C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration

)
Differentiation
If y =
1
dy
,
dx
n n
kx nkx

·
[Remember,
dy
dx
=gradient of tangent to curve y = f(x) ]
Revision examples: Differentiate the following functions;
i)
2
1
y
x
· ii) y x · iii)
3
4
y
x
· iv) y=
25
x
v)
2
3
5
y
x
· vi)
4
x y ·
vii)
3
6 x y · vii)
( )
3
y x ·
Solution
i)
2 2 1 3
2 3

1 2
2 2
dy
y x x x
dx
x x
− − − −
⇒ · · · − · − · −
ii)
1 1 1
1
2 2 2
1
2

1 1 1

2 2
2
dy
y x x x x
dx
x
− −
· · ⇒ · · ·
iii)
3 3 1 4
3

4
4 3 x 4 12
dy
y x x x
dx
x
− − − −
· · ⇒ · − · −
iv)
1 1 1 2
2

25 25
25 1 x 25 25
dy
y x x x
x dx
x
− − − −

· · ⇒ · − · − ·
v)
2 3 3
2 3

3 3 3 6 6
2 x
5 5 5
5 5
dy
y x x x
dx
x x
− − −
· · ⇒ · − · − · −
vi)
1
3
4
4
3
4
4
1
1
4
1

4
1 1
4
4
dy
x
dx
y x x x
x


⇒ · · · · ·
vii)
2
3
3
1 1 2
1
3 3 3
x
1 2
6 6 6 2
3
x
dy
y x x x
dx
x
− −
⇒ · · · · ·
viii)
( )
3 3
2 2
1
1
3
2
x
3 3
2 2
dy
y x x x x
dx

⇒ · · · ·
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 1 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
Another Revision Example:
Given that y x x · , find
dy
dx
and hence find the gradient of the curve at the
point (9,27)
Solution
3 1
2 2
1
1+
1
2
1
2

3 3
x
2 2
x x
dy x
y x x x x x
dx
· · ⇒ · · · ·
When
3 9 9
9,
2 2
dy
x
dx
· · ·
, so gradient at the point is
9
2
The Chain Rule
Used to differentiate a composite function (i.e. one function inside another
function) e.g.
( )
1
2 2
1 y x · +
.
We start by letting t = the inner function: in the above example t =
2
1 x +
The chain rule says:
x
dy dy dt
dx dt dx
·
Example: Differentiate
( )
1
2 2
1 y x · +
Solution
Let t =
2
1 x + so
1
2
y t ·
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
x
x
x 2 x
1
2 and
2
1
2
2
1

2
:

x t
dy dt
Then x t
dx dt
dy dy dt
dx dt dx
t x
xt NB wemust give answer intermsof
o





· ·
·
·
·
·
2
var 1 riginal iable sub t x ∴ · +
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 2 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
1
2
1
2
2
2
( 1)
( 1)
x x
x
x

· +
·
+
Example: Use the chain rule to find
dy
dx
when
( )
6
2
2 y x · −
Solution:
2 6
5

2 ,
2,
6
Let t
x
x y t
dy dt
t
dx dt
·
· − ·
·
( )
5
5
5
2
x
x

=6t 2
=12 t
=12 2 x
dy dy dt
Then
dx dt dx
x
x
x
·

NB: To apply the chain rule quickly remember:
( ) ( )
( )
( )
4
3
3
3 2
x
. 1
4 1 2
dy d d
outer function x inner function
dx dt dx
e g y x
dy
x x
dx
·
· −
· −
Exercise: C3/4 textbook, Ex 1, P.69, Q. 2(a,c), 3(a,c,e), 4, 8
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 3 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
Connected Rates of Change
The rate of change of x is
dx
dt
, where t is time. If we know a formula for
x
in terms of t, we find the rate of change of
x
by differentiation.
NB: If
x
is increasing at 6cm s
-1
then
dx
dt
= + 6,
if
x
is decreasing at 6cm s
-1
then 6
dx
dt
· −
We can sometimes use the Chain Rule to find the rate of change of a variable
if we know the rate of change of a related variable.
Example: Find the rate of increase of the radius of a sphere whose volume is
increasing at a rate of 100 cm
3
s
-1
at the instant when the radius is 3cm.
Solution:
We know
dV
dt
= 100 and we want to find
dr
dt
.when r=3
Using the Chain Rule, x
dr dr dV
dt dV dt
·
We therefore need to find a relationship between V and r so we can find
1
dV
dr
dr
from
dV
]
]
]
For a sphere, Volume, V=
3
4
3
r π
So,
3 1 2
4
3 x 4
3
dV
r r
dr
π π

