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# 1.

Draw a line from each unit on the left-hand side to the correct equivalent unit on the
right-hand side.
jo u le ( J )

kg m s2

w a tt (W )

N m

n e w to n (N )

J s1
[Total 2 marks]

2.

This question is about estimating the pressure exerted by a person wearing shoes
standing on a floor, see the figure below.

(i)

## Estimate the weight in newtons of a person.

weight = ...................................................... N
[1]

## Villiers High School

(ii)

Estimate the total area of contact in square metres between the shoes of this
person and the floor.

area = .................................................... m

[1]

(iii)

Hence estimate the pressure in pascals exerted by this person standing on the
floor.

pressure = .................................................... Pa
[1]
[Total 3 marks]

3.

The figure below shows two masses A and B tied to the ends of a length of string. The
string passes over a pulley. The mass A is held at rest on the floor.
p u lle y

B
1 .5 0 k g

2 .8 0 m
f lo o r

A
1 .2 0 k g

(a)

## Calculate the weight of mass B.

weight = ...................................................... N
[1]

(b)

Mass B is initially at rest at a height of 2.80 m above the floor. Mass A is then
2
released. Mass B has a constant downward acceleration of 1.09 m s . Assume
that air resistance and the friction between the pulley and the string are
negligible.
(i)

In terms of forces, explain why the acceleration of the mass B is less than
the acceleration of free fall g.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

## Calculate the time taken for the mass B to fall 1.40 m.

time = ...................................................... s
[3]

(iii)

## Calculate the velocity of mass B after falling 1.40 m.

velocity = ................................................ m s

[2]

(iv)

## Mass B hits the floor at a speed of 2.47 m s . It rebounds with a speed of

1
2
1.50 m s . The time of contact with the floor is 3.0 10 s. Calculate the
magnitude of the average acceleration of mass B during its impact with the
floor.

acceleration = ................................................ m s

[2]
[Total 9 marks]

4.

A lift has a mass of 500 kg. It is designed to carry a maximum of 8 people of total mass
4
2
560 kg. The lift is supported by a steel cable of cross-sectional area 3.8 10 m .
When the lift is at ground floor level the cable is at its maximum length of 140 m, as
1
shown in the figure below. The mass per unit length of the cable is 3.0 kg m .

s te e l c a b le
140 m
lift s h a ft

g r o u n d flo o r

## Villiers High School

(a)

Show that the mass of the 140 m long steel cable is 420 kg.

[1]

(b)

(i)

The lift with its 8 passengers is stationary at the ground floor level. The
2
initial upward acceleration of the lift and the cable is 1.8 m s . Show that
4
the maximum tension in the cable at point P is 1.7 10 N.

[4]

(ii)

## Calculate the maximum stress in the cable.

stress = .................................................... Pa
[2]
[Total 7 marks]

5.

## An electron in a particle accelerator experiences a constant force. According to one

student, the acceleration of the electron should remain constant because the ratio of
force to mass does not change. In reality, experiments show that the acceleration of the
electron decreases as its velocity increases. Describe what can be deduced from such
experiments about the nature of accelerated electrons.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
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[Total 2 marks]

6.

The figure below shows the velocity vector for a particle moving at an angle of 31 to
the horizontal.

8 .0 m s -1

31

(i)

On the figure above, show the horizontal (x-direction) and vertical (y-direction)
components of the velocity.
[2]

(ii)

## Calculate the horizontal (x-direction) component of the velocity.

velocity = ................................................ m s

[1]
[Total 3 marks]

7.

## The figure below shows a ship S being pulled by two tug-boats.

N o t to s c a le
1 .5 0 k N
S

c a b le

55

d ir e c t io n o f
tra v e l o f
s h ip S

35

tu g -b o a t

The ship is travelling at a constant velocity. The tensions in the cables and the angles
made by these cables to the direction in which the ship travels are shown in the figure
above.

## Villiers High School

(i)

Draw a vector triangle and determine the resultant force provided by the two
cables.

## resultant force = .................................................... kN

[3]

(ii)

State the value of the drag force acting on the ship S. Explain your answer.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 5 marks]

8.

## State the principle of conservation of energy.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

9.

## Describe one example where elastic potential energy is stored.

..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

10.

The figure below shows a simple pendulum with a metal ball attached to the end of a
string.

s tr in g

m
P
h
v

When the ball is released from P, it describes a circular path. The ball has a maximum
speed v at the bottom of its swing. The vertical distance between P and bottom of the
swing is h. The mass of the ball is m.

(i)

Write the equations for the change in gravitational potential energy, Ep, of the ball
as it drops through the height h and for the kinetic energy, Ek, of the ball at the
bottom of its swing when travelling at speed v.
Ep =
Ek =
[1]

## Villiers High School

(ii)

Use the principle of conservation of energy to derive an equation for the speed v.
Assume that there are no energy losses due to air resistance.

[2]
[Total 3 marks]

11.

Some countries in the world have frequent thunderstorms. A group of scientists plan to
use the energy from the falling rain to generate electricity. A typical thunderstorm
2
7
2
deposits rain to a depth of 1.2 10 m over a surface area of 2.0 10 m during a
3
time of 900 s. The rain falls from an average height of 2.5 10 m. The density of
3
3
rainwater is 1.0 10 kg m . About 30% of the gravitational potential energy of the rain
can be converted into electrical energy at the ground.
(i)

Show that the total mass of water deposited in 900 s is 2.4 10 kg.

[2]

(ii)

Hence show that the average electrical power available from this thunderstorm is

[3]

10

(iii)

## Suggest one problem with this scheme of energy production.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 6 marks]

12.

## The force against length graph for a spring is shown in Fig. 1.

6
fo rc e /N
5
4
3
2
1
0

10
le n g th /1 0

12
m

Fig. 1

(a)

Explain why the graph does not pass through the origin.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

State what feature of the graph shows that the spring obeys Hookes law.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

## Villiers High School

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(c)

The gradient of the graph is equal to the force constant k of the spring. Determine
the force constant of the spring.

## force constant = ............................................... N m

[2]

(d)

Calculate the work done on the spring when its length is increased from
2
2
2.0 10 m to 8.0 10 m.

[2]

## Villiers High School

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(e)

One end of the spring is fixed and a mass is hung vertically from the other end.
The mass is pulled down and then released. The mass oscillates up and down.
Fig. 2 shows the displacement s against time t graph for the mass.
0 .4
s /m
0 .2
0

2 .0

4 .0

-0 .2
-0 .4
Fig. 2
Explain how you can use Fig. 2 to determine the maximum speed of the mass.
You are not expected to do the calculations.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

13.

p u ll

(i)

p u ll

## Explain why the tape is most likely to break at point B.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

13

(ii)

## Explain what is meant by the statement:

the tape has gone beyond its elastic limit.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

14.

The figure below shows one possible method for determining the Young modulus of a
metal in the form of a wire.
w o o d b lo c k s

c la m p

m e ta l w ir e

m a rk e r
p u lle y

BENC H TO P

m asses

## Villiers High School

14

Describe how you can use this apparatus to determine the Young modulus of the
metal. The sections below should be helpful when writing your answers.
The measurements to be taken:
In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled correctly.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

## The equipment used to take the measurements:

In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled correctly.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

15

## How you would determine Young modulus from your measurements:

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 8 marks]

15.

(a)

(i)

m.

## Show that the energy of a single photon is about 3 10

19

J.

[2]

(ii)

The power of the laser beam is 1.0 mW. Show that about 3 10
are emitted by the laser each second.

15

photons

[1]

## Villiers High School

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(iii)

The photons of red light are emitted by the neon atoms in the gas inside the
laser.
Explain what energy levels are and how they can be used to explain the
emission of photons from atoms.
In your answer take care to make your explanation clear.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[4]

(iv)

Another laser emits blue light. The power in its beam is also 1.0 mW.
Explain why the laser emitting blue light emits fewer photons per second
compared with a laser of the same power emitting red light.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]

17

(b)

## A photodiode is a circuit component which can be used to convert a light signal

into an electrical one. The figure below shows an enlarged cross-section through
a photodiode to illustrate how it is constructed. Light incident on the thin
transparent conducting surface layer of the diode passes through it to be
absorbed in the insulating layer. The energy of each photon is sufficient to
release one electron in the insulating layer. The potential difference V applied
across the insulating layer causes these electrons to move to one of the
conducting layers.
in c id e n t lig h t

tra n s p a re n t
c o n d u c tin g la y e r
in s u la t in g la y e r

X
V

c o n d u c tin g la y e r

(i)

## Draw an arrow on the figure above to show the direction of motion of an

electron released at point X in the centre of the insulating layer.
[1]

## A helium-neon laser emits red light of wavelength 6.3 10

(ii)

m.

The red light from the laser is incident on the photodiode. Experiments
show that only 20% of the red light photons release electrons in the
insulating layer and hence in the circuit of the figure above. Calculate the
current through the photodiode.

current = ................................ A
[3]

## Villiers High School

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(iii)

Suggest one reason why the efficiency of the photodiode is less than
100%.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 14 marks]

16.

(a)

## Define a vector quantity.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

acceleration

speed

time

displacement

weight
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

## Villiers High School

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17.

