipped with one or
more serial ports. Because RS232 signals share a common ground, they are sensitive for
interference, therefore the distance is limited to 15 meters. RS232 can only be used for point to
point connections (one sender, one recipient).
The pins of RS 232 is shown in Fig._____(a) and (b). The male sockets are used on the DTE
(Data Terminal Equipment ) or PC side. The female sockets are on the DCE (Data
Communication Equipment ) or Modem Side. Using the serial port component you can send and
receive data and control the RS232 port.

Fig. ____ (a) RS 232 9-pin connectors


Pin Description
Pin No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

DCD
RD
TD
DTR
GND
DSR
RTS
CTS
RI

Pin Description
Data Carrier Detect
Received Data
Transmitted Data
Data Terminal Ready
Signal Ground
Data Set Ready
Request To Send
Clear To Send
Ring Indicator

Fig.____ (b) 25 pin Connector


Pin Description

Pin No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

Pin Description
PG
TD
RD
RTS
CTS
DSR
SG
CD
SCD
SCTS
STD
TC
SRD
RC
SRTS
DTR
SO
RI
DRS
DRS
-

Protective Ground
Transmitted Data
Received Data
Request To Send
Clear To Send
Data Set Ready
Signal Ground
Carrier Detect
Reserved
Reserved
Unassigned
Secondary Carrier Detect
Secondary Clear To Send
Secondary Transmit Data
Transmitter Clock
Secondary Received Data
Receiver Clock
Unassigned
Secondary Request To Send
Data Terminal Ready
Signal Quality Detector
Ring Indicator
Data Rate Selector
Data Rate Selector
Unassigned

5.9.2 RS-422
RS422 is a high speed digital interface - unlike RS232 which uses signals with reference to
ground, RS449 receivers look for the difference between two wires. By twisting the two wires
and making a "twisted pair" any noise or interference picked up on one wire will also be picked
up on the other, because both wires pick up the same interference the RS449 differential
interface just shifts in voltage level with reference to ground, but does not change with respect
to each other. The receivers are only looking at the difference in voltage level of each wire to the
other not to ground. The pins on the RS422 in 9 and 37 pin Sub-D connectors used in serial
communications are shown in Fig. _____.

Fig___ 9- pin connector


Pin Description
Pin No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Pin Description
TXDTXD+
RTSRTS+
GND
RXDRXD+
CTSCTS+

Transmitted Data Transmitted Data +


Request To Send Request To Send +
Ground
Received Data Received Data +
Clear To Send Clear To Send +

Fig. ____ 37 pin connector


Pin Description
Pin No.

Pin Description

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

GND
SRI
SD
ST
RDRTS
RR
CTS
LL
DM
TR
RR
RL
RL
SF/SR
TT
TM
GND
RC
GND
SD

Ground
Signal Rate Indicator
Reserved
Send Data A
Send Timing A
Received Data A
Request To Send A
Receiver Ready A
Clear To Send A
Local Loopback
Data Mode A
Terminal Ready A
Receiver Ready A
Remote Loopback
Remote Loopback
Select Frequency / Select Rate
Terminal Timing A
Test Mode
Ground
Receive Common
Ground
Send Data B

23

ST

Send Timing B

24

RT

Receive Timing B

25

RS

Request To Send B

26

RT

Receive Timing B

27

CS

Clear To Send B

28
29

IS
DM

Terminal In Service
Data Mode B

30

TR

Terminal Ready B

31

RR

Receiver B

32
33
34

SS
SQ
NS

Select Standby
Signal Quality
New Signal

35

TT

Terminal Timing B

36
37

SB
SC

Standby Indicator
Send Common

5.9.3 RS-423
RS423 is a not commonly used enhanced version of the RS232 standard. The only difference is
that it can be used for greater distances. The interface looks like it uses differential signals, but
in fact, all B pins are connected to ground. RS423 can be used for point to point or multidrop
(one sender, up to 10 recipients) communications. Fig.____ shows the pin details of RS 423

Fig. ____ Pin Details of RS 423


Pin Description
Pin No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17

Pin Description
GND
TDA
RDA
RTSA
CTSA
DSRA
GND
RLSDA
RTA
RLSDB
XTB
TTB
CTSB
TDB
TTA
RDB
RTA

Shield
Transmitted Data A
Received Data A
Request To Send A
Clear To Send A
Data Set Ready A
Signal Ground
Receive Line Signal Detect A
Receive Timing A
Receive Line Signal Detect B
External Timing B
Transmit Timing B
Clear To Send B
Transmit Data B
Transmit Timing A
Received Data B
Receive Timing A

18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

5.9.4

LL
RTSB
DTRA
RL
DSRB
DTRB
XTA
TM

Local Loopback
Request To Send B
Data Terminal Ready B
Remote Loopback
Data Set Ready B
Data Terminal Ready B
External Timing A
Test Mode Indicator

RS-449

RS449 is a not commonly used enhanced version of the RS232 standard. Another name for
RS449 is V.11 Like RS 485 and RS 422 it uses differential signals over twisted pair cables which
reduces errors caused by noise or interference. RS449 can be used for point to point or
multidrop (one sender, up to 10 recipients) communications. The functions of the pins on the
RS449 9 and 37 pin (not given)Sub-D connectors used in serial communications

Fig _____ 9- Pin D connector of RS 449


Pin Description
Pin No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Pin Description
GND
Shield
SSR
Secondary Receiver Ready
SSD
Secondary Send Data
SRD
Secondary Receive Data
SG
Signal Ground
RC
Receive Common
SRS
Secondary Request To Send
SCS
Secondary Clear To Send
SC
Send Common

5.9.5 RS-485
RS485 is the most enhanced RS232 based serial interface available. It can handle high speeds
and long cable distances up to 4000 feet. Like RS 449 and RS 422 it uses differential signals
over twisted pair cables which reduces errors caused by noise or interference. RS485 uses
multipoint technology, it is possible to connect 32 devices on a single RS485 bus. Connection
speeds can be as high as 35 Mbs . For the pin layout of RS485 connectors is shown in
Fig.____

Fig. ____ Pin diagram of RS-485


Pin Description
Pin No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

Pin Description
GND
CTS+
RTS+
RXD+
RXDCTSRTSTXD+
TXD-

Common Ground
Clear To Send +
Ready To Send +
Received Data +
Received Data Clear To Send Request To Send Transmitted Data +
Transmitted Data -

Table___ shows the comparison of serial communication standards


Table _____
Specifications
Mode of Operation
Total Number of Drivers and Receivers on One Line.
One driver active at a time for RS-485 networks

RS-232
SingleEnded
1 Driver
1 Receiver

RS-422
Differential

RS-485
Differential

1 Driver
10
Receiver

32 Drivers
32
Receivers

Maximum Cable Length


Maximum Data Rate (40 ft - 4000 ft for RS-422/RS485)

50 ft (2500
pF)
160 kbits/s
(can
be up to
1Mbit/s)

4000 ft

4000 ft

10 Mbit/s

10 Mbit/s