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ASSIGNMENT

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DESIGN

Solution to Tutorial 11

Q1.

The calculations are performed using a spreadsheet. After several trials, the

required depth of neutral axis dn is found to be 460mm. The calculations are

illustrated for this value of dn.

Eq 22.10 Cc 0.85 0.822 32 350 460 3600kN

From Eq 22.24 & 22.25,

0.003

(460 60) sy

460

s1 400MPa

Fs1 (400) 2400 960kN

0.003

s2

(460 260) 1.30 10 3

460

s2 (1.30 10 3 ) 200 10 3 260MPa

Fs2 (260) 1600 416kN

0.003

s3

(460 460) 0

460

s3 Fs3 0

0.003

s4

(460 660) 1.3 10 3

460

s4 (1.3 10 3 ) 200 10 3 260Mpa

s1

Eq 22.26 : N u 3600 960 416 0 624 4352kN

Eq 22.27 : dN [(3600 0.82 460 /2) (960 60) (416 260)

(0 460) (624 660)] / 4352 100mm

For the section, dq = 360mm and therefore e = 360 100 = 260mm. This agrees

with the given value. Alternatively, summoning moments of forces about the

plastic centroid given:

M u 3600(360 0.822 460 /2) 960(360 60) 416(360 260)

0(360 460) (626)(360 660) 1133kNm

e 1133 10 3 /4352 260mm , which is the same as the given value.

Q2.

1) When e = 165 mm, Nub = 3014 kN and eb = 321 mm.

Nu = 4739 kN

As e is less than eb, Nu > Nub and = 0.6(Eq 22.30).

Hence:

N ub 0.6 4739 2843kN

2) When e = 380 mm,

From example 22.3 (step 3), Nu = 2416 kN

As e is greater than eb, Nu < Nub and Eq 22.31 governs.

2416

0.6 0.2 1

0.64

3014

Eq 22.31:

Hence:

N u 0.64 2416 1546kN

M

u 0.64 0.38 2416 522kNm

Q3.

Take f = 32 MPa, fsy = 400 MPa and D/b = 1.5

The design actions are:

M * 1.25 120 1.5 90 285kNm

N * 1.25 800 1.5 650 1975kN

1975 10 3

bD

130622

0.75 0.6(0.85 32 400 0.016)

Eq 22.33: D 1.56, D 450mm, b 300mm

285 10 6

131 10 6 mm 3

0.8 0.85 400 0.008

2) Eq 22.34:

With

D

=

1.1d

and

D/b = 1.5, we obtain that D = 620mm.

3) As first trial, choose the larger section from steps 1 and 2:

Ast = Asc = 0.008 x 375 x 510 = 1530 mm2, try 4 Y24 bars.

bd 2

Q4.

1) Calculate Z :

N uz N * / z 1200 / z

Since z 0.6, N uz 1200 /0.6 2000kN

From

Example 22.3, for this section Nubz = 3014 kN

Thus Nuz < Nubz

Using Chapter 7, we find that for this section ku in pure bending is 0.16

(<0.4)

Since Nuz < Nubz and ku < 0.4, Z must be determined from Eq. 22.31.

With Nuz = 1200 / Z we have:

Eq 22.31: z 0.6 0.2(1 1200 /3014 z ) and Z = 0.68

2) Calculate Muz

Muz is determined

from

Eqs 22.15, 22.16 and 22.19

From Eq 22.16, h = 710 mm

From Fig 22.13 and by Eq 22.19: Muz = 1765 [710 (530-300)] = 847 kNm

3) Calculate y

For bending about the y-axis, the steel is distributed throughout the section.

The effective depth, d (as defined in Clause 1.6.3 of AS 3600), must be

d = 260 mm.

For the balanced condition, the strain in the section varies linearly from

0.003 at the compression surface to 0.002 tension at depth 260 mm. The

force in the concrete compression zone and in each layer of steel can thus

be calculated.

Summation of these forces gives:

Nuby = 1463 kN

4) Calculate Muy

Nuy =

1200 / 0.6 = 2000 kN

The neutral axis depth corresponding to this value of Nuy is found by trial

and error. For any trial value of dn, and with u = 0.003, the forces in the

concrete and in each layer of steel are determined. For the correct dn, the

sum of the forces must be 2000 kN. We find that dn = 176 mm.

The sum of the moments of the element forces about the y-axis of the

section Muy = 484 kNm

5) Check the adequacy of the section

Eq 22.7: Nuo = (0.85 x 32 x 600 x 425) + (400 x 2 x 2480) = 8920 kN

1200

n 0.7 1.7

1.08

0.6 8920

1.08

1.08

204

144

0.8

0.68 847

0.6 484

This is less than 1.0, hence the section is adequate.

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