· ·


2
1 1
4
dr
dV
dV r
dr
π
· ·
Therefore,
2
1
x
4
dr dV
dt r dt π
·

2
1
x 100
4 (3) π
·
(when the radius is 3cm)

1
25

9
cm s
π

·
C3/4 textbook: Ex 3, p159, Q. 6, 7, 9, 10,13, 14
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 4 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
The product rule
If y = uv (where u and v are functions of x), then

/ /
dy dv du
u v uv vu
dx dx dx
· + · +
Example 1
Given that ( ) ( )
2
3 2 6 y x x · + +
, find
dy
dx
using the product rule:
Solution

( )
( )
2
2
2 2
Let = 3 2, 6,
Then
Using
x x
3, 2
3 2 2 6 3
= 6 4 3 18

u x v x
dv
dx
du
x
dx
dy dv du
u v
dx dx dx
dy
x x x
dx
x x x
+ · +
· ·
· +
· + + +
+ + +
2
9 4 18 x x · + +

Example 2: Find
dy
dx
if
2
(3 2 ) 4 y x x · + −
Solution: (we need to use both the chain and product rules for this)
1 1
2 2
2
2 1 2
3 2 , 4
1
2, ( 4) x 2 ( 4)
2
Let u x v x
du dv
Then x x x x
dx dx
− −
· + · −
· · − · −
(using chain rule)
_______________________________________________
/ /

dy
uv vu
dx
· + (using product rule)

1
2
2 2
(3 2 ) x ( 4) 4 x 2 x x x x

· + − + −

1
2
2 2
(3 2 )( 4) 2 4 x x x x

· + − + −
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 5 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
Example 3: Find the x-coordinates of the stationary points of the curve
2 3
( 2) (4 3) y x x · + +
Solution:
2 3
2
( 2) (4x+3)
2( 2) x 1 3(4 3) x 4
Let u x v
du dv
x x
dx dx
· + ·
· + · +
Then
dy dv du
u v
dx dx dx
· +

2 2 3
( 2) x 12(4x+3) (4 3) x 2(x+2) x x · + + +

2 2 3
12( 2) (4 3) 2( 2)(4 3) x x x x · + + + + +
[ ]
2
2( 2)(4 3) 6( 2) (4 3) x x x x · + + + + +

2
2( 2)(4 3) (10 15) x x x · + + +
2
0 at stationary points
ie 2(x+2)(4x+3) (10 15) 0
( 2) 0 2
3
(4 3) 0
4
3
(10 15) 0 are the x coords of the stationary points.
2
dy
dx
x
x x
x x
x x
·
+ ·
+ · ⇒ · −
+ · ⇒ · −
+ · ⇒ · −
Exercise
Differentiate the following using the product rule:
i) ( )
( )
3
2 4 3 9 y x x x · + + +
ii)
( ) ( )
3 2
3 5 4 y x x x · − +
iii) ( )
( )
2
2
7 7 2 3 y x x · − −
, and find the coordinates of any stationary points
iv) ( )
( )
3 2
3 2 7 y x x x · + − −
v)
( )
2
2 4 3 8 x y x + · −

vi) y x x · …………do you get the same answer as when we multiplied it
out first ?
The quotient rule
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 6 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
If y =
u
v
(where u and v are functions of x), then
/ /
2
2

vu uv
v
du dv
v u
dy
dx dx
dx
v

·

·
Example 1:
Given that
3 1
2
x
y
x
+
·

, (i) find
dy
dx
and hence (ii) find the equation of the
tangent to the curve at the point (1, 4 − )
Solution:

( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2
2
2

Then
x x
( ) 3 1, v 2
3, 1
2 3 3 1 1

2
3 6 3 1
=
( 2)
7

2
i Let u x x
du dv
dx dx
du dv
v u
dy
dx dx
dx
v
x x
x
x x
x
x
· + · −
· ·

·
− − +
·

− − −


·

(ii) When
2
7
1, 7
(1 2)
dy
x
dx

· · · −

Using
1 1 1 1
( ) (where x 1, 4 and 7) y y m x x y m − · − · · − · −
,

( 4) 7( 1) y x − − · − −
3 7 y x · −
is the equation of the tangent.
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 7 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
Example 2: Given that
2
1
3 1
x
x
y
+

