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TheProjectGutenbergEBookofTheRomanWall,byRev.

JohnCollingwoodBruce
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Title:TheRomanWall
Author:Rev.JohnCollingwoodBruce
ReleaseDate:November1,2015[EBook#50364]
Language:English
Charactersetencoding:UTF8
***STARTOFTHISPROJECTGUTENBERGEBOOKTHEROMANWALL***

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[Illustration:
G.BouchierRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey,Lith.
PONSLII,RESTORED.
]

THE
ROMANWALL
A
HISTORICAL,TOPOGRAPHICAL,ANDDESCRIPTIVE
ACCOUNTOFTHE
~BarrieroftheLowerIsthmus,~
EXTENDINGFROMTHETYNETOTHESOLWAY,
DEDUCEDFROMNUMEROUSPERSONALSURVEYS,
BYTHE
REV.JOHNCOLLINGWOODBRUCE,M.A.
[Illustration]
LONDON:JOHNRUSSELLSMITH,4,OLDCOMPTONSTREET,SOHOSQUARE.
NEWCASTLEUPONTYNE;WILLIAMSANG,61,GREYSTREET;
G.BOUCHIERRICHARDSON,38,CLAYTONSTREETWEST.
M.DCCC.LI.

NEWCASTLEUPONTYNE:
IMPRINTEDBYGEORGEBOUCHIERRICHARDSON,CLAYTONSTREETWEST;PRINTER
TOTHESOCIETYOFANTIQUARIES,ANDTOTHETYPOGRAPHICALSOCIETY,
BOTHOFNEWCASTLEUPONTYNE.

[Illustration]
TO
JOHNCLAYTON,ESQUIRE,
THEPROPRIETOR
OFTHE
MOSTSPLENDIDREMAINSOFTHEROMANBARRIER
INNORTHUMBERLAND
WHOSE
ANTIQUARIANINTELLIGENCEANDCLASSICALLEARNING
HAVEBEENMOSTPROFUSELYANDKINDLY
AFFORDEDTOTHEAUTHOR
THISWORK

ILLUSTRATIVEOFTHEMILITARYCHARACTERANDUSAGES
OFAGREATPEOPLE
ISMOSTGRATEFULLYINSCRIBED.

PREFACE.
ThefamousRomanWall,which,informertimes,protectedsouthern
Britainfromtheravagesofthenortherntribes,exhibits,atthisday,
remainsmoreentire,andformsasubjectofstudymoreinterestingthan
isgenerallysupposed.
Twoauthorsofgreatlearninghavetreatedofthisrenowned
structureHorsley,intheBritanniaRomana,andHodgson,inthelast
volumeofhisHistoryofNorthumberland.Botharetreatisesof
considerablesize,andbothare,toacertainextent,rare.The
BritanniaRomana,moreover,describestheWall,notasitis,butasit
wasmorethanacenturyago.Hodgsonsworkisofrecentdate,andforms
avaluablestorehouseofnearlyallthatisknownuponthesubject.The
mind,however,ofthatamiablemanandzealousantiquarywas,atthe
timeofitspreparation,bendingundertheweightofhisillrequited
labours,andhehasfailedtopresenthisamplematerialstothereader
inthatcondensedandwellarrangedformwhichdistinguisheshis
previousvolumes,andwithoutwhichabookonantiquitieswillnot
arresttheattentionofthegeneralreader.
Thefollowingworkmayberegardedasintroductorytotheelaborate
productionsofHorsleyandHodgson.Thereaderisnotassumedtobe
acquaintedwiththetechnicalitiesofarchology;and,ateachadvancing
steptheinformationissuppliedwhichmayrenderhiscourseeasy.I
havenotattempted,inthelastpartofthework,toenumerateallthe
altarsandinscribedstoneswhichhavebeenfounduponthelineofthe
Wall,buthavemadeaselectionofthosewhicharemostlikelyto
interestthegeneralreader,andtogivehimacorrectideaofthe
natureandvalueoftheseremains.
InthebodyoftheworkIhaveendeavouredtofurnishacorrect
delineationofthepresentconditionoftheWallanditsoutworks.All
mydescriptionsaretheresultofpersonalobservation.Tosecureas
greataccuracyaspossible,Ihavereadovermanyofmyproofsheetson
thespotwhichtheydescribe.
Thepictorialillustrationshavebeenpreparedwithcare,andwillgive
thereader,whoisnotdisposedtotraversetheground,acorrectidea
ofthestateoftheBarrier.Thewoodcutsandplates,illustrativeof
theantiquitiesfoundontheline,have,withtheexceptionofafew
coinsintroducedintothefirstPartofthevolume,andcopiedfromthe
MONUMENTAHISTORICA,beenpreparedfromoriginaldrawings,takenfor
thisworkfromtheobjectsthemselves.Iamnotwithouthopethatthe
wellreadantiquarywillvaluethesedelineationsfortheirbeautyand
accuracy.
TheinhabitantsoftheisthmusareproudoftheWallandits
associations;andwhatevermayhavebeenthecasewiththeir
forefathers,willnotneedlesslydestroyit.Mostkindhasbeenthe
receptionIhavemetwithinmyperegrinations,andmostvaluablethe
assistanceIhavereceivedfromthegentryandyeomenoftheline,and
othersinterestedinmylabours!GladlywouldIenumeratealltowhomI
amindebted,haditbeenpossible.Somenames,however,mustbe
mentioned.HisGracetheDukeofNorthumberlandhasnotonlygivenme
freeaccesstoallhisantiquarianstores,butdirectedmetoprepareat
hisexpenseengravingsonwoodofallthatIthoughtsuitabletomy
purpose.WouldthathisGraceknewhowmuchIhavebeencheeredinmy
coursebyhisnoticeofmyhumblelabours!ToJohnClayton,esq.,Iam

obligedforthegiftofthewoodcutsillustrativeofthenumerousand
interestingantiquitiespreservedatCILURNUM,theproduceofthat
stationandBORCOVICUS.ToAlbertWay,esq.,theaccomplishedand
honorarysecretaryoftheArchologicalInstitute,withwhomIhadlast
yearthepleasureandadvantageofspendingadayupontheWall,Iam
indebtedforthecutsrepresentingthealtarandslabdiscoveredat
Tynemouth.Thesuiteofwoodcutsillustrativeofthehoardofcoins
foundintheancientquarryonBarcombehill,havebeenengravedatthe
expenseofmytriedandvaluedfriend,JohnFenwick,esq.,of
NewcastleuponTyne;andtoWilliamKell,esq.,townclerkofGateshead,
withwhomIhavetraversedtheWallfromseatosea,andsomeportions
ofitrepeatedly,Iamindebtedforthebeautifulrepresentationofthe
ancientPONSLIIfrontingthetitlepage.Myformerschoolfellow,
WilliamWoodman,esq.,townclerkofMorpeth,besidesotherwise
assistingme,hascausedsurveystobemadeformyuseofnotfewerthan
eightyofthestrongholdsoftheBritonsstillexistingontheheights
northoftheWall.Totracethemovementsofthebravepeoplewhomthe
Romansdrovetothemoreinaccessibleportionsoftheisland,wouldhave
beenaninterestingsequeltotheaccountoftheRomanWall,butIfound
theundertakingtoogreatforme.
ItiswithnoordinaryemotionthatIwritethelastlinesofaworkto
thepreparationofwhichIhavedevotedtheleisureofthreeyears.The
WallandImustnowpartcompany.GladlywouldIhavewithheldthe
publicationofthisworkfortheHoratianperiod,andhavespentthe
intervalinrenewedinvestigations;thougheventhenIshouldhavefelt
thatIhadfallenshortof
Theheightofthisgreatargument;
othercares,however,nowdemandmyattention.
_NewcastleuponTyne,1January,1851._
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THEMOSTNOBLEALGERNONDUKEOFNORTHUMBERLAND,
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THERIGHTHONOURABLETHEEARLOFCARLISLE.
THERIGHTHONOURABLELORDLONDESBOROUGH._QuartoandOctavo._
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SIRWILLIAMLAWSON,BART.,BroughHall.

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WILLIAMARMSTRONG,ESQ.,MAYOROFNEWCASTLEUPONTYNE.
THEREV.R.C.COXE,M.A.,VICAROFNEWCASTLEUPONTYNE.
TheUniversityofEdinburgh._Quarto._
TheBritishArchologicalAssociation.
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TheSocietyofAntiquariesofNewcastleuponTyne.
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JohnAnderson,esq.,Coxlodge,NewcastleuponTyne.
ThomasAnnandale,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
ArthurAshpitel,esq.,F.S.A.,5,Crowncourt,City,London.
GeorgeClaytonAtkinson,esq.,Denton,
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CharlesAustin,esq.,BrandestonHall,Suffolk.
WilliamAustin,esq.,EgertonHouse,
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J.C.Backhouse,esq.,Blackwell,Darlington.
CharlesBaily,esq.,F.S.A.,oneoftheHonorarySecretariesofthe
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TheRev.ThomasBaker,M.A.,RectorofWhitburn,Durham.
ThomasBaker,esq.,OfficialAssigneeoftheCourtofBankruptcy,
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TheRev.E.A.Barker,Ludlow.
ThomasBarnes,esq.,M.D.,Bunkershill,
Carlisle.
ThomasBateman,esq.,M.D.,Yolgrave,Bakewell.
NathanielBates,esq.,MilbourneHall,
Northumberland.
WilliamBeamont,esq.,Warrington.
WilliamBeamont,junior,esq.,Trin.Coll.Camb.
MatthewBell,esq.,M.P.,Wolsington,
Northumberland.
TheRev.MeyrickBeebee,Simonburn.
GeorgeBell,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
JohnLeeBell,esq.,Brampton.
RobertBell,esq.,Nook,Irthington.
Mr.RobertBell,Deanstreet,NewcastleuponTyne.
ThomasBell,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
JamesBeman,esq.,Cheltenham.
WilliamBennett,esq.,Newport,Salop.
JohnBrodribbBergne,esq.,F.S.A.,TreasureroftheNumismatic
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TheRev.JohnBesly,D.C.L.,VicarofLongBenton,Northumberland,and
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TheRev.FrederickBetham,NewcastleuponTyne.
CharlesWilliamBigge,esq.,Linden,Northumberland.
MatthewR.Bigge,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne._Quarto._
TheRev.JohnFredericBigge,Stamfordham,Northumberland.
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JohnCassBirkinshaw,esq.,Whickham,Durham.
WilliamBolam,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne,andWhitburn.
JamesBogle,esq.,Glasgow._Quarto._
WilliamHenryBrockett,esq.,Gateshead.
StampBrooksbank,esq.,TheHermitage,Hexham.

E.J.J.Browell,esq.,EastBoldon.
Mrs.Bruce,senior,NewcastleuponTyne._Twocopies._
Mrs.Bruce,NewcastleuponTyne._Quarto._
MissWilliaminaBennettBrace,
NewcastleuponTyne._Quarto._
GeorgeBarclayBruce,esq.,M.Inst.C.E.,Alston.
Mr.GainsfordBruce,University,Glasgow._Quarto._
Mr.ThomasBruce,Leghorn.
JohnBuchanan,esq.,WesternBankofScotland,Glasgow.
JamesBuckman,esq.,F.L.S.,F.G.S.,Cirencester.
ThomasBurnet,esq.,Summerhillterrace._Quarto._
RobertBusby,esq.,Alnwick.
RichardCail,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
DuncanCampbell,esq.,Lesmahago,Lanarkshire.
RalphCarr,esq.,Dunstonhill,Durham._Quarto._
JohnLowryCarrick,esq.,Sandysike,Cumberland.
WilliamChaffers,jun.,esq.,F.S.A.,London.
EdwardCharlton,esq.,M.D.,oneoftheSecretariesoftheSocietyof
AntiquariesofNewcastleuponTyne.
WilliamHenryCharlton,esq.,Hesleyside.
Mr.EmersonCharnley,NewcastleuponTyne.
WilliamChartres,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
TheRev.HenryChristopherson,Bowdon,nearManchester.
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WilliamClaytonClayton,Esq.,LincolnsInn,
London._Quarto._
Mr.ThomasL.Colbeck,Denton,Northumberland.
TheRev.JohnCollinson,RectorofBoldon,Durham.
RalphCompton,esq.,Churchcourt,OldJewry,London.

JohnCoppin,esq.,NorthShields.
Capt.GustavusHamiltonCoulson,R.N.,Newbrough,Northumberland.
JohnBlenkinsopCoulson,esq.,Ochtertyre,Crieff.
JohnRossCoulthart,esq.,CroftHouse,
AshtonunderLyne.
RobertCowen,esq.,Carlisle.
GeorgeCowen,esq.,Dalston,Carlisle.
JosephCrawhall,esq.,Stagshaw.
WilliamCrighton,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
JamesCrosby,esq.,ChurchCourt,OldJewry,
London.
WilliamDaggett,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
Mr.JohnDaglish,NewcastleuponTyne.
Mrs.Daglish,NewcastleuponTyne.
TheRev.WilliamNicholasDarnell,RectorofStanhope,Durham.
MatthewDawes,esq.,F.G.S.,Westbrooke,Bolton.
JamesDearden,esq.,F.S.A.,TheManor,Rochdale.
RobertRichardsonDees,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
WilliamDickson,esq.,F.S.A.,ClerkofthePeaceforNorthumberland,
Alnwick.
DixonDixon,esq.,Unthank,Northumberland._Quarto._
J.P.Dodd,esq.,LL.D.,NorthShields.
Mrs.Dodd,GreenwoodManse,Wigton.
TheRev.IsaacDodgson,IncumbentofLanercost.
JamesMenteithDouglas,esq.,Stonebyers,
Lanarkshire._Quarto._
TheRev.G.J.Duncan,NorthShields,Northumberland.
AlfredJohnDunkin,esq.,Dartford,Kent.
SamuelEdgar,esq.,M.D.,Berwick.
RobertElliot,esq.,M.D.,Carlisle.
MissEllis,NewcastleuponTyne.
NathanielEllison,esq.,CommissioneroftheCourtofBankruptcy,
NewcastleuponTyne.
Mr.JohnEllison,Manchester.
DennisEmbleton,esq.,M.D.,NewcastleuponTyne.

JohnErrington,esq.,HighWarden._Twocopies._
TheVeryRev.MonsignorCharlesEyre,Haggerston
Castle.
JosephWalterKingEyton,esq.,F.S.A.,Lond.and
Scot._Quarto._
FrederickWilliamFairholt,esq.,F.S.A.,
Brompton,London.
JohnBruntonFalconar,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
ThomasFaulkner,esq.,Chelsea.
R.M.Fawcett,esq.,Cambridge.
TheRev.JohnFell,M.A.,Huntingdon.
JohnFenwick,esq.,Campville,NorthShields.
(_deceased_)
JohnFenwick,esq.,oneoftheSecretariesofthe
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NewcastleuponTyne._Quarto._
JohnClerevaulxFenwick,esq.,
NewcastleuponTyne.
MissFergus,Herefordstreet,Parklane,London.
WilliamFerguson,esq.,Hillstreet,Glasgow.
RobertFerguson,esq.,ShadwellLodge,Carlisle.
Mr.JohnForrest,Ellisonterrace,
NewcastleuponTyne.
WilliamFinley,esq.,Durham.
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RobertMortimerGlover,esq.,M.D.,F.R.S.E.,
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WilliamGlover,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
T.H.Graham,esq.,EdmondCastle.

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GeorgeJohnson,esq.,Willington,Northumberland._Quarto._

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WilliamKell,esq.,TownClerkofGateshead._Quartoandoctavo._
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ThomasCarrLietch,esq.,TownClerkofNorth
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JosephMayer,esq.,F.S.A.,Liverpool.
MichaelMeredith,esq.,Finsbury,London.
SamuelMitchell,esq.,TheMount,nearSheffield.
JohnMoore,esq.,WestCoker,Yeovil,Somerset.
GeorgeGillMounsey,esq.,Castletown,Carlisle.
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TheRev.G.M.Nelson,BodicotGrange,Banbury.

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GeorgeNelson,esq.,Fernhill,Pendleton,
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CharlesH.Newmarch,esq.,Cirencester.
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M.O'Connor,esq.,4,Bernersstreet,Oxfordstreet,London.
Messrs.OgleandSon,Glasgow.
Mr.GeorgeA.Oliver,Ryehill,
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RobertOrmston,esq.,Savillerow,NewcastleuponTyne.
TheRev.LewisPaige,M.A.,Newcastle.
Mr.JosephParker,Brampton.
GeorgePaton,esq.,A.R.A.,London.
HughLeePattinson,esq.,ScotsHouse,near
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WilliamPattinson,esq.,Wigton.
Mrs.Peart,NorthShields.
GeorgeHarePhilipson,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
RobertPlummer,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
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Mr.EdwardPruddah,Hexham.
Mr.WilliamPruddah,Hexham.
HenryGlasfordPotter,esq.,F.L.S.,F.G.S.,etc.,NewcastleuponTyne.
JonathanPriestman,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
WilliamRamsay,esq.,M,A.,F.S.S.,F.P.S.,ProfessorofHumanityin
theUniversityofGlasgow;CorrespondingMemberofthe
ArchologicalSocietyofAthens.
ThomasRamshaw,esq.,Brampton.
RobertRawlinson,esq.,SuperintendingInspector
oftheGeneralBoardofHealth,GwydyrHouse,
Whitehall._Quarto._
TheRev.Wm.Rees,M.A.,Carlisle.
Mr.C.F.Reid,Greystreet,NewcastleuponTyne.
Mr.ChristianBruceReid,NewcastleuponTyne.

Mr.Edw.Richardson,SummerhillGrove,NewcastleuponTyne.
Thos.Riddell,esq.,FeltonPark._Quarto._
Mr.GeorgeBouchierRichardson,
NewcastleuponTyne.
JonathanRichardson,esq.,BenwellHouse.
ThomasRichardson,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
GeorgeRippon,esq.,NorthShields.
ThomasRobertson,esq.,Alnwick.
Mr.ThomasRobinson,Collingwoodstreet,NewcastleuponTyne.
Mr.RobertRobinson,Pilgrimstreet,NewcastleuponTyne.
WilliamRobson,esq.,Paradise,
NewcastleuponTyne.
Mr.RobertStephenSalmon,NewcastleuponTyne.
RichardBurdonSanderson,jun.,esq.,WestJesmond,Newcastle.
Mr.WilliamSang,NewcastleuponTyne.
JohnSang,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
MasterJohnFenwickSchofield,11,Ellisonplace,Newcastle.
MissAgnesPercySchofield,11,Ellisonplace,Newcastle.
TheRev.T.H.Scott,CanonofDurham,RectorofWhitfield.
Mr.HudsonScott,Carlisle.
J.S.DonaldsonSelby,esq.,CheswickHouse,Northumberland.
GeorgeSelby,esq.,BelleVue,Alnwick.
IsaacSheffield,esq.,London.
JohnSheffield,esq.,Carlisle.
ThomasSheffield,esq.,Exeter.
Mr.GeorgeRobertsonShield,NewcastleuponTyne.
CharlesRoachSmith,esq.,F.S.A.,Lond.,andScot.,Honorary
SecretaryoftheNumismaticSociety,Liverpoolstreet,City.
WilliamGeorgeSmith,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
TheRev.GeorgeHuntSmyttan,CharltonHall,
Alnwick.
S.ReynoldsSolly,esq.,M.A.,F.R.S.,F.S.A.,SergeHill,Herts.
ThomasSopwith,esq.,F.R.S.,F.L.S.,Allenheads,
Northd._Quarto._
PhilipHolmesStanton,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.

ThomasStephens,esq.,NorthShields.
RobertStephenson,esq.,M.P.,F.R.S.,London._Quarto._
JamesCochraneStevenson,esq.,SouthShields.
GeorgeWaughStable,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne._Quarto._
JohnGeorgeStoker,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
RobertStokoe,esq.,Hexham.
JohnStorey,esq.,F.B.S.E.,NewcastleuponTyne._Quarto._
Mr.JohnStorey,jun.,NewcastleuponTyne.
R.W.Swan,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
GeorgeTate,esq.,F.G.S.,Alnwick.
JohnTaylor,esq.,M.A.,Edinburgh.
Mr.JohnThompson,Bloomfieldterrace,Gateshead.
ThomasThorp,esq.,Alnwick,Northumberland.
JohnThurnam,esq.,M.D.,London.
Mr.CharlesThurnam,Carlisle.
ArthurTrollope,esq.,Lincoln.
CharlesTucker,esq.,F.S.A.,oneofHonorarySecretariesofthe
ArchologicalInstitute,26,Suffolkstreet,London.
W.B.D.D.Turnbull,esq.,Sec.SocietyofAntiquaries,Scotland.
Mr.RobertTurner,NewcastleuponTyne.
Mr.JohnVentress,NewcastleuponTyne._Quarto._
Mr.RobertVint,Sunderland.
JohnWaldie,esq.,HendersydePark,Kelso.
RalphWalters,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
RobertWalters,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
JamesWardell,esq.,Leeds.
CharlesWarne,esq.,MilbourneSt.Andrews,Blandford,Dorset.
Mr.ChristopherWatson,MarshHouse,Easton,Cumberland.
JosephWatson,esq.,Greshamplace,NewcastleuponTyne.
AlbertWay,esq.,M.A.,F.S.A.,oneoftheHon.Secretariesofthe
ArchologicalInstitute,26,Suffolkstreet,PallMallEast.
CaptainJamesDentWeatherley,NewcastleuponTyne.
ThomasWeddell,esq.,F.R.A.S.,Addiscombe.

RobertM.Weeks,esq.,Ryton,Durham.
MatthewWheatley,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
Mr.RichardCuthbertsonWhinfield,NewcastleuponTyne.
Mr.G.H.Whinfield,Pilgrimstreet,NewcastleuponTyne.
AlfredWhite,esq.,CuratorandRegistraroftheBritishArchological
Association,Tyndaleplace,Islington.
RobertWhite,esq.,NewcastleuponTyne.
TheRev.Robt.HopperWilliamson,Rectorof
Hurworth._Quarto._
JohnWilliamson,esq.,Glasgow.
Mr.JohnHeronWilson,NewcastleuponTyne.
DanielWilson,esq.,Hon.Sec.Soc.ofAntiquaries,Scotland.
Mr.DavidHamiltonWilson,NewcastleuponTyne._Quarto._
CharlesWinn,esq.,Nostell,Wakefield._Quarto._
WilliamWoodman,esq.,Townclerk,Morpeth.
M.Wright,esq.,TrinityHouse,London.
ThomasWright,esq.,M.A.,F.S.A.,CorrespondingMemberoftheNational
InstituteofFrance,etc.24,Sydneystreet,Brompton.
EdgarGarston,K.S.,Liverpool.
Mrs.Grey,DilstonHouse,Northumberland.
GeorgePatten,esq.,A.R.A.,London.
Mr.WilliamRichardson,71,Percystreet,NewcastleuponTyne.
CONTENTS
AND
LISTOFILLUSTRATIONS.
_Page._
1.FRONTISPIECEPONSLIIrestored.
ThesiteofNewcastleuponTyne,thePONSLIIof
theRomans,ishereshewn.Thegroundonwhichit
stands,risingabruptlyfromthebedoftheriver
Tyne,totheheightofaboutanhundredfeet,is
cutintothreeveryremarkabletonguesoflandby
fourravines,permeatedbyasmanystreams,which
alldisembogueintheTyne.Theeasternmostand
largestofthesetonguesoflandisthatformedby
theOuseburnandPandondean;thesmallestby
PandondeanandtheLortburn;andthe
westernmost,wheronstandsthecastle,and
formerlytheRomanstation,bytheLortburnand
Skinnerburn.Extensivesuburbsprobablyoccupied
alltheseeminences.
2.TITLEModernBuildingsonthesiteofPONSLII.