The figure below shows graphs of velocity v against time t for two cars A and B
travelling along a straight level road in the same direction.
26
v / m s 1

24

22
20
18
16
14

12
10
8
6

t / s

10

(i)

## Describe the motion of car A from t = 0 to t = 10 s.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

20

(ii)

## Calculate the distance travelled by car A in the first 4.0 s.

distance = ..................................................... m
[2]

(iii)

1

## the time at which both cars have the same velocity

time = ...................................................... s
[1]

## the time t at which car A overtakes car B.

t = ...................................................... s
[2]
[Total 7 marks]

## Villiers High School

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18.

The figure below shows the path of water from a hose pipe.
h o s e p ip e
7 .0 m s -1
P
p a th o f
w a te r

1 .3 m

g ro u n d
3 .6 m

The end of the horizontal hose pipe is at a height of 1.3 m from the ground. The initial
1
horizontal velocity of the water is 7.0 m s . The horizontal distance from the end of the
hose pipe to the point where the water hits the ground is 3.6 m. You may assume that
air resistance has negligible effect on the motion of the water jet.
(a)

On the figure above, draw an arrow to show the direction of the acceleration of
the water at point P.
(Mark this arrow A).
[1]

(b)

Describe the energy conversion that takes place as the water travels from the
end of the hose pipe to the ground.
In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled correctly.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

22

(c)

## Explain why the horizontal component of the velocity remains constant at

1
7.0 m s .
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(d)

Show that the water takes about 0.5 s to travel from the end of the pipe to the
ground.

[1]

(e)

Show that the speed of the water when it hits the ground is 8.6 m s .

[3]
[Total 8 marks]

23

19.

## Define the newton.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

20.

State why the equation F = ma cannot be applied to particles travelling at speeds very
close to the speed of light.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

21.

The figure below shows the horizontal forces acting on a car of mass 900 kg when it is
travelling at a particular velocity on a level road.

The total forward force between the tyres and the road is 200 N and the air resistance
(drag) is 80 N.

24

(i)

## Calculate the acceleration of the car.

acceleration = ................................................ m s

[2]

(ii)

Explain why we cannot use the equation v = u + at to predict the velocity of the
car at a later time even when the forward force is constant.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 3 marks]

## Villiers High School

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22.

The figure below shows a person being lifted vertically upwards by a rope.

ro p e

The mass of the person is 72 kg. The upward vertical acceleration of the person is
2
1.4 m s .
Calculate the tension T in the rope.

T = ...................................................... N
[Total 3 marks]

23.

## Define torque of a couple.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

## Villiers High School

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24.

(a)

Explain why moment of a force and torque of a couple have the same unit N m.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

The figure below shows an irregular shaped metal plate of constant thickness
that can swing freely about point P.
P
0 .3 0 m

0 .4 0 m
6 .0 N

(i)

The weight of the plate is 6.0 N. With the plate in the position as shown in
the figure, calculate the clockwise moment of the weight of the plate about
an axis through point P.

moment = .................................................. N m
[1]

## Villiers High School

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(ii)

Explain why the moment of the weight reduces to zero when the plate
reaches the bottom of the swing.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 3 marks]

25.

Describe an experiment to determine the centre of gravity of the metal plate shown in
the figure below.
P
0 .3 0 m

0 .4 0 m
6 .0 N

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 3 marks]

28

26.

## The figure below shows a section of the human forearm in equilibrium.

b ic e p
F
o b je c t

e lb o w

3 .5 c m
14 cm
32 cm

18 N
60 N

The weight of the object in the hand is 60 N. The centre of gravity of this object is
32 cm from the elbow. The bicep provides an upward force of magnitude F. The
distance between the line of action of this force and the elbow is 3.5 cm. The weight of
the forearm is 18 N. The distance between the centre of gravity of the forearm and the
elbow is 14 cm.
By taking moments about the elbow, determine the magnitude of the force F provided
by the bicep.

F = ...................................................... N
[Total 3 marks]

29

27.

## The figure below shows a 20 N force acting at an angle of 38 to the horizontal.

20 N

38

h o r iz o n ta l

[1]

## vertical component = ...................................................... N

[1]
[Total 2 marks]

28.

The figure below shows a metal block held in equilibrium by two wires.
38

w ir e

38

20 N

w ir e

20 N

b lo c k

not to scale

30

(i)

[2]

(ii)

metal.

## m . Calculate the density of the

density = .............................................. kg m

[3]
[Total 5 marks]

29.

## Define stopping distance of a car.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

## Villiers High School

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30.

State two factors that affect the braking distance of a car. Describe how each factor
affects the braking distance.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 4 marks]

31.

Describe how Global Positioning System (GPS) is used to locate the position of a car
on the Earths surface.
In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled correctly.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
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[Total 4 marks]

32.

## In what form is energy stored when a metal wire is extended by a force?

..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

## Villiers High School

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33.

A metal wire of length 1.2 m is clamped vertically. A weight is hung from the lower end
of the wire. The extension of the wire is 0.35 mm. The cross-sectional area of the wire
7
2
11
is 1.4 10 m and the Young modulus of the metal is 1.9 10 Pa.
Calculate
(i)

## the strain of the wire

strain = .........................................................
[1]

(ii)

## the tension in the wire.

tension = ...................................................... N
[2]
[Total 3 marks]

## Villiers High School

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34.

There is great excitement at the moment about structures known as carbon nanotubes
(CNTs). CNTs are cylindrical tubes of carbon atoms. These cylindrical tubes have
diameter of a few nanometres and can be several millimetres in length. Carbon
nanotubes are one of the strongest and stiffest materials known. Recently a carbon
nanotube was tested to have an ultimate tensile strength of about 60 GPa. In
comparison, high-carbon steel has an ultimate tensile strength of about 1.2 GPa. Under
excessive tensile stress, the carbon nanotubes undergo plastic deformation. This
deformation begins at a strain of about 5%. Carbon nanotubes have a low density for a
solid. Carbon nanotubes have recently been used in high quality racing bicycles.
(i)

## The diameter of CNTs is a few nanometres. What is one nanometre in

metres?
................................................................................................................
[1]

## Explain what is meant by plastic deformation.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

## How many times stronger are CNTs than high-carbon steel?

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(iii)

State two advantages of making a bicycle frame using CNT technology rather
than high-carbon steel.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 5 marks]

34

35.

## State a similarity and a difference between distance and displacement.

(i)

similarity: ........................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

difference: .......................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

36.

## Villiers High School

35

An aircraft flies due north from A for a distance of 360 km (3.6 10 m) to point B. Its
1
average speed between A and B is 170 m s . At B the aircraft is forced to change
course and flies due east for a distance of 100 km to arrive at C.
(i)

## Calculate the time of the journey from A to B.

time = ....................................................... s
[1]

(ii)

## Draw a labelled displacement vector triangle below. Use it to determine the

magnitude of the displacement in km of the aircraft at C from A.

displacement = ....................................................km
[3]
[Total 4 marks]

## Villiers High School

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37.

The figure below shows a graph of velocity against time for an object travelling in a
straight line.
v e lo c it y
v

tim e

The object has a constant acceleration a. In a time t its velocity increases from u to v.
(a)

Describe how the graph of the figure above can be used to determine
(i)

## the acceleration a of the object

In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled
correctly.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

## the displacement s of the object.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

## Villiers High School

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(b)

Use the graph of the figure above to show that the displacement s of the object is
given by the equation:

1
2
s = ut + 2 at

[2]

(c)

In order to estimate the acceleration g of free fall, a student drops a large stone
from a tall building. The height of the building is known to be 32 m. Using a
stopwatch, the time taken for the stone to fall to the ground is 2.8 s.
(i)

## Use this information to determine the acceleration of free fall.

acceleration = .................................................m s

[2]

(ii)

One possible reason why your answer to (c)(i) is smaller than the accepted
2
value of 9.81 m s is the reaction time of the student. State another reason
2
why the answer is smaller than 9.81 m s .
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 7 marks]

## Villiers High School

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38.

A skydiver jumps from a stationary hot-air balloon several kilometres above the ground.
(a)

## In terms of acceleration and forces, explain the motion of the skydiver

immediately after jumping ...............................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

## at a time before terminal velocity is reached ...................................................

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

## at terminal velocity. ..........................................................................................

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[6]

## Villiers High School

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(b)

In the final stage of the fall, the skydiver is falling through air at a constant speed.
The skydivers kinetic energy does not change even though there is a decrease
in the gravitational potential energy. State what happens to this loss of
gravitational potential energy.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(c)

The figure below shows a sketch graph of the variation of the velocity v of the
skydiver with time t.
v / m s -1

50

25

0
0

10

20

30

t / s

Suggest the changes to the graph of the figure above, if any, for a more massive
(heavier) skydiver of the same shape.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 9 marks]

39.

## Define work done by a force.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

## Villiers High School

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40.

Define power.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

41.

## Explain why the efficiency of a mechanical device can never be 100%.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

42.

A car has a total mass of 810 kg. Its speed changes from zero to 30 m s
12 s.
(i)

in a time of

[2]

## Villiers High School

41

(ii)

Calculate the average power generated by the car engine. Assume that the
power generated by the engine of the car is entirely used in increasing the kinetic
energy of the car.

power = ......................................................W
[1]

(iii)

The actual efficiency of the car is 25%. The car takes 18 kg of petrol to fill its
1
tank. The energy provided per kilogram of petrol is 46 MJ kg . The drag force
1
acting on the car at a constant speed of 30 m s is 500 N.
1

Calculate the work done against the drag force per second.