· find
dy
dx
Solution: (we need to use both the chain and quotient rules for this)
Exercise
1. Differentiate the
following using the Quotient
Rule:
i)
2
2 5
2
x
y
x
+
·

ii)
2
3 1
6 2
x
y
x

·

iii)
2
4 1
3 7
x
y
x

·

2. Find the equation of the
tangent to the curve
2
2
5
x
y
x
·

at the point where
x
= 1 −

Integration
1
,
1
1
n
n
kx
kx dx c
n
n
+
· +
+


NB
1
1
x Exception is x dx or dx ln c
x

· +
∫ ∫
Example 1:
2
4
Find dx
x

Solution
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 8 3/23/2010
1
2
1
2
1 1
2 2
2
2
2
1
(3 1) x 3
2

3
(3 1) x 2 ( 1) x (3 1)
2

(3 1)

1, (3 1)
dv
2 ,
dx
dy

dx

2 (3 1
=
x
v
x x x x
x
Let u x v x
du
x
dx
du dv
v u
dx dx
x x



− − + −
·

· + · −
· ·

·

( )
1 1
2 2
2
3
( 1)(3 1)
2
)
3 1

x x
x

+ − −

C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
2
2
2 1
-1
1
4
4 .
4
=
2 1
4x
=
-1
= 4
dx x dx
x
x
c
c
x c

− +

·
+
− +
+
− +
∫ ∫
Example 2: Evaluate
3
2
9
4
x dx

Solution:

( ) ( )
3
2
9
4
2
5
9
3
1
2
4
9
9
5 5
2 2
4
4
5 5
84

3
1
2
2
=
5 5
2
2
= 9 4
5
x
x
dx
x x
+
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
] ]
]
]
]
]
]
·
+
·
− ·


( ) ( )
5 1
2 2
5 5
] [ = x x x ·
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 9 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
Example 3 : Find the area represented by;
2
4
1
2
3 1
4 dx
x
x
| `


. ,
− +

Solution;
( )
2
1
2
1
2
3
1
4 2
4 2
2
4 1 2 1
1
2
3 1
1
2
3 1
1
3
3
8
1 1
4
2
3 1
4
3 4
3
4
4 1 2 1
3
4
3 1
4
1 1
8 1 1 4
2
4
x
x x
dx
x x
x x dx
x x
x
x x
x
x x x
− −
− + − +
− −
− −
| `


. ,
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
· + +
]
]
]
]
]
]
]
− +
· − +
· − +
− + − +
· − +
− −
· − + +

· + + − − + +
·


Example 4:
2
1

dy
Given that x
dx
x
· +
i) Find the general solution of the differential equation.
ii) Find the equation of the curve with this gradient function which
passes through (1,5)
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 10 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
Solution:
(i)

2
1
2
2
1
2
2
3
1
2
3
2

1
=
dy
=
dx
=
=
3 1
2
2 1
=
3
dy
x
dx
x
x x
y dx
x x dx
x x
c
y x c
x



| `


. ,
· +
+
+
+ +

− +


(ii) Curve passes through (1,5)

sub 1, 5 x y · · into
3
2
.
2 1
3
y x c
x
· − +

2 1
5 1 5
3 3
c c ⇒ · − + ⇒ ·


1 3
3 2
2 1
5
3
y x
x
∴ · − +
Example 5:
Solution: There is no quotient rule for integration so we must divide first
before integrating.
( )
2 5
2 3
4
2 1 2
2
2
2
2
2

2 1 2
1 2 1

2
2
=
=
x x x
dx x x x dx
x
x x x
c
x c
x
x
− −
− −
− +
· − +
− + +
− −
+ − +
∫ ∫
Integration involving a Linear Substitution
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 11 3/23/2010
5 2
4
2
dx
x x x
Find
x
− +

C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
If we have a composite function where the inner function is linear, we can
always integrate by substitution.
Steps: 1) Use the substitution ‘let u = the linear function’.
2) Find
du
dx
and express dx in terms of . du
3) Substitute u for
x
in the function to be integrated.
4) Substitute for dx its equivalent in terms of du .
5) Substitute any ‘stray’
x
terms if necessary.
6) Carry out the integration du .
7) Replace u with
x
equivalent.
Example 1: Evaluate
( )
3
1
3
2 1 I x dx · +

Solution:
( )
3
1
3
1
4 4
3
3
3
4
1
3
4
1
7 3
2 1 2 2

2
2
1
=
2
1
=
2 4
2 1
1 1
=
2 4 8
x
x
x
x
x
x
du
Let u x du dx
dx
du
dx
du
I u
u du
u
x
·
·
·
·
·
·
]
]
]
]
]
]
]

]
]
]
]
· + ⇒ · ⇒ ·
⇒ ·
·
+
·


Example 2: Evaluate
( )
1
2 5
1
3 1 I x dx · +

/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 12 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)
Solution
1
2
1
2
5
1
5
1
5
3
2
1
3
1
3
1
3