TheNormankeepoftheCastleof
NewcastleuponTyne;theChurchofSt.Nicholas;
andthecourthouseforthecountyof
Northumberland,builtuponthesiteofthe
southeastcornerofthestationofPONSLII.
3.PlanofthecourseoftheRomanWall_facing_1
PARTI.ANEPITOMEOFTHEHISTORYOFROMAN1
OCCUPATIONINBRITAIN.
4.InitialletteraltarfromCorbridge1
5.CoinofClaudiusDEBRITANNIS4
6.CoinofVespasianROMARESURGES6
7.CoinofHadrianADVENTUSBRITANNI11
8.CoinofHadrianBRITANNIA12
9.CoinofSeverusVICTORIBRITTANIC19
10.CoinofCarausiusreverse,agalley22
11.CoinofCarausiusreverse,alion22
12.CoinofMagnentiusreverse,Christianmonogram24
13.BaseofcolumnHousesteads24
PARTII.AGENERALDESCRIPTIONOFTHELINEOFTHE43
WALL.
14.InitialLetterRomanNails43
15.PlanofBarrierbetweenCILURNUMandMAGNAPlanof_facing_
CILURNUM[1]andcontiguousWorksPlansof45
individualStations
16.SectionofWorks,neareighteenthmilestone52
17.SectionofWorks,westofCarraw52
18.MuralSlabALAII.ASTURUM61
19.AltartoFortuneCOH.I.BATAVORUM62
20.AltartoJupiterCOH.I.TUNGRORUM63
21.WrittenRock,ontheriverGelt_facing_
81
22.LettersontheWrittenRock82
23.FormofWallStone83
24.JunctionofthewestwallofBirdoswaldwiththe84
Wall
2527.BroachingoftheWallStones85
2831.MarksontheStones86

32.SectionsandElevationsoftheMasonryoftheWall_facing_
89
33.HerringboneMasonry91
34.WrittenRockatFallowfieldfell102
PARTIII.LOCALDESCRIPTIONOFTHEWORKS.103
35.InitialLettersBalustersfromtheWall103
36.AltartoJupiterCOH.IV.LINGONUM109
37.PlanofWallsend,SEGEDUNUM;SectionofMountain_facing_
andWorksatBradley113
38.Wallsend,lookingEast_facing_
115
39.PlanofPONSLII_facing_
126
40.Mercury,PONSLII129
4144.CoinsofHadrianfoundintheBridge,PONSLII131
45.CoinofSeverusfoundinBridge,PONSLII131
46.SlabtotheCampestralMothers140
47.AltartoMars142
48.AltartoMars143
49.FragmentoftheWall,nearDenton145
50.TheWorksatHeddonontheWall_facing_
149
51.TheWorksnearCarrhill_facing_
156
52.MuralSlabLEG.II.AUG.163
53.SlabFULGURDIVOM164
54.TheWallatBrunton_facing_
169
55.RemainsofRomanBridgeoverNorthTyne_facing_
170
56.MiscellaneousAntiquities,Chesters,CILURNUM_facing_
170
57.VaultatCILURNUM173
58.HypocaustsatCILURNUM174
59.GroundPlanofHypocausts,CILURNUM175
60.RiverGod,CILURNUM178
61.Hypocaust,CILURNUM_facing_

178
62.FunerealSlab,CILURNUM184
63.FunerealSlabofHorseSoldier,CILURNUM185
64.SlabALAII.ASTURUM186
65.StatueofCybele,CILURNUM189
66.GroupofCarvedStones,CILURNUM190
67.MiscellaneousAntiquities,CILURNUM_facing_
191
68.SamianWare_facing_
192
69.RomanSpears,etc._facing_
192
70.TheWorks,Teppermoor_facing_
197
71.SlabCOH.I.BATAVORUM198
72.ApproachtoSewingshields_facing_
200
73.BusyGap208
74.JunctionofWestWallofHousesteads,BORCOVICUS,216
withtheWall
75.GroundPlanofGateway,Housesteads216
76.OutsideViewoftheWestPortal,Housesteads217
77.InsideViewofWestPortal,Housesteads217
78.Housesteads,BORCOVICUS,fromtheEast_facing_
220
79.BrokenColumns,BORCOVICUS_facing_
225
80.SculpturedFigures,BORCOVICUS_facing_
225
81.SculpturedFigures,etc._facing_
225
82.FigureofVictory226
83.SepulchralSlabtoayoungPhysician227
84.SlabtoHadrian,Bradley232
85.SlabtoHadrian,Milkinggap234
86.AltartoFortune,Chesterholm237
87.HypocaustPillar238
88.MilestoneatChesterholm,VINDOLANA_facing_

239
89.AltartoGeniusofthePretorium240
90.Symbol,LEG.XX.241
91.PartofSlabtoHadrian241
92.Copingstone,Romanbroaching242
93.TheCrags,WestofCraglough_facing_
243
94.TheWallatSteelrig_facing_
244
95.MuralStone,LEG.XX.V.V.247
96.MilecastleatCawfield_facing_
248
97.PartofSlabtoHadrian251
98.TablettoHadrian256
99.PlanofancientWatercourse,GreatChesters,_facing_
SICA257
100.NinenicksofThirlwall265
101.Lamp,Fibula,Shears,andCompasses_facing_
268
102.StoneEffigy272
103.SectionofWorksnearWallend273
104.SlabtoHadrian,byLEG.XX.V.V.274
105.AltartoJupiter,byCOH.I.AEL.DAC.278
106.WestGateway,Birdoswald,AMBOGLANNA280
107.MuralStone,LEG.VI.V.F.281
108.Birdoswald,westernRampart_facing_
282
109.SectionofWorks,Wallbours283
110.CoinofSeverus,JULIA289
111.CoinofCaracalla289
112.CoinofGeta289
113.AltartoJupiter,COH.II.TUNGR.290
114.ViewofPigeonCrag292
115.MuralStone,LEG.II.AUG.294
116.Altar_obrestransvallumprosperegestas_302
117.Bowness_facing_

313
118.MonumenttoEdwardI.314
PARTIV.THESUPPORTINGSTATIONSOFTHEWALL.315
119.InitialA,andMuralSlab,Risingham315
120.Tablet,GYRUMCUMBAS319
121.TabletfoundatJarrow323
122.CorbridgeLanx335
123.AltartoAstarte338
124.CryptofHexhamAbbeyChurch339
125.SlabtoSeverusatHexham340
126.GeniusoftheWall353
127.AltartoJupiterforthesafetyofSeverus360
128.AltartoJupiter,Maryport363
129.SlabtoHadrian,Moresby367
130.SymbolofLEG.XX.368
PARTV.THEQUESTIONWHOBUILTTHE369
WALL?DISCUSSED.
131.InitialO,bronzeornamentfoundatBORCOVICUS369
132.Slab,LEG.II.andLEG.XX.392
PARTVI.MISCELLANEOUSANTIQUITIESFOUNDONTHE393
LINEOFTHEWALL.
133.InitialM,bronzeornament,anEagle,foundat393
MAGNA
134.Altar,DEOVETRI395
135.LargeAltartoJupiter397
136.Altar,GENIOLOCI,etc.399
137.Altar,DEOCOCIDIO401
138.Altar,DEOBELATUCADRO401
139.AltartoMinerva402
140.AltartoFortune403
141.AltartoMithras404
142.AltartotheSun405
143.AttendantofMithras406
144.AltartoMithras407

145.ZodiacalTablet,BORCOVICUS409
146.PineappleOrnament,etc.,CILURNUM410
147.PresumedMithraicSculpture,CILURNUM410
148.AltartoApollo,Cawfieldmilecastle411
149.InscriptiontotheSyrianGoddess,MAGNA412
150.AltartoSilvanus,AMBOGLANNA413
151.AltartotheNymphs,HABITANCUM414
152.AltartotheGodsoftheMountains,VINDOBALA415
153.AltartoEpona,MAGNA415
154.Altar,sculpturedwithaToad,CILURNUM416
155.AltartoViteres,Thirlwallcastle416
156.AltartoViteres,CONDERCUM417
157.AltartotheDeaHamia,Thirlwallcastle417
158.AltartotheThreeLami,CONDERCUM418
15960.EgyptianIdols418
161.AltartotheTransmarineMothers,HABITANCUM419
162.SculpturetotheDeMatres,atNetherby420
163.SculpturetotheDeMatres,atNetherby420
164.SculpturetotheDeMatres,atNetherby420
165.SculpturetotheDeMatres,atNetherhall421
166.SepulchralAltartotheManesofFabiaHonorata,426
CILURNUM
167.SepulchralSlabtotheManesofAureliaFaia,428
MAGNA
168.SepulchralSlabtotheMemoryofCorneliusVictor,429
VINDOLANA
169.CenturialStone,COH.V.CCILIIPROCULI,CILURNUM430
170.CenturialStone,CILURNUM430
171.Vessel,inwhichtheThorngraftonCoinswerefound434
172224.TheThorngraftonCoins,imperial,consular,and435441
others
225.SamianWare,fromWallsendandLanchester_facing_
445
226.BronzeVessels_facing_445
227.IronPot,BronzeVessel,Tongs,etc._facing_
445

228.SolesofSandals,etc._facing_445
229.TailpieceROMTERNFORTUNREDUCI450

Footnote1:
ThePlanrepresentsthepositionofeachstonenowremaininginthe
river.Itistheresultofaseriesofobservationsmadeduringthe
summerof1850,byMr.RobertElliot,ofWall.Mostofthestoneshave
luisholes.

_PLATEI_
[Illustration:
_A.Reid,Sc117,PilgrimS^t.Newcastle._
~Plan~
_OFTHECOURSEOFTHE_
ROMANWALL
_FROMTHE_
TYNETOTHESOLWAY.
]

[Illustration]
~TheRomanBarrierofthe
LowerIsthmus.~
PARTI.
ANEPITOMEOFTHEHISTORYOFROMANOCCUPATIONINBRITAIN.
INnocountryoftheworldaretheresuchevidenttracesofthemarchof
RomanlegionsasinBritain.InthenorthernpartsofEngland
especially,thefootprintsoftheEmpireareverydistinct.
Northumberland,asWallislongagoremarked,isRomanground.Every
othermonumentinBritainyieldsinimportancetoTHEWALL.Asthis
work,ingrandeurofconception,isworthyoftheMistressofNations,
so,indurabilityofstructure,isitthebecomingoffspringofthe
EternalCity.
Adeadwallmayseemtomostaveryunpromisingsubject.Thestonesare
indeedinanimate,buthewhohasaheadtothink,andahearttofeel,
willfindthemsuggestiveofbrightideasandmeltingsympathies;though
deadthemselves,theywillbethecauseofmentallifeinhim.Alarge
partoftheknowledgewhichwepossessoftheearlyhistoryofour
countryhasbeendugoutoftheground.Thespadeandtheploughofthe
rustichaveoftenexposeddocuments,whichhaverevealedthemovements,
aswellasthemodesofthoughtandfeeling,ofthosewhohavesleptin
thedustforcenturies.ThecasualwandererbytherelicsoftheVallum
andtheWall,maynotsucceedincullingfactsthatarenewtothe
Historian,buthewillprobablygetthosevividglancesintoRoman
character,andacquirethatpersonalinterestinRomanstory,whichwill
givetotheprosaicrecordsofchroniclers,areality,andacharm,
whichtheydidnotbeforepossess.
Asanaturalintroductiontothesubject,andasameansofpreparing

forsomediscussionswhicharetofollow,itmaybewellbrieflyto
tracetheprogressoftheRomanarmsinBritain,fromthearrivalof
Csaronourshores,totheeventualabandonmentoftheisland.
[Sidenote:EARLIESTNOTICESOFTHEBRITISHISLES.]
Itiscurioustoobserve,thatthecurtainofBritishhistoryisraised
bysomeoftheearliestandgreatestofprofanewriters.Herodotus,who
wroteabouttheyearB.C.450,mentionsthe"Cassiterides,fromwhich
tinisprocured";Aristotle,abouttheyearB.C.340,expresslynames
theislandsofAlbionandIerne;andPolybius,abouttheyearB.C.160,
makesadistinctreferencetothe"BritannicIsles."ToJuliusCsar,
however,weareindebted,forthefirstdetailedaccountofBritainand
itsinhabitants.On26Aug.B.C.55,thatrenownedconquerorlandedin
Britain,withaforceofabouttenthousandmen.Bothonthatoccasion,
andonasecondattempt,which,withalargerforce,hemadetheyear
following,hemetwithawarmreceptionfromthesavageislanders.Tides
andtempestssecondedtheeffortsofthenatives,andgreatJuliusbade
Britainafinalfarewell,withouterectinganyfortressinit,or
leavinganytroopstosecurehisconquest.Tacitussays,thathedidnot
conquerBritain,butonlyshewedittotheRomans.Horace,callingupon
Augustustoachievetheconquest,denominatesit'untouched'
IntactusautBritannusutdescenderet
Sacracatenatusvia.
andPropertius,inthesamespirit,describesitasunconquered,
_invictus_.Thereis,therefore,littleexaggerationinthelinesof
Shakspere
...Akindofconquest
Csarmadehere;butmadenotherehisbrag
Of,came,andsaw,andovercame:withshame
(Thefirstthatevertouchedhim)hewascarried
Fromoffourcoast,twicebeaten;andhisshipping
(Poorignorantbaubles!)onourterribleseas,
Likeeggshellsmovedupontheirsurges,cracked
Aseasily'gainstourrocks.
[Sidenote:PLAUTIUSANDCLAUDIUSVISITBRITAIN.]
DuringthereignsofAugustus,Tiberius,andCaligula,Britainwas
unmolestedbyforeigninvasion.
AttheinvitationofadiscontentedBriton,Claudiusresolvedtoattempt
thereductionoftheisland.IntheyearofourLord43,hesentAulus
Plautius,withfourlegionsandtheirauxiliaries,amountinginallto
aboutfiftythousandmen,intoBritain.Itwaswithdifficultythatthe
troopscouldbeinducedtoengageintheundertaking.Theywere
unwilling,asDionCassiusinformsus,"toengageinawar,asitwere,
_outoftheworld_."Thefearsofthesoldierywerenotwithout
foundation.TheBritons,thoughtheirinferiorsindisciplineandarms,
werenotbehindtheminvalourandspirit,whilst,inaknowledgeofthe
countrytheyhadanimportantadvantage.
[Illustration]
Theyearfollowing,Claudiuspersonallyengagedinthewar.Headvanced
intothecountry,asfarasCamelodunum(Colchester),andaftersome
sanguinarycontests,receivedthesubmissionofthenativesinthat
vicinity.TheestimationinwhichBritain,evenatthistime,washeld,
wassuch,thattheSenate,onlearningwhathehadachieved,surnamed
himBRITANNICUS,grantedhimatriumph,andvotedhimannualgames.The
eventwasofsufficientimportance,tobecelebratedonthecurrentcoin
oftheday.Severalgoldandsilverpieceshavecomedowntoourtimes,

bearingonthereverse,atriumphalarch,onwhichisinscribedthe
wordsDEBRITANN_is_OvertheBritons.Thisisthefirstoccasionon
whichallusionismadetoBritain,onthecoinageofRome.
[Sidenote:ITSPARTIALSUBJUGATION.BOADICEA.]
OnthereturnofClaudius,thesupremecommandagaindevolveduponhis
lieutenant,AulusPlautius,whosucceededinbringingintocomplete
subjection,thetribesoccupyingthesouthernportionoftheisland.In
thisexpedition,Vespasian,afterwardsemperor,actedassecondin
commandtoPlautius.Titus,thesonofVespasian,accompaniedhis
father.Thuswasit,inBritain,thatthedestroyersofJerusalemwere
unconsciouslytrainedforinflictinguponGodschosen,butsinful
people,thechastisementsofHisdispleasure.
OstoriusScapula,A.D.50,succeededtothecommandinBritain.The
braveSilures,headedbyCaractacus,renderedhisprogressslowand
bloody.Ostoriusatlengthsankundertheharassingnatureofhis
duties.
InthereignofNero,RomanaffairsinBritainreceivedaseverecheck.
TheIceni,ledonbytheirenragedqueenBoadicea,threwofftheyoke
andattackedtheprincipalstationsoftheenemy.London,whichwasthen
animportantcommercialcity,fell,uponthefirstassault,andVerulam
(nearthemodernSt.Albans)sharedthesamefate.TheBritish
warriorqueensulliedthesplendourofherexploitsbyhercruelty;
seventythousandRomans,oradherentsofthegovernmentofRome,fell
underherhands.Suetonius,theRomangovernor,collectinghisforces,
gavebattletothequeenandroutedher.Afrightfulcarnageensued;of
theamazingnumberoftwohundredandthirtythousandmenofwhichthe
Britishforcesaresaidtohaveconsisted,notlessthaneightythousand
fell.
DuringtheremainderofthereignofNero,andtheshortruleofhis
threesuccessors,Galba,Otho,andVitellius,noadvancewasmadeinthe
conquestofBritain.Inthestrifesoftherivalemperors,itwas
howeverdestinedtobearitspart.Eightthousandsoldiersweredrafted
fromittofightunderthebannersofVitellius.Thusearly,asDr.
Gileswellobserves,wasthisisland,whosepositioninthebosomofthe
oceanindicatesapeacefulpolicy,inducedtobearthebruntof
continentalquarrels.
[Illustration]
[Sidenote:VESPASIANASSUMESTHEPURPLE.]
WhenVespasianassumedthepurple,aneweradawnedupontheempire.
Thisfactiswellindicateduponacoinstruckatthisperiod.Inthe
engraving,takenfromaspecimenfoundontheWall,theemperoris
observedraisingaprostratefemalefromtheground(doubtlessRome),
whilstMarslooksapprovinglyon;theinspiringmottoROMA
RESURGES_Romethoushaltriseagain_,encirclesthegroup.[2]
VespasianappointedPetiliusCerealishisproprtorinBritain,whoin
fiveyearssucceededinaddingtheBrigantes,apowerfultribe,tothe
subjectsoftheempire.JuliusFrontinuswashissuccessor,who,inthe
threeyearsofhisgovernment,nearlysubduedthewarlikenationofthe
Silures.
[Sidenote:HISPROPRTORSSUBJUGATETHEISLAND.]
Onehundredandthirtythreeyearshadnowelapsedsincethefirst
descentofCsar,andthirtyfiveyears,sinceClaudiushadclaimedthe
honourofconqueringBritain,andyetbutafractionoftheislandwas
insubjectiontoRomanpower.Nothing,asDr.Gileswellremarks,can
morestronglyshewthestubbornspiritofthenatives,thantheir

protractedresistancetotheinvaders.Battleafterbattlehadbeen
lost;butmanyofthesetribeswerestillunsubdued,andseveraleven
undiscovered.
[Sidenote:THEOPERATIONSOFAGRICOLA.]
Butthereputationofallprecedinggovernors,wasobscuredbyagreater
manthanthey.CnusJuliusAgricolahadservedinBritainundersome
precedingcommanders;sothatwhenhelandedasgovernorintheyear78
hewaspreparedtoactwithallthepromptitudewhichaknowledgeofthe
countryandthepeoplecouldgivehim.Duringtheeightyearsofhis
rule,hesubjugatedtheremainingtribesofsouthernBritain,carried
hisarmsintothenorthernsectionoftheisland,anddrove,in
successivecampaigns,thenativesbeforehim,untilatlength,inthe
battleoftheGrampians,heparalyzedtheirstrengthforawhile.He
circumnavigatedthewholeisland,andplantedtheRomanstandardupon
theOrkneys.Hebuiltwallsandfortressesinallplaceswheretheywere
required,andsoftenedthefiercenessofthebarbarians,byfosteringa
tasteforlettersandtheluxuriesoftheEternalCity.Butitis
necessarytotracethemovementsofAgricola,withsomeofthedetail
withwhichtheyaregiveninthepagesofTacitus.
ThesummerofA.D.78wasfarspentwhenhearrived;yetbeforegoing
intowinterquarters,heattackedandsubduedtheOrdovices,and
broughtthesacredisleofAngleseaasecondtimetoobedience.The
respitefromarmswhichthefollowingwinterafforded,wasemployedby
thegeneralinthemostusefulandnecessarypurposes.Beingwell
acquaintedwiththetemperoftheinhabitantsoftheprovince,and
havinglearntfromtheconductandexperienceofothers,thatwhatis
gainedbyforceavailslittle,whereoppressionsandgrievances
follow,hedeterminedtoputanimmediateendtoallthecausesofthe
war.Hebeganbycheckingandregulatingtheaffairsofhisown
household,correctingtheabusesthathadcreptintothearmy,
promotingimpartiallythosewhodeservedit;whileatthesametimehe
redressedthegrievancesoftheinhabitants,madeanequitable
distributionofthepublicburthens,andabolishedallhurtful
monopolies.Bytheprosecutionofmeasuressosalutaryasthese,six
monthshadscarcelyelapsed,whenaffairsinBritainwereentirely
changed,andassumedabrightandsettledaspect.
Hissecondcampaign,thatoftheyear79,wasprobablyoccupiedin
subduingtheancienttenantsoftheLOWERISTHMUSoftheisland.
Ontheapproachofsummer,hereassembledhisarmy,andinadvancing,
failednottoexciteaproperspiritofemulationamongthetroops,
praisingthosewhobestobservedtheirseveralduties,andchecking
suchaswereremiss.Hehimselfchosethegroundforencamping;the
marshes,firths,anddifficultplaces,healwaysexaminedfirst;and,
allowingtheenemynorespite,hecontinuallyharassedthemwith
suddenincursionsandravages.Havingalarmedandterrifiedthem
sufficiently,henexttriedtheeffectofgoodusageandthe
allurementsofpeace.Bythiswiseandprudentconduct,several
communities,whichtillthenhadmaintainedtheirindependence,
submittedtotheRomans,gavehostages,andsufferedgarrisonsand
fortressestobeplacedamongthem.Thesestrongholdsheestablished
withsuchjudgment,aseffectuallysecuredallthosepartsofBritain
whichhadthenbeenvisitedbytheRomans.
Thefollowingwinterwasemployedincivilizingandpolishingtherude
inhabitants,who,livingwildanddispersedoverthecountry,were
thenceeverrestlessandeasilyinstigatedtowar.Atfirst,theywere
prevailedupontoassociatemoretogether,andforthisendwere
instructedintheartofbuildinghouses,temples,andplacesof
publicresort.Thesonsoftheirchiefsweretaughttheliberal
sciences;henceitwasnounusualthingtoseethosewholately

scornedtheRomanlanguage,becomeadmirersofitseloquence.By
degrees,thecustoms,manners,anddressoftheirconquerors,became
familiartothem,theyacquiredatasteforalifeofinactivityand
ease,andatlengthwerecaughtbythecharmsandincitementsof
luxuryandvice.Bysuchasjudgedofthingsfromtheirexternal
appearanceonly,allthiswasstyledpolitenessandhumanity,while,
inreality,Agricolawaseffectuallyenslavingthem,andimperceptibly
rivettingtheirchains.
Duringthethirdyearofhiscommand,hepushedhisconquests
northwards,andcarriedhisdevastationsasfarasthemouthofthe
Tay(_Taus_.)Here,theenemywerestruckwithsomuchterror,that
theydurstnotattacktheRomanarmy,thoughitwasgreatlydistressed
bytheseveritiesoftheclimate.Agricola,inordertosecure
possessionoftheseadvancedconquests,againerectedfortsinthe
mostcommodioussituations;andsojudiciouslywasthisdone,that
noneofthemwereevertakenbyforce,abandonedthroughfear,or
givenupontermsofcapitulation.Eachfortdefendeditself,and,
againstanylongsiege,wasconstantlysuppliedwithprovisionsfora
year.Thustheseveralgarrisonsnotonlypassedthewinterinperfect
security,butwerelikewiseenabled,fromthesestrongholds,tomake
frequentexcursionsagainsttheenemy,whocouldnot,asheretofore,
repairthelossestheyhadsustainedinsummer,bythesuccesses
usuallyattendingtheirwinterexpeditions.
Thefortsherereferredto,areprobablythose,whichweredrawnalong
theUPPERISTHMUSoftheisland,extendingfromtheFirthofForthto
theFirthofClyde,andwhichwereafterwardsconnectedbythewallof
AntoninusPius.
Thisisrenderedapparentfromwhatfollows:
Agricolaemployedthefourthsummer(A.D.81)insettlingandfurther
securingthecountryhehadsubdued.Here,haditbeencompatiblewith
thebraveryofthearmy,orifthegloryoftheRomannamewouldhave
permittedit,therehadbeenfoundaboundarytotheirconquestsin
Britain;forthetide,enteringfromoppositeseas,andflowingfar
intothecountrybytheriversGlottaandBodotria,theirheadsare
onlyseparatedbyanarrowneckofland,whichwasoccupiedby
garrisons.Ofallonthisside,theRomanswerealreadymasters,the
enemybeingdriven,asitwere,intoanotherisland.
[Sidenote:AGRICOLAISRECALLED.]
ItisnotnecessarytopursuetheoperationsofAgricolafurther.Inthe
seventhsummerhedefeatedGalgacusontheflanksoftheGrampians.The
Romanpowerwasnowatitsheight.Agricola,probablyfrommotivesof
jealousy,wasrecalledbytheemperorDomitian,andashissuccessors
werenotmenofthesamevigourashimself,thebarbarianswereina
condition,atleasttodisputethepretensionsoftheirconquerors.
[Sidenote:HADRIANARRIVESINBRITAIN.]
Intheyear120thirtyfiveyearsaftertherecallofAgricolaaffairs
inBritainhadfallenintosuchconfusion,astorequirethepresenceof
theemperorHADRIAN,whohadassumedtheimperialpurplethreeyears
before.HedidnotattempttoregaintheconquestswhichAgricolahad
madeinScotland,butprudentlysoughttomakethelineofforts,which
thatgeneralhadconstructedinhissecondcampaign,thelimitofhis
empire.Withthisobjectinview,hedrewawallacrosstheislandthe
BARRIERoftheLOWERISTHMUS.ThetestimonyofSpartian,thehistorian
ofhisreign,thoughbrief,isdecisive.Hadrian,sayshe,visited
Britain,whenhecorrectedmanythings,andfirstdrewawall(_murus_)
eightymilesinlength,todividethebarbariansfromtheRomans.

ThearrivalinBritain,ofHadrian,oneofRomesgreatestgenerals,was
thoughtaneventofsufficientimportancetobecommemoratedinthe
currencyoftheempire.Thelargebrasscoin,hererepresented,was
struckbydecreeoftheSenateintheyear121.[3]
[Illustration]
[Sidenote:THEBARRIEROFTHEUPPERISTHMUS.]
Theplansandtheprowessoftheemperorwerethoughttohave
effectuallysecuredthoseportionsoftheisland,whichitwasprudent
toretaininthegraspofRome.Thiscircumstancewasannouncedtothe
worldinanothercoin,bearing,onthereverse,anamedestinedtosound
throughregionsHadrianneverknewBRITANNIAandrepresentingafemale
figureseatedonarock,havingaspearinherlefthand,andashield
byherside.[4]
[Illustration]
AbouttwentyyearsafterHadriansexpedition,LolliusUrbicustookthe
commandinBritain.HewasnotsatisfiedwiththelimitswhichHadrian
hadprudentlyassignedtotheempireinBritain.Forcingbackthe
Britons,heraisedanearthenrampartacrosstheisthmusbetweenthe
ForthandtheClyde.GrahamsDike,inScotland,isthewallwhichwas
builtbyLolliusUrbicus.Thisisprovedbythenumeroussculptures
whichhave,atdifferenttimes,beendiscoveredamongitsruins.
[Sidenote:DECLINEOFTHEROMANPOWER.]
TheremaininghistoryoftheRomans,onthenorthernfrontierof
England,isfraughtwithdisaster.Thetideofwarsometimesbrokeupon
thenorthern,andsometimesonthesouthernboundary;butitsroarand
itsdevastationceasednot,untiltheRomanintruderhadbeendriven
altogetherfromtheislandor,rather,untilthesuccessivestrifesof
RomansandPicts,NormansandSaxons,BorderreaversandScottish
troopers,hadbeenhushed,underthevigorousruleofthelastofthe
Tudors.WhatHadriancouldnotdo,fortheinhabitantsoftheNorthof
England;whatSeverusfailedtoaccomplish;whatthegreatAlfredthe
NormanoppressorthePlantagenetsthedespoticHenryVIII.,attemptedin
vain,wasaccomplishedunderwhatJohnKnoxcallsthemonstrous
regimentofawoman.Then,abrightoccidentalstarbeameduponthese
NorthernParts,andLawbegantoassertitssupremacy.
MarcusAntoninus,whosucceededAntoninusPius,wasfarfromenjoying
thetranquillitywhichthenorthernrampartwasexpectedtogive.Hewas
obligedtocarryonverytroublesomewarswiththeBritons,andwith
muchdifficultykeptthemincheck.
[Sidenote:THEBRITONSPREVAIL.]
InthereignofCommodus,whobecamesoleemperorA.D.180,theBritons,
aswearetoldbyXiphiline,whoabridgedthehistoryofDion,broke
throughthewallwhichseparatedthemfromtheRomanprovince,killed
thegeneral,ruinedthearmy,and,intheirravages,carriedeverything
beforethem.Thewallreferredto,wasprobablythatoftheLower
Isthmus;for,asHorsleyconjectures,"theCaledonianshadbroken
throughthewallofAntoninusPiusnotlongafteritwaserected,"and
certainitis,"thatwemeetwithnoinscriptionsonthewallof
Antoninusbutwhatbelongtohisreign."
Thecircumstance,thattheloathsomeandferociousCommodusassumedthe
titleofBRITANNICUS,isnoproofthatsuccessattendedhisarms.Hewas
thefirstpersonwhohadascribedtohimtheconjoinedtitlesof_Pius_
and_Felix_;but,asLampridiussatiricallyobserves,"Whenhehad
appointedtheadultererofhismotheraconsul,hewascalled_Pius_;

whenhehadslainPerennis,hewascalled_Felix_;andwhentheBritons
werereadytochooseanotheremperor,hewasflatteredwiththetitleof
BRITANNICUS."
DuringthetimethatSeptimiusSeverus,PescenniusNiger,andClodius
Albinuscontendedwitheachotherfortheempire,thenorthernBritons
wereheldfeeblyincheck.Atlength,A.D.197,Severusprevailed,and
becamesolemasteroftheworld.ViriusLupusbecamehisproprtorin
Britain.UnabletoresisttheattacksoftheCaledoniansinthefield,
andhavinginvainattemptedtopurchasetheirsubmissionwithmoney,
hislieutenantsenthastyletterstotheemperor,entreatingsuccour,
and,ifpossible,hispresence.
ItisstatedbyRichardofCirencester,thataboutthistimethePICTS,
atribetowhichreferencewillpresentlybemade,firstlandedin
Scotland.Theextraordinarysuccesses,asDr.Gilesremarks,whichthe
Caledoniansgained,priortothearrivalofSeverus,confirmthe
suppositionthattheyreceivedconsiderablereinforcementsfromabroad.
[Sidenote:THEARRIVALOFSEVERUS.]
SEVERUScameatthecallofhislieutenant.BothHerodianandXiphiline
giveusanaccountoftheproceedingsofthisrenownedemperorin
Britain,andastheirnarrativesarenotonlyinterestinginthemselves,
butimportantintheinvestigationofsomesubsequentquestions,itwill
bewelltoavailourselvesoftheirstatements.Herodiansays
WhilstSeveruswasunderamightyconcernabouttheconductofhistwo
sons,hereceivedlettersfromthegovernorofBritain,informinghim
oftheinsurrectionsandinroadsofthebarbarians,andthehavocthey
madefarandnear,andbegging,eitheragreaterforce,orthatthe
emperorwouldcomeoverhimself.Severus,forseveralreasons,was
pleasedwiththenews,and,notwithstandinghisageandinfirmity,
resolvedtogooverinperson.Andthough,byreasonofthegoutupon
him,hewasforcedtobecarriedinalitter,yet,heentereduponthe
journeywithajuvenilebrisknessandcourage,andperformeditwith
greatexpedition.Hequicklycrossedthesea,andassoonashecame
upontheisland,havinggatheredaverygreatforcetogether,hemade
readyforwar.TheBritons,beingalarmedandterrified,wouldfain
haveexcusedthemselves,andtreatedaboutpeace.ButSeverus,
unwillingtolosehislabour,ortomissthegloryofbeingcalled
BRITANNICUS,dismissedtheirambassadors,andcarriedonhismilitary
preparations.Particularly,hetookcaretomakebridgesorcauseys
throughthemarshes,thatthesoldiersmighttravelandfightupondry
ground.
Herodiannextgivesashortdescriptionoftheinhabitants,andsays
that
ManypartsofBritainwerebecomefenny,bythefrequentinundations
ofthesea.Thenativesswimthroughthosefens,orrunthroughthem
uptothewaistinmud;for,thegreatestpartoftheirbodiesbeing
naked,theyregardnotthedirt.Theywearironabouttheirnecksand
bellies,esteemingthisasfineandrichanornamentasothersdo
gold.Theymakeupontheirbodiesthefiguresofdiversanimals,and
usenoclothing,thattheymaybeexposedtoview.Theyareavery
bloodyandwarlikepeople,usingalittleshieldortarget,anda
spear.Theirswordhangsontheirnakedbodies.Theyknownottheuse
ofabreastplateandhelmet,andimaginethesewouldbeanimpediment
totheminpassingthefens.Theairisalwaysthickwiththevapours
thatascendfromthesemarshes.
[Sidenote:THEOPERATIONSOFSEVERUS.]
Thehistorianproceedswithhisstory