[1]

## Villiers High School

42

Calculate the total distance the car can travel on a full tank of petrol when
1
travelling at a constant speed of 30 m s .

distance = ......................................................m
[3]
[Total 7 marks]

43.

b lo c k

ra m p

## The angle between the ramp and the horizontal is .

(i)

The weight W of the block is already shown on the figure. Complete the diagram
by showing the normal contact (reaction) force N and the frictional force F acting
on the block
[2]

(ii)

## Write an equation to show how F is related to W and .

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 3 marks]

## Villiers High School

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44.

The figure below shows a kitchen cupboard securely mounted to a vertical wall. The
cupboard rests on a support at A.
s c re w
w a ll

F
c u p b o a rd
75 cm

A
su p p o rt

12 cm
200 N

The total weight of the cupboard and its contents is 200 N. The line of action of its
weight is at a distance of 12 cm from A. The screw securing the cupboard to the wall is
at a vertical distance of 75 cm from A.
(i)

## State the principle of moments.

In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled correctly.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

## Villiers High School

44

(ii)

The direction of the force F provided by the screw on the cupboard is horizontal
as shown in the figure above. Take moments about A. Determine the value of F.

F = ...................................................... N
[2]

(iii)

The cross-sectional area under the head of the screw in contact with the
5
2
cupboard is 6.0 10 m . Calculate the pressure on the cupboard under the

pressure = .....................................................Pa
[2]

(iv)

State and explain how your answer to (iii) would change, if at all, if the same
screw was secured much closer to A.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

## Villiers High School

45

45.

In February 1999 NASA launched its Stardust spacecraft on a mission to collect dust
12
particles from the comet Tempel 1. After a journey of 5.0 10 m that took 6.9 years,
Stardust returned to Earth with samples of the dust particles embedded in a special
low-density gel. When a dust particle hits the gel, it buries itself in the gel creating a
cone-shaped track as shown in the figure below. The length of the track is typically 200
times the diameter of the dust particle.

n o t to s c a le
c o n e -s h a p e d tra c k

gel

(a)

## of Stardust during its voyage.

speed = .................................................m s

[2]

## Villiers High School

46

(b)

Calculate the average stopping force produced by the gel for a dust particle of
6
diameter 0.70 mm and mass 4.0 10 kg travelling at a velocity of
3
1
6.1 10 m s relative to Stardust.

force = .......................................................N
[3]
[Total 5 marks]

46.

On the axes of the figure below, sketch a stress against strain graph for a typical ductile
material.
s tre s s

0
s tr a in

[Total 2 marks]

47.

jelly

copper

ceramic

glass
[Total 1 mark]

47

48.

## Define ultimate tensile strength of a material.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

49.

## State Hookes law.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

50.

The figure below shows a mechanism for firing a table tennis ball vertically into the air.

b a ll

p la tfo r m
s p r in g

s p r in g fix e d
to p la te

p la te
p u ll a n d r e le a s e
t o f ir e b a ll

## Villiers High School

48

The spring has a force constant of 75 N m . The ball is placed on the platform at the
top of the spring.
(i)

The spring is compressed by 0.085 m by pulling the platform. Calculate the force
exerted by the compressed spring on the ball immediately after the spring is
released. Assume both the spring and the platform have negligible mass.

force = .......................................................N
[2]

(ii)

## kg. Calculate the initial acceleration of the ball.

acceleration = .................................................m s

[1]

## Villiers High School

49

(iii)

Calculate the maximum height that could be gained by the ball. Assume all the
elastic potential energy of the spring is converted into gravitational potential
energy of the ball.

height = ......................................................m
[3]
[Total 6 marks]

51.

(i)

Define speed of an object. Explain how you would determine the constant speed
of a conker at the end of length of string being whirled in a horizontal circle.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3]

(ii)

## Define velocity of an object.

In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled correctly.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

50

(iii)

## By reference to speed and velocity, explain the difference between a scalar

quantity and a vector quantity, using as an example the terms speed and velocity.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 6 marks]

52.

Fig. 1 shows a long rope that is tied at one end to a high support. A girl swings forwards
and backwards across a pool using the other end of the rope.
s u p p o rt

ro p e

Fig. 1

## Villiers High School

51

Fig.2 shows the variation with time t of the displacement x of the girl from
A to B and back to A.
2 .5
x /m
2 .0

1 .5

1 .0

0 .5

1 .0

2 .0

3 .0

4 .0

5 .0

6 .0
t/s

Fig. 2

(i)

State what the gradient of the graph represents and explain why the graph shows
both positive and negative gradients.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

Mark on Fig.2 with a cross a position where the speed of the girl is zero
(label this Z).
[1]

## Villiers High School

52

(iii)

1. Explain how you can determine using Figure 2 that the maximum speed of the
1
girl is about 1.4ms .
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
2. Estimate the uncertainty in the value of the maximum speed obtained in this
way.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 5 marks]

53.

(a)

Define acceleration.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

53

(b)

## An aircraft of total mass 1.5 10 kg accelerates, at maximum thrust from the

engines, from rest along a runway for 25 s reaching the required take-off speed
1
of 65 m s .
Assume that the acceleration of the aircraft is constant. Calculate
(i)

## the net force acting on the aircraft to produce this acceleration

force = ..................................... N
[3]

(ii)

## the distance travelled by the aircraft in this time.

distance = ................................. m
[2]

(c)

At a particular airport, the length of the runway for the same take-off speed is less
than your answer in (b)(iii). State and explain what change could be made to the
aircraft to enable it to reach the required take-off speed on this shorter runway.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

## Villiers High School

54

54.

(a)

Define
(i)

power
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

a joule.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

A force F acts on an object. The object moves at an angle to this force. Explain
why the work done W by the force in the direction of motion of the object is not
just
W = Fx
but is equal to
W = Fx cos
In your answer, you should use appropriate technical terms, spelled correctly.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 3 marks]

## Villiers High School

55

55.

The diagram below shows a part of a fairground ride with a carriage on rails.

3 .9 m

30o
The carriage of mass 500 kg is travelling towards a slope inclined at 30 to the
horizontal. The carriage has a kinetic energy of 25 kJ at the bottom of the slope. The
carriage comes to rest after travelling up the slope to a vertical height of 3.9 m.

(i)

Show that the gravitational potential energy gained by the carriage is 19 kJ.
[2]

(ii)

Calculate the total work done against the resistive forces as the carriage moves
up the slope.

[1]

## Villiers High School

56

(iii)

Calculate the magnitude of the resistive force acting against the carriage as it
moves up the slope.

[2]
[Total 5 marks]

56.

(a)

## State Hookes law.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

## Villiers High School

57

(b)

The diagram below shows the variation of the applied force F with the extension
x for a particular spring.

12

10
fo rc e / N

20

40

60

80

100

e x te n s io n /
x (x 1 0 3 m )

(i)

[2]

## Villiers High School

58

(ii)

Determine the elastic potential energy stored in the spring when a force of
20 N is applied.

[2]

(iii)

## State one assumption made in your calculation of the energy in (ii).

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(iv)

The energy stored in the spring is used to propel a metal ball of mass m
horizontally. There is 100% transfer of energy from the spring to the ball.
Show how the speed v of the metal ball is proportional to the extension x of
the spring. Find the constant of proportionality.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 9 marks]

59

57.

## Explain the following terms in relation to motion of a road vehicle.

(i)

braking distance
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

thinking distance
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

58.

(i)

[2]

(ii)

## the deceleration of the car when the braking distance is 24 m.

deceleration = ...................................... m s

[2]
[Total 4 marks]

## Villiers High School

60

59.

Describe in terms of the forces acting on the driver how wearing a seat belt and having
an airbag in a car can help to protect the driver from injury in a head on collision.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 4 marks]

## Villiers High School

61

60.

The wearing of seat belts became law in the UK in January 1983. The diagram below
shows the annual deaths due to road accidents in Scotland since 1950.

N um ber of
d e a th s

9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1950

1960

1970

1980

1990

2000

Year
The percentage of car drivers wearing seat belts in 1983 and at present has remained
static at 93 %. On average, cars are travelling faster now than in 1983. Suggest
another factor which may have been responsible for the decrease in deaths.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

61.

(a)

## State two conditions that are necessary for an object to be in equilibrium.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

62

(b)

## The diagram below shows a computer resting on a tabletop that is hinged at

point A.
0 .8 0 m
c o m p u te r

ta b le to p
A

B
F
0 .2 5 m
200 N

The tabletop has a mass of 5.0 kg and its centre of gravity is 0.40 m from the axis
of the hinge A. The computer has a weight of 200 N acting through a point 0.25
m from the hinge A. The tabletop is supported to maintain it in a horizontal
position by a force F acting vertically at B. The distance AB is 0.80 m.

## Calculate the force F applied at B that is required to maintain the tabletop in

equilibrium.

force F = .................................................. N
[3]

(c)

Explain why the force F and the 200 N force shown in the figure above cannot be
a couple.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 6 marks]

63

62.