3 1 3
3

=
=
3
2
x
x
x
x
x
x
du
u
u du
du du
Let u x dx
dx
Then I
u
·
·
·
·
·
·
]
]
]
]
]
]
· + ⇒ · ⇒ ·
·




( )
( )
[ ]
5
3
1
5
3
1
2
9
2
3 1
9
2
16 4
9
2
2
9
4
9
x
x
u
x
·
·
]
·
]
]
]
· +
]
]
]
· −
]
·
·
Harder Integration by Substitution (with ‘stray’ x terms)
Example 1
Find
2
(2 1) x x dx +

Solution Let u =
1
2 1 ( 1)
2
x x u + ⇒ · −
2
2
du du
dx
dx
· ⇒ ·
Then replace each
x
with its equivalent in terms of u.
i.e
2 2
1
(2 1) ( 1)
2 2
du
x x dx u u + · −
∫ ∫
…….multiply out before integrating….

3 2
1
( )
4
u u du · −

/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 13 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)

4 3
1
.
4 4 3
u u
c
| `
· + +

. ,

3
1
.
4 4 3
u u
c
| `
· − +

. ,

3
3 4
.
4 12
u u
c
− | `
· +

. ,
………..replace the x…………….

3
(2 1) 3(2 1) 4
.
4 12
x x
c
+ + −
| `
· +

. ,

3
(2 1)
(6 1) .
48
x
x c
+
· − +
Example 2
Find
1 . x x dx −

Solution:
Let u = 1 1 x x u − ⇒ · +
1 .
du
dx du
dx
· ⇒ ·
Then replace each
x
and multiply out before integrating
1 3 1
2 2 2
( 1) . u u du u u du + · +
∫ ∫

5
2
3
2
2 2
5 3
u
u c · + +
…….replace the x…………

5 3
2 2
2 2
( 1) ( 1) .
5 3
x x c · − + − +
Example 3
Evaluate
2
2
1
(2 3) . x x dx −

Solution:
Let u
1
2 3 ( 3)
2
x x u · − ⇒ · +
2
2
du du
dx
dx
· ⇒ ·
Then replace each
x
:
2 2
2 2
1 1
1
(2 3) ( 3)
2 2
x
x
du
x x dx u u
·
·
− · +
∫ ∫
….multiply out before integrating….

2
3 2
1
1
3
4
x
x
u u du
·
·
· +

/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 14 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)

3
2
4
1
1
4 4
x
x
u
u
·
·
]
· +
]
]
]
……replace the x………….

3
2
4
1
1 (2 3)
(2 3)
4 4
x
x
]

· + −
]
]
]

1 1 1
1 1
4 4 4
]
· + − −−
]
]
[ ]
1 1
2
4 2
· ·
Volumes of Revolution : When the area between a curve and the x-
axis is rotated through one revolution (360
o
) about the x-axis a volume of
revolution is formed.
If the curve y=f(x) from x=a to x=b is rotated about the x-axis through 360
o
,
the volume formed is given by
V=
2
b
a
y dx π


[About the y-axis, from y=p to y=q, V =
2
q
p
x dy π

]
Example 1: Find the volume of revolution formed when the area enclosed
by the curve y=
1
x
, the x-axis and the lines x=1 and x=3 is rotated 360
o
about the x-axis.
Solution:
/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 15 3/23/2010
C3 – CALCULUS (Differentiation and Integration)

2
3
2
1
2
3
1
3
1
1
3
2
1
3
1
1
3
1
2
1
1
1
1 1
3 2
1
unit
6
x
V y dx
dx
x
dx
x dx
x
x
π
π
π
π
π
π
π
π


·
| `
·

. ,
·
·
]
·
]

]

]
·
]
]
] | ` | `
· − − −
]
. , . , ]
·




Example 2: Find the volume of revolution formed when the curve 2y = x -1
is rotated through one revolution about the y axis from y=1 to
y=4
Solution:
Since the rotation is about the y-axis, we need to get x in terms of y.
Rearranging gives x = 2y + 1
( )
( )
( )
4
2
1
4
2
1
4
3
1
4
3
1
3 3
2 1
2y+1
1
x
2 3
2y+1)
1

2 3
1 9 3
-
2 3 3
117
V x dy
y dy
π
π
π
π
π
π
·
· +
]
· ]
]
]
]
· ]
]
]
]
·
]
]
·


/opt/scribd/conversion/tmp/scratch21815/31244908.doc
Xaverian Page 16 3/23/2010