Severusprovidedeverythingwhichmightbeofservicetohisown
people,anddistresstheenemy.Andwhenallthingswereinsufficient
readiness,heleftGeta,inthatpartoftheislandwhichwassubject
totheRomans,toadministerjusticeandmanagecivilaffairs,
appointingsomeelderlyfriendstobehisassistants.Hisson
Antoninus,betterknownbythenameofCaracalla,hetookwithhim
whenhemarchedagainstthebarbarians.TheRomanarmypassingthe
riversandtrenches,whichweretheboundariesoftheempire,
skirmishedofteninatumultuousmannerwiththebarbarians,andas
oftenputthemtoflight.Butitwaseasyforthemtoescapeandto
hidethemselvesinthewoodsandfens,beingwellacquaintedwiththe
country,whereastheRomanslabouredundertheoppositedisadvantages.
Bythesemeansthewarwasprolonged.Severus,beingoldandinfirm,
andconfinedathome,wouldhavecommittedthemanagementofthewar
tohissonAntoninus.Buthe,neglectingthebarbarians,endeavoured
togaintheRomanarmy,withaviewtotheempire.Duringhisfathers
lingeringsicknessheendeavouredtoprevailwiththephysiciansand
servantstodespatchhim.AtlastSeverusdied,wornoutwithsorrow,
morethandisease.
Itwillbeobserved,thatinthisdetailedaccountoftheproceedingsof
SeverusinBritain,nottheleastallusionismadetotheconstruction
ofawall.
[Sidenote:THENARRATIVEOFDIONCASSIUS.]
DionCassiuswascontemporarywithSeverus.Thatportionofhiswork
whichnarratesthetransactionsofthisemperorinBritain,is
unfortunatelylost,butanepitomeofit,preparedbyXiphiline,
remains.Fromthisabridgmentthefollowingextractsaretaken.
Severus,observingthathistwosonswereabandonedtotheir
pleasures,andthatthesoldiersneglectedtheirexercises,undertook
anexpeditionagainstBritain,thoughhewaspersuaded,fromhis
horoscope,thathenevershouldreturnfromthencetoItaly.Nordid
heeverreturnfromthisexpedition,butdiedthreeyearsafterhe
firstsetoutfromRome.Hegotaprodigiousmassofrichesin
Britain.Thetwomostconsiderablebodiesofthepeopleinthat
island,andtowhichalmostalltherestrelate,aretheCaledonians
andtheMat.Thelatterdwellnearthebarrierwallwhichseparates
theislandintotwoparts;theotherslivebeyondthem.Bothofthem
inhabitbarrenuncultivatedmountains,ordesertmarshyplains,where
theyhaveneitherwallsnortowns,normanuredlands,butfeedupon
themilkoftheirflocks,uponwhattheygetbyhunting,andsomewild
fruits.
ThemodeinwhichhespeaksoftheWall,inthispassage,impliesits
existenceatthetimeofthearrivalofSeverus.Thehistorian,after
givinganinterestingaccountofthemannersoftheinhabitants,
proceeds:
Wearemastersoflittlelessthanhalftheisland.Severus,having
undertakentoreducethewholeunderhissubjection,enteredinto
Caledonia,wherehehadendlessfatiguestosustain,foreststocut
down,mountainstolevel,morassestodryup,andbridgestobuild.He
hadnobattletofight,andsawnoenemiesinabody;insteadof
appearing,theyexposedtheirflocksofsheepandoxen,withdesignto
surpriseoursoldiersthatshouldstragglefromthearmyforthesake
ofplunder.Thewaters,too,extremelyincommodedourtroops,insomuch
thatsomeofoursoldiersbeingabletomarchnofarther,beggedof
theircompanionstokillthem,thattheymightnotfallaliveinto
theirenemieshands.Inaword,Severuslostfiftythousandmen
there,andyetquittednothisenterprise.Hewenttotheextremityof
theisland,whereheobservedveryexactlythecourseofthesunin

thoseparts,andthelengthofthedaysandnightsbothinsummerand
winter.Hewascarriedallovertheislandinaclosechair,byreason
ofhisinfirmities,andmadeatreatywiththeinhabitants,bywhich
heobligedthemtorelinquishpartoftheircountrytohim.
Thepeacethuspurchased,bythecessionofthenorthernportionofthe
island,wasbadlyobserved.Theinhabitantshavingtakenuparms,
contrarytothefaithoftreaties,Severuscommandedhissoldiersto
entertheircountry,andtoputalltheymettothesword.Heissaidto
havesignifiedhissavageintention,byquoting,fromHomer,thelines
whichCowperthustranslates:
....Dietherace!
Maynoneescapeus!neitherhewhoflies,
Noreventheinfantinthemotherswomb
Unconscious.
[Sidenote:THEDEATHOFSEVERUS.]
Butinthemidstofhisenterprisehewastakenoffbyadistemper,to
which,itwassaid,Antoninus,byhisundutifulconduct,hadverymuch
contributed.HediedatYork,Feb.4th,A.D.211.
[Sidenote:THERECORDSOFHISVICTORIES.]
[Illustration]
ThecoinsofSeverusrecordhisvictories.Oneofthemisrepresented
beneath.Ontheobverseisthelaureatedheadoftheferocious
Africanonthereversearetwowingedvictories,attachingabucklerto
apalmtree,atthefootofwhichtwocaptivesmournfullysit.The
legend,VICTORIAEBRITTANNICAE,declareswhothesecaptivesare.Times
arechanged!wideasoceanrolls,theburdenofBritanniassong
exultinglydeclares,'Britonsneverwillbeslaves,'and,betterstill,
Britainhaslongbeenactivelyengagedinrescuingfromchainsthesable
sonsofthatcontinentinwhichSeverusfirstdrewbreath.
AnothercuriousrecordofthewarsofSeverusisfoundinthepoemsof
Ossian.TheCARACUL,sonoftheKingoftheWorld,inthedramatic
pieceComala,issupposedtobeCaracalla.
DERSAGRENA.ThesearethesignsofFingalsdeath.TheKingofshields
isfallen!andCARACULprevails.
COMALA.Ruinovertakethee,THOUKINGOFTHEWORLD!Fewbethysteps
tothegrave;andletonevirginmournthee!
MELICOMA.WhatsoundisthatonArdven?Whocomeslikethestrengthof
rivers,whentheircrowdedwatersglittertothemoon?
COMALA.WhoisitbutthefoeofComala,THESONOFTHEKINGOFTHE
WORLD!GhostofFingal!dothoufromthycloud,directComalas
bow....
FINGAL.Raiseyebards,thesong!CARACULhasfledfromourarmsalong
thefieldsofhispride.
AfterthedeathofSeverus,alongperiodelapsed,inwhichtheRoman
historiansobserveaprofoundsilencerespectingtheaffairsofBritain.
Localrecordsandnativehistorianssupplybutfeeblythedeficiency.
DuringthereignofGallienus,whichextendedfromA.D.260to268,a
largenumberofusurpersarose,whoarecommonlydenominatedtheThirty
Tyrants.OftheseLollianus,Victorianus,Postumus,thetwoTetrici,and
Marius,aresupposedtohaveassumedthesovereigntyinthisisland;for
theircoinshavebeendugupmoreabundantlyherethanelsewhere.

[Sidenote:BRITAINREVOLTS.]
Diocletiancommencedhisreignintheyear284.Thoughhewasamanof
energyandability,thecareofacrumblingempirewastoomuchforhim,
andhedividedhishonoursandanxietieswithMaximian.Increasing
perplexitiesafewyearsafterwardsinducedtheemperorstoappointtwo
Csars.DiocletianchoseGaleriusMaximianus,andMaximiannominated
ConstantiusChlorus.ToConstantiuswasassignedthechargeofBritain,
whereheeventuallyfoundagrave.HewasthefatherofConstantinethe
Great.
[Sidenote:CARAUSIUSATTAINSTHESOVEREIGNTY.]
DuringaportionoftheunitedreignofDiocletianandMaximian,Britain
assumedanindependentposition.Inordertorepress,inthenorthern
seas,theravagesoftheFranksandSaxons,whoaboutthisperiodbegan
todemandaplaceintheworldshistory,Carausiuswasappointedtothe
commandofthechannelfleet.Gesoriacum,themodernBoulogne,washis
placeofrendezvous.Carausius,whowasanexpertseaman,exerted
himself,atfirst,withextraordinarysuccess,againstthepirates.
Afterwards,itwasobservedthatheconsultedhisowninterest,rather
thanthepublicservice.Theemperorsresolveduponhisdestruction.
Carausius,stimulatedbyselfpreservation,aswellasambition,entered
intoanalliancewithhisformerfoes,theFranksandSaxons,and
declaredhimselfemperorofBritain.Hewasfavourablyreceivedbythe
nativesoftheisland,andforsevenyearswieldedthesovereigntyof
hisempirewithvigourandability.HerepelledtheMatandthe
Caledonians,andhavingsubduedthesetribes,attachedthemtohis
interest.Nothing,observesMr.Thackeray,canmorefullyprovethe
maritimestrengthandresourcesofGreatBritain,underanableruler,
thanthefact,thatCarausiusforsevenyearsbadedefiancetotheRoman
power;andattheendofthattimefell,notovercomebytheimperial
forces,butbyprivatetreachery.Neverbefore,noruntilseveral
hundredyearsafterthisperiod,wasthecountryfirmlyunitedunderthe
governmentofonesovereign.
ConstantiuswaspreparingtoinvadeBritainwithafleetofathousand
ships,whenCarausiuswasmurderedbyAllectus,whomhehadtrustedas
hisdearestfriend.Foraboutthreeyearstheassassinheld,thoughwith
alessfirmgrasp,thepowerformerlypossessedbyhisvictim.
[Illustration]
[Sidenote:THESUCCESSESOFCARAUSIUS.]
AverynumeroussuiteofcoinscommemoratesthesuccessesofCarausius,
andvindicateshisclaimtoashareintheempireoftheworld.Two
coinsarerepresentedhere.Onthereverseofoneisagalley,which
indicatesthechiefsourceofhisstrength,andonthereverseofthe
otherisalionwithathunderboltinitsmouth,significative,notonly
oftheboldbearingwhichtheancientseakingassumed,butofthat
whichhissuccessorsinmoderntimeshavemaintained.
Carausius,accordingtoMacpherson,istheCAROSofOssian.The
followingextract,uponthissupposition,containsaremarkableallusion
totheWall.
Whocomestowardsmyson,withthemurmurofasong!Hisstaffisin
hishand,hisgreyhairlooseonthewind.Surlyjoylightenshis
face.HeoftenlooksbacktoCAROS.
ItisRynoofSongs,hethatwenttoviewthefoe."WhatdoesCAROS,
KINGOFSHIPS?"saidthesonofthenowmournfulOssian;"spreadshe
thewingsofhispride,[5]bardofthetimesofold?"

"Hespreadsthem,Oscar,"repliedthebard,"butitisbehindhis
GATHEREDHEAP.HelooksoverhisSTONESwithfear.Hebeholdsthee
terrible,astheghostofnight,thatrollsthewavetohisships!"
[Sidenote:BRITAINUNDERDIOCLETIANANDSUCCESSORS.]
ItwouldbeimpropertoleavethereignofDiocletianwithoutremarking,
thatunderit,thechurchofChristenduredthelastandmostterrible
ofthetenpersecutions,whichpaganRomeinflicteduponthefollowers
ofthecross.Britaindidnotescape.Albanandmanyothers,asGildas
andBedeinformus,weremartyrsforthefaith.
Onthewithdrawal,intheyear305,ofDiocletianandMaximianfromthe
caresofempire,GaleriusandConstantiusbecametherulersofthe
world.
Constantine,afterwardssurnamedtheGreat,wasproclaimedemperor,on
thedeathofhisfatherConstantius,atYork.Afteraprotracted
strugglewithseveralrivals,hebecame,A.D.313,solepossessorofthe
imperialpower.HewasthefirstChristianEmperor,and,intokenofhis
faith,inscribedthemonogramoftheRedeemeruponhisbanner,andhis
coin.Thecircumstancesunderwhichheadoptedthissteparethus
detailed
ConstantinewasinGaul,andhavingheardoftheoppositionofhis
rival,whowasinpossessionofRome,heimmediatelycrossedtheAlps,
andproceededagainsthim.WhennearVerona,onhismarch,and
meditatingthedifficultiesofhissituation,hewasrousedfromdeep
thoughtbyabrightlight,whichsuddenlyilluminedthesky,and,
lookingup,hesawthesun,whichwasinitsmeridian,surmountedbya
crossoffire,andbeneathitthisinscription,"INTHIS
CONQUER."Heimmediatelyadoptedthecrossashisensign,andformed
onthespotthecelebratedLabarum,orChristianstandard,whichwas
everaftersubstitutedfortheRomaneagle.This,asEusebius
describesit,wasaspearcrossedbyanarrow,onwhichwassuspended
avelum,havinginscribedonitthemonogram,formedbytheGreek
letters_Chi_and_Rho_,theinitialsofthenameofChrist.Under
thishemarchedforward,andrapidlytriumphedoverallhisenemies;
and,struckwiththepreternaturalwarninghehadreceived,andits
consequences,henowpubliclyembracedthedoctrinesofthatreligion
underwhosebannerhehadconquered.[6]
[Illustration]
Themonogramiswelldisplayedonthereverseofacoinof
Magnentius,[7]whichishererepresented.TheAlphaandOmega,which
accompanythesymbol,indicatethefaithoftheemperorinthedivinity
ofChristthebeginningandtheending,whichis,andwhichwas,and
whichistocome,theAlmighty.
ConstantineremovedtheimperialseatfromRometoConstantinople.
[Sidenote:BRITAINOVERRUNBYTHEPICTS.]
DuringthelifetimeofConstantine,Britainpartookofthecivil
tranquillityoftherestoftheworld;butinthereignofhisimmediate
successors,thePictsandScotsrenewedtheirincursionsintothelower
province.ThiswasnottheonlyevilwhichRomanBritainhadtoendure.
Magnentius,anativeoftheisle,enteredintoacontestwith
ConstantiusII.fortheempireoftheworld,andinsupportofhis
claims,collectedanarmy,(chieflydrawnfromBritain)withwhichhe
threetimesmethisfoe.OnthedeathofMagnentius,byhisownhands,
intheyear353,hissuccessfulrivalinflictedabloodyrevengeupon
theBritonsforhavingsupportedtheircountryman:meanwhilethePicts

andScotsharassedthem,onthenorth,withredoubledfury.
[Sidenote:THEODOSIUSREPAIRSTHEWALL.]
LittleisrecordedofBritaininthereignofJuliantheApostate.In
thetimeofJovianhissuccessor,thePicts,Saxons,andScots,vexedit
byincreasingcalamities.ValentinianobtainedthepurpleA.D.364,when
thestateofthecountrywassoalarmingastorequireimmediate
attention.EvenLondonseemstohavebeenmenacedbytheenemy,ifit
wasnotactuallyintheirhands.Theodosius,theablestgeneralofhis
time,wenttotheassistanceoftheBritons,drovetheenemybeforehim,
andrecoveredtheprovincialcitiesandforts.Hethenrepairedthe
citiesand_prtentur_anderectedsomenewforts.Horsleythinksthat
theWallintheNorthofEngland,andthestationsuponit,arethe
_prtentur_referredto.
Valentinian,having,in367,unitedwithhimselfinthegovernmentof
theempire,Gratianhisson,died,A.D.375.Sixdaysafterwards,his
secondson,ValentinianII.wasproclaimedhissuccessor.Thetwo
brothersreignedtogether,TheodosiustheGreatpresidingatthesame
timeintheEasternprovinces,untilGratianwaskilledA.D.383.Four
yearsafterwards,ValentinianwasrobbedofthepurplebyMaximus,but
appliedforassistancetohiseasterncolleague,Theodosius,andonce
moreenteredRomewithimperialdignity.ThesovereigntyofBritain,
Gaul,andSpainwas,however,stillconceded,forthepresent,to
Maximus,whoadoptedTrevesastheseatofhisgovernment.
[Sidenote:THEISLANDDRAINEDOFITSYOUTH.]
InthisstruggleBritainsufferedseverely.Maximus,havingservedin
theislandundertheelderTheodosius,wasafavouritewiththe
RomanizedBritons.Theyflockedtohisstandardinsuchnumbersthatthe
islandseemeddrainedofitsyouth.Morethanahundredthousandpersons
aresaidtohaveaccompaniedhimfromBritaintothecontinent.
ThelossofthenativesoldierywasseverelyfeltintheNorthof
England,wheretheruthlessbarbariansrenewedtheirravageswithout
molestation.Thewholeisland,inthequerulouslanguageofitsfirst
historian,Gildas,[8]"Deprivedofallherarmedsoldiersandmilitary
bands,waslefttohercrueltyrants,deprivedoftheassistanceofall
heryouthwhowentwithMaximus,andignorantoftheartofwar,she
groanedinamazementformanyyearsunderthecrueltyofthePictsand
Scots."
TheodosiusdiedA.D.395.HelefthisdominionstohissonsArcadiusand
Honorius,whopermanentlydividedthemintotheempiresoftheEastand
West.IntheearlypartofthereignofHonorius,theprovinceof
Britain,bytheprudenceoftheemperorsministerStilicho,had
comparativerestfromtheincursionsoftheenemy.ButwhentheGothic
wardivertedtheattentionofthegovernmentfromsoremoteaprovince,
andthelegionsofBritainwerecalledawaytodefendtheseatofthe
empirefromtheattacksofAlaric,thetroubleswhichbeforedistracted
theprovince,wereagaincalledintofearfuloperation.Aspiritof
disaffectionandrevoltincreasedtheevil.MarcusandGratianwere
successivelydeclaredemperorsbytheislanders,butwerebothspeedily
murdered.Constantinewasnextraisedtothesovereignty,anhonourfor
whichhewasindebtedtohisname,nothisrankorfitnessforthe
office.InsteadofendeavouringtosecurethepeaceofBritain,he
transportedhisarmytoGaulandmadeasuccessfulstandagainst
Honorius.Hewasassassinatedintheyear411.
[Sidenote:BRITAINBECOMESINDEPENDENT.]
WhilstHonoriuswasstrugglingwiththeusurperConstantine,hewrote
letterstothecitiesofBritain,concedingtheindependenceofthe

island,andurgingthemtoadoptmeasuresfortheirowngovernmentand
protection.Thegiftoflibertywastothemafatalboon.Their
implacableenemies,findingthatthemilitaryscienceoftheRomansno
longerprotectedthesouth,rushedforthtoinvadetheundefended
province.Thenatives,indespair,turnedtothestillpowerfulnameof
Rome,anddispatchedmessengerstoentreathelpfromtheemperor.But
letGildasthewise,depicttheclosingsceneofancientBritains
history
[Sidenote:THENARRATIVEOFGILDAS.]
TheBritons,impatientattheassaultsoftheirenemies,send
ambassadorstoRome,entreating,inpiteousterms,theassistanceof
anarmedbandtoprotectthem.Alegionisimmediatelysent,provided
sufficientlywitharms.Whentheyhadcrossedoverthesea,and
landed,theycameatoncetocloseconflictwiththeirenemies,and
slewgreatnumbersofthem.Allofthemweredrivenbeyondthe
borders,andthehumiliatednativesrescuedfromthebloodyslavery
whichawaitedthem.Bytheadviceoftheirprotectors,theynowbuilt
awallacrosstheisland,fromoneseatotheother,which,being
mannedwithaproperforce,mightbeaterrortothefoeswhomitwas
intendedtorepel,andaprotectiontotheirfriendswhomitcovered.
Butthiswallbeingmadeofturf,insteadofstone,wasofnouseto
thatfoolishpeople,whohadnoheadtoguidethem.
TheRomanlegionhadnosoonerreturnedhomeinjoyandtriumph,than
theirformerfoes,likehungryandraveningwolves,rushingwith
greedyjawsuponthefold,whichisleftwithoutashepherd,are
wafted,bothbythestrengthofoarsmenandtheblowingwind,break
throughtheboundaries,andspreadslaughteroneveryside.
Andnowagaintheysendsuppliantambassadors,withtheirgarments
rent,andtheirheadscoveredwithashes,imploringassistancefrom
theRomans,liketimorouschickenscrowdingundertheprotectingwings
oftheirparents.Uponthis,theRomans,movedwithcompassion,send
forward,likeeaglesintheirflight,theirbandsofcavalryand
mariners,andplantingtheirterribleswordsupontheshouldersof
theirenemies,mowthemdownlikeleaveswhichfallattheirdestined
period.Havingdriventheirenemiesbeyondthesea,theRomansleft
thecountry,givingthemnotice,thattheycouldnolongerbeharassed
bysuchlaboriousexpeditions,butthattheislanders,inuring
themselvestowarlikeweapons,shouldvaliantlyprotecttheircountry,
theirproperty,theirwives,andchildren;thattheyshouldnotsuffer
theirhandstobetiedbehindtheirbacks,byanation,which,unless
theywereenervatedbyidlenessandsloth,wasnotmorepowerfulthan
themselves,butthattheyshouldarmthosehandswithbuckler,sword,
andspear,readyforthefieldofbattle;and,becausetheythought
thisalsoofadvantagetothepeopletheywereabouttoleave,they,
withthehelpofthemiserablenatives,builtawall,differentfrom
theformer,bypublicandprivatecontributions,andofthesame
structureaswallsgenerallyare,extendinginastraightlinefrom
seatosea,betweensomecities,which,fromfearoftheirenemies,
hadthenbychancebeenbuilt.
[Sidenote:THEDISTRESSESOFTHEBRITONS.]
Nosoonerweretheygone,thanthePictsandScots,likeworms,which
intheheatofmidday,comeforthfromtheirholes,hastilylandfrom
theircanoes,differingonefromanotherinmanners,butinspiredwith
thesameavidityforblood,andall,moreeagertoshroudtheir
villainousfacesinbushyhair,thantocoverwithdecentclothing
thosepartsoftheirbodywhichrequiredit.Moreover,havingheardof
thedepartureofourfriends,andtheirresolutionnevertoreturn,
theyseized,withgreaterboldnessthanbefore,onallthecountry
towardstheextremenorth,asfarastheWall.Toopposethem,there

wasplacedontheheights,agarrison,equallyslowtofight,andill
adaptedtorunaway,auselessandpanicstruckcompany,which
slumberedawaydaysandnightsontheirunprofitablewatch.Meanwhile
thehookedweaponsoftheirenemieswerenotidle,andourwretched
countrymenweredraggedfromtheWall,anddashedagainsttheground.
Suchprematuredeath,however,painfulasitwas,savedthemfrom
seeingthemiserablesufferingsoftheirbrothersandchildren.But
whyshouldIsaymore?Theylefttheircities,abandonedthe
protectionoftheWall,anddispersedthemselvesinflightmore
desperatelythanbefore.
Whilsttheenemybutcheredthemlikesheep,theyincreasedtheirown
miseriesbydomesticfeuds
Theyturnedtheirarmsuponeachother,andforthesakeofalittle
sustenance,imbruedtheirhandsinthebloodoftheirfellow
countrymen.
Again,intheirdistress,theyappliedtotheRomans.Intheaddress,
entitledTheGroansoftheBritons,ourauthorrepresentsthemas
saying:
Thebarbariansdriveustothesea,theseathrowsusbackonthe
barbarians:thustwomodesofdeathawaitus,weareeitherslainor
drowned.
TheRomanscouldnotassistthem,and,unwillingtoassistthemselves,
theysoughtandobtainedthehelpofthosewolves,asGildascalls
them,thefierceandimpiousSaxons.TheresultisknowntoallCeltic
BritainbecameSaxonEnglandandEngland,withallitsfaults,hasit
notbeenablessingtotheworld?
ThepicturedrawnbyGildasofthemiseryofthesouthernBritons,and
oftheravagesofthenorthernbarbarians,isdoubtlesscorrect;but,in
ascribingtheerectionoftheearthenrampart,andthestonewallofthe
LOWERBARRIERtotheperiodofthedepartureoftheRomans,heprobably
leansupontheerringtraditionsofhisowntimes.Hisstatementis
devoidofprobability.Aworksoboldinitsdesign,soskilfully
planned,andinvolvingsomuchlabourinitsexecution,cannothavebeen
theresultoftheexpiringenergiesofRomeinBritain.Itsveryruins
bespeakthemasculinevigourofRomesmaturity.
Besides,ifwereceivethetestimonyofGildasuponthispoint,wemust
eithersupposethatseveralwallshavebeendrawnacrosstheisland,or
wemustrejecttheassertionsofthoseclassicalwriterswhoascribethe
workstoHadrianorSeverus.Theformersuppositioncannotbe
maintained,forwemeetwithnotracesofmorethanoneearthenvallum,
andonestonewall,intheregioninquestion;andwithreferencetothe
latteralternative,itismorelikelythatGildasshoulderrinhis
dates,thanthatDionCassius,andHerodian,andSpartian,should
describe,asexistingintheirday,thatwhichwasnottobefor
centuries.
[Sidenote:THEBRITONSSUPINEINYIELDINGTOTHEPICTS.]
Anotherquestionwillariseinthemindofthethoughtfulreader;how
wasitthattheBritonssufferedthemselvestobecomesoeasyapreyto
thePictsandScots?Romancivilizationcouldnot,greatlyatleast,
haveenervatedthem.Thecultivationoftheliberalartsremovesfrom
themindsandmannersofmentheirunsightlyasperities,butitbrings
outinbolderrelieftheirmorevaluablequalities.Thevicesofthe
Romans,whengrafteduponthepreviouslypollutedlifeoftheBritons,
wouldindeedhaveatendencytounmanthem,butwhyshouldithavesunk
thembeneaththeleveloftheRomansthemselves?Wedonotfind,
moreover,thattheBritonswhofoughtinforeignpartsweredeficientin