(a)

## Define the Young modulus of a material.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

## Explain why the quantity strain has no units.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

63.

(a)

## Explain what is meant by a brittle material.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

## Define the ultimate tensile strength of a material. Suggest why an engineer

designing a suspension bridge should know the value of this quantity for all his
materials.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 3 marks]

## Villiers High School

64

64.

The figure below shows the path of a ball thrown from A and passing through positions
B, C and D.

The ball is thrown from A with a velocity v. A vector arrow on the figure. represents the
magnitude and direction of the velocity of the ball at A.
(a)

On the figure draw arrows to represent the horizontal and vertical components of
the velocity of the ball at A.
[1]

(b)

State how the components of the velocity of the ball at B, C and D compare with
the components at A. Assume air resistance is negligible.
(i)

## The vertical component at B

............................................................

## The horizontal component at B

.........................................................
[1]

(ii)

## The vertical component at C

...............................................................

## The horizontal component at C

.........................................................
[1]

(iii)

## The vertical component at D

The horizontal component at D

............................................................
.........................................................
[1]

## Villiers High School

65

(c)

Explain the answers you have given for the components of the velocity of the ball
at positions B, C and D.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[4]
[Total 8 marks]

65.

## Explain, with reference to a car, the quantities

(i)

braking force
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

braking distance.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

## Villiers High School

66

66.

A car of mass 1380 kg, travelling at 31.1 m s , is brought to rest by the brakes in
48.2 m. Calculate
(i)

[3]

(ii)

## the average deceleration of the car

deceleration = .............................. m s

[2]

(iii)

[2]
[Total 7 marks]

67.

## Define the quantities

(i)

work
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

## Villiers High School

67

(ii)

power.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

68.

The figure below shows a crane that is used to move heavy objects.

The motor M in the crane lifts a total mass of 1500 kg through a height of 25 m at a
1
constant velocity of 1.6 m s .
Calculate
(i)

## the tension in the lifting cable

tension = .............................. N
[2]

(ii)

the time taken for the mass to be raised through the height of 25 m

time = .............................. s
[1]

68

(iii)

## rate of gain of potential energy = .............................. J s

[3]

(iv)

the minimum output power of the motor used to raise the mass.

power = .............................. W
[1]
[Total 7 marks]

69.

Define
(i)

## the moment of a force

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

## the torque of a couple.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 3 marks]

## Villiers High School

69

70.

The figure below shows a uniform rectangular beam supported by two straps. The
beam is in equilibrium.
0 .5 0 m
X

Y
1 .0 m

w e ig h t = 3 6 0 0 N
4 .0 m
The weight of the beam is 3600 N and its length is 4.0 m. The strap A is positioned
0.50 m from one end of the beam and the strap B is positioned 1.0 m from the other
end.
(i)

Use the principle of moments to show that the upward force X at strap A is
1440 N.

[2]

## Hence determine the force Y at the strap B.

force = .............................. N
[2]

(ii)

## Discuss whether the forces X and Y provide a couple.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

## Villiers High School

70

(iii)

The area of strap A in contact with the underside of the beam is 2.3 10
Calculate the average pressure exerted on the beam by strap A.

m .

[3]
[Total 9 marks]

71.

## Define the quantities

(i)

stress
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

strain.
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

72.

The results given in the table below are obtained in an experiment to determine the
Young modulus of a metal in the form of a wire. The wire is loaded in steps of 5.0 N
up to 25.0 N and then unloaded.

## Villiers High School

extension / mm

extension /mm

0.0

0.00

0.00

5.0

0.24

0.24

10.0

0.47

0.48

15.0

0.71

0.71

20.0

0.96

0.95

25.0

1.20

1.20

71

(i)

Using the results in the table and without plotting a graph, state and explain
whether the deformation of the wire
1

is plastic or elastic

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

## obeys Hookes law.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

Explain how the extension and length of the wire may be determined
experimentally.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(iii)

The wire tested is 1.72 m long and has a cross-sectional area of 1.80 10 m .
Use the extension value given in the table for a load of 25.0 N to calculate the
Young modulus of the metal of the wire.

[3]
[Total 8 marks]

## Villiers High School

72

73.

In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
Below is a graph of the displacement against time for the motion of a radio-controlled
model car.

30
d is p la c e m e n t
/m
20

10

10

15

20
tim e /s

73

(a)

## how the velocity changes from time t = 0 to time t = 20 s

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[5]

74

(b)

## how the acceleration changes from time t = 0 to time t = 20 s.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[4]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 11 marks]

74.

A champion BMX cyclist wishes to become a professional and seeks help from an Alevel Physics student in creating an act. The student suggests two stunts; one involving
a horizontal take-off on to a sloping ramp and the other involving a loop-the-loop
manoeuvre.
(a)

The student begins by finding out the maximum speed the cyclist can produce on
level ground. Two flags are positioned 240 m apart on a flat road. The cyclist is
told to accelerate to the first flag and to pedal as hard as he can until the second
flag is passed. This is shown in Fig. 1

240 m
Fig. 1

## Villiers High School

75

The student gets the cyclist to repeat the test three times and records the
following results:
14.8 s

17.2 s

15.6 s

Show that the mean speed the cyclist can maintain over the 240 m is about
1
15 m s .

[2]

(b)

The student designs the stunt shown in Fig. 2 where the cyclist must take off at
1
15 m s from a horizontal launch pad and land smoothly just at the edge of a
sloping ramp.
1 5 m s1

la u n c h p a d
y
x
ra m p

45

g ro u n d

Fig. 2

## Villiers High School

76

The student reasons that in order to land smoothly, the direction of the velocity of
the cyclist on reaching the edge of the ramp must be at the same 45 angle as
the ramp itself.
Ignore air resistance in all calculations.
(i)

Explain why the vertical component of velocity on reaching the ramp must
1
be 15 m s .
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

## The student calculated the vertical fall y to the ramp to be about 11 m.

Show how he arrived at this result.

[2]

(iii)

## The student calculated the horizontal jump x to the ramp to be about 23 m.

Show how he arrived at this result.

[1]

## Villiers High School

77

(iv)

The total mass of the cyclist and bike is 86 kg. Show that the kinetic energy
of the cyclist on reaching the ramp is about 19 kJ.

[3]
[Total 9 marks]

75.

The first successful transatlantic telegraph cable was laid in 1866. This cable was
effectively a continuous length of insulated copper wire lying on the sea bed. There
were no amplifiers in the cable because these had not yet been invented. The cable
was used to transmit simple on/off currents from the UK to the USA.
The figure below shows the basic arrangement where a key pressed at one end
caused an electromagnet to operate at the other. Only a single copper conductor was
laid with the current returning through the ocean.
tr a n s a tla n tic c a b le

p r e s s to tr a n s m it

1 2 0 0 V b a tte ry
e le c tr o m a g n e t

U SA

## Villiers High School

A tla n tic O c e a n

U K

78

(a)

## The electromagnet has a resistance of 48 W and is energised by a current of

200 mA. Show that the required p.d. across the electromagnet, when the key is
pressed, is less than 1% of the 1200 V battery voltage.

[2]

(b)

The resistance of the ocean is negligible compared with the resistance of the
cable.
Show that the cable resistance is about 6 kW.

[1]

(c)

The length of the cable is 3000 km. The resistivity of copper is 1.7 10 W m.
Show that the diameter of the copper conductor in the cable is about 3.5 mm.

[4]

## Villiers High School

79

(d)

The density of copper is 8930 kg m . Calculate the mass of copper used in the
cable.

## mass of copper = .................................................... kg

[2]
[Total 9 marks]

76.

The web site www.britishwindenergy.co.uk gives the following information for wind
turbines.
rotor diameters
useable wind speeds
maximum power output occurs at
rate of turning of rotor
1
maximum theoretical efficiency at wind speed 15 m s
average power output

30 m 65 m
1
1
4 m s 25 m s
1
15 m s wind speed
15 50 revolutions per minute
60%
30% of theoretical maximum

## data sourced from British Wind Energy Association, www.bwea.com

In this question about wind turbines you will need to use some of this information.
(a)

Consider the mass of the cylinder of air which travels past the blades of a turbine
1
in one second. Take the wind speed to be 15 m s and the diameter of the rotor
to be 40 m. See the figure below.
3

40 m

15 m

## Villiers High School

80

Calculate
(i)

the volume of the cylinder of air passing the rotor in one second

volume = ................................................... m

[2]

(ii)

## the mass of air passing the rotor in one second

mass = ..................................................... kg
[1]

(iii)

[2]

(iv)

## the maximum theoretical power output.

power = ..................................................... W
[2]

## Villiers High School

81

(b)

(i)

Calculate the average power output from the wind turbine in (a).

[1]

(ii)

## How many of these turbines would be required to replace one 1000 MW

conventional power station?

number = .........................................................
[1]

(c)

(i)

Wind power is often said to be free. Give another reason why wind power is
desirable.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

## Explain why wind power cannot be relied upon.

...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

82

(d)

(i)

## maximum useable wind speed does not produce maximum power

...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

## turbines have to be stopped when the wind speed is too high

...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]

(iii)

## government policy is to aim for only 10% of national electrical supply to be

provided by wind power.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 18 marks]

## Villiers High School

83

77.