courage.
[Sidenote:THEBRITONSHADBREATHINGTIME.]
AnacquaintancewithRomandiscipline,aknowledgeoftheRomanartof
war,oughttohavegiventhemgreatadvantagesovertheirlesscivilized
neighboursonthenorthoftheWall,andenabledthemeasilytohave
retainedthatgreatstructureasaboundaryfence.[9]Itistruethat
greatnumbersoftheiryouthhadfromtimetotimebeendraftedoffby
successiveemperors,toengageinforeignquarrels,andthatthusthe
landwasdeprivedofitsnaturaldefenders.Thisaccountsforapartof
theirdistress,butnotall.Inarudestateofsociety,everymanisa
soldier,anditwasanessentialpartofthepolicyofRometoinure
everycitizentothepracticeofarms.Theresurelywouldbemenenough
lefttodefendtheirhomes,theirliberties,andlives!Besides,halfa
centuryelapsedbetweenthetimewhentheRomansbegantoleaveBritain
toitsownresources,andtheirfinalrefusalofallsuccour.Therewas
thustimeenoughtohavenurturedawholegenerationofveterans;and
therewastimeenoughiftheenergyhadbeeninthemtohaveshakenoff
thosefeelingsofdependenceuponRome,whichthepresenceoftheir
conquerorshadfostered.Theopportunity,however,waslost;they
entreated,andwept,andgroanedandpassedoffthestageofthis
worldshistory.Howareweadequatelytoaccountforthiscircumstance?
[Sidenote:THEGENEALOGYOFTHEPICTSANDSCOTS.]Thisisnottheplace
todiscussthegenealogyofthePicts,butifweadoptthetheoryof
theirGermanicorigin,[10]theenigma,ifnotmadequiteplain,will
appearlessdifficultthanbefore.Howevergreatthevalour,andhowever
estimabletheotherqualitiesoftheCelticrace,theydidnotpossess
thepatience,theperseverance,thecapacityforunitedaction,andthe
powerofcommand,whichcharacterizedtheTeutonictribes;hencethey
wouldfallbeforetheminanycontestwhichrequiredsustainedexertion.
[Sidenote:THETEUTONESSUPPLANTTHECELTS.]Gibbonsestimateofthe
characteroftheancientBritonsisprobablycorrectThevarioustribes
possessedvalourwithoutconduct,andtheloveoffreedomwithoutthe
spiritofunion.Theytookuparmswithsavagefierceness,theylaid
themdown,orturnedthemagainsteachotherwithwildinconstancy;and,
whiletheyfoughtsingly,theyweresuccessivelysubdued.
[Sidenote:ANTAGONISMOFTHERACES.]
ThePicts,withouttheartificialadvantageswhichtheRomanizedBritons
possessed,doubtlesshadtheusualcharacteristicsoftheGothictribes.
Bythesetheywereenabled,indefianceofthedesultoryattemptsofthe
previousoccupantsofthesoil,toravagetheland,until,throughthe
effortsofVortigern,theywereconfrontedwithfoesoftheirownkith
andkin.Inoursisterisland,weunhappilywitness,thoughinasubdued
form,muchofthatanimosityofracewhichledtothedevastationand
bloodshedthatGildasdeplores.WhenwillSaxonandCeltlayasidetheir
differences,anduniteforthecommonwealofBritain!Whyshouldthey
regardeachotherwithmutualsuspicion?Whyshouldtheonetriumph,and
theothersinkintohopeless,helplessdespair?Creationgroansa
prostrateworldlookstounitedBritainanditsoffshoots,forthatbalm
whichmayhealitswoesletit,strongintheconfidenceandloveofits
variousconstituentparts,faithfullyfulfilitsduty!
[Sidenote:THEROMANESTIMATIONOFBRITAIN.]
OnreviewingthissketchoftheproceedingsofRome,inrelationtothis
distantportionofhergreatempire,thereaderwillperhapsbestruck
withtheamountofattentionwhichtheImperialCitybestoweduponit.
Theclassicauthorsspeakmostdisparaginglyoftheland,andits
inhabitants

EtpenitustotodivisosorbeBritannos.
_Virg.Ec._I.
ServesiturumCsareminultimos
OrbisBritannos.
_Hor.Od._I.35.
VisamBritannos,hospitibusferos.
_Hor.Od._III.4.
Tebelluosusquiremotis
ObstrepitoceanusBritannis.
_Hor.Od._IV.14.
andyetBritain,which,accordingtotheseauthorities,scarcelyformed
aportionofthehabitableearth,whichwasperpetuallylashedbya
stormyocean,andwhoseinhabitants,unlikemanybarbarictribes,were
inhospitabletostrangers,wastheresort,notonlyofnumerous
legionaryandauxiliarytroops,butofverymanyoftheemperors
themselves.GreatJuliuscame.Claudiusfoughtuponoursoil.Vespasian
enteredintoconflictthirtytwotimeswiththesouthernBritons.Titus
sharedinhistoilsandtriumphs.Hadrianwashere,andlefttheimpress
ofhismightymindbehindhim.SeptimiusSeverusendedhisdaysin
Britain;hissonsGetaandCaracallafirstassumedthepurplein
Britain.TheemperorMaximinusbreathed,sixteencenturiesago,the
seabornegalesofTynemouth.Britain,withitsseas,wasthechief
sceneoftheexploitsoftheemperorCarausius.Allectusreignedthree
yearsoverit.Constantiuswaslongintheisland,andhisson,
ConstantinetheGreatissaidtohavefirstdrawnbreathuponoursoil.
BothConstansandMagnentiuswerehere.TheodosiustheEmperorfought
underhisfatherinBritain.Maximus,whohadpreviouslymarrieda
Britishlady,wasinvestedbyhissoldierswiththepurpleatYorkHow
comesitthatsomanyofthosewhoboastedofthemasteryofthiswide
world,wereinducedpersonallytovisitthislittleisle?howwasit,
butthat
Comingeventscasttheirshadowsbefore.
[Sidenote:ROMEFORESHADOWSBRITAINSDESTINY.]
ItseemsasthoughtherewasanaffinitybetweenEnglandandEarths
rulersandthatthusearlyitwaspointedoutasthespotinwhich,of
allothers,saveoneJerusalemmankindhadthegreatestinterest.
TheimportanceofBritain,intheestimationoftheRomans,isfurther
shewnbythefact,that,ofthedifferentcoinsstruckbytheimperial
governmentintheshortperiodextendingfromthereignofClaudiusto
thatofCaracalla,atleastfiftysixrelatetothiscountry.Ofthese,
twowerestruckinthereignofClaudius,fiveinthatofHadrian,
seventeenbeartheimpressofAntonine,tenofSeverus,twelveof
Caracalla,andtenofhisbrotherGeta.[11]
[Sidenote:CAUSEOFTHEROMANOCCUPATION.]
WhilsthoweverwemaintainthatRomewasledtoBritainbytheimpulse
ofapowerofwhichshewasnotconscious,andwhilstwewillingly
acknowledgethattheconquestofBritainbytheRomanswasthefirstof
thatseriesofsignalprovidentialarrangements,bywhich,fromthedawn
ofhistorytothepresenthour,theGovernoramongthenationshas
preparedthisislandforperformingthatimportantpartinthedramaof
history,whichshenowsustains,theenquiryyetremains,bywhatmotive
weretheconquerorsmoreimmediatelyimpelledtosettleinsoremotean
island?Suchtoilswouldnothavebeenendured,suchsacrificeswould
nothavebeenmade,victoriesovertribessosavagewouldnotthushave
beengloriedin,exceptthequestioncuibono?couldhavebeen
satisfactorilyanswered.Iconfess,saysHorsley,'thatwhenIview
somepartofthecountryinthenorthofEngland,wheretheRomanshad
theirmilitarywaysandstations,thatquestionnaturallyarises,which

hasbeenoftenproposed:Whatcouldmovethemtomarchsofartoconquer
suchacountry?Itappearswildanddesolateenoughatpresent,butmust
havebeenmoresoatthattime,fromtheaccountstheRomanhistorians
havegivenusofit.IshallleavetheCaledonianGalgacus,orTacitus
forhim,toreturntheanswerIftheenemywasrich,theircovetousness
movedthem;ifpoor,theirambition.Andwhentheyaddedfurther
desolationtoadesolatecountry,thiswastheirpeace.'Ambitionwas
doubtlesstheleadingmotive.FromtheearliestperiodsofRomanhistory
wefindherbentuponconquest.Incessantwarsengenderedathirstfor
victory,andmilitaryglorybecametherulingpassionofthepeople.The
widegraspoftheirambitiongavetothefeaturesofRomancharacter
harder,butgranderlineamentsthanthosewhichtheirmorepolished
neighboursofGreecepossessed.Flattered,asthelordsoftheworld,by
theirfavouritepoetsandhistorians,theygloriedintheirproud
preeminence,andthoughtthattheywerebutfulfillingtheirdestinyin
assertingaclaimtouniversaldominion.Candidatesforpublicfavour
knewwellthattofanthepopularpassionwasthereadiestwayto
succeedintheiraims.NoneunderstoodthisbetterthanJuliusCsar;
andthelateremperors,whopossessednotthepowertostrikean
energeticblow,founditnecessarytomaintaintheshowatleastof
conquestandoftriumph.
[Sidenote:WEALTHOFANCIENTBRITAIN.]
Lessworthyinducementswere,however,notwanting.Therearefewevils
inthefibresofwhoserootstheloveofmoneywillnotbefound.Gold
wasanothersecretbutpowerfulcauseofthehardshipswhichtheRomans
themselvesunderwent,andofthecountlessillswhichtheymercilessly
inflicteduponthemiserableislanders.TheBritishchiefsingeneral
appeartohavehadconsiderablerichesamongthem.Csar,accordingto
Strabo,acquiredalargebootyinhistwodescentsuponourshore.
Prasutagus,thekingoftheIceni,diedpossessedofverygreatwealth.
Toafewstatesinthesouth,andwithinafewyearsaftertheirfirst
subjection,thephilosophicalSenecalentmorethanfourhundredand
eightythousandpoundsofourmoneyupongoodsecurity,andat
exorbitantinterest.[12]Severusgotaprodigiousmassofrichesinthis
land.GoldisnotnowanarticleofmineralwealthinBritain.Weare
notfromthistoinferthatitwasnotsowhenitwasfirstinvaded.The
preciousmetalisnotmetwithinveinsorstrata,butisdiffusedover
thealluvialsoil,ormixedwiththesandofriversingrainsorlumps.
Whenthecommercialvalueoftheglitteringdustisdiscovered,itis
speedilypickedup,andacountry,oncerichinit,becomes,inthe
courseofages,impoverished.Thenumberofmassivegoldentorquesand
armilloftheancientBritons,whichevenyetarefromtimetotime
beingbroughttolight,favourstheideathatthemetalwas,inancient
days,tolerablyabundant.Whateverthesecretmotives,Csarcameand
conquered
TheRomantaughtthystubbornkneetobow,
ThoughtwiceaCsarcouldnotbenditnow.
[Sidenote:THEFATEOFROME.]
InpassingfromthecontemplationoftheRomanoccupationofBritainto
ourexaminationoftheremainsofthechiefmonumentofimperialpower
whichtimehasleftus,themindwillexperienceagreattransition.In
theWall,wehaveevidenttracesofthemightofRome,butitisthe
mightofagiantlaidprostrate
.....Herhaughtycarcassspread,
Stillawesinruins,andcommandswhendead.
Centurieshaveelapsedsincethevastfabricwasupreared,buttheyhave
beencenturiesrifewiththefateofempires.

Themostardentloveroftheoldentimecannotbutstartle,ashetreads
thedesertedstreets,orenterstheunbarredportalsofBORCOVICUS,and
othercitiesoftheWall,atthethoughtthattheMistressofNationsis
nownomore,[13]andthattheEternalCityisburiedinherowndebris.
Thebrokencolumn,theprostratealtar,everandanonobtrudethefact
uponhim.AnotherempirehassprungintobeingofwhichRomedreamtnot.
InasensedifferentfromthatwhichVirgilintended,thewordsinhis
thirdGeorgicarepeculiarlystriking
Velscenautversisdiscedatfrontibus,utque
PurpureaintextitollantaulaBritanni.
Orseehowonthestagetheshiftingscenes
Inorderpass,andpicturedBritonsrise
Outoftheearth,andraisethepurplecurtain.
[Sidenote:PROSPECTIVEFATEOFBRITAIN.]
Inthatisland,where,inRomandays,thepaintedsavagesharedthe
forestwiththebeastofpreyaladysitsuponherthroneofstate,
wieldingasceptremorepotentthanJuliusorHadrianevergrasped!Her
empireisthreefoldthatofRomeinthehourofitsprime.Butpoweris
notherbrightestdiadem.Theholinessofthedomesticcircleirradiates
her.Literature,andalltheartsofpeace,flourishunderhersway.Her
peopleblessher.
WillBritainalwaysthusoccupysoprominentapositioninthesceneof
thisworldshistory?
...Valetimasummis
Mutare,etinsignemattenuatDeus
Obscurapromens.
Thepowerthatdidcreate,canchangethescene
Ofthings;makemeanofgreat,andgreatofmean.
[Sidenote:LESSONINCULCATED.]
IsthefateofPersia,Macedon,andRome,nevertobehers?OThou,
thatdidstbuildupthisBritannicempiretoagloriousandenviable
height,withallherdaughterislandsabouther;stayusinthis
felicity!WhatwouldBritainatthismomentbewithouttheBible?Let
thesevenhilledcitysay!IfBritainherselfobeytheinspiredword,
andgiveittothenations,thensheneedsnotfeartheshockof
empires.Ifnot,atafuturedaythenativeofadistantisle,or
obscurenation,thennewlyrisenintogreatness,moralizingoverthe
reedydocksandgrassgrownstreetsofLondon,mayexclaimHowtruethe
wordsoftheirownMilton!'Butif...asyouhavebeenvaliantinwar,
youshouldgrowdebauchedinpeace,youthathavehadsuchvisible
demonstrationsofthegoodnessofGodtoyourselves,andhiswrath
againstyourenemies...youwillfindthatGodsdispleasureagainst
you,willbegreaterthanithasbeenagainstyouradversaries,greater
thanhisgraceandfavourhasbeentoyourselves,whichyouhavehad
largerexperienceofthananyothernationunderheaven.'
[Illustration:BaseofColumnatBORCOVICUS.]

Footnote2:
ThiscoinisinthepossessionofMr.Bell,oftheNook,Irthington,
towhosecabinetofcoins,chieflyprocuredfromthelineofthewall,
theauthorhaskindlybeenallowedfreeaccess.

Footnote3:
Thisinterestingcoinisthusdescribedby
Akerman:_OBVERSE_HADRIANUSAVG_ustus_,CO_nsul_III.[tertium]
P_ater_P_atri_.LaureatedbustofHadrian,withthechlamysbuckled
overhisrightshoulder._REVERSE_ADVENTVSAVG_usti_BRITANNIAE.In
theexergueS_enatus_C_onsulto_.Analtar,withthefirekindled,
placedbetweentheemperorinhistoga,whoholdsapatera,anda
femalefigure,avictimlyingatherfeet.
Footnote4:
Numismatistsdifferastotheappropriationofthefemale.Thesame
figureinothercoinsofthisreignbeingusedtopersonifyRome,it
probablydoessointhiscase;andrepresentsthesecurepossession
obtainedbytheEternalCity,ofAlbionsrockyshore.Howeverthis
maybe,thesamefigurehasbeenplacedbymanysuccessivegenerations
ofmintmastersonthereverseofthecoppercoinageofGreatBritain.
BritaininthisstillbowstoRome!
Footnote5:
TheRomanEagle.
Footnote6:
WalshonCoins.
Footnote7:
InthecollectionofGeo.Rippon,Esq.,NorthShields.
Footnote8:
Historiansdifferastothedegreeofcredibilityduetothisauthor.
Mr.Wright,inhisBiographiaBritannicaLiteraria,saysthathisis
anameofverydoubtfulauthority.SharonTurnerthinksthatasfar
ashecanbesupported,andmadeintelligible,byothers,heisan
acceptablecompanion,butthathecannotbetrustedalone;andMr.
Stevenson,intheprefacetohiseditionoftheoriginalLatinof
Gildas,writesWeareunabletospeakwithcertaintyastohis
parentage,hiscountry,orevenhisname,theperiodwhenhelived,or
theworksofwhichhewastheauthor.Thusmuch,however,iscertain,
thathelivedbeforethetimeofBede,andisquotedbyhim.
Footnote9:
ThispointiswellputbySirFrancisPalgrave,inhisHistoryofthe
AngloSaxons.ThewallsofthecitiesfortifiedbytheRomanswere
yetstrongandfirm.Thetacticsofthelegionswerenotforgotten.
Brightarmourwaspiledinthestorehouses,andtheserriedlineof
spearsmighthavebeenpresentedtothehalfnakedScotsandPicts,
whocouldneverhaveprevailedagainsttheiropponents.
Footnote10:
Thesuppositionisnotdestituteofsupport.Themigratorytendencies
oftheGothictribeshavealwaysbeenconspicuous.Fromtheearliest
periodsofourhistory,theinhabitantsofJutlandandits
neighbouringprovinceswereinthehabitofmakingdescentsuponthe
coastsofBritain.AfterthedepartureoftheRomans,theirattempts
wereprobablymoreboldandfrequent,buttheydidnotthen,forthe
firsttime,commence.TheNorfolkandSuffolkcoastwas,fromits
position,peculiarlyexposedtotheseincursions,andasearlyasthe
closeofthethirdcentury,wasplacedunderthecommandofamilitary

Countcalled_ComeslitorisSaxonici_.Thisdistrictwascalledthe
Saxonshore,asSirFrancisPalgraveobserves,notmerelybecauseit
wasopentotheincursionoftheSaxons,but,mostprobably,because
theyhadsucceededinfixingthemselvesinsomeportionofit.The
weakholdwhichtheRomans,atalltimes,hadofScotland,would
renderitaneasierpreythanEnglandtotheFranksandSaxons.
Tacitusinformsus,thattheruddyhairandlustylimbsofthe
CaledoniansindicateaGermanicextraction.RichardofCirencester
tellsus,thatalittlebeforethecomingofSeverus,thePictslanded
inScotland;fromwhichweareatleastentitledtoinfer,thatthe
PictswerenottheoriginalinhabitantsofNorthBritain;andprobably
thestatementissubstantiallycorrect,inasmuchaslarge
reinforcementslandedinScotlandatthisperiod,aspreviously
observed.TheScotstheotherbranchofthepeopleclassedunderthe
generaltermCaledoniansareconfessedlyofIrishorigin.WhenSt.
Columba,whosemothertonguewasIrishGaelic,preachedtothePicts,
heusedaninterpreter.Fordun,theFatherofScottishHistory,tells
us,ThemannersoftheScotsarevariousastotheirlanguages;for
theyusetwotongues,theScottishandtheTeutonic.Thelastis
spokenbythoseontheseacoastsandinthelowcountries,whilethe
Scottishisthespeechofthemountaineersandtheremoteislanders.
TheproperScots,Camdendescribesasthosecommonlycalled
Highlandmen;fortherest,headds,morecivilized,andinhabiting
theeasternpart,thoughcomprehendedunderthenameofScots,arethe
farthestintheworldfrombeingScots,butareofthesameGerman
originwithusEnglish.Dr.Jamieson,whoseresearchesinphilology
arewellknown,isdecidedlyofopinionthatthePictsandSaxonshad
acommonorigin.Uponwhatothertheory,heargues,cantheprevalence
oftheSaxontongueintheLowlandsofScotlandbeaccountedfor?
WilliamtheConquerorcouldnotchangethelanguageofSouth
BritainwasitlikelythatafewSaxonfugitivesattheScottishcourt
couldsupplantthatoftheirbenefactors?
ThetheoryoftheGermanicoriginofthePictsremovesanother
difficulty.HowisthedisappearanceoftheCeltictonguefromEngland
tobeaccountedfor?TheSaxons,onseizingthesoil,wouldnot
exterminatetheinhabitants,butretainthemasbondsmen.Hadthe
majorityoftheoccupantsofEnglandbeentheoriginalBritonsor
RomanizedCelts,weshouldhavefoundinourdailyspeech,andinthe
namesofourtownsandvillages,alargeintermixtureofGaelicand
Latin;butsuchisnotthecase.GrantthatthePictswereabranchof
thegreatGothicfamilyandthatsuccessivewavesofthemhad,long
beforethetimeofCerdic,pouredfromthelowlandsofScotlandover
theplainsofEngland,andthealmostentireexterminationofthe
ancientBritishiseasilyaccountedfor.
Ifthetheoryhereadvocated,cannotbesustained,itmustatleastbe
allowed,thatthepopulationofNorthBritainwaslargelyleavened
withindividualsoftheSaxonrace.Thesestrangerswoulddoubtless
obtainthatsupremacyoverthenativeswhichtheFranksdidinGaul;
sothat,evenuponthislimitedviewofthequestion,theinfluenceof
theGermanicraceinfixingthedestiniesofBritain,atthiscritical
period,isapparent.
Footnote11:
Thewholeoftheseareaccuratelyfiguredanddescribedinthe
"MaterialsfortheHistoryofBritain,"publishedbythegovernment.
Itistobehopedthataworksoauspiciouslybegunwillnotbe
strangledinitsbirth,byafalseapplicationoftheprinciplesof
nationaleconomy.
Footnote12:
WhitakersHistoryofManchester,i.228.

Footnote13:
"Politicallyspeaking,Romeisnowthecityofthedead."
_Times_,March18th,1850.