The figure below shows a vacuum cleaner of weight W being pushed with a force P.
The force P acts at 30 to the horizontal.

dust
c o lle c t o r

P = 2 4 .0 N

30
flo o r
W = 6 5 .0 N
The weight W is 65.0 N and the magnitude of force P is 24.0 N.
(a)

(i)

Calculate

2

[3]

(ii)

[1]

(iii)

[2]

## Villiers High School

84

(iv)

The vacuum cleaner is not switched on and is pushed in such a way that it
travels at a constant velocity to the left. There are other forces acting on the
vacuum cleaner. State and explain the magnitude of the resultant of these
other forces.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

(i)

The total area of the vacuum cleaner in contact with the floor is
3
2
4.2 10 m . Calculate the pressure exerted on the floor by the
total downward vertical force.

pressure = ................................Pa
[2]

(ii)

State and explain what happens to this pressure if the handle is lifted so
that its angle with the horizontal direction is more than 30. The force P
and the total area in contact with the floor remain constant.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 11 marks]

78.

## Explain the term centre of gravity of an object.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

## Villiers High School

85

79.

The figure below shows a lawn mower which is carried by two people.
B

9 0 .0 c m

2 0 .0 c m

la w n m o w e r
A

g ro u n d
(i)

The two people apply forces A and B at each end of the lawn mower. The weight
of the lawn mower is 350 N.
1

Explain why the weight of the lawn mower does not act in the middle of the
lawn mower, that is 55 cm from each end.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

[2]

## Determine the force A.

A = ................................N
[1]

(ii)

State and explain what happens to the forces A and B if the person that applies
force B moves his hands along the handle towards the middle of the lawn mower.
.........................................................................................................................

## Villiers High School

86

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 6 marks]

80.

The figure below shows the path of a tennis ball after passing over the net.
te n n is
b a ll

net

1 .2 0 m

lin e
11 .9 m
As the ball passes over the net it is travelling horizontally at a height of 1.20 m. The ball
strikes the ground on a line 11.9 m from the net.
(a)

## Villiers High School

87

(i)

Show that the time taken for the ball to reach the line after passing over the
net is 0.495s.

[3]

(ii)

1

[2]

## vertical component = ................................m s

[2]

(b)

The mass of the tennis ball is 6.00 10 kg. Calculate the loss in gravitational
potential energy of the ball from the time it passes over the net until it hits the
line.
loss in potential energy = ................................ J
[2]
[Total 9 marks]

81.

## Define the Young modulus.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

88

82.

## The figure below shows a violin.

w ir e s u p p o r t
G
w ooden pegs

Two of the wires used on the violin, labelled A and G are made of steel. The two wires
are both 500 mm long between the pegs and support. The 500 mm length of wire
3
3
3
labelled G has a mass of 2.0 10 kg. The density of steel is 7.8 10 kg m .
(i)

## Show that the cross-sectional area of wire G is 5.1 10

m .

[2]

(ii)

The wires are put under tension by turning the wooden pegs shown in the figure.
11
The Young modulus of steel is 2.0 10 Pa.
Calculate the tension required in wire G to produce an extension of 4.0 10

m.

tension = ................................N
[3]

(iii)

Wire A has a diameter that is half that of wire G. Determine the tension required
4
for wire A to produce an extension of 16 10 m.

tension = ................................N
[1]

## Villiers High School

89

(iv)

State the law that has been assumed in the calculations in (ii) and (iii).
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 7 marks]

83.

The figure below shows a vehicle that is used for carrying people off-road.

An off-road vehicle is designed so that it can be driven on rough and uneven ground.
The mass of the vehicle and occupants is 3000 kg.
(a)

Explain how the tyres are designed to reduce the pressure of the vehicle on the
surface over which it is travelling.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

## The braking distance of the vehicle when travelling on a normal road at 26 m s

is 52 m.

Calculate
(i)

the kinetic energy of the vehicle and occupants before braking occurs

[3]

90

(ii)

[2]

(iii)

## braking force = ................................ N

[2]
[Total 8 marks]

84.

(i)

State and explain how two different road conditions affect the braking distance of
a car.
1. .....................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
2. .....................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

The braking distance for a small car is shorter than for the off-road vehicle
described above when they are tested travelling on the same road surface at the
same speed. Discuss one difference between the small car and the off-road
vehicle that could explain this.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 4 marks]

## Villiers High School

91

85.

In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
A skydiver jumps from an aircraft that is flying horizontally at a height of 5000 m with a
constant speed.
(a)

Describe and explain the motion of the skydiver as she descends towards the
ground from the moment she jumps until she opens her parachute. In your
description of her motion use the terms speed, acceleration and force.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[6]

92

(b)

## In some competitions the skydiver attempts to travel at the highest possible

speed over a vertical distance of 1000 m. Discuss and explain the different
methods that could be used by the skydiver to achieve the highest possible
speed.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[4]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 12 marks]

86.

The diagram below shows a simple model to demonstrate the forces exerted by back
muscles for a person bending over at an angle of 30 to the horizontal.

back
X
F

30
W

p iv o t

The back muscles may be considered to act as a single force F through a point on the
back situated 25 cm from the pivot and making a constant angle of 15 with the back.
The weight W of the upper body acts through a point X, situated a distance of 40 cm
from the pivot.

## Villiers High School

93

(a)

Calculate for an upper body weight W of 450 N, the size of the force F needed by
the back muscles to keep the back at an angle of
(i)

30 to the horizontal

F = ..................................................... N
[4]

(ii)

70 to the horizontal.

F = ..................................................... N
[1]

(b)

Explain including reference to your answers to (a), the body position which
should be adopted when lifting heavy loads from the ground.
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[4]
[Total 9 marks]

## Villiers High School

94

87.

(i)

Sketch on the figure below a graph to show the relationship between the tensile
force F applied to a copper wire and the extension x produced. Continue the
graph to the breaking point of the wire.

x
[1]

(ii)

Label your graph to show the regions where the wire is undergoing
1

elastic deformation

plastic deformation.
[2]
[Total 3 marks]

88.

During a bungee jump, the jumper falls a distance of 150 m before stopping for the first
time. The jumpers mass is 80 kg.
(a)

Assuming that frictional losses are negligible, complete the following table to
show the energy changes between the top and the bottom of the fall. One value
has been given.
energy at the top / J
gravitational potential energy
of jumper

0

elastic rope
[3]

## Villiers High School

95

(b)

The elastic rope being used has an unstretched length of 50 m and spring
1
constant of 24 N m . Calculate the tension in the rope when the jumper stops at
the bottom.

tension = .................................................... N
[1]

(c)

For a rope obeying Hookes law show that the elastic potential energy stored in
the rope is given by

1
2
E = 2 kx
where k is the elastic spring constant and x is the extension.

[2]

(d)

(i)

Another jumper has a mass of 100 kg. For this bungee jump a rope of
1
unstretched length 45 m and a spring constant 26.7 N m is used. Show
that this data is valid for the same 150 m fall before stopping for the first
time.

[2]

## Villiers High School

96

(ii)

In fact, the rope used by the second jumper is a shorter length of the rope
used by the first jumper. Explain why the spring constant for the shorter
rope is larger.
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 9 marks]

89.

The figure below illustrates a conveyor belt for transporting young children up a snowcovered bank so that they can ski back down.

## Villiers High School

97

A child of mass 20 kg travels up the conveyor belt at a constant speed. The distance
travelled up the slope is 24 m and the time taken is 55 s. The vertical height climbed in
this time is 4.0 m.
(a)

## For the child on the conveyor belt, calculate

(i)

her speed
speed = ............................ m s

[2]

(ii)

## her kinetic energy

kinetic energy = ............................ J
[2]

(iii)

the increase in her potential energy for the complete journey up the slope.
potential energy = ............................ J
[2]

(b)

(i)

## The conveyor belt is designed to take a maximum of 15 children at any one

time. Calculate the power needed to lift 15 children of average mass 20 kg
through a height of 4.0 m in 55 s.
power = ............................ W
[2]

(ii)

The belt is driven by an electric motor. State two reasons why the motor
needs a greater output power than that calculated in (b)(i).
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 10 marks]

## Villiers High School

98

90.

(i)

Define velocity.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Define acceleration.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

## Villiers High School

99

91.

Fig. 1 shows a ruler clamped at one end. A mass M is attached to the other end of the
ruler and is then made to oscillate up and down.
m ass M
A

Fig. 1
Fig. 2 shows the variation with time t of the velocity v of the mass M as it oscillates from
A to B and back to A.
4 .0
v / c m s 1
2 .0

0 .1 0
A

0 .2 0

0 .3 0

0 .4 0
B

0 .5 0

0 .6 0

t/s

0 .7 0

0 .8 0
A

2 .0

4 .0

Fig. 2
(i)

1

## the area between the graph and the time axis

.........................................................................................................................
[1]

## the gradient of the graph at a particular time.

.........................................................................................................................
[1]

## Villiers High School

100

(ii)

Use Fig. 2 to determine the distance travelled by the mass M from time t = 0 to
time t = 0.20 s.
distance = ............................ cm
[2]

(iii)

Use Fig. 2 to describe how the acceleration of the mass M varies as the mass
moves from A to B.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(iv)

## Use Fig. 2 to calculate the average acceleration of the mass M between

t = 0.25 s and t = 0.55 s.
acceleration = ............................ cm s

[2]
[Total 8 marks]

92.

(i)

Define pressure.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

101

(ii)

## Define moment of a force.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

93.

(a)

## The figure below shows a device used for compressing materials.

380 m m

120 m m
H

le v e r a r m

p lu n g e r

F = 20N

c r u s h e d m a te r ia l
c r o s s - s e c tio n a l
a re a
4 .0 x 1 0 3 m 2

c y lin d e r

## A vertical force F of 20 N is applied at one end of a lever system. The lever is

pivoted about a hinge H. The plunger compresses the material in the cylinder.

(i)

Two forces acting on the lever arm are its weight and the force F. On the
figure above, draw and label two other forces acting on the lever arm.
[2]

(ii)

By taking moments about H, show that the force acting on the plunger is
83 N. The weight of the lever arm may be neglected.
[2]

102

(b)

(i)

## The cross-sectional area of the plunger is 4.0 10 m . Calculate the

pressure exerted by the plunger on the material in the cylinder.
pressure = ............................ Pa
[2]

(ii)

## State two methods of increasing the pressure exerted by the plunger.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

94.

The figure below shows three ropes attached to a ring R. Three cylinders x, y and z,
are supported by these ropes from two pulleys.
p u lle y
p u lle y

X
Z = 360N
90
x

37

z
53

Y = 450N

360N

103

(a)

(i)

Calculate
1

## the mass of the cylinder z

mass = ............................ kg
[1]

## the density of the cylinder z.

density = ............................ unit ........
[3]

(ii)

## The ring R is in equilibrium. Use a labelled vector triangle to determine the

tension X.

tension X = ............................ N
[4]

(b)

(i)

Explain why the sum of the magnitudes of the tensions in any two ropes
does not equal the tension in the other rope.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

Show that the sum of the vertical components of the tensions X and Z is
equal to the tension Y.

[2]
[Total 12 marks]

## Villiers High School

104

95.

Below is a stress-strain graph up to the point of fracture for a rod of cast iron.
200
s tre s s / 1 0

fra c tu re
p o in t

Pa
160

120

80

40

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

1 .0

1 .2
s tr a in / 1 0

(a)

1 .4
3

Calculate

(i)

## the force applied to the rod at the point of fracture

force = ............................ N
[2]

(ii)

[3]

## Villiers High School

105

(b)

Use the graph or otherwise to describe the stress-strain behaviour of cast iron up
to and including the fracture point.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 8 marks]

96.

In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
State and explain two factors that affect the braking distance of a car.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 4 marks]

## Villiers High School

106

97.

State and explain two safety features in a car that are designed to protect the driver
during a collision.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[4]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 6 marks]

98.

## State what is meant by speed and velocity

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

107

99.

## State what is meant by elastic and plastic

.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

100. (i)

Below is a list of five quantities. Underline those that are scalar quantities.
acceleration

energy

force

power

speed
[1]

(ii)

## What is a vector quantity?

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 3 marks]

## Villiers High School

108

101. The figure below shows the direction of two forces of 16 N and 12 N acting at an angle
of 50 to each other.

16N
50

12N
Using the figure, draw a vector diagram to determine the magnitude of the resultant of
the two forces.
magnitude of resultant force ................................ N
[Total 4 marks]

## Villiers High School

109

102. The figure below shows a gannet hovering above a water surface.
gannet

30m

w a te r

6 .0 m
f is h

The gannet is 30 m above the water. It folds in its wings and falls vertically in order to
catch a fish that is 6.0 m below the surface.
Ignore air resistance.
(a)

Calculate

(i)

## the speed that the bird enters the water

Speed = .............................. m s

[2]

(ii)

the time taken for the bird to fall to the water surface.
time = ........................................ s
[2]

## Villiers High School

110

(b)

The bird does not continue to travel at the acceleration of free fall when it enters
the water. State and explain the effect of the forces acting on the bird as it falls
(i)

## through the air

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

## through the water.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

## Villiers High School

111

103. The figure below shows the path of a ball that has been thrown by a girl towards a
vertical wall.
w a ll
p a th o f b a ll

3 .3 m
10m s

53

4 .9 m
2

The girl throws the ball, of mass 5.0 10 kg, with a velocity of 10 m s
horizontal. In this question, ignore air resistance.
(a)

(i)

## Show that the horizontal component of the velocity is 6.0 m s

at 53 to the

.
[1]

(ii)

In moving to the wall, the ball travels 4.9 m horizontally and 3.3 m vertically.
Calculate the time taken for the ball to travel from the girls hand to the wall.

time = ........................................ s
[2]

(iii)

Calculate the gain in potential energy of the ball from leaving the girls hand
to when it hits the wall.
Gain in potential energy = ........................................ J
[3]

## Villiers High School

112

(b)

The ball is moving horizontally at 6.0 m s when it hits the wall. The ball is in
1
contact with the wall for 0.16 s and rebounds horizontally at 4.0 m s .
Calculate, for the time that the ball is in contact with the wall
(i)

## the change in velocity of the ball

change in velocity = ..........................m s

[1]

(ii)

## the horizontal acceleration of the ball (assumed to be constant)

acceleration = ................... unit...........
[2]

(iii)

## magnitude of the force = ...................................N

direction of the force .....................................
[3]

(iv)

the loss in kinetic energy of the ball when rebounding from the wall.

[3]
[Total 15 marks]

## Villiers High School

113

104. The figure below shows two forces, each of magnitude 1200 N, acting on the edge of a
disc of radius 0.20 m.
1200 N

0 .2 0 m

r o ta t in g d is c
1200 N

(a)

(i)

## Define the torque of a couple.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

## Calculate the torque produced by these forces.

torque = ............................N m
[2]

## Villiers High School

114

(b)

This torque is needed to overcome friction and keep the disc rotating at a
constant rate.
(i)

Show that the work done by the two forces when the disc rotates one
complete revolution is about 3000 J.

[2]

(ii)

## Calculate the power required to keep the disc rotating at 40 revolutions

per second.

power = ............................... W
[2]
[Total 7 marks]

105. Fig. 1 shows part of the force-extension graph for a spring. The spring obeys Hookes
law for forces up to 5.0 N.
3 .0
fo rc e / N
2 .0

1 .0

10

15
e x te n s io n / m m

20

Fig. 1
(a)

## Calculate the extension produced by a force of 5.0 N.

extension = ............................. mm
[2]

## Villiers High School

115

(b)

Fig. 2 shows a second identical spring that has been put in parallel with the first
spring. A force of 5.0 N is applied to this combination of springs.
fix e d s u p p o r t

5 .0 N

F ig . 2
For the arrangement shown in Fig. 2, calculate

(i)

## the extension of each spring

extension = ............................. mm
[2]

(ii)

## strain energy = ................................. J

[2]

(c)

11

The Young modulus of the wire used in the springs is 2.0 10 Pa. Each
spring is made from a straight wire of length 0.40 m and cross-sectional
7
2
area 2.0 10 m . Calculate the extension produced when a force of 5.0 N is
applied to this straight wire.

extension = ................................m
[3]

## Villiers High School

116

(d)

Describe and explain, without further calculations, the difference in the strain
energies stored in the straight wire and in the spring when a 5.0 N force is
applied to each.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 11 marks]

## Villiers High School

117

106. State the factors that control the braking distance of a car. For each factor, explain the
effect on the braking distance.
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[5]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 7 marks]

118

## 107. The following is a list of scalar and vector quantities.

acceleration, density, displacement, energy, power, speed, time, weight.
In the blank spaces provided in the table below, list the quantities as either scalars or
vectors.
scalar

vector

[Total 4 marks]

## Villiers High School

119

108. The figure below shows the path of a ball as it is passed between three players. Player
A passes a ball to player B. When player B receives the ball, she immediately passes
the ball to player C. The distances for each pass are shown on the figure.
p la y e r C
10m
p la y e r B

14m
12m

p la y e r A
The ball takes 2.4 s to travel from player A to player C.

(i)

1.

## the average speed of the ball

average velocity = ............................ m s

[2]

2.

## the magnitude of the average velocity of the ball.

average speed = ............................ m s

[2]

## Villiers High School

120

(ii)

Explain why the values for the average speed and average velocity are
different.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 6 marks]

## 109. State the two conditions necessary for a system to be in equilibrium.

1.

..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................

2.

..........................................................................................................................
..........................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

110. The figure below shows a painters plank resting on two supports A and B.

0 .5 5 m
0 .1 5 m

0 .1 5 m

B
1 .0 0 m

1 .0 0 m

80N

650N

The plank is uniform, has a weight 80 N and length 2.00 m. A painter of weight 650 N
stands 0.55m from one end.