[Illustration]
~TheRomanBarrierofthe
LowerIsthmus.~
PARTII.
AGENERALDESCRIPTIONOFTHELINEOFTHEWALL.
NumerousaretheappellationswhichtheGreatBarrieroftheLower
Isthmushasobtained.'Itwascalledbyancientwriters_vallum
barbaricum_,_prtentura_and_clusura_;byDion;by
Herodian;byAntoninusandothers_vallum_;bysomeoftheLatin
historians_murus_;bytheEnglishthePictswall,orTHEWALL;andby
theBritons_gualSever_,_galSever_,and_murSever_.Thenames
_prtentura_and_clusura_aregiventoituponaccountofitsbeing
stretchedoutagainst,andexcludingtheenemy.'Tothenamesthus
enumeratedbyCamden,mustbeadded,theThirlWall,theKepeWall,and
thatbywhichitisbestknownatpresent,theROMANWALL.
[Sidenote:GENERALVIEWOFTHEWORKS.]
Thisgreatfortificationconsistsofthreeparts.
I.AStoneWall,strengthenedbyaditchonitsnorthernside.
II.ATurfWallorVallum,tothesouthofthestonewall.
III.Stations,Castles,Watchtowers,andRoads,fortheaccommodation
ofthesoldierywhomannedtheBarrier,andforthetransmissionof
militarystores.Theselie,forthemostpart,betweenthestonewall
andtheearthenrampart.
Thewholeoftheworksproceedfromonesideoftheislandtotheother
inanearlydirectline,andincomparativelyclosecompanionship.The
stonewallandearthenrampartaregenerallywithinsixtyorseventy
yardsofeachother.[14]Thedistancebetweenthem,however,varies
accordingtothenatureofthecountry.Sometimestheyaresocloseas
barelytoadmitofthepassageofthemilitarywaybetweenthem,whilst,
inoneortwoinstances,theyareupwardsofhalfamileapart.Itisin
thehighgroundsofthecentralregionthattheyaremostwidely
separated.Midwaybetweentheseas,thecountryattainsaconsiderable
elevation;herethestonewallseeksthehighestridges,butthevallum,
forsakingforawhileitsusualcompanion,runsalongtheadjacent
valley.Bothworksare,however,soarrangedastoaffordeachotherthe
greatestamountofsupportwhichthenatureofthecountryallows.
_PLATEII._
[Illustration:PLANOFTHEBARRIERBETWEENCILURNUMANDMAGNAAFTER
HORSLEY.]
[Illustration:
_APLANOFCILURNUMAFTERWARBURTONWITHPARTOFTHEPLANOFTHESTONE

WALLANDVALLUM._
_ShewinghowtheyareconnectedattheStations,andbytheirmutual
relationtooneanothermusthavebeenoneentireunitedDefenceor
Fortification._
]
_ReidLitho.117PilgrimStreetNewcastle_
ThestonewallextendsfromWallsendontheTyne,toBownessonthe
Solway,aspacewhichHorsleyestimatesatsixtyeightmilesandthree
furlongstheturfwallfallsshortofthisdistancebyaboutthreemiles
ateachend,terminatingatNewcastleontheeastside,andatDrumburgh
onthewest.
[Sidenote:GENERALVIEWOFTHEWORKS.]
TheMapoftheWall,themoredetailedPlansofseveralpartsofitin
PlateII,andtheSectionsgiveninasubsequentpage,willafforda
prettycorrectideaofthegeneralarrangementoftheworks.
MostwriterswhohavetreatedoftheRomanremainsinBritain,have
consideredthatthetwolinesoffortificationaretheworksof
differentperiods.Theearthwall,orVallum,hasgenerallybeen
ascribedtoHadrian,butthestonewall,orMurus,toSeptimiusSeverus.
ThisistheopinionofHorsley,whosejudgmentisalwaysdeservingof
thehighestconsideration.Deferringtoasubsequentperiodthe
discussionofthisquestion,itwillbeconvenient,meanwhile,tospeak
oftheworksasbeingbutdifferentpartsofonegreatengineering
scheme.
[Sidenote:THECOURSEOFTHEWALL.]
Themoststrikingfeatureintheplan,bothoftheMurusandtheVallum,
isthedeterminatemannerinwhichtheypursuetheirstraightforward
course.TheVallummakesfewerdeviationsfromarightlinethanthe
stoneWall;butastheWalltraverseshigherground,thisremarkable
tendencyismoreeasilydetectedinitthanintheother.Shootingover
thecountry,initsonwardcourse,itonlyswervesfromastraightline
totakeinitsroutetheboldestelevations.Sofarfromdeclininga
hill,ituniformlyselectsit.FornineteenmilesoutofNewcastle,the
roadtoCarlislerunsuponthefoundationoftheWall,andduringthe
summermonthsitsdustysurfacecontrastswellwiththesurrounding
verdure.Oftenwillthetraveller,afterattainingsomeofthesteep
acclivitiesofhispath,observetheroadstretchingformilesinan
undeviatingcoursetotheeastandthewestofhim,resembling,as
Huttonexpressesit,awhiteribbononagreenground.Butifitnever
movesfromarightline,excepttooccupythehighestpoints,itnever
failstoseizethem,astheyoccur,nomatterhowoftenitiscompelled,
withthisview,tochangeitsdirection.Itneverbendsinacurve,but
alwaysatanangle.Hence,alongthecraggyprecipicesbetween
SewingshieldsandThirlwall,itisobligedtopursuearemarkably
zigzagcourse;forittakesinitsrange,withtheutmostpertinacity,
everyprojectingrock.
Thismodeofproceedinginvolvesanotherpeculiarity.Itiscompelledto
accommodateitselftothedepressionsofthemountainousregionover
whichitpasses.Withoutflinching,itsinksintothegap,orpass,
whicheverandanonoccurs,and,havingcrossedthenarrowvalley,
ascendsunfalteringlythesteepacclivityontheotherside.The
antiquary,infollowingitintotheseravines,isoftencompelledto
stepwiththeutmostcaution,andinclamberinguptheoppositeascent,
heisasfrequentlyconstrainedtopauseforbreath.Aftercrossingthe
riverIrthing,inCumberland,theWallisopposedinitscoursewestward
byaprecipiceofupwardsofonehundredfeetinheight.Itcannotnow
beascertained,whetherornottheWallwastakenuptheedgeofthis

cliff,forthestratumisofasoftandyieldingnature,andis
continuallybeingremovedbytheriverbelow.Certain,however,itis,
thattheWall,accompaniedbyitsditch,isstilltobeseenonthevery
brinkofitssummit.Ifitdidnotclimbthissteep,itistheonlyone
which,inthecourseofthelinefromseatosea,itrefusedandifit
didascendit,itwouldmorenearlyresemblealeaningtowerthana
barrierwall.
[Sidenote:THEHEIGHTOFTHEWALL.]
InnopartofitscourseistheWallentirelyperfect,andthereforeit
isdifficulttoascertainwhatitsoriginalheighthasbeen.Bede,whose
cherishedhomewasthemonasteryofJarrow,ancientlypartoftheparish
ofWallsend,istheearliestauthorwhogivesitsdimensions.He
saysItiseightfeetinbreadth,andtwelveinheight,inastraight
linefromeasttowest,asisstillvisibletobeholders.Subsequent
writersassigntoitagreaterelevation.Itisnotunlikelythatthe
venerablemonk,whowasnotraveller,describesitasitexistedinhis
ownneighbourhood;andwecanreadilyconceivethatinaflatcountry,
andupontheborderofanavigableriver,itwould,eventhen,have
sufferedmorefromthehandofthespoilerthaninthewilderregionsof
theWest.
InaletterwrittenbySirChristopherRidley,isanaccountoftheWall
asitstoodabouttheyear1572.Thewritersays
Rychtworschipfull,whereasyouspakeuntomeforacertaynknowledge
ofonewallbuildedbetwyxttheBrittonsandPightes(whichwecall
theKEPEWALL)buildedbythePightes,suretheyrisone.Thelength
whereofisabout,Ithink,almostaCmyles,bildedalwayiswharthey
colduponthehyghtes,whereonaboutthegreatestcragiswas,and
wharetheyrwasnocragisorhyplacistheyrwasagreatstankcastof
othersyd,thebredthiijyardis,thehyghtremanithinsumplacisyet
vijyardis,itgoithfromBowlnessinCu'berlandviijmylesbeyond
Carlelluponthewestseacosttillitcomestoatowncalledthe
WallisendbesydTynemouthontheestsea.[15]
SamsonErdeswick,anEnglishantiquaryofsomecelebrity,visitedthe
Wall,intheyear1574.[16]Hisaccountisheregiven
AstowchingHadrians[17]Wall,begyningabowtatowncalledBonus
standingvppontheriverSulwaynowcalledEden.Theseaebbethand
floweththere.TheforsaidWallbegynningthere,andthereyet
standingoftheheythof16fote,foralmostaquarterofamyle
together,andsoalongtheriversydeestwards,theyspaceofaneight
mylebytheshewofthetrench,ascertayneruynesofcastillsinthat
wall,tyllaqwarterofamyleofCarlyole,andtherepassethowerthe
riverofEden;andthengoethstraightestwardshardbyalateabbey
calledLanvercost,andsocrossingowerthemowntaynestoward
Newcastell.
[Sidenote:THEWIDTHOFTHEWALL.]
Camden,whovisitedtheWallin1599,says
WithintwofurlongsofCarvoran,onaprettyhighhilltheWallis
stillstandingfifteenfeetinheight,andnineinbreadth.
Thesestatementsleaveuponthemindanimpressionthattheestimateof
Bedeistoolow.
Inallprobability,theWallwouldbesurmountedbyabattlementofnot
lessthanfourfeetinheight,andasthispartofthestructurewould
bethefirsttofallintodecay,Bedescalculationwasprobably
irrespectiveofit.This,however,onlygivesusatotalelevationof

sixteenfeet.UnlesswerejecttheevidenceofRidleyandErdeswick,we
mustadmit,evenaftermakingdueallowanceforerrorandexaggeration,
thattheWall,wheninitsintegrity,waseighteenornineteenfeet
high.Thiselevationwouldbeinkeepingwithitsbreadth.
ThethicknessoftheWallvariesconsiderably;insomeplacesitissix
feet,inothersninefeetandahalf.[18]Probablytheprevailingwidth
iseightfeet,themeasurementgivenbyBede.
ThefrequencywithwhichthethicknessoftheWallvaries,favoursthe
ideathatnumerousgangsoflabourersweresimultaneouslyemployedupon
thework,andthateachsuperintendingcenturionwasallowedtousehis
discretionastoitswidth.ThenorthernfaceoftheWalliscontinuous,
butthesouthernhasnumerousoutsetsandinsetsmeasuringfromfourto
twelveinches,atthepoints,doubtless,wherethesectionsofthe
differentcompaniesjoined.
[Sidenote:THENORTHFOSSE.]
Throughoutthewholeofitslength,theWallisaccompaniedonits
northernmarginbyabroadanddeepFOSSE,which,byincreasingthe
comparativeheightoftheWall,wouldaddgreatlytoitsstrength.This
portionoftheBarriermayyetbetraced,withtriflinginterruptions,
fromseatosea.EveninplaceswheretheWallhasquitedisappeared,
itsmorelowlycompanion,thefosse,remains.Insomefertiledistricts
theploughhasbeencarriedoveritinvain;owingtothemoistureof
thesite,thecornsownuponitspringsupwithundueluxuriance,andis
almostuniformlylaidprostratebeforeitcanripen.Fromthis
circumstancethegroundisfrequentlyretainedingrass,whilethe
neighbouringpartsareundertillage.[19]Thefossethusmorereadily
catchestheeye,andislikelylongertoretainitsgroovelikeform
thanifsubjectedtotheordinaryprocessofcultivation.
Whentheditchtraversesaflatorexposedcountry,aportionofthe
materialstakenoutofithasfrequentlybeenthrownuponitsnorthern
margin,soastopresenttotheenemyanadditionalrampart.Inthose
positions,ontheotherhand,whereitsassistancecouldbeofnoavail,
asalongtheedgeofacliff,thefossedoesnotappear.
Nosmallamountoflabourhasbeenexpendedintheexcavationofthe
ditch;ithasbeendrawnindifferentlythroughalluvialsoil,androcks
ofsandstone,limestone,andbasalt.Thepatientexertionwhichthis
involvediswellseenonTepperMoor,whereenormousblocksofwhinlie
justastheyhavebeenliftedoutofthefosse.Thefosseneverleaves
theWalltoavoidamechanicaldifficulty.
Thesizeoftheditchinseveralplacesisstillconsiderable.Tothe
eastofHeddonontheWall,itmeasuresthirtyfourfeetacrossthetop,
andisnearlyninefeetdeep;asitdescendsthehillfromCarvoranto
Thirlwall,itmeasuresfortyfeetacrossthetop,fourteenacrossthe
bottom,andistenfeetdeep.WestwardofTepperMoorisaportion
which,reckoningfromthetopofthemoundonitsnorthernmargin,hasa
depthoftwentyfeet.
Thedimensionsofthefossewereprobablynotuniformthroughoutthe
line;buttheseexamplesprepareustoreceive,astolerablycorrect,
Huttonsestimateofitsaveragesize.Theditchtothenorth,hesays
'wasasnearasconvenient,thirtysixfeetwideandfifteenfeet
deep.'[20]
Thecarewithwhichthefossewasdressed,hasvariedwiththetasteof
theoverseerandtheforbearanceoftheenemy.Insometracts,thework
presentsassmoothandtrimanaspectasamodernrailwaycutting;in
others,marksofhaste,carelessness,orsuddensurprise,appear.The
curiouscircumstancewhichHodgsondescribesinthefollowingparagraph

maybeseeninmorethanonelocality:
'AlittlewestofPortgate,theappearanceofthefosseisstill,to
theeyethatlovesandunderstandsantiquity,veryimposingandgrand.
Theearthtakenoutofitliesspreadabroadtothenorth,inlines
justastheworkmenwheeleditoutandleftit.Thetracksoftheir
barrows,withaslightmoundoneachsideremainunalteredin
form.'[21]
[Illustration:Theworksnearthe18thmilestoneWestofNewcastle.]
[Illustration:TheworkshalfamilewestofCarraw.]
[Sidenote:THEVALLUM.]
TheVALLUMorTURFWALL,isuniformlytothesouthofthestoneWall.It
consistsofthreerampartsandafosse.Oneoftheserampartsisplaced
closeuponthesouthernedgeoftheditch,thetwoothersoflarger
dimensions[22]stand,onetothenorth,andtheothertothesouthof
it,atthedistanceofabouttwentyfourfeet.Theannexedsectionsof
theworksexhibittheirpresentcondition.Theyaredrawntothescale
ofseventyfivefeettotheinch.TheWallisintheseparts,unhappily,
entirelyremoved.
Theramparts,insomepartsoftheline,stand,evenatpresent,sixor
sevenfeetabovetheleveloftheneighbouringground.[23]Theyare
composedofearth,mingled,notunfrequently,withmassesofstone.
Occasionally,thestonepreponderatestosuchanextentastoyieldto
thehandofthemodernspoiler,readymaterialsfortheformationof
stonedikes.Inseveralplacestheyarebeingquarriedwiththisview.
ThefosseoftheVallumisofacharactersimilartothefosseofthe
stoneWall;but,judgingfrompresentappearances,itsdimensionshave
beenratherless.It,too,hasbeenfrequentlycutthroughbedsof
stone.
ThequestionwilloccasionallyoccurtothewandererbytheWall,whence
werethematerialsobtainedforconstructingthemoundsoftheVallum?
Withtheexceptionofthefosse,therearenomarksofexcavationinthe
neighbourhood,andthatthefosseoftheVallumwouldnotyield
materialssufficientforthepurpose,isabundantlyevident.[24]
[Sidenote:USEOFTHEVALLUM.]
ThecontentsoftheditchonthenorthoftheWallhaveprobablygoneto
assistintheformationoftheselines.Thisstatementofcourse
proceedsuponthesuppositionthattheWallandtheVallumwere
contemporaneousworks.Uponthesameassumption,itmaybeaddedthat
therampartsoftheVallumareprobablyindebtedforsomeportionofthe
stonewhichtheycontain,tothechippingsoftheWall.
AlthoughthedistancebetweenthestoneWallandtheVallumis,as
alreadyobserved,perpetuallyvarying,thelinesoftheVallummaintain
amongstthemselvesnearlythesamerelativepositionthroughouttheir
entirecourse.
Noapparentpathsofegresshavebeenmadethroughthesesouthernlines
offortification.Theonlymodeofcommunicationwiththecountrytothe
south,originallycontemplated,seemstohavebeenbythegatewaysof
thestations.
IfweadoptthetheorythattheWallandtheVallumexhibitunityof
design,aquestionofsomeimportancearisesWithwhatviewwasthe
Vallumconstructed?Hodgson,withmuchprobability,conceivesthat,
whilsttheWallundertooktheharderdutyofwardingofftheprofessedly

hostiletribesofCaledonia,theVallumwasintendedasaprotection
againstsuddensurprisefromthesouth.Thenativesofthecountryon
thesouthsideoftheWall,thoughconquered,werenottobedepended
upon;intheeventoftheirkinsmeninthenorthgaininganadvantage,
theywouldbereadytoavailthemselvesofit.TheRomansknewthis,and
withcharacteristicprudencemadethemselvessecureonbothsides.
[Sidenote:PECULIARCONSTRUCTIONOFTHEVALLUM.]
But,whateverwemayconceivetohavebeenthedesignoftheVallum,the
peculiarityofitsformwillexcitetheattentionoftheenquirer,
thoughprobablywithouthisarrivingatanysatisfactoryexplanation.
Supposing,accordingtothecommontheory,thattheVallumwasan
independentfortification,erectedlongbeforetheWall,toresista
northernfoe,whywasnottheditch,asinthecaseofthestoneWall,
drawnalongthenorthernedgeofthenorthernagger?Icannotsupplyan
answer.Asimilardifficultymeetsusonthesuppositionthatitwas
meanttoguardagainstattackfromtheotherside.Again,whatpartdid
thesmallerrampartonthesouthedgeofthefosseperform?Possiblyit
mayhavebeenintendedasafootholdforthesoldierswhenfightingon
thisplatformagainsttherevoltedBritonssouthofthebarrier.
Thethird,andperhapsthemostimportant,partofthebarrierline
consistedofthestructuresthatwereformedfortheaccommodationof
thesoldiery,andforthereadytransmissionoftroopsandstores.
Neitherstonewalls,norditches,norearthenramparts,wouldalonehave
provedmaterialimpedimentstotheincursionsoftheCaledonians
Anironrace,...
Foestothegentlergeniusoftheplain.
ItisreportedthatAgesilaus,whenaskedwherewerethewallsof
Sparta,pointedtohissoldiersandsaid,There.TheRomansplaced
theirchiefrelianceonthevalouranddisciplineoftheirarmies,
thoughtheydidnotdespisetheassistanceofmurallines.Inaforeign
country,towhichitwasdifficulttotransmitrelaysoftroops,it
becameamatterofgreatimportancetoeconomizethelivesofthe
soldiery.HencearosetheWall.
Thoseportionsofthegreatbarrierwhichyetawaitourconsideration,
aretheSTATIONS,theMILECASTLES,theTURRETS,andtheROADS.
[Sidenote:THESTATIONS.]
Atdistancesalongthelinewhichaveragenearlyfourmiles,STATIONARY
CAMPS(_stationes_or_castrastativa_)wereerected.Thesereceived
theirdistinctiveappellation,incontradistinctionfromthosetemporary
ramparts,whichwerethrownupwhenanarmyhaltedforanightorfor
somebriefperiod.
ThestationsonthelineoftheWallweremilitarycities,adaptedfor
theresidenceofthechiefwhocommandedthedistrict,andproviding
securelodgmentforthepowerfulbodyofsoldieryhehadunderhim.Here
thecommandantheldhiscourt;henceissueddecreeswhichnonemight
gainsay;hereRomanarts,andliterature,andluxury,struggledfor
existence,whenallaroundwasignoranceandbarbarity.
Someofthestations,thoughconnectedwiththeWall,haveevidently,as
willafterwardsbeshewn,beenbuiltbeforeit:thisdoesnotprovethat
theydidnotformpartofthegreatdesign.Tosecureasaferetreatfor
thesoldiersemployedupontheworkwouldnecessarilybethefirstcare
ofthebuilder.
Thestationsareuniformlyquadrangularintheirshape,thoughsomewhat
roundedatthecorners,andcontainanareaoffromthreetofiveacres.

Astonewall,fivefeetthick,enclosesthem,andhasprobablyinevery
instancebeenstrengthenedbyafosse,andoneormoreearthenramparts.
Theyusuallystandupongroundwhichslopestothesouth,andare
naturallydefendedupononesideatleast.
[Sidenote:THEPLACEOFTHESTATIONS.]
TheWall,whenitdoesnotfallinwiththenorthernwallofastation,
usuallycomesuptothenortherncheekofitseasternandwestern
gateways.TheVallum,inlikemanner,usuallyapproachesclosetothe
southernwallofthestation,orcomesuptothedefenceofthesouthern
sideoftheeasternandwesternportals.Examplesofthesearrangements
aregiveninPlateII.Atleastthreeofthestations,itmust,however,
beobserved,arequitedetachedfrombothlinesoffortification,being
situatedtothesouthofthem.TheymayhavebeenmembersofAgricolas
chainofforts.
Probablyallthestationshave,ontheirerection,beenprovided,after
theusualmethodofRomancastrametation,withfourgateways;inseveral
instancesoneormoreoftheseportalshavebeenwalledupatanearly
period,inconsequence,probably,ofsomenaturalweaknessinthe
situation.
Narrowstreets,intersectingeachotheratrightangles,occupythe
interiorofthestations,andabundantruins,outsidethewalls,
indicatethefactthatextensivesuburbshave,ineveryinstance,been
requiredfortheaccommodationofthecampfollowers.
[Sidenote:THEFERTILITYOFTHESTATIONS.]
Inselectingaspotforastation,carehasbeentakenthatanabundant
supplyofwatershouldbeathand.Thesprings,rivulets,wells,and
aqueducts,whencetheyprocuredtheneedfulfluid,arestill,inmany
places,tobetraced;andneverdidwatermorelimpid,moresparkling,
moreinvigorating,lavethelipsofman,thanthatwhichflowsfrom
thesesources.
Forthemostpart,thestationscitieswhichforcenturieswerethe
abodesofbusymen,andwhichresoundedwiththehumofmultitudes,and
theclashofarms,nowpresentasceneofutterdesolation.Thewayfarer
maypassthroughthemwithoutknowingit;thestreetsarelevelled,the
templesareoverthrown,andthesonsanddaughtersofItaly,Mauritania,
andSpain,whoseadoptedhomestheywere,nolongerencounterhim.The
sheep,depasturingthegrassgrownruins,looklistlesslyuponthe
passerby,andthecurlew,wheelingabovehishead,screamsasatthe
presenceofanintruder.Whether,ornot,sitesnaturallyfertilewere
chosenforthestationsdoesnotappear;butcertainitis,thatthey
arenowforthemostpartcoatedwithaswardmoregreenandmore
luxuriantthanthatwhichcoversthecontiguousgrounds.Centuriesof
occupationhavegiventhemadegreeoffertilitywhich,probably,they
willneverlose.[25]Onecanscarcelyturnupthesoilwithoutmeeting,
notonlywithfragmentsofRomanpotteryandotherimperishable
articles,butwiththebonesofoxen,thetusksofboars,thehornsof
deer,andotheranimalremains.Thedebrisofsomeofthesecitiesis
consideredtobemorevaluableforfarmpurposes,thantherecent
produceofthefoldyard,andisusedassuch.
[Sidenote:THENAMESOFTHESTATIONS.]
Itisnotalittleremarkablethatthenamesofthestations,whichmust
havebeenhouseholdwordsinthedaysofRomanoccupation,haveforthe
mostpartbeenobliteratedfromthelocalvocabulary;theyarenowonly
toberecalled,andthatwithdifficulty,byexhumingthestonyrecords
ofthepast,andcomparingthemwiththenoticesofcontemporaneous
geographers.Thetruthis,thatmilitaryreasonsdictatedthechoiceof

thestations,commercialfacilitiesgaverisetomoderncities.Longmay
themeremilitaryoutpostbeconsignedtotheshepherdsuse,whilstthe
wharfandthewarehousearebesetbythebusycrowd!
AccordingtoHorsley,thestationsonthelineoftheWall,were
eighteeninnumber,besidessomethatwereplacedinitsimmediate
vicinity,andlenttoitimportantaid.Hodgson,conceivingthatHorsley
hasinoneinstancemistakenameresummerfortificationfora
stationarycamp,reducesthenumberofstationsonthelineitselfto
seventeen.
[Sidenote:THESTATIONSACCORDINGTOTHENOTITIA.]
Inascertainingthenumberandthenamesofthestations,amost
valuabledocumenthascomedowntoourtimesfromtheperiodofRoman
occupation.TheNotitiaImperiiwasprobablywrittenabouttheendof
thereignofTheodosiustheyounger,andwascertainlycomposedbefore
theRomansabandonedthisisland.Itisasortoflistoftheseveral
militaryandcivilofficersandmagistratesbothintheeasternand
westernempires,withtheplacesatwhichtheywerestationed.Itmay,
infact,beregardedastherollcalloftheRomanarmy.Thesixtyninth
sectionoftheworkcontainsalistoftheprefectsandtribunesunder
thecommandoftheHonourabletheDukeofBritain.Theportionofthe
sectioninwhichweareatpresentinterestedisheaded,_Itemper
lineamvalli_AlsoalongthelineoftheWallandcontainsthefollowing
list:
TheTribuneofthefourthcohortoftheLingones[26]atSegedunum.
TheTribuneofthecohortoftheCornoviiatPonslii.
ThePrefectofthefirstala,orwing,oftheAstures[27]at
Condercum.
TheTribuneofthefirstcohortoftheFrixagiatVindobala.
ThePrefectoftheSavinianalaatHunnum.
ThePrefectofthesecondalaofAsturesatCilurnum.
TheTribuneofthefirstcohortoftheBataviansatProcolitia.
TheTribuneofthefirstcohortoftheTungriatBorcovicus.
TheTribuneofthefourthcohortoftheGaulsatVindolana.
TheTribuneofthefirstcohortoftheAsturesatsica.
TheTribuneofthesecondcohortoftheDalmatiansatMagna.
TheTribuneofthefirstcohortofDacians,styledlia,at
Amboglanna.
ThePrefectoftheala,calledPetriana,atPetriana.
ThePrefectofadetachmentofMoors,styledAureliani,at
Aballaba.
TheTribuneofthesecondcohortoftheLergiatCongavata.
TheTribuneofthefirstcohortoftheSpaniardsatAxelodunum.
TheTribuneofthesecondcohortoftheThraciansatGabrosentis.
TheTribuneofthefirstmarinecohort,styledlia,at
Tunnocelum.
TheTribuneofthefirstcohortoftheMoriniatGlannibanta.
TheTribuneofthethirdcohortoftheNerviiatAlionis.
TheCuneusofmeninarmouratBremetenracum.
ThePrefectofthefirstala,styledHerculean,atOlenacum.
TheTribuneofthesixthcohortoftheNerviiatVirosidum.
[Sidenote:THECORROBORATIONOFLETTEREDSTONES.]
Itisnotsaid,nordoesitappear,thatallthesetwentythreestations
wereexactlyuponthelineoftheWallitself.Itisveryplainindeed,
saysHorsley,thataccordingtotheNotitia,SEGEDUNUMwasthefirst,
forthatimmediatelyfollowsthetitle_perlineamvalli_;buthehas
nottoldusexpresslyatwhatplaceorstationtheyend.[28]Those
stationswhichwerenotontheWallwereprobablyinitsvicinity,and
wereconnectedwithitbymilitaryways.Thestationsinthislistare
manifestly,asthiswriteralsoobserves,setdowninsomeorder,and

thosethatwereneartoeachotherareplacedtogether;[29]sothatif
weascertaintheidentityofsomeofthem,wemayformaprettycorrect
estimateofthepositionoftheintermediateorneighbouringstations.
[Illustration]
When,intheruinsofastation,inscribedstonesarefoundbearingthe
nameofacohortmentionedintheNotitia,theinferenceisnatural,
that,inmostcasesatleast,theimperialNotitiawillfurnishuswith
akeytotheancientdesignationofthestation.Theargumentbecomes
irresistible,when,inseveralsuccessiveinstancesthedesignations
thusobtainedcorrespondexactlywiththeorderoftheplacesasgiven
intheNotitia.Letustakeanexample.AtthestationofChesters,on
theNorthTyne,severalslabshavebeenfound,bearingthenameofthe
secondala,orwing,oftheAstures.Oneoftheseishere
represented.[30]Itisasepulchralstone,andbearsattheendofthe
thirdandthebeginningofthefourthlinesthewords
ALAE
IIASTVR[UM]
[Sidenote:CILURNUMAPPROPRIATED.]
[Illustration]
Now,astheNotitiarepresentsthisala,ortroopofcavalry,tohave
beenstationedatCilurnum,theprobabilityis,thatthecamponthe
westbankoftheNorthTyneistheCILURNUMofRomanBritain.
ImmediatelyfollowingThesecondwingoftheAsturesatCILURNUM,on
theNotitialist,is,ThefirstcohortoftheBataviansatPROCOLITIA.
NowthestationimmediatelywestofChestersisCarrawburgh,andherea
slabandanaltarhavebeenfound,inscribedwiththenameofthisvery
cohort.Thewoodcutrepresentsoneofthem,[31]analtartoFortune,
whichisthusinscribed
FORTVNAE
COHIBATAVOR[UM]
CVIPREST
MELACCINIVS
MARCELLUSPR[FECTUS]
ToFortune
ThefirstcohortoftheBatavians
Commandedby
Melaccinius
Marcellus,Prefect.
[Illustration]
Theconclusionisnatural,CarrawburghisthePROCOLITIAoftheNotitia.
[Sidenote:BORCOVICUSASCERTAINED.]
Movingwestward,thenextstationwecometoisHousesteads;here
numerousinscribedstoneshavebeendiscovered,whichmentionthefirst
cohortoftheTungri.Oneofthese,analtartoJupiter,whichisnowin
thepossessionoftheSocietyofAntiquariesofNewcastleuponTyne,and
ispreservedintheirmuseum,isaccuratelygivenintheaccompanying
engraving.
I[OVI]O[PTIMO]M[AXIMO]
ETNVMINIBUS
AVG[USTI]COH[ORS]ITV
NGRORVM

MIL[LIARIA]CVIPRE
STQ[UINTUS]VERIVS
SVPERSTIS
PREFECTVS
ToJupiter,thegreatestandbest,
AndtheDeities
OfAugustus;thefirstcohortofthe
Tungri,
Amilliaryone,[32]commandedby
QuintusVerius
Superstis,
Prefect.
ThecorrespondencebetweentheNotitiaandthesculpturesderivedfrom
thisstation,isagaintoostrikingtoadmitadoubt,thatthe
HousesteadsofthemodernshepherdistheBORCOVICUSoftheRomanhosts.
[Sidenote:THEFATEOFLETTEREDSTONES.]
Inthisway,theancientdesignationsofthestationsfromSEGEDUNUM,
Wallsend,toAMBOGLANNA,Birdoswald,havebeenaccuratelyascertained;
butnostonymemorialofthepasthasarisentoconfirmtheNotitia
accountofthestationswestwardofthispoint.Thepeculiarlyfertile
natureofthesoilbetweentheriverIrthingandtheSolwayhasbeen
inimicaltothepreservationoftheWallanditsantiquities.Thewants
ofanumerouspopulationrenderedstonesofeverykindvaluable;andin
anignorantage,whenanythingintheshapeofaletterwasregardedas
athingofevilomen,thosemostprecioustothehistorianwerethe
firsttobesacrificed.[33][Sidenote:THESTATIONSWESTOF
AMBOGLANNA.]SincetheaccuracyoftheNotitiahasbeenconfirmedinso
manyinstances,itisbutfairtoconclude,thatitmaybesafelytaken
asaguideinfixingtheRomandesignationsoftheremainingstations
alongtheline.CambeckFortisthestationnexttoBirdoswald;the
NotitiaplacesPETRIANAnextinordertoAMBOGLANNA,whichhasbeen
ascertainedtobeBirdoswalddoubtless,accordingtothisreasoning,
CambeckFortistheancientPETRIANA.Inthisway,coulditbecertainly
ascertainedwhichwerethestations_perlineamvalli_,eachstation
mighthaveitsRomannamerestored,thoughnotasyllableoftheancient
designationberetainedinthemoderncognomen.Weshouldhavebutto
readovertherollcall,andleteachcampinsuccessionanswertoits
name.Unhappily,thereissomedoubtastowhicharethestationsalong
thelineoftheWall.HorsleyconceivesthatWatchCrossisthestation
nextinordertoCambeckFort,and,accordingly,callsitABALLABA;
Stanwix,Burgh,Drumburgh,andBowness,hesuccessivelydenominates,
aftertheNotitia,CONGAVATA,AXELODUNUM,GABROSENTIS,andTUNNOCELUM.
Subsequentinquirers,and,inparticular,theRev.JohnHodgson,have
seenreasontosuspectthatWatchCrosswasnotastation_perlineam
valli_.Itprobablywasdestituteofstonewalls,andwassurrounded
onlybyarampartofearth.[34]Itseemstohavebeenamere_castra
stiva_asummerencampment,andconsequently,wasnotentitledtorank
withthosestrongholdsthatwereintendedtowithstandallfoesatall
seasons.ShouldWatchCrossbelaidaside,thewholeofHorsleys
subsequentallocationoftheNotitianamesisthrownoutofcourse.It
ismuchtobedesiredthatsomeWitchStonewouldstartfromits
hidingplaceinthefoundationofsomecottageorcastleinthe
neighbourhoodofanyoneofthestationswestofCambeckFort,and
resolvetheinterestingquestion.Untilsuchaneventdoesoccur,some
doubtmusthanguponthesubject.Thereaderwillnowunderstandhowit
is,that,accordingtosomeauthorities,thestationsimmediately
dependentupontheWallaresaidtobeeighteeninnumber,andaccording
toothersonlyseventeen.Forthereasonjustreferredto,theNotitia
namesofthestationsarenotgivenontheMapoftheWallwestwardof
PETRIANA.

TheremainderofthestationsoftheNotitiawereprobablyoutposts,
intendedtogivesupporttothewholestructure.Thedifficultyof
rightlyappropriatingtheNotitiaappellationstosuchoftheseashave
notyieldedinscribedstones,isevengreaterthaninthecaseofthose
whichfollowmorecloselythelineoftheWall.
[Sidenote:THEEXTINCTIONOFROMANNAMES.]
Beforeleavingthissubject,thereaderwilldowelltocomparethe
ancientwiththemodernnamesofthestations,asfarastheyare
ascertained;indoingso,hewillbestruckwiththealmosttotal
absenceofanysimilaritybetweenthem.Socomplete,itwouldappear,
hasbeenthesubversionbyPict,andSaxon,andDane,oftheRoman
dominationinthenorthofEngland,thattheverynamesofthecities
whichwereoccupiedbytheempireforcenturieshaveperished,
And,likethisunsubstantialpageantfaded,
Leavenotarackbehind.
[Sidenote:THECASTELLAORMILECASTLES.]
InadditiontotheStations,CASTELLAorMILECASTLESwereprovidedfor
theuseofthetroopswhichgarrisonedtheWall.Theyderivetheir
modernnamefromthecircumstanceoftheirbeingusuallyplacedatthe
distanceofaRomanmilefromeachother.Theywerequadrangular
buildings,differingsomewhatinsize,butusuallymeasuringfromsixty
toseventyfeetineachdirection.Withtwoexceptions,theyhavebeen
placedagainstthesouthernfaceoftheWall;thecastleatPortgate,
everytraceofwhichisnowobliterated,andanothernearSICA,the
foundationsofwhichmay,withsomedifficulty,stillbetraced,seemto
haveprojectedequallytothenorthandsouthoftheWall.Though
generallyplacedaboutsevenfurlongsfromeachother,thenatureofthe
ground,independentlyofdistance,hasfrequentlydeterminedthespotof
theirlocation.WhenevertheWallhashadoccasiontotraverseariver
oramountainpass,amilecastlehasuniformlybeenplacedontheone
sideorothertoguardthedefile.Themiletowershavegenerallyhad
butonegateofentrance,whichwasofverysubstantialmasonry,andwas
uniformlyplacedinthecentreofthesouthwall;themostperfect
specimennowremaining,however,hasanorthern,aswellasasouthern
gateway.Itisnoteasytoconjecturewhatweretheinternal
arrangementsofthesebuildings;probablytheyaffordedlittle
accommodationbeyondwhattheirfourstrongwallsandwellbarredgates
gave.Hodgsonstatesthatwhenthefoundationsofthecastlenortheast
ofHousesteadswereremovedin1832,theremainsofaninnerwallwere
seen,allround,paralleltotheouterwalls.Hehenceinfersthatthe
spacebetweenthewallshasbeenroofed,andthecentreuncovered.
Deferringthefurtherdiscussionofthissubjectuntil,inthecourseof
ourlocaldescription,wearriveatthemostperfectspecimen
remainingthemilecastlenearCawfieldsthereaderismeanwhile
referredtothelithographwhichdepictsthisinterestingremain.
[Sidenote:THETURRETSORWATCHTOWERS.]
Betweenthemilecastles,foursubsidiarybuildings,generally
denominatedTURRETSorWATCHTOWERS,wereplaced.Theywerelittlemore
thanstonesentryboxes.Itiswithmuchdifficultythattheycannowbe
traced.Horsley,inhisday,complainedthatscarcethreeofthemcould
bemadeoutinsuccession.Wouldthatthemodernantiquarycouldmake
thesamelamentation!Scarcelyonealongthewholelinecanwith
certaintybedetermined.Theycontainedaninteriorspaceofeightor
tenfeetsquare.Horsleystatesthedistancebetweenthemtohavebeen
threehundredandeightyardsthewholenumberwouldconsequentlybe
threehundredandtwenty.Thoughsmallbuildings,theywere,likeall
theworksoftheRomans,builtforperpetuity.Hodgsonfoundthewalls
ofonenearBirdoswaldtobenearlythreefeetthick.Suchwerethe

buildingsprovidedforthelodgementandsecurityofthecohorts,whose
hardlotitwastoguardthisfrontierbarrier.AplanofCilurnum,and
theworksinitsvicinity,takenfromWarburtonsVallumRomanum,in
PlateII.,exhibitsthesearrangements,andshews,asheremarks,how
theWallandtheVallum,thestations,turrets,andcastles,yielded
mutualassistancetoeachother.
[Sidenote:THEMILITARYWAY.]
Butallthesearrangementswerenotenough;withoutROADS,oneimportant
elementinthestrengthoftheGreatBarrierwouldhavebeenwanting.
Nothingeconomizesmilitaryforcemoreeffectuallythanthepossession
ofmeansforquicklyconcentratingallavailableresourcesuponany
pointthattheenemymayselectforattack.TheadvanceofRomanarmies,
andtheformationofroads,wereuniformlycontemporaneous.TheBarrier
haditsMILITARYWAY.Itisimpossibletooverestimatetheimportance
ofthispartoftheworks.Withoutit,alltherestwouldhavebeen
useless.Itwouldnot,perhaps,beincorrecttosaythatbothVallumand
Wallweresubsidiarytoit,andthatthechiefuseofthesestructures
wastoguardtheroad,andtoprotectandconcealfromview,bothonthe
northandsouth,thetroopsthatmarchedalongit.Themodernhistoryof
thedistricttraversedbytheWallfurnishesasingularcorroborationof
thisopinion.Intherebellionof1715,theoperationsoftheroyalist
forcesweregreatlyimpededbytheabsenceofagoodroadbetween
NewcastleandCarlisle.Intherebellionof1745,asimilar
inconveniencewasexperienced.MarshalWadewasatNewcastlewhenthe
PretenderappearedbeforethecityofCarlisle.Thecommandantofthe
cityimmediatelysentanexpresstoinformhimofhisposition.The
generalsanswercontainedthesewords:
Newcastle,November10th,1745,7oclock.
GENTLEMEN,
Ihavejustnowthefavourofyourletterbyexpress,withanaccount
oftheRebelsapproachnearyourcity.Thespiritandresolutionwith
whichyouexertyourselvesisverycommendable,andIhopewill
contributetodisappointtheRebelsofanydesigntheymayhaveformed
againstyou......_Icannotfollowthem,thewaytheymayprobably
takebeingimpassableforArtillery_.....butIhopetomeetthemin
Lancashire,andmakethemrepentoftheirrashness....Iwishyouall
imaginablesuccess,
Andam,Gentlemen,your
Mostobedienthumbleservant,
GEORGEWADE.[35]
[Sidenote:THEIMPORTANCEOFMILITARYROADS.]
Thus,forwantofamilitaryroadacrosstheIsthmus,theimportanceof
whichhadbeenperceivedbytheRomanssixteencenturiespreviously,the
safetyofthekingdomwasperilled,andahostileforcepermittedto
pouritselfintotheheartofEngland.Aftersuchterriblewarnings,
governmentatlastinterfered,andanactofParliamentwaspassedwhich
setforthinthepreamble:
Whereasthemakingandkeepingafreeandopencommunicationbetween
thecityofCarlisleandthetownofNewcastleuponTyne,byaroad
forthepassageoftroops,horses,andcarriages,atalltimesofthe
year,wouldbeofgreatuseandservicetothepublic,andithath
beenfoundbyexperience,thatthewantofsuchroad,passage,and
communication,hathbeenattendedwithgreatinconvenienceanddanger
tothiskingdom.....:Beitenacted,&c.
TheroadnowknowninthedistrictbythenameoftheMilitaryRoadwas

accordinglymadeatthepublicexpense.Itisnotalittleremarkable
thatittakespreciselythetrackwhichtheengineersofRomehadso
manycenturiesbeforeselected.InthemapoftheWallwhichaccompanies
thiswork,themodernmilitaryroadisdelineated.
Theimportanceofagoodroad,protectedbymilitarypostsatshort
intervals,insecuringthetranquillityofaturbulentdistrict,is
strikinglyshewninanotherinstance.Thatpartofthegreathighway
betweenMadridandCadizwhichcrossesthewildhillsoftheSierra
barrier,wasformerlylefttotherobberandthewolf,withoutroadsor
villages.Aroad,admirablyplanned,wasatlengthexecutedbyCharles
LeMaur,anableengineerintheserviceofCharlesIII.Thetaskof
guardingitwasthedifficultynexttobeovercome.Forthispurpose,
Spain,whohadcolonizedthenewworld,andexpelledherrichJewsand
industriousMoors,wascompelledtoresorttoforeignassistance.In
1768,acolonyofGermansandSwisssettleduponthelineoncondition
ofmaintainingaconstantguard.[36]Thisisdonetothepresentday.
Severalconsecutivetowns,suchasCarolina,inAndalusia,areoccupied
bypeoplespeakingnothingbuttheGermanlanguage,andregularpatrols
areconstantlyonthemovefromonetowntoanother.TheseGermanshave
theirlandinbetterorderandcultivationthantheSpaniards.This
Spanishhighway,withitsstationsatregularintervals,withits
foreignguards,whofromgenerationtogenerationmaintainthetongue
andthehabitsoftheirfatherland,presentstoomanypointsof
resemblancetothemannerinwhichthenorthernfrontierofRomanpower
inBritainwasdefended,tobepassedoverwithoutobtainingatleast
thisbriefnotice.
[Sidenote:MILITARYROADS.]
Gordon,inhisItinerariumSeptentrionale,says,thattwomilitaryways
belongedtotheBarrier;asmallMilitaryWayalittletothesouthof
theWall,and,beyondit,theGreatMilitaryWay.Inadditiontothese,
Horsleyenumeratesathird,whichhecallstheOldMilitaryWay.Horsley
conceivesthatthenorthrampartoftheVallumconstitutestheroad
whichwasusedbyAgricolaandHadrianintransportingtheirtroopsfrom
stationtostation,andthatwhenSeverusbuilttheWall,heformeda
newroadthegreatmilitarywaywhichpursuedanindependentcourse,
sometimescoincidingwiththeoldroad,butmorefrequentlykeeping
nearertotheWall.Thattheremayhavebeenapathwayimmediately
undertheWallwhichwentfromturrettoturret,onwhichtheRoman
sentriesmarchedwithslowandmeasuredpace,whentheydidnotchoose
toexposethemselvesupontheparapetsoftheWall,isnotimprobable;
thoughwenowlookinvainforanytracesofit.Butthatthenorth
aggeroftheVallumwasthrownupeitherbyAgricolaorHadriantoserve
thepurposesofaroad,isapropositiontoostartlingtobereceived
evenontheauthorityofthelearnedHorsley.Insomeplaces,indeed,it
issufficientlyflattenedtoadmitofthepassageoftrafficalongit,
butinthegreaterpartofthecoursewheretheworksoftheVallumare
notundercultivation,therampartistooconical,toonarrow,andtoo
ragged,toadmitofsuchause.Exceptinginthosesituations,where
stonesaremingledwiththewholemassoftheagger,itexhibitsno
signsofhavingbeenpaved.[37]Themannerinwhichalltherampartsof
theVallumonTepperMoorareencumberedwithblocksofbasalt,clearly
shews,thathereatleasttherehasbeennoroad.Besides,fewwhotrace
thelinesoftheVallumfromseatosea,andobservetheircomplete
parallelism,willbeabletoresisttheconclusion,thatthewholeof
theworkswerecontemporaneous;whereas,Horsleystheoryascribespart
toAgricola,andparttoHadrian:moreover,itmaybeadded,thatso
muchdothenorthernandthesouthernmostaggersresembleeachother,
thatunbiassedobserverswillscarcelyentertainadoubt,thattheyhave
beenthrownuptoserveapreciselysimilarpurpose.
[Sidenote:THEMILITARYWAY.]

Happily,thereisnoroomfordoubtrespectingtheotherroad,which
HorsleycallsSeverusGreaterMilitaryWay,asintheuntilled
districtsofthecountryitmaybetracedforseveralconsecutivemiles;
andifwereceivethetheory,thattheMurusandVallumareonework,
thereisnoneedtoseekforanyother.
[Sidenote:CONSTRUCTIONOFTHEROAD.]
THEMILITARYWAYisusuallyaboutseventeenfeetwide,andiscomposed
ofrubblesoarrangedastopresentaroundedsurface,elevatedinits
centreafootoreighteeninchesabovetheadjoiningground.When
carriedalongtheslopeofahill,thehangingsideismadeupbylarge
kerbstones.Inmostplaceswhereitstillremains,itiscompletely
grassgrown,butmay,notwithstanding,beeasilydistinguishedfromthe
neighbouringgroundbythecolourofitsherbage,thedrynessofits
substratumallowingthegrowthofafinerdescriptionofplant.Forthe
samereason,asheeptrackgenerallyrunsalongit.Forthe
accommodationofthesoldiery,theroadwentfromcastletocastle,and
so,fromstationtostation.Indoingthis,itdidnotalwayskeepclose
totheWall,buttooktheeasiestpathbetweentherequiredpoints.In
traversingtheprecipitousgroundsbetweenSewingshieldsandThirlwall,
theingenuityoftheengineerhasbeenseverelytried;butmost
successfullyhasheperformedhistask.Whilst,aspreviouslyobserved,
theWallshootsoverthehighestandsteepestsummits,theroadpursues
itstortuouscoursefromoneplatformoftherocktoanother,soasto
bringthetravellerfrommilecastletomilecastlebytheeasiest
possiblegradients.Oftenhasitbeenmylottonoticehownaturally,
towardsthecloseofafatiguingdaysmarch,thelesszealousofour
exploringparty,moreanxioustoselectaneasytrackthantokeepclose
companionshipwiththeWall,have,mostunconsciously,pursuedtheroute
oftheRomanway.But,notwithstandingalltheartoftheengineer,the
steepnessoftheroadinsomeplacesissuch,thatmostofourmodern
carmen,withalltheirboastedskill,wouldbegreatlypuzzledif
requiredtotraverseitwithawaggonladenwithmilitarystores.[38]
[Sidenote:ADDITIONALROAD.]
Althoughtheroadnowdescribedhasprobablybeentheonlycarriageway
betweenthetwogreatlinesoffortification,another,situatedtothe
southofthem,hasaffordeddirectcommunicationbetweensomeofthe
inlandstations.FromCILURNUMtoMAGNA,theWallformsacurvedline,
inordertogainthehighesthillsofthedistrict.Forthe
accommodationofthosewhosebusinessdidnotrequirethemtocallat
anyintermediatepoint,aroadwent,likethestringofabow,direct
fromtheonestationtotheother.Thisroad,whichisshewninPlate
II.,wentnearthemodernvillageofNewburgh,whereRomanremainsare
occasionallyfound,andpassedbythenorthgateofVINDOLANA,
Chesterholm,neartowhichaRomanmilestonestillstands.Some
portionsoftheancientpavementstillremainnearMorwood.Itis
probablethatthisRomanMilitaryWaywasfurthercontinued,southof
theWall,directtoStanwix.
[Sidenote:SPEAKINGTUBESINTHEWALL.]
Iftraditionistobecredited,theRomanswerenotsatisfiedwithroads
asameansofrapidlycommunicatinginformation;speakingtrumpetsor
pipes,wearetold,ranalongthewholelengthoftheWall.Ofthis,
Drayton,longago,sanginhisPolyolbion
Townesstooduponmylength,wheregarrisonswerelaidTheirlimitsto
defend;andformygreateraid,WithturretsIwasbuilt,where
sentinelswereplacdTowatchuponthePict;somemymakersgracd
Withhollowpipesofbrasse,alongmestilltheywent,Bywhichthey
inonefortstilltoanothersent,Byspeakinginthesame,totell
themwhattodoe,AndsoefromseatoseacouldIbewhispered

through.
SirChristopherRidley,inhislettertellsus,that
InthisWallwastheyratrunckofbrass,orwhateverkyndofmettal,
whichwentfromoneplacetoanotheralongtheWall,andcameintothe
Captayneschamber,whereattheyhadwatchersforthesame,andyf
theyrhadbenestryfeorbusinessbetwyxttheenemies,andthatthe
watchmendidblowahorninattheendofthetrunckethatcameinto
thechamber,andsofromonetoone;therewascertaynmoneypayed
yearlytothemantenanceofthistrunckbytheinhabitantstheyrabout,
anddoithyetpaytosomegentilmeninNorthymberland,thewhichmoney
iscalledhorngeldmoney.[39]
[Sidenote:THETHEORYPROBABLYINCORRECT.]
Camdenalsoreferstothiscurioustradition.Once,butonlyonce,have
Imetwiththisstoryinmyownrambles.Suchmythswillnotlong
outlivetheintroductionoftheelectrictelegraph.Therearenoold
peopleupontheWallnow,asamanofthreescorelatelysaidtome,
whenIwasendeavouringtopersuadehimtogatherupfromhisstillmore
ancientneighbourthefiresideloreofbygonetimes.
Itiscurioustoobservethatasimilarstatementismaderespectingthe
BARRIERoftheUPPERISTHMUS.Acorrespondentwrites
Oneoldmantoldme,thatwhenhewasyoung,ondiggingthroughoneof
thewallstationsatUpperCroytheycameuponstonepipes,laid
horizontallyinthesoil,andjoinedattheendslikethoseforwater.
Fromtheelevationoftheplace,itisquiteobviousthattheycould
notbewaterconduits.Thisoldpersonsaidthattheideahehadheard
learnedpeoplegiveofthesepipes,was,thattheywereforspeaking
through.Thatthepipeswerefound,andmadeofstone,notclay,is
certain.
Pipesofleadareoccasionallymetwithintheruinsofthestations,
andpipesofburntclayareofveryfrequentoccurrence.Tothis
circumstancethetraditionprobablyowesitsrise.Theyarenot,
however,foundintheWall,andwhenplacedinthestations,seemto
haveservedadifferentpurpose.Oneusetowhichthetiletubeshave
beenputhasbeenthetransmissionofwarmairthroughoutanapartment.
ThewallsofoneofthechambersofthebathsatHUNNUMwerelined
withthem.Othersmayhavebeenused,especiallyinhighsituations,for
collectingrainwaterfromtheroofsofthedwellings,andconveyingit
tocisterns.Besides,theinutilityofthecontrivancemilitatesagainst
theprobabilityofitsadoption:thesentinelsattheirpostscould
easilytransmithastyintelligencefromendtoend,bythevoiceorby
horns,withoutpipesimbeddedintheWall,which,evenifconstructed,
wouldprobablybeuselessforsuchapurpose.
Thistraditionaryfictionisprobablyofmorethanmedivalantiquity.
Xiphiline,inhislifeofSeverus,tellssomesuchmarvelloustaleabout
thetowersofByzantium.
*****
[Sidenote:THEMASONRYOFTHEWALL.]
AdescriptionoftheMASONRYoftheerectionswhichhavepassedin
reviewbeforeuswillconcludethisgeneralexaminationoftheBarrier.
ThefollowingextractofaletterwithwhichIhavebeenfavouredby
RobertRawlinson,esq.,InspectoroftheBoardofHealth,willforman
excellentintroductiontothesubject.

IhaveseveraltimesthoughtoverthesubjectoftheRomanWallsince
Ihadthepleasureofseeingyou.TheRomansconstructedworkswith
manydifferentkindsofmasonry;nodoubtallchosentosuitthe
materialused,theplace,andtheskillofthebuilders.InRome,and
Italygenerally,worksofgreatmagnificencewereconstructed,when
theartdisplayedwasequaltothegrandeurofthedesign.Suchawork
wasthefamedArchofTrajan,theArchofSeptimiusSeverus,theArch
ofConstantine,theBathsofDiocletian,andothers.Intheseworks,
constructionofthehighestorderwasused,andthesculptoremulated
thearchitect.Theletteredaltarsandsculpturedfiguresfoundonthe
lineoftheWallmustnotbecomparedwiththebestworkmanshipof
Rome.
[Sidenote:NATIVELABOURERSEMPLOYED.]
Iamquitesatisfied,inmyownmind,thatthegeneralcharacterof
theworkontheWallwasadaptedtosuitthetime,thecountry,and
moreespecially,thelabourersemployedonthework.TheWall,beinga
workofdefence,hadtobeconstructedinhaste;thecountrywaswild,
rude,andwithoutroads,exceptingsuchastheRomanscausedtobe
made.ThiscausedtobemadeisIthink,thekeytothecharacterof
themasonrychosen....Theformofconstructionistheeasiestand
strongestwhichrude,uneducatedmencouldaccomplish;and,withgood
mortar,suchastheRomansknewsowellhowtomake,isthekindof
workcalculatedtoendureforcenturies,aswefindithasdone....
TheworksoftheWallIconsidertohavebeenchieflyconstructedby
thenatives,underthearmedsuperintendenceandteachingofthe
soldier.TheRomanknewnorightbutthatoftheconqueror;hisobject
wasconquestforuse;useoftheland,andthelabourthatwasupon
it.TheRomansoldierwasafightinganimal,andwassofarcivilized
astoknowhowtomakethecomparativesavagedohisworkuponhis
plan,andthiswasshapedtosuitthelabourused.Considerthelength
oftheWall,andtheextentoftheworksuponit,anditwillbeseen
thatforthearmytohaveconstructedit,wouldhavebeentohavekept
themconstantlyworkinginsteadofwatchingandfighting.
SomeyearsagoIhadalargequantityofheavymasonrytoconstructon
oneoftherailways.ItwasnotunliketheRomanWallincharacter.I
foundadifficultyindealingwiththeregularlyeducatedmason,and
boughtseveralscoresoftrowelsandhammers;theseIplacedinthe
handsofuneducatedlabourers,setthemtoworkunderthe
superintendenceofeducatedforemen,lookingafterthewholemyself.
ThisisacasesimilartotheoneIhaveimaginedforthegreatWall;
onlytheworkmylabourersperformedhadmoredifficultiesaboutit
thantheWall,andyet,theseuneducatedmenperformedthework
perfectly.[40]
ThinkoftheRomanbringinginattheswordspoint,hundredsof
captivenatives,placingforthefirsttimetoolsintheirhands,
indicatingtheworktobedone,andcompellingthetremblingslavesto
doit![41]
ThestonesemployedinbuildingtheWallandstationswerevery
carefullyselected.Whengoodstonesweretobehadnearathand,they
weretaken;butthoseofinferiorqualitywereneverusedtoavoidthe
labourofbringingbetterfromadistance.Insomepartsoftheline,in
Cumberlandespecially,thestonemusthavebeenbroughtfromquarries
sevenoreightmilesoff.Aquartzosegritwasgenerallyselectednot
onlyonaccountofitshardness,butbecauseitsroughsurfacegaveita
firmeradhesiontothemortar.Thestonewhichhasbeenusedinthe
worksatWallsendisofamuchcoarsergritthananythatisfoundin
theneighbourhood.
[Sidenote:THEQUARRIESUSED.]