## Villiers High School

121

(i)

Show that the force acting on the plank at the support B is approximately 540 N
by taking moments of all the forces about the support at A.
[3]

(ii)

## Calculate the force acting on the plank at support A.

force at A = ....................................... N
[2]

(iii)

Describe and explain what happens to the forces on the plank at A and B if the
painter moves towards the support at A. Quantitative values are not required.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 8 marks]

111. (a)

Define acceleration.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

## Villiers High School

122

(b)

The following figure shows the velocity v of a ball against time t as it falls
vertically from rest to when it hits the ground at A.

v /m s

6 .0

5 .0
4 .0
3 .0
2 .0
1 .0
0

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

1 .0

1 .2

t/s

1 .0
2 .0
3 .0
4 .0
5 .0
6 .0

Use the figure to show the distance that the ball falls is approximately 1.6m.
[2]

## Villiers High School

123

(c)

The ball is in contact with the ground for 20 ms and then rebounds vertically with
1
an initial upwards velocity of 5.1m s .
(i)

## Calculate the acceleration of the ball as it rebounds while in contact with

the ground.
acceleration = ............................ m s

[3]

(ii)

Sketch on the figure above the velocity against time graph for the ball after
it has bounced off the ground until it reaches its maximum height.
[3]

(d)

## The ball has a mass of 0.025 kg and rebounds to a height of 1.3 m.

(i)

Calculate the loss in the potential energy of the ball from the initial point of
release at 1.6 m to when it reaches 1.3 m.
loss in potential energy ............................ unit .................
[3]

(ii)

## Explain the loss in the potential energy.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 13 marks]

112. (i)

## Define work done.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

124

(ii)

## Define the watt.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

113. The braking distance x of a car depends on its initial kinetic energy Ek. The figure
below shows the relationship between Ek and x.
400

300
E k/kJ
200

100

(i)

10

20

30

40

50

60

x /m

## Calculate the gradient of the graph.

gradient = ............................ J m

[2]

(ii)

Explain why the gradient of the graph is equal to the braking force acting on the
car.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

## Villiers High School

125

(iii)

The car has a mass of 800 kg. Calculate the deceleration of the car when
braking.
deceleration = ............................ m s

[2]

(iv)

The car is loaded so that the total mass is 1200 kg. Describe and explain how the
braking distance changes for the same braking force and initial velocity.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

114. (i)

Define strain.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

(ii)

Define stress.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[Total 2 marks]

## Villiers High School

126

115. In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
Describe an experiment to determine the Young modulus of a metal in the form of a
wire.
Your description should include

modulus.

## diagram of the apparatus

[3]

measurements to be taken
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[2]

127

## how the equipment is used to obtain the measurements

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
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..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[4]

## determination of the Young modulus

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[4]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 15 marks]

## Villiers High School

128

116. The four sketch graphs below, plotted against time, show changes which occur in a
small fraction of a second and which result in almost vertical lines on the graphs. Three
of these sketch graphs are possible for ordinary objects and one of them is impossible.
d is p la c e m e n t

v e lo c ity

tim e

a c c e le r a t io n

(a)

tim e

r e s u lta n t
fo rc e

tim e

tim e

## Identify the impossible graph, giving a reason for your selection.

Impossible graph is ..............................
[1]

## Reason why it is impossible ...........................................................................

........................................................................................................................
[1]

## Villiers High School

129

(b)

Describe three everyday situations, one for each, which illustrate how the
remaining graphs can arise. State to which graph each description refers.
graph letter ...............
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
........................................................................................................................
[3]

## graph letter ...............

........................................................................................................................
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........................................................................................................................
[3]

130

## graph letter ...............

........................................................................................................................
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........................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 11 marks]

117. (i)

Define velocity.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Define acceleration.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

## Villiers High School

131

118. During some car races, the cars often stop to refuel and change tyres.
(i)

Suggest why a car stops to refuel rather than taking enough fuel at the start in
order to complete the race without stopping.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

Explain why the smooth tyres used in dry conditions are changed to those with a
tread in wet weather.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 4 marks]

119. (a)

## The figure below illustrates a racetrack near a refuelling station.

ra c e tra c k
X

ro u te o f c a r B

160 m

r e fu e llin g
s ta tio n

## Villiers High School

132

The cars A and B are in a race and both have a speed of 80 m s . Car A has a
lead over car B of 17.0 s at X when A leaves the racetrack to refuel. Car A
travels 120 m from X to the refuelling station.
Calculate the following values for car A, from the point where it leaves the
racetrack until it comes to rest at the refuelling station. Assume the deceleration
is constant.
(i)

## the average deceleration

deceleration = ............................ m s

[3]

(ii)

## the time taken

time = ............................ s
[2]

(b)

Car A refuels in 9.0 s and then takes 4.0 s to travel to Y. During the refuelling of
1
car A, car B continues to travel at 80 m s . Calculate the time difference
between the cars A and B as car A arrives back on the racetrack at Y.
time = ............................ s
[4]
[Total 9 marks]

## Villiers High School

133

120. In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
The figure below shows the path of a ball after it is thrown from T. The ball reaches a
maximum height at point P and then returns to the ground at G.
P

## Villiers High School

134

(a)

Assuming no air resistance, describe and explain how the vertical and horizontal
components of the velocity of the ball change as it travels from T to G.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
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.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[5]

## Villiers High School

135

(b)

Assuming no air resistance, describe the changes in the kinetic and potential
energies of the ball as it travels from T to G.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[4]

(c)

Describe how the motion of the ball is affected when air resistance is taken into
consideration.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 14 marks]

## Villiers High School

136

121. A girl travels down a pulley-rope system that is set up in an adventure playground. Fig.
1 shows the girl at a point on her run where she has come to rest.

Fig. 1

The girl exerts a vertical force of 500 N on the pulley wheel. All the forces acting on the
pulley wheel are shown in Fig. 2.
fo rc e o f ro p e
on wheel
T2

fo rc e o f ro p e
on wheel
T

30

10

h o r iz o n ta l

fo r c e o f g ir l
on wheel
500 N
Fig. 2

## Villiers High School

137

(a)

Explain why the vector sum of the three forces must be zero.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(b)

(i)

Sketch a labelled vector triangle of the forces acting on the pulley wheel.
[3]

(ii)

## Determine by scale diagram or calculation the forces T1 and T2 the rope

exerts on the pulley wheel.
[3]
[Total 7 marks]

122. The figure below shows a stationary oil drum floating in water.

c r o s s - s e c tio n a l
a re a 0 .2 5 m 2

0 .7 5 m
w a te r

The oil drum is 0.75 m long and has a cross-sectional area of 0.25 m . The air pressure
5
above the oil drum is 1.0 10 Pa.

(a)

Calculate the force acting on the top surface of the oil drum due to the external
air pressure.
force = ............................ N
[2]

## Villiers High School

138

(b)

The average density of the oil drum and contents is 800 kg m . Calculate the
total weight of the oil drum and contents.
weight = ............................ N
[3]

(c)

## Calculate the force acting upwards on the base of the drum.

force = ............................ N
[1]
[Total 6 marks]

123. The figure below shows a crate resting on the flat bed of a moving lorry.

c ra te

d ir e c tio n o f tr a v e l
fla t b e d

(a)

## The lorry brakes and decelerates to rest.

(i)

Describe and explain what happens to the crate if the flat bed of the lorry is
smooth.
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

A rough flat bed allows the crate to stay in the same position on the lorry
when the lorry brakes. Show on the figure above (with an arrow labelled F)
the direction of the force that must act on the crate to allow this.
[1]

## Villiers High School

139

(b)

Using your answers to (a) or otherwise explain how seat belts worn by rear seat
passengers can reduce injuries when a car is involved in a head-on crash.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[3]
[Total 6 marks]

124. Fig. 1 shows a spring that is fixed at one end and is hanging vertically.
fix e d e n d o f s p r in g

m ass M

Fig. 1
A mass M has been placed on the free end of the spring and this has produced an
extension of 250 mm. The weight of the mass M is 2.00 N.

## Villiers High School

140

Fig. 2 shows how the force F applied to the spring varies with extension up to an
extension of = 250 mm.
4 .0

3 .0

F / N

2 .0

1 .0

100

200

300

x / m m

400

Fig. 2

(a)

(i)

## Calculate the spring constant of the spring.

spring constant = ............................ unit ................
[3]

(ii)

Calculate the strain energy in the spring when the extension is 250 mm.
strain energy = ............................ J
[2]

## Villiers High School

141

(b)

The mass M is pulled down a further 150 mm by a force F additional to its weight.
(i)

## Determine the force F.

F = ............................ N
[1]

(ii)

## State any assumption made.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[1]

(c)

The mass M is now released and it oscillates up and down. Fig. 3 shows the
displacement s against time t for these oscillations.
200

s / m m
100

0 .2

0 .4

0 .6

0 .8

1 .0

1 .2

1 .4

1 .6

t/s

1 .8

100

200

Fig. 3

(i)

## Mark on Fig. 3 a time when the mass M has maximum downward

velocity.Label this position V.

2.

## Use the graph to determine this maximum downward velocity of the

mass.
maximum velocity = ............................ m s

[3]

## Villiers High School

142

(ii)

1.

Mark on Fig. 3 a time when the mass M has maximum resultant force
acting on it. Label this position with an X.

2.

## Explain your choice of position for X.

................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 12 marks]

125. A student constructs a model arm to demonstrate how two particular muscles in the
upper arm control movement of the lower arm. The figure below is a simplified diagram
of this model arm.