Thequarriesfromwhichthestonehasbeenprocuredcaninmany
instancesbepreciselyascertained.AtFallowfield,notfarfrom
CILURNUM,isanancientquarryonthefaceofwhichthewords,
[P]ETRAFLAVICARANTINI,
therockofFlaviusCarantinusarestilltobetraced.Thevignetteat
thecloseofthispartrepresentsitspresentcondition.Onopeningout,
intheyear1837,someoldquarriesonthehigh,brownhillofBorcum,
nearThorngrafton,asmallcoppervesselwasfound,containingalarge
numberofcoins,alloftheupperempire.AnotherRomanquarryexisted
onHaltwhistleFell.InapaperrecentlyreadbeforetheSocietyof
AntiquariesofNewcastleuponTyne,Mr.JohnClaytonsays
InridingoverHaltwhistleFell,beforeitsenclosure,inthesummer
of1844,Icameuponsomeworkmenemployedinreopeninganold
quarry.Theytoldmetheyhadmetwithawrittenstone;I
dismounted,andclimbedthefaceoftherock,whenIfoundinscribed
inlettersclearandfresh
LEG.VI.V.
Fromitspositiononawidewaste,farremovedfromanyabode,butin
theimmediatevicinityoftheRomanWall,thisquarrycouldnot
possiblyhavebeenusedforanyotherpurposethantosupplystones
forthebuildingoftheWall;andfromthefreshnessofthelettersof
theinscription,itmusthavebeenfilledupwithearthsoonafterthe
soldiersceasedtouseit.Theworkmenpromisedtosparethewritten
rock,butthenexttimeIrodethatwayithadbeenshiveredto
atoms.
[Illustration:
Drawn&LithographedbyJohnStorey
WRITTENROCKONTHERIVERGELT.
]
[Sidenote:INSCRIPTIONSONTHEQUARRIES.]
InCumberland,thereareseveralRomaninscriptionsonthefaceofthe
ancientquarries.AboutamilewestofBirdoswald,andlittlemorethan
aquarterofamilesouthoftheroad,isCoomeCrag,which,besides
othermarkings,presentsthefollowinginscription
SERVS
AI
VSTUS
ThisperhapsmaybereadSEVERUSALEXANDERAUGUSTUS.Themostremarkable
ofthisclassofAntiquities,however,istheWrittenRockofthe
Gelt,nearBrampton.Thelithographontheoppositepageisavery
accuraterepresentationofthiscuriousrelicofantiquity.Asthescar
isnearlyperpendicular,andtheriverGeltwashesitsbase,itisnot
withoutsomedifficultythattheinquiringvisitorcangiveita
satisfactoryexamination;itwill,however,wellrewardhisexertions,
andthebeautyofthesurroundingscenerywillgiveadditionalzestto
theramble.[Sidenote:INSCRIPTIONSONTHEQUARRIES.]Theinscribedpart
oftherockisfullyfiftyfeetabovethewater.Thelettersseemto
havebeenmadebyconnectingwithachiselorpicka[Illustration:
Letters]numberofholesdrilledintherockintherequiredorder;at
allevents,theterminationsofthestrokeshavebeenthusformed.Some
doubtexistsastotheprecisereadingoftheinscription,butthe
generalpurportofitisthis:Thevexillariiofthesecondlegionunder
anoptiocalledAgricola,were,intheconsulshipofFlaviusAperand
AlbinusMaximus(A.D.207),employedtohewstonehereforthe

Romans.[42]Itispiteous,whensurveyingsointerestingarelicof
antiquity,andonewhichhasoutlivedtheaccidentsofupwardsof
sixteencenturies,toobservethatithasbeenapproachedbymenwho
cannotsympathizewiththemightydead,andwhocarenotwhatviolence
theydotothefeelingsofthosewhocan.Tothedefacement,asI
believe,ofsomeportionoftheinscription,thenamesofF.GRAHAM,W.
HARDCASTLE,T.THOMPSON,W.NELSON,havebeencarvedupontherock.
Notorietyiseasilyearned,butitisnotalwaysofanenviable
character.
[Illustration:FormofWallStone]
[Sidenote:CHARACTEROFTHEFACINGSTONES.]
TheexteriormasonryoftheWallconsists,onbothsides,ofcarefully
squaredfreestoneblocks[43];theinterior,ofrubbleofany
descriptionfirmlyimbeddedinmortar.Thecharacterofthe
facingstonesispeculiar,yetprettyuniform.Theyareeightornine
inchesthick,andtenorelevenbroad;theirlength,whichisperhaps
theircharacteristicfeature,notunfrequentlyamountstotwentyinches.
Thepartofthestoneexposedtotheweatheriscutacrossthebait,
soastoavoiditsscalingoffbythelinesofstratification;thestone
taperstowardstheendwhichissetintotheWall,andhasaformnearly
resemblingthatofawedge.Thecutshewsitsusualform.Owingtothe
extenttowhichthestonesaresetintotheWall,thenecessityof
bondingtilessocharacteristicofRomanmasonryinthesouthof
Englandisaltogethersuperseded.Theredoesnotappeartohavebeena
singletileusedinanypartoftheWall.Stonesoftheshapeandsize
whichhavenowbeendescribedwerejustthosewhichcouldbemosteasily
wroughtinthequarry,mostconvenientlycarriedonthebacksofthe
poorenslavedBritonstotheWall,andmosteasilyfittedintotheir
bed.Theuniformityintheirappearanceissuchastoenableus,aftera
littlepractice,atoncetorecognizetheminthechurches,castles,
farmbuildings,andfencesofthedistrictthroughwhichtheWallruns.
[Illustration:JunctionofthewestwallofBirdoswaldwiththeWall]
[Sidenote:MASONRYOFTHESTATIONS.]
InCumberland,thestonesareratherlargerthanintheeasternportion
oftheline,athicknessoftwelveinchesnotbeinguncommon,witha
correspondingbreadth.TheblocksinthenorthfaceoftheWall,also,
arenotunfrequentlylargerthanthoseinthesouth.Thestonesofwhich
thewallsofthestationsarecomposedaresmallerthanthoseofthe
mainWall.Theiraveragethicknessisfromfivetoseveninches,and
theirbreadthfromsixtoeight.Thewoodcutwhichishereintroduced,
depictsthejunctionofthewestwallofthestationofAMBOGLANNAwith
theWall,andwelldisplaysthedifferentcharacterofthestonesused
intwoerections.Asalreadyobserved,thestationsappeartohavebeen
builtbeforetheWall,andasthenecessityofthecaserequiredthat
theyshouldberunupasquicklyaspossible,asmallerclassofstone
wasallowedtopassmusterherethanwasusedintheWall.The
workmanshipalsoisofinferiorquality.
[Sidenote:THETOOLINGOFTHESTONES.]
[Illustration:diamondbroaching]
Thefrontofthestones,bothoftheWallandstations,isroughly
scabbledwiththepick.Insomepartsoftheline,thistoolingtakes
adefiniteform;whenthisisthecase,themarkingcalledthediamond
broachingismostcommon.Sometimesthe[Illustration:wavedlines]
stoneisscoredwithwavedlines,orwithsmallsquares,orwithnearly
uprightlines.ThewoodcutsillustrativeofthemasonryatChesterHolm,
andoftheCryptatHexham,tobeintroducedalongwith[Illustration:

uprightlines]theaccountoftheseplaces,willexemplifysomeofthese
kindsofbroaching.ItwasnotuntilIhadbecometolerablyfamiliar
withtheWall,thatmyattentionwascalledtothispeculiarkindof
tooling.AvisittoHABITANCUMandBREMENIUM,wherethestonesare
nearlyallbroachedinthediamondfashion,inducedmetoinspectthe
Wallmorenarrowlyinthisrespect.Ihavesincefrequentlydetectedit,
especiallyinCumberland.ItisrareintheNorthumbrianportion.Is
thisbroachingpeculiartoaparticularlegion,ortoacertainperiod?
ThestationofHABITANCUMisunderstoodtohavebeenrebuiltby
Caracallacantheotherstations,andthosepartsoftheWallwherethis
kindofmarkingappears,havealsoundergonerepairatthesametime,or
isittheworkofsomeparticularlegion?Thesamekindofbroachingmay
benoticedinsomeofthestonesatChester,theDEVAICENORUMofthe
Romans,whichwasforalongtimetheheadquartersofthe20thlegion.
Thoughunabletoresolvethedoubt,Ithinkthattheprosecutionofthe
inquirymayleadtosomeworthyresult.
[Sidenote:MASONS'MARKS.]
[Illustration]
[Illustration]
Cuttingsresemblingmasonsmarksoccasionallyoccur.Sometimesthey
consistofasingleordoublestroke;sometimesofadiagonalcross,
sometimesofarectangular.Theothermarkswhicharehererepresented
arelessfrequentlymetwith.[44]
[Illustration]
[Sidenote:ROMANMORTAR.]
Thetenacityofthemortarwhichwasused,formsanimportantelementin
thestrengthofthewholefabric.Thatwhichisinusenowisgenerally
spoiled,fromavarietyofcircumstances.Theprevailingpracticeis,
firstofall,toslackthelimebypouringaquantityofwateruponit
whenlyinginaheap;inmostcasesthisdoesnotsufficientlypulverize
it:itisthenmixedwithanyearthbearingtheleastresemblanceto
sand,andthetwoareworkedtogetherveryimperfectlywithashovel.
Themortarthusmadeoftenstandsandhardens,soastorequiretotobe
onceandagainmixedwithwater,andworkedupbeforeitisused.It
thusbecomesquiteimpoverished;and,afterall,fortheconvenienceof
themason,itisemployedinsodryastatethatthestonesoontakes
allthemoisturefromit,anditbecomeslittlebetterthanpowder.The
giganticrailwayoperationsofrecenttimeshavedrivenmenoutofthe
beatentrack,andcompelledthemafreshtodiscovertheRomanmethodof
preparingmortar.Ontheauthorityofengineerswellacquaintedwiththe
RomanWall,Iamenabledtostate,thatthemortarofthatstructureis
preciselysimilartothegroutandconcrete[45]oftherailwaymasonof
thepresentday.Specimensoftheancientandmoderngroutarebefore
me,andtherecannotbeadoubtastotheidentityoftheirpreparation.
Thefollowingisthemodeinwhichtherailwayengineerprepareshis
mortar.Thelime,inthestateinwhichitcomesfromthekiln,isfirst
groundtopowder,andisthenmixedwithsandandgravel,andchippings
ofstone.Thepurposesforwhichthemortarisrequiredindicatethe
coarsenessandquantityoftheinterminglinggravel.Whenwantedas
concrete,toform,independentlyofothermaterials,thefoundationof
someheavystructure,stonyfragmentsoflargersizearemingledwith
thelimethanwhenthemortaristobeusedtocementchiselledstones,
oreventhanwhenwantedtoconstitutewithrubbletheinteriorofa
wall.Themixtureofpoundedlimeandgravel,whenmade,isnotmingled
withwater,untilthemomentofitsapplicationtotheworkforwhichit
isrequired,butitisthenintimatelyunitedwithanabundantquantity
ofit.Whenusedasconcrete,themasswill,inthreehours,have

soliditysufficienttobeartheweightofaman,andinaboutthreedays
itwillhaveacquiredarocklikefirmness.
Such,doubtless,istheway[46]inwhichthemortaroftheRomanWall
wasprepared,anditwouldhavethisveryimportantadvantageoverthat
generallyusedatpresent,that,inaveryshorttime,theworkwould
acquireamassivenessandstrength,sufficienttoresisttheattacksof
anenemy.ThemortaroftheSaxonandNormanperiodsisofthesame
character.
Occasionally,butbynomeansfrequently,smallpiecesofcharcoalare
mixedwiththemortar.Thesehaveevidentlybeenderivedfromthewood
usedinburningthelime.Exceptinginthebuildingsofthestations,
poundedtile,socharacteristicoftheRomanmortarinthesouthof
England,isbynomeansacommonconstituentofthemortaroftheWall.
Limestoneisabundantinmostpartsofthedistrictthroughwhichthe
Wallpasses.TheRomansprobablyburntitinsowkilns.Thelimestone
andfuelbeingarrangedinalternatelayers,thewholewascarefully
coveredwithturfandignited.Thissimplemethodisstillmuchresorted
towhenthelimeiswantedforfarmpurposes.
_PLATEIII_
[Illustration:SectionsandElevationsoftheMasonryoftheWall]
[Sidenote:THEMODEOFBUILDING.]
Supposingthestonestobenowquarriedandsquared,thelimeburntand
mixedwithsandandgravel,thenextpointtobeattendedtoisthe
methodofusingthem.Thefoundationhasbeenpreparedbytheremovalof
thenaturalsoiltothewidthofaboutninefeet.Inthehilldistrict,
averyscantyportionofearthcoverstherocks;inthericherregions
anexcavationoffromfifteentoeighteenincheshasbeenmadebefore
thesubsoilwasreached.Ontheouterandinnermarginsoftheground
thusbared,tworowsofflagsoffromtwotofourinchesinthickness,
andfromeighteentotwentyinbreadth,weregenerallylaid;nomortar
wasplacedunderthem.[47]Ontheselaythefirstcourseof
facingstones,whichwereusuallythelargeststonesusedinthe
structure.Inhighercoursesthefacingstonesareuniformlyof
freestone,onthegroundcourseawhinstoneisoccasionally
introduced.Theflagstonesofthefoundationusuallyprojectfromoneto
fiveinchesbeyondthefirstcourseoffacingstones,andtheseagain
usuallystandoutaninchortwobeyondthesecondcourse,afterwhich,
thewallistakenstraightup.Insomepartsofthelinetheflagstones
donotappearinthefoundationthefirstcourseoffacingstonesbeing
laiddirectlyupontheground.IntheneighbourhoodofSewingshields,
wherelargetractsoftheWallhavebeenrecentlyremoved,acareful
observerinformsme,thattheentirefoundationhasforsomedistance
beenlaiduponabedofclayofthreeorfourinchesthick.
[Sidenote:THERUBBLEOFTHEWALL.]
Oneortwocoursesoffacingstoneshavingbeenplacedintheirbedsand
carefullypointed,amassofmortarinaveryfluidstatewaspoured
intotheinteriorofthewall,andstonesofanykindorshapethatwere
ofaconvenientsizewerepuddledinamongstit.Whinstones,asbeing
mostabundantinthedistrict,aregenerallyusedforthefilling.
Courseaftercoursewasadded,andonemassofconcreteimposedupon
another,untiltheWallreachedtherequiredheight.Whenthewholewas
finisheditformedasolid,compactmass,withoutanyholesorcrevices
intheinterior,andinashorttimebecameasfirmastheunhewnrock.
Insomepartsofthelinethemortarhasbeenhandlaid.Therubbleof
theinteriorhavingbeenfirstdisposedinitsplace,themortarhas
beenlaiduponitwithatrowel.Inthiscasethemortarnever

penetratestheintersticesofthemass,anddoesnotmakesuchsolid
masonryasthemethodgenerallypursued.When,however,thisplanis
adopted,therubblestonesareoftenlaidupontheiredgesinaslanting
position;andwhenthoseofthenextlayer,asoccasionallyoccurs,are
madetoleanintheoppositedirection,wehavethekindof
[Illustration:herringbonework]masonryrepresentedintheadjoining
diagram,whichisappropriatelycalledherringbonework.Thenearest
approachtothisthatIhaveseenuponthelineoftheWallisat
Steelrig,andHarehill.InHodgsonsNorthumberland[48]asectionof
theWallonWalltowncragisgiven,exhibitingherringbonemasonry.In
thisinstancethestonesaredisposedtransverselytotheWall,at
SteelrigandHarehilltheyaredisposedlongitudinally;thelatter
methodistheeasierofthetwo.[49]
OnwavygroundthecoursesoftheWallfollowtheundulationsofthe
surface,butonsteepinclinesthestonesarelaidparalleltothe
horizon.TheWall,inthiscase,musthavebeenbuiltupfromthebottom
ofthedefile,wherealso,inorderthebettertoresistthe
superincumbentmass,itnotunfrequentlyhasagreaterbreadththan
usual.AsshewingthatdifferentsectionsoftheWallhavebeenerected
underdistinctsuperintendents,itmayoccasionallybeobservedthat,
whilstononeslopeofagapthestonesarelaidparalleltothe
horizon,ontheother,differinglittleperhapsininclination,theyare
laidevenwiththeground.
[Sidenote:DURABILITYOFTHESTRUCTURE.]
Wemustnowtakeleaveofthisimportantpartofoursubject,the
masonryoftheWall.Judgingfromthoseportionsofitwhichremain,it
maysafelybeasserted,thatnostructurecanbeconceivedtopossess
greaterstrengthanddurability.ThefirsttimeIhappenedtovisit
Bowness(intheyear1831),someportionsoftheWall,sevenfeethigh,
wereinthecourseofbeingremoved;itwasfoundnecessarytoresortto
theforceofgunpowderinordertoeffectitsdestruction.Inthe
substantialnatureoftheirworks,theRomanshavelefttheimpressof
theirownmightyminds.Theybuiltnotfortheday.Theydidnot
conceivethattheirexistencewasboundupinthefateofasingle
generation,butthatitwasspreadoverthedestiniesofsucceeding
ages.Theirworkscontraststronglywiththeeffortsofsomemodern
builders.Theeditorofthepictorialvolume,styledOldEngland,
seems,inthefollowingpassage,tospeakfrompersonalobservation.
Passingbythefragmentsofwhichwehavespoken,weareunderthe
northwall[ofRichborough]awondrousworkcalculatedtoimpressus
withaconvictionthatthepeoplewhobuiltitwerenotthepetty
labourersofanhour,whowerecontentedwithtemporarydefencesand
frailrestingplaces.Theouterworksuponthesoutherncliffof
Dover,whichwererunupduringthewarwithNapoleon,atprodigious
expense,arecrumblingandperishing,throughtheweaknessofjoband
contract,whichcouldnotendureforhalfacentury.Andherestand
thewallsofRichborough,astheyhavestoodforeighteenhundred
years,fromtwentytothirtyfeethigh,elevenortwelvefeetthickat
thebase,withtheiroutermasonryinmanypartsasperfectasatthe
hourwhentheircoursesoftilesandstoneswerefirstlaidin
beautifulregularity.
[Sidenote:ITSEVENTUALDECAY.]
IfthemeddlinghandofmanhadbeenwithheldfromtheBarrierofthe
LowerIsthmus,theWallmighthavestood,eventothepresenthour,in
almostitsoriginalintegrity.Itisnecessarytosayalmost,for
nothingcanbemorecorrectthantheobservationofHodgson
Thoughmanhashadthechieflabourineffectingitsdestruction,its
wholelineandallitsstations,castles,andtowers,eversinceit

wasdesertedbytheRomans,havebeenincessantlysuffering
prostrationbythehandofnature.Thefeeblerootsofgrasses,ferns,
andshrubs,havebeenassistedbythemoredestructivewedgesand
leversofforesttreesinlevellingitwiththeground;and,inmany
placesinthewestofthiscounty,forconsiderabledistances
together,theruinsthattimehasthrownfromitsbrow,lieinadeep
greenmoundatitsfeet;andthorns,briars,hazel,andmountainash
(entwinedwithrelentlessivy),arestill,inthepartsthatremain
aboveground,atthelabourofdemolitioninwhich,forthelast
fourteencenturies,theyhavebeenunceasinglyengaged.
Inthisday,whentheArabicnumeralsassertaninfluencequiteas
potentasthatwhichthelictorsrodsobtainedinancientRome,the
inquiriesmaynotbedestituteofinterestWhatamountoflabourwas
involvedintheconstructionoftheBarrier,inwhattimecoulditbe
accomplished,andwhat,atthepresentvalueoflabourandmaterials,
wouldbethecostofitsconstruction?
[Sidenote:MONEYVALUEOFTHEBARRIER.]
TheWallissixtyeightmileslong;grantingthatitwasonlysixteen
feethigh,buthadacontinuousthicknessofeightfeet,wehave
1,702,115cubicyardsofmasonry,tosaynothingofstations,
milecastles,andturrets.
Twelveshillingspercubicyardisasnearasmaybethepresentvalue
ofmasonry,suchasthatofwhichtheRomanWallconsiststhecostof
thispartofthestructurewouldthereforebe1,021,269_l._
Takingintoaccountthatthelabourwasforced,eachcubicyardofthe
Wallwould,attheleast,require,inquarryingthestone,its
carriagetotheWall,itssetting,andotheroperations,oneentire
daysexertionsofoneman.Inthiswaywehave1,702,115dayslabour
inthestoneWall.
Takingthenorthfosseatthedimensionsalreadygiven,itsexcavation
wouldinvolvetheremovalof5,585,072cubicyards.Amodern
excavator,stimulatedbypayproportionedtohiswork,enjoyingfood,
andraiment,andshelter,suchastheancientBritonwasastranger
to,andpossessingtheadvantageofgoodtools,andgoodorganization,
canremovetheenormousquantityoftwentycubicyardsofearthper
day.Thelabourer,driventohisungratefultaskbyaRoman
taskmaster,andcompelledtosupporthimselfasbesthemight,andto
labourwithtoolsoftherudestconstruction,wouldnotaccomplishthe
halfofthistask;theremovalofeightyards_perdiem_would
probablybeanaveragedayswork.Theexcavationofthenorthfosse
wouldthus,underthesecircumstances,involve698,134dayslabour.
Atthepresenttime,whentwentycubicyardsmayberemovedpermanin
aday,andwhenadayswagesmaybesetdownathalfacrown,the
wholecostoftheexcavationofthefossewouldbe34,906_l._
Inthisestimatenoaccounthasbeentakenoftheincreasedlabour
occasionedbycuttingthroughtherocksthataresometimesmetwith.
Theentireabsenceoftheditch,however,inthehillydistrict,
compensatesforthisomission.
ThefosseoftheVallumisratherlessthanthatoftheWall.Makinga
deductionofonethirdonthisaccount,andsupposingthatthe
distancewhichtheVallumfallsshortoftheWallateachextremity,
makesamendsfortheincreasedlabourofcuttingthroughtherocky
ground,wehave3,723,382cubicyardstoberemoved,involving465,422
daysofforcedlabour.Thewholecouldnowbedoneforthesumof
23,271_l._Noaccountistakenofthelabourexpendedinraisingthe
earthenramparts,orthecostoftheirconstruction,forthereason,
thattheremovaloftheearthfromthefosseimplieditsbeing

depositedsomewhere;noplacewouldbemoreconvenientforthis
purposethanthemoundsoftherampart.
[Sidenote:TIMEREQUIREDFORITSCONSTRUCTION.]
Addingtogethertheseresults,wefindthatthecostoftheWalland
itsnorthfossewouldbe1,056,175_l._,andthatthecostofthe
Vallum,addedtothiswouldformatotalof1,079,446_l._Thenumber
ofdayslabourinvolvedintheWallwouldbe2,400,249,and,adding
tothis,thatoftheVallum,wehaveforthewhole2,865,671days
labour.
Thelargestnumberofmenthatwecanconceivetobebroughttobear
atonceupontheWall,includingsuchoftheRomantroopsascouldbe
sparedfrommilitaryoperations,istenthousand.Thisbody,atthe
ratealreadysupposed,would,bycontinuouslabour,executetheWall
anditsditchin240days,and,takingtheVallumalsointoaccount,
in286days.IntheexposeddistrictoverwhichtheWallruns,itis
notprobablethattheweatherwouldallowoftheworkbeingpursued
duringmorethantwohundreddaysintheyear.If,inadditionto
this,wemakedeductionsforthechancesofwar,twoyearsmaybe
statedastheshortesttimeinwhichthewholeoftheworkscouldbe
executed.
Arecentwriter,who,inaworkdenominatedAHistoryofthePictsor
RomanoBritishWall,adoptsthenotionofGildas,thatthestonewall
wasbuilt,notbyHadrianorSeverus,butbythetremblingBritonson
theirabandonmentbytheRomans,supportshisopinionbydenominating
theworkanunRomanlikedefence,andarguesthatmenwhowere
unaccustomedtofear,wouldnotseektheassistanceofawallanda
ditch.HoweverregardlessoflifetheRomansmay,intheabstract,have
been,theyknewhowtoeconomizetheirresources.Inthebattleofthe
Grampians,Agricolawithheldhislegionarysoldiers,andmadeuseonly
ofhisauxiliarytroops.Hecouldbetteraffordtoexpendtheonethan
theother.Aswellmightawarriordespisetheprotectionofahelmetor
ashield,asrefusethedefenceofastonewall.
[Sidenote:WALLSNOTUNWORTHYOFROME.]
Thebestrefutation,however,ofthistheory,isthefact,thatinother
placestheRomans,aboutthesameperiod,raisedsimilarbarriers.At
twooftheseweshallglance,beforebeginningadetailedinspectionof
theBarrieroftheLowerIsthmus.Thecomparisonwillprobablyafford
valuableinstruction.
[Sidenote:THEGERMANBARRIER.]
TheDEVILSWALL,inGermany,bearsmanymarksofresemblancetothe
EnglishWall.Itseems[50]toconsistofthe_Pfahl_,amoundofstakes,
orvallum,ascribedtoHadrian,andastonewallwhichissaidtohave
beenexecutedbysomeofhissuccessors.Theworksextendedwestwards
fromRegensburg[Ratisbon]ontheDanube,towardsthesourcesofthat
river,adistanceofnearlytwohundredmiles.Theyformedtheboundary
oftheRomanempireinthosepartswheretheDanubewasnotbroadand
deepenoughtobeofitselfasufficientprotection.Adeeptrenchran
alongtheWallonitsnorthernside,andalongitssouthernfaceroads
andcampswereformed.Atregularintervalsofonemile,towersof
observationwereplacedofthesamesize,though,beingcircular,notof
thesameformasthemilecastlesontheEnglishWall.Itisnot
possible,fromthepresentremains,todeterminewithcertaintythe
heightorbreadthoftheWall.Ifounditinmanyplaces,says
ProfessorBuchner,fromfourtosix,inothersfromtentotwelve,feet
broad.Wemaythereforeperhapsconclude,thatitsmediumbreadthwas
fromsixtosevenfeet,andthatitsheight,ascorrespondingtothis
breadth,mayhavebeenfromeighteentotwentyfourfeet.Theworks