## Villiers High School

143

Use the following data for the model to calculate the tension required in string B to
maintain the arm in the position shown in the figure above.
mass of lower arm = 75 g
mass of glove = 135 g
distance of centre of mass of lower arm from pivot = 20 cm
distance of centre of mass of glove from pivot = 30 cm
string B is attached to lower arm at a distance of 2.0 cm from the pivot
string T is attached to the lower arm at a distance from the pivot of 1.0 cm
the tension in string T is zero.

tension = ..................... N
[Total 3 marks]

126. (i)

Define speed.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

Define velocity.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

144

(iii)

## By referring to these quantities, explain the difference between scalars and

vectors.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 4 marks]

127. Fig. 1 shows a long rope that is tied at one end to a high support. A woman swings
forwards and backwards across a pool using the other end of the rope.
s u p p o rt

ro p e

Fig. 1

## Villiers High School

145

Fig. 2 shows the variation with time t of the displacement x, of the woman from A to B
and back to A.
2 .5
x /m
2 .0

1 .5

1 .0

0 .5

0
0

1 .0

2 .0

3 .0

4 .0

5 .0

6 .0
t/s

Fig. 2

(i)

State what the gradient of the graph represents and explain why the graph shows
both negative and positive gradients.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

146

(ii)

## Mark on Fig. 2 with a cross

a position where the speed of the woman is zero (label this cross Z)

## a position where the speed of the woman is a maximum

(label this cross M).
[2]

(iii)

Use Fig. 2 to calculate the maximum positive speed of the woman. Show on
Fig. 2 how you determined your answer.

## maximum speed = ........................ m s

[3]
[Total 7 marks]

128. A child sits on a swing and is pulled by a horizontal force P so that the chains make an
angle with the vertical of 35. The diagram below shows the forces acting in this
position.

35

c h a in
t e n s io n in c h a in s

h o r iz o n ta l fo r c e P

v e r t ic a l

s w in g s e a t
w e ig h t
The combined mass of the child and swing seat is 28 kg.

147

(a)

## Calculate the combined weight of the child and swing seat.

weight = ............................ N
[2]

(b)

Use a labelled vector triangle to determine the force P required to hold the swing
stationary in the position shown in the diagram above.

force = ............................ N
[4]

## Villiers High School

148

(c)

State and explain what happens to the tension in the chains if the swing is pulled
so that the chains make a larger angle with the vertical. A numerical answer is not
required.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

129. (a)

A stone is projected horizontally from a cliff. The diagram below shows the stone
at a position A on its path.

h o r iz o n t a l c o m p o n e n t
30

c liff
v e r tic a l
com ponent

25 m s

s o ft s a n d
The velocity of the stone at position A is 25 m s

(i)

## Villiers High School

at 30 to the horizontal.

1
22 m s .

149

(ii)

## vertical component ....................... m s

[3]

(b)

Sketch graphs on the axes below to show the horizontal and vertical
displacements of the stone from the point of horizontal projection to
the point of impact.
Ignore air resistance. Numerical values are not required.
(i)

horizontal displacement dh
against time t
d

(ii)

against time t
d

t
[3]

## Villiers High School

150

(c)

A second stone is released from rest from the top of the cliff. It falls vertically.
Sketch graphs on the axes below to show the velocity v and acceleration a of the
stone from the time of release to the time when the stone comes to rest in the
sand below. Ignore air resistance. Numerical values are not required.
(i)

tim e o f
r e le a s e

(ii)

im p a c t
w ith s a n d

s to n e
at
re s t

tim e o f
r e le a s e

im p a c t
w it h s a n d

s to n e
at
re s t

[5]
[Total 11 marks]

151

130. (i)

## State the principle of moments.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

## State the two conditions for a system to be in equilibrium.

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 3 marks]

## Villiers High School

152

131. The diagram below shows the open bonnet of a car. The bonnet is held open at an
angle of 60 to the horizontal by a vertical force V applied at one end of the bonnet
(shown on the diagram). The bonnet is 0.90 m long, has a weight of 25 N and its
centre of gravity G is 0.35 m from the hinge at O.
v e r tic a l fo r c e

car bonnet

0 .9 0 m

h o r iz o n ta l

(i)

60
h in g e O

On the diagram above, draw and label the two forces other than V acting on the
bonnet.
[2]

(ii)

By taking moments about O, show that the vertical force V applied at the end of
the bonnet is 9.7 N.

[2]

## Villiers High School

153

(iii)

Calculate the magnitude of the force acting at the hinge O. Show your working.

## force at hinge = ............................ N

[2]
[Total 6 marks]

132. In this question, two marks are available for the quality of written communication.
The diagram below shows stress-strain graphs up to the point of fracture for three
different materials.
s tre s s

s tre s s

s tre s s
copper

c a s t ir o n
p o ly t h e n e

## Villiers High School

s t r a in

s t r a in

s t r a in

154

Use the terms plastic, elastic, brittle, and ductile, where appropriate, to describe the
behaviour of the materials represented by the graphs.
cast iron ...................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

copper ......................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
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..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................

## Villiers High School

155

polythene .................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
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..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
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[8]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 10 marks]

(i)

## Calculate the thinking distance when the car is travelling at a speed of 25 m s .

distance = ............................ m
[2]

156

(ii)

Calculate
1.

[1]

2.

uniform.

## deceleration = .......................... unit ..............

[3]
[Total 6 marks]

134. Explain the difference between a scalar and vector quantity, including one example of
each in your explanation.
(i)

a scalar
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................

(ii)

a vector
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[Total 4 marks]

## Villiers High School

157

135. The diagram below shows the path of a car as it travels around a right-angled bend.
A

25 m s

B
25 m s

(i)

## Calculate the distance the car travels in 7.6 s.

distance = ............................ m
[2]

(ii)

Draw a line on the diagram above to show the displacement of the car having
travelled from A to B.
[1]

(iii)

Explain why the velocity of the car changes as it travels from A to B although the
speed remains constant.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

## Villiers High School

158

(iv)

Using a labelled vector triangle, calculate the magnitude of the change in velocity
of the car (velocity at B velocity at A).

## magnitude of velocity change = ....................... m s

[4]

(v)

State and explain whether the car is accelerating as it travels around the bend
from A to B.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 11 marks]

159

(i)

## gravitational potential energy

.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(ii)

kinetic energy
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(iii)

power.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 5 marks]

137. Water leaves a reservoir and falls through a vertical height of 130 m and causes a
water wheel to rotate. The rotating wheel is then used to produce 110 kW of electrical
power.
(i)

Calculate the velocity of the water as it reaches the wheel, assuming that all the
gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.

velocity = ...................................... m s

[3]

## Villiers High School

160

(ii)

Calculate the mass of water flowing through the wheel per second, assuming that
the production of electrical energy is 100% efficient.

## mass of water per second = .......................... unit ..............

[3]

(iii)

State and explain two reasons why the mass of water flowing per second needs
to be greater than the value in (ii) in order to produce this amount of electrical
power.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]
[Total 8 marks]

## Villiers High School

161

138. Fig. 1 shows a helicopter that has a cable hanging from it to the sea below.

c a b le

sea
Fig. 1
A girl of mass 55 kg is rescued by a man of mass 75 kg. The two are attached to the
cable and are lifted from the sea to the helicopter. The lifting process consists of an
initial acceleration followed by a period of constant velocity and completed by a final
deceleration.

(a)

Name the two main forces acting on the two people being lifted.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[2]

(b)

## Calculate the combined weight of the man and girl.

weight = ............................ N
[1]

162

(c)

(i)

## the initial acceleration of 0.55 m s

tension = ............................ N
[2]

(ii)

## the period of constant velocity.

tension = ............................ N
[2]

(d)

## Calculate the final deceleration if the tension in the cable is 1240 N.

deceleration = ....................... m s

[2]

## Villiers High School

163

(e)

Sketch on Fig. 2 a graph of velocity v against time t for the complete lifting
process.
Numerical values are not required.

Fig. 2
[3]
[Total 12 marks]

## 139. Define the Young modulus.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[Total 1 mark]

## Villiers High School

164

140. (a)

The wire used in a piano string is made from steel. The original length of wire
used was 0.75 m. Fixing one end and applying a force to the other stretches the
wire. The extension produced is 4.2 mm.
(i)

## Calculate the strain produced in the wire.

strain = ................................
[2]

(ii)

11

## The Young modulus of the steel is 2.0 x 10 Pa and the cross-sectional

7
2
area of the wire is 4.5 10 m . Calculate the force required to produce
the strain in the wire calculated in (i).

force = ............................ N
[3]

(b)

A different material is used for one of the other strings in the piano. It has the
same length, cross-sectional area and force applied. Calculate the extension
produced in this wire if the Young modulus of this material is half that of steel.

extension = ......................... mm
[2]
[Total 7 marks]

## Villiers High School

165

141. (i)

Define density.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]

(ii)

State and explain what happens to the density of the material of a wire when it is
stretched. Assume that when the wire stretches the cross-sectional area remains
constant.
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
.........................................................................................................................
[1]
[Total 2 marks]

166

## discuss factors affecting the magnitude of the acceleration

state the direction in which friction acts for both acceleration and deceleration.

..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................
[4]
Quality of Written Communication [2]
[Total 6 marks]

167