havethesametendencytoadvanceinastraightlineasthoseofourown
Barrier.Nomountainissohigh,noabysssosteep,nowoodsothick,
nomorasssoprofound,throughwhichitdoesnotpenetrate.Thewhole
lineofthefortificationhasbeenlaiddownandexecutedaccordingtoa
welldigestedplan.
[Sidenote:THEANTONINEWALL.]
GRAHAMSDIKE,sodenominatedprobablyfromtheCelticwords_grym_,
strength,and_diog_,aditch,isabarrierwhichfortifiedtheUpper
IsthmusofBritain.ItextendedfromBorrowstoness,ontheFirthof
Forth,toWestKilpatrick,ontheriverClyde,adistanceofabout
twentysevenEnglishmiles.ItwasconstructedbyLolliusUrbicusinthe
reignofAntoninusPius,theadoptedsonofHadrian.Thefollowing
succinctaccountofthisimportantdesignistakenfromtheCaledonia
Romana,aworkofgreatability,bythelatelamentedMr.Robert
Stuart,ofGlasgow:
Thisgreatmilitaryworkconsisted,inthefirstplace,ofanimmense
fosseorditchaveragingaboutfortyfeetinwidth,bysometwentyin
depthwhichextendedoverhillandplain,inoneunbrokenline,from
seatosea.Behindthisditch,onitssouthernside,andwithinafew
feetofitsedge,wasraisedarampartofintermingledstoneand
earth,strengthenedbysodsofturf,whichmeasured,itissupposed,
abouttwentyfeetinheight,andtwentyfourinthicknessatthebase.
Thisrampart,or_agger_,wassurmountedbyaparapet,behindwhich
ranalevelplatform,fortheaccommodationofitsdefenders.Tothe
southwardofthewholewassituatedtheMilitaryWayaregular
causewayedroad,abouttwentyfeetwidewhichkeptbythecourseof
theWallatirregulardistances,approaching,insomeinstances,to
withinafewyards,andinothersrecedingtoaconsiderableextent.
Alongtheentirelinetherewereestablished,itisbelieved,nineteen
principalstationsorforts.Themeandistancebetweeneachmaybe
statedatrathermorethantwoEnglishmiles.Alongtheseintervals
wereplacedmanysmaller_castella_,orwatchtowers.Whilethe
continuousrampartseemstohavebeenlittlemorethanawellformed
earthenmound,itisprobablethatmany,ifnotall,ofthestations,
wereeitherrivettedwithstoneorentirelybuiltofthatmaterial.In
someplaces,itwouldevenappearthattheVallumitselfhadbeen
raiseduponastonefoundationprobablyinsituationswheretheground
waslowandmarshy,andwhereitwasfoundnecessarytoformdrains
beneaththeworks,topreventtheaccumulationofwaterontheir
anteriorside.
[Sidenote:MUTUALSUPPORTOFTHEBARRIERS.]
TheBarrieroftheUpperIsthmusneverconsistedofmorethanasingle
lineoffortification.Thiscircumstancemayseemtomilitateagainst
theviewthatwehavetakenofthedoublelineoftheSouthernBarrier.
Ifintheonecasetheconqueredtribestothesouthweredisregarded,
whyshouldtheynotbesointheotheralso?Weshallnot,however,
greatlyerrifweregardtheAntonineWallasbutanadvancedworkof
Hadriansentrenchment.Onthisviewofthematter,thedifficultyisat
onceremoved,fortheLowerBarrierwouldbeasufficientsecurity
againstdangerintherear.Certainitis,thatthesouthernlinewas
notabandonedwhentheotherwasconstructed.Severalaltarshavebeen
foundontheLowerBarrierinscribedwiththenameAntoninusPius.[51]A
slabbearingthenamesoftheconsulsSex.SulpiciusTertullus,andC.
TineiusSacerdos,elicitsthefollowingremarksfromjudgeCay[52]:
ThesewereconsulsinA.D.158;consequently,wehaveundeniable
authoritytoassert,thatAntoninusPiusrepairedHadriansVallum
(or,atleast,thestations_perlineamValli_),aswellasbuiltone
betweentheScottishFirths.Thisstoneiscertainlymostvaluable,as
itclearlyproves,thatthoughAntoninusextendedtheboundarysofar

north,hecouldnot,ordurstnot,trusttheMat,butthought
himselfobligedtokeepupthesouthernpretentur,lesttheyshould,
onanydisturbance,jointheCaledonians.
Suchprudenceischaracteristicofgoodgeneralship.Napoleonnevermade
animportantmovewithoutfirstresolvingwhattodoincaseoffailure.
AssuredlyHadriandidnotactinamannerunbecomingaRoman,when,at
thesametimethatheshewedastonyfronttotheCaledonians,heplaced
anearthenrampartbetweenhimselfandthedoubtfulfidelityofhis
southernsubjects.
[Sidenote:THEBARRIERSINRELATIONTOTHERIVERS.]
ThepositionoftheBarriersoftheLowerandoftheUpperIsthmus,and
oftheDevilsWall,inrelationtotheriversintheirvicinity,
requiressomeremark.TheTyneintheeastern,andtheIrthingandthe
Edeninthewesternpartoftheisland,areuniformlytothesouthof
theEnglishWall.AsimilarremarkappliestotheDevilsWall,in
Germany,whichisdrawnalongthenorthernshoreoftheDanube,theside
exposedtotheenemy.TheClyde,anditsfeeders,aretothesouthof
theAntonineWall.WhydidtheRomansnotavailthemselvesofthe
naturaltrenchesoftheseriverbasins?ThevalleyoftheTyneis
peculiarlybroadanddeep.Achainofcampsonitssouthernbank,where
themedivalcastlesafterwardsstood,wouldalone,wemightsuppose,
havebiddefiancetothepassageofanyfoe.
Asimilarityofpracticeinthesecasesfavoursthebeliefthat
importantobjectsweretobeaccomplishedbyit.Whatarethey?
Byerectingachainofpostsonthehighgroundstothenorthofthe
rivers,abetterobservationofthemovementsoftheenemywasobtained
thanwouldotherwisehavebeenpracticable.InthedaysofRoman
occupation,largetractsofcountry,thebanksofriversespecially,
wouldbecoveredwithforests.Theconquerors,unlesstheyhadsecured
theenemyssideoftheriverbasins,wouldhavebeenperpetually
subjecttounexpectedattacks.Theycouldnotbesoeasilytakenby
surpriseonthehighgroundsofthenorthernslopes.
[Sidenote:IMPORTANCEOFRIVERBASINS.]
Probablythevalueofthelandonthemarginoftherivers,wasan
additionalmotiveforthecoursepursued.Thealluvialsoilbyarivers
sideisusuallythemostfertileportionofacountry.Thebanksofthe
TyneandtheEdenarepeculiarlyproductive.Withoutawalltheenemy
wouldhavehadundisputedpossessionoftheslopeswhichenjoyedthe
finestaspectthattothesouthwhilethoseontheothersidewouldhave
beensubjecttofrequentdepredation.Thisconsiderationisofthemore
importance,asthelandsofthedistrictweregiventothesoldierswho
garrisonedthefrontier,asameansofsecuringtheirfidelity.
[Sidenote:PRUDENCEOFTHEROMANS.]
Sofarfromtheimportanceofthenaturalboundary,theriver,being
overlookedbytheRomans,Iamdisposedtoregardtheworksonits
northernbankasaproofofthevaluewhichtheysetuponit.The
naturalandtheartificialbarrierswereprobablyregardedbythemas
butseparatemembersofonecompletefortification.Incaseofarushof
invasionfromtheNorth,theWallwouldarresttheattackandtheriver
entirelyrepelit.Thestoneandearthworkswouldimpedetheprogress
ofafoe,howeverformidable,andgivetimefortheformationofanarmy
onthesouthernbankofthestream.Itwas,moreover,politicalinthe
Romans,asStukelyremarks,[53]'toleaveonthenorthsideoftheWall
thathugetractofwaterlessanddismalmoor,agreatbarrensolitude,
whereinsomeplacesyoumaywalksixtymilesendwise,withoutmeeting
withahouseortree;torideisimpracticable.Thus,asmuchasinthem

lay,withoutthehorrorofbarbarity,didtheyremovethebarbarians
fromtheirterritories;whilstwithintheWall,eithernaturallyorby
theirindustry,allthingssmiledlikethegardenofEden.'
ThevasthostswhichtheCaledonianswereabletomusterrenderedall
theseprecautionsnecessary;anditwas,moreover,becominginthe
Romansagenerationofwarriorsthemightiesttheworldhaseverseento
plantthefootfirmlyonanylandtheythoughtfittooccupy.Assuredly
theydidsointheLowerIsthmusofBritain.
[Illustration:WrittenRock,atFallowfield.]

Footnote14:
Hodgsonstatesthemeanofnineteenmeasurementstobeonehundredand
twentysixyards._Northumberland_,II.iii.310.Thishighnumberis
obtainedbyitsincludingthemountaindistricts,wheretheworksare
widelyseparated.
Footnote15:
Harl.MSS.374,impr.Hodg.Northd.II.iii.273.
Footnote16:
Harl.MSS.373,impr.RichardsonsReprintsandImprints,divis.
Miscell.
Footnote17:
Itwillbeobservedherethattheerectionofthisstructurehasnot
been_always_ascribedtoSeverus.
Footnote18:
Greaterextremesaremetwith,buttheyarerare.Hodgsoninanotep.
276says,Thefoundationsintheturnpikeroad,justwestofPortgate
arescarcelysevenfeetbroad;butoppositeaplantationalittle
furtherwest,tenfeetandahalf.HuttonfoundtheWallatBrunton
onlyfivefeetandahalfthick.
Footnote19:
ThisisparticularlythecaseaboutOldWallinCumberland.
Footnote20:
HuttonsRomanWall,139.
Footnote21:
Hodg.Northd.II.iii.276.
Footnote22:
Horsley,intheprofilesofthebarrierwhichhegives,representsthe
marginalrampartor_agger_asbeingmuchlargerthanthesouthone.
Thepresentaspectoftheworksdoesnotwarrantsuchadelineation.
Footnote23:
WhentravellingalongtheroadwestofBirdoswald,Ihaveseena
ploughmanandhisteamentirelydisappear,ondescendingintothe

fosseoftheVallum.
Footnote24:
AninspectionofHorsleysownsectionswillatonceshow
this._Britan.Romana_,158.
Footnote25:
Incorroborationofthisstatement,itmaybementionedthatan
intelligentandsubstantialfarmerofferedtotake,onatwentyone
yearslease,theCorchesterfield,inwhichthestationof
CORSTOPITUMstood,attheyearlyrateof6_l._peracre.Itcontains
twelveacres.
Footnote26:
TheNotitiahas_Lergorum_,butitwillbeafterwardsshewnthatthis
isprobablyanerrorfor_Lingonum_.
Footnote27:
TheNotitiahas_Astorum_inthisandthesubsequentinstances,but
alltheinscriptionshithertofoundhave_Asturum_.
Footnote28:
Brit.Rom.102.
Footnote29:
Ibid.473.
Footnote30:
ThisslabisinthepossessionofhisGracetheDukeof
Northumberland,andispreserved,alongwithseveralotherinteresting
reliquesoftheWall,inthatnoblebaronialresidence,soworthyof
thechiefsofPercy,AlnwickCastle.
Footnote31:
NowintheDeanandChapterLibraryatDurham.
Footnote32:
AccordingbothtoHyginusandVegetius,thefirstcohortofalegion,
inthetimesofthelowerempire,wascalled_milliaria_,fromits
beingstrongerthananycohortofthelegion,andfromitsgenerally
consistingofaboutathousandmen.
_Arch.l._ii.,83.
Footnote33:
Acorrespondentoftheauthorwrites'Eveninmyowndayitwasthe
customofthesuperstitious,onthelineoftheWall,especially
betweenBirdoswaldandCambeckForttopoundthestones,bearing
inscriptions,intosandfortheirkitchens,orburytheminthe
foundationsofhousesorwalls,forthesimplereasonthatthey
consideredthemunluckycallingthem'witchstones.Whenonewas
found,the_oldwives_fearingthatthebuttermightnotforminthe
churn,tookgoodcarethatitshouldneveragainmakeitsappearance.
ThusdownwentmanyasplendidRomanaltar,asacrificetoignorance
andsuperstition'!

Footnote34:
TheploughhasnowpassedoverthestationofWatchCross.The
enquirieswhichIhavemadeonthespot,andintheneighbourhood,
are,onthewhole,confirmatoryofHodgsonsview.
Footnote35:
MounseysAccountoftheoccupationofCarlislein1745.
Footnote36:
FordsHandbookofSpain,1stedition,p.306.
Footnote37:
Onputtingtheinquirypointedlytoapersonwhohadploughedupsome
portionsoftheVallumintheneighbourhoodofWallend,Cumberland,
andwhowasalsoacquaintedwiththemodeinwhichtheMaidenway(a
Romanroad)wasformed,Iwastoldthattherewerenotracesof
pavementintheVallum.
Footnote38:
Wemustnot,however,pronouncearoadtobeimpracticable,because
nowitwouldbethoughtso.ANorthumberlandfarmer,speakingtome
uponthissubject,saidhehadseenroadswhich,inhisneighbourhood,
wereregularlytraversedonlyacenturyago,onwhichnoonewould
venturenowadays;itwaslikecomingdownacragside.Hehad
driventhroughmossesinwhichthehorseswerecommonlyenveloped,but
hadnomisgivingssolongashecouldseetheheadsoftheanimals.
Footnote39:
Hodgson,however,distinctlyproves,thatthe_cornage_,or
castleguardrentoftheNorthofEnglandoriginallyapaymentinlieu
ofcattle,andcalledinEnglish,_horngeld_and_neatgeld_,
cattletax,oroxlayhasnothingwhatevertodowithsoundingthe
waralarmby_horns_.
Footnote40:
Itmust,however,beborneinmind,thateventheuneducatedlabourer,
inahighlycivilizedcommunity,hasunconsciouslyreceiveda
considerableamountofmentaltraining,whichplaceshimina
situationmuchsuperiortothatofthemeresavage.
Footnote41:
Theremainderofthisvaluablecommunicationis,inordertoavoid
repetition,embodiedinthesubsequentaccountoftheMasonryofthe
Wall.
Footnote42:
HodgsonII.ii.298.
Footnote43:
Itwouldbedescribedbyamodernbuilderasaroughblockingcourse.
Footnote44:
Thecutsrepresentingthesemarkingsaretransferredfrommynote

book,withoutreferencetoscale.
Footnote45:
Concretecontainslesslime,andismixedwithasmallerproportionof
waterthangrout.Itischieflyusedinlargemasses,toforman
artificialfoundationforabuilding.
Footnote46:
Thealmostentireabsenceofthoselittlewhitelumpsoflime,not
properlymixedwithsand,whicharefoundintheimperfectlyprepared
mortarofmoderntimes,shewsthatthelimemustinsomewayhavebeen
crushedbyrollersorbeaters.
Footnote47:
Mr.Bell,ofIrthington,tellsmethatinsomeplacesthefoundation
flagsofthenorthsidepointupwards,atanangleofabouttwenty
degrees,causedapparentlybythesettlingoftheponderousmass.In
thiscircumstance,wehaveaninterestingconfirmationofthe
suppositionthattheWallwassurmountedwithaparapetonitsnorth
side.Thefoundationwouldhavesettledequallyifbothsideshadbeen
burdenedalike.
Footnote48:
PartII.v.iii.p.294.
Footnote49:
Insomepartsoftheline,thejointsoftheWallareatpresent
filledwithearthymatterinsteadofmortar,anditistheopinionof
someauthorities,andamongstthem,theeminentarchitectand
intelligentantiquary,Mr.Dobson,ofNewcastleuponTyne,thatin
theseplaces,clayhasbeenoriginallysubstitutedformortar.Very
loathtosupposethattheoriginalbuildersoftheWallwouldleave
anyportionofitinsounsatisfactoryastate,Ihavebeeninthe
habitofaccountingfortheapparentabsenceofmortarinthe
followingway:Theupperpartofthestructurehavingbeenoverthrown
byaruthlessenemy,andthelowerpartscoveredwiththefallen
rubbish,thewholeheapwouldspeedilybecomecoatedwithvegetation.
Romanmortar,withallitstenacity,wouldnotbeabletoresistthe
powersofvitality;andtheconstantdemandsofthefernsandthe
foxgloveswould,inthecourseoftime,abstractthewholeofthe
lime.Therootsoftheplants,bywhoseagencytheworkofabstraction
hadproceeded,yieldinginduetimetotheprocessofdecay,would
themselves,intheformofvegetableearth,supplytheplaceofthe
limewhichtheyhadwithdrawn.
Footnote50:
TheonlysourceofinformationwhichIhaveuponthesubjectofthis
wall,isatranslationofanextractfromapamphletbyProfessor
Buchner,ofRegensburg,inthefirstvolumeoftheArchologia
liana.Thepreciserelationwhichthe_Pfahl_bearstothestone
Walldoesnotveryclearlyappearfromthispaper;toallappearance,
however,theanalogybetweentheGermanandEnglishbarriersisvery
close.
Footnote51:
Hodg.Northd.II.iii.276.
Footnote52:

Ibid.284.
Footnote53:
IterBoreale,67.

[Illustration]
~TheRomanBarrierofthe
LowerIsthmus.~
PARTIII.
LOCALDESCRIPTIONOFTHEWORKS.
LittledidtheRomansdream,whentheyfixedtheeasternterminationof
theirWallatSEGEDUNUM,oftheworldwidecelebritywhichits
subsequentcognomenWallsendwouldattain.EvenHorsley,writingin
1731,andinwhathelovinglyterms'myowncounty,'[54]didnotforesee
theextensiveminingoperationswhichshortlyafterhisdayweretotake
placeinitsimmediatevicinity.Inordertomarkthesiteofthe
station,hefixesuponCousinsHouse,whichisatsomedistancefrom
thespot,whereas,theprincipalshaftofthecelebratedmineisclose
besideitswesternrampart.
SEGEDUNUM,Wallsend,isadmirablyselectedasthesiteofaRoman
station,andastheeasternterminusoftheWall.Withoutbeingso
much[Sidenote:SEGEDUNUM.]elevatedastogiveitapainfulexposureto
theblastsofthenorthandoftheeast,itcommandsaview,inevery
direction,oftheadjacentcountry.Theground,infrontofit,slopes
rapidlydowntotheriversbrink,andhasafullexposuretothe
middaysun.Thebeautyofitssituationisconsiderablenow;whatmust
ithavebeenwhenagedoakscrownedthecontiguousheights,andtheTyne
rolledbyinthebrilliancyandexuberanceofitsyouth!
[Sidenote:WALLSEND.]
EastwardofWallsend,theriveracquiresasufficientmagnitudetomake
itabarrierquiteformidableenoughtopreventthereadypassageofa
foe,andtorendertheerectionofawallunnecessary.Frequently,
however,woulditbeneedfulforthewatchfuleyeoftheRomanprefect
atSEGEDUNUMtotraversetheexpansewhichlaybetweenhimandthesea.
Thishecouldeasilydo.Thestationstandsuponabendoftheriver,
formedbytwoofthelongestreacheswhichitmakesinthewholeof
itscourse.TheLongreachextendsdownwardsasfarasthehighendof
SouthShields,andtheBillreachstretchesnearlytwomilesupthe
water.Inbothdirections,therefore,anyoperationsconductedonthe
riverwouldbeeasilydiscernedfromthestation.
[Sidenote:SEGEDUNUM.]
AlthoughitwasnotthoughtrequisitetoextendtheWallfurtheralong
thenorthernbankoftheTynethanWallsend,specialprecautionswere
takentosecurethemouthoftheriverfromhostileoccupation.Acamp
atTynemouth,andanotheratNorthShields,weregarrisonedbytroops
fromtheheadquartersatSEGEDUNUM;thesefrownedoverthenorthern
shoreoftheestuary.AsubsidiarystationatTyneLawe,nearSouth
Shields,andanotheratJarrow,guardeditssouthernbank,whilstoneat
Wardley,oppositeWallsend,wouldeffectuallysupport,onthatsideof
theriver,theoperationsofthegarrisonintheprincipalencampment.

Allofthesewillbeexaminedafterwards.
[Illustration:AltartoJupiterCoh.IV.Lingonum]
TheevidencebywhichWallsendisidentifiedwiththe_Segedunum_ofthe
Notitiaisnotsodirectascouldbedesired.Firstinthelistof
officersalongthelineoftheWall,theNotitiaplacestheTribuneof
thefourthcohortoftheLergiatSEGEDUNUM.Now,noinscriptionhas
beenfoundinBritainmentioningtheLergi,butinscriptionshavebeen
foundwhichmentionthesecondandfourthcohortsoftheLingones;on
theotherhand,theLingonesneveroccurintheNotitia,butthecohorts
oftheLergiwhicharethererecorded,arethesecondandthefourth.
Thisbeingthecase,andthedifferenceintheformoftheLatinwords
_Lergorum_and_Lingonum_beingveryslight,theprobabilityis,asMr.
ThomasHodgson,inanablepaperintheArchologialiana,conjectures,
thatsomeearlytranscriberoftheNotitiahaswrittentheonein
mistakefortheother.WithintheprecinctsofTynemouthCastle,inthe
year1783,analtarwasfound,whichformedpartofthefoundationofan
ancientchurch.ItisnowinthepossessionoftheSocietyof
AntiquariesofLondon.Theadjoiningwoodcutaccuratelydelineatesit.
Theinscriptionmaybereadasfollows:
I[OVI]O[PTIMO]M[AXIMO]
AEL[IVS]RVFVS
PRAEF[ECTVS]COH[ORTIS]
IIIILINGO
NVM.
ToJupiterthebestandgreatest,
liusRufus,
ThePrefectofCohortthe
FourthoftheLingo
nes.
Onthesupposition,whichisanaturalone,thatTynemouthwasastation
subsidiarytoWallsend,thisaltargivessatisfactoryproofthatthe
firstofthestationsattheeasternextremityoftheWallisthe
SEGEDUNUMoftheNotitia.Onsomeoccasion,whentheprefectwho
commandedtheestuaryoftheTyne,wasonavisittothisoutpost,he
erectedtoJupiter,whomheignorantlyworshipped,thealtarwhichstill
remains.
[Sidenote:ORIGINOFTHENOTITIANAMES.]
Theetymologyofthenamesofthestationsisaninteresting,but
intricatesubject.Thenewoccupantsofacountryusuallyadoptthe
appellationsbestowedbytheirpredecessorsuponitsmoreprominent
features.Thus,thoughinEnglandtheancientBriton,Roman,Saxon,
Norman,andmodernEnglish,havesuccessivelyprevailed,manyofour
mostfamiliarrivers,astheThames,theIsis,andtheAvon,haveborne,
asWhitakershows,througheachsuccessivechange,theirpresentnames.
Theappellationsofcitiesaremuchmorevariable,butsomeevenof
theseareindelible.StrangeasapaintedBritonofthefirstcentury
wouldfeelhimselfinthestreetsofmodernLondon,its_name_would
fallonhisearasanaccustomedsound.
TheRomanswereaminorityinBritain;and,intheirintercoursewith
thenatives,wouldbecompelledtoadoptthenomenclatureofthepeople.
Wemay,therefore,expecttofindthatthenamesofthestationsare
essentiallyBritish,thoughsomewhatalteredbytheimperfect
pronunciationofthestrangers,andbyaceaselessefforttorecastthe
wordsinthemouldoftheirowntongue.Thechangemostfrequently
introducedconsistsintheadditionofLatinterminations.Thenames
givenbytheaboriginesofacountryareusuallydescriptiveofthe
objecttowhichtheyareattached:theyareepithetschangedintoproper

names.Accordingly,wefindthatthenamesofthestations,sofaras
theyhavebeendecipheredbytheassistanceofthosemodern
representativesoftheancientBritishtonguetheGaelicandnative
Irisharedescriptiveofthelocality.
[Sidenote:ETYMOLOGYOFSEGEDUNUM.]
SEGEDUNUMisanunfortunateexampletobeginwith.TherewasaSegedunum
inAquitania,themodernRodezaSegodunuminNorthernGermany,the
modernSiegen.ThecampatWallsendmayhavereceiveditsnamefromsome
resemblencetooneofthese.Stillthequestionremains,Whatwasthe
commonoriginoftheterm?WallisthinksitisderivedfromtheLatin
_seges_,corn,andtheCeltic_dunum_,ahill;but,exceptinginextreme
cases,anetymologydependentupontwolanguagescanscarcelybe
admitted.AmoreconsistentderivationisfoundintheCeltic_sech_,
(therootoftheFrench_sec_)dry,and_dun_,ahill.Thefinal
syllableisaLatinaffix.Theelevationofthespot,anditsrapid
slopetotheriver,wouldrenderitcomparativelyfreefrom
moisture.[55]
[Sidenote:VILLAGEOFWALLSEND.]
WhateverdoubtmayhangovertheRomannameofthisstation,none
attachestothemodernWallsend
...Abillo
Dicitur,ternumquetenetpersculanomen.
ThenumberofplacesalongthecourseoftheWallwhichhavederived
theirnamesfromthisgreatwork,isverystriking,andprovesthe
importancethathasbeenattachedtoit.Withoutexaminingamap,and
simplydrawingupontheresourcesofmyownmemoryandnotebook,the
followingexamplesoccur:InNorthumberland,wehaveWallsend,Walker,
WallknollinNewcastle,Benwell,Wallbottle,HeddonontheWall,
Welton,Wallhouses,Wall,Walwick,ShieldsontheWall,Wallmill,
Walltown,Thirlwall,andWallend;inCumberland,wehaveWalton,
Wallbours,OldWall,HighWallhead,MiddleWallhead,LowWallhead,
Wallby,andWallfoot.
ThepresentvillageofWallsendisabouthalfamiledistantfromthe
station,alittletothenorthoftheturnpikeroad.Itis,however,of
modernerection.Brandsaysthatanoldwoman,stillliving,remembers
whenthesiteofthepresentWallsendwasanemptyfield.The
traditionalaccountofitserectionis,thataplaguehavingdesolated
theoriginaltown,whichstooduponthesiteofthecamp,andwasbuilt
outofitsruins,theterrifiedinhabitantsforsookthespot,andsought
shelterinthenewlocality.
_PLATEIV._
[Illustration:
_SECTION,afterWarburton,oftheMountainsatBradley,
shewingtherelation,inthehilldistrict,betweentheWall
andtheVallum._
_REID.LITHO.NEWCASTLE._
]
[Sidenote:WALLSEND.]
ApersonunaccustomedtoexaminetheremainsofRomanforts,will
probablybedisappointedtofindtherampartsofWallsendsofeebly
marked;butonewhobringstothetaskapractisedeye,willgiveagood
accountoftheland,andexpresshissurprisethatsomuchofthecamp
isleft.Thestation,itmustberemembered,issituatedontheedgeof

ariverthesceneofanimmensecommerce,inthevicinityofalarge
town,andinthecentreofagreatminingdistrict.
[Sidenote:SEGEDUNUM.]
ThestationofSEGEDUNUMhasoccupiedanareaofthreeacresandahalf.
TheWall,comingfromthewest,hasstruckthenorthcheekofits
westerngateway,andthereterminated.Thewallsofthestationwouldbe
asufficientprotectiontothegarrisonagainstattackfromthenorthor
otherquarters,buttopreventtheenemygettingwithinthebarrier,by
passingbetweenthestationandtheriver,theeasternwallofthe
stationhasbeenbroughtdowntotheriver,andcontinuedintoitto
lowwatermark.[56]
[Illustration:
Drawn&LithographedbyJohnStorey
WALLSEND,LOOKINGEAST.
]
[Sidenote:WALLSEND.]
Intracingtheoutlineofthestationitwillbewelltobeginat
Carvillehall,the'Cousinshouse,'[57]ofHorsley.Betweenitandthe
Gosforthwaggonway,thenorthfosseoftheWallisverydistinct,a
gravelledpath,forsomedistance,occupiesthesiteoftheWall.[58]
BehindtheMethodistchapeltheditchmaystillbetraced,butafter
thatitdisappears.Therowofhousesbetweenthechapelandthestation
ismanifestlyverycloseuponthelineoftheWall.Theold
enginehouse,whichBrandtellsuswassixyardsnorthoftheWall,
stillremains.Thewholeoftherampartsofthenorthernsectionofthe
stationaregone;thewallsofthesouthernportionofitmay,however,
betracedrisingintheformofagrassymoundabovethegenerallevel
ofthesoil.Thecontinuationoftheeasternwallofthestationdown
thebanktotheriversedge,mayalsoberecognised,notonlybythe
gentlemoundwhichitforms,butbythefragmentsofRomanmortar,Roman
tile,andcoarsegrainedsandstone,notpropertothedistrict,which
maybepickeduponit.ThisriverwalljoinstheTyneatthespotwhere
ajettyhasrecentlybeenformed.Numerousswellingsinthegroundto
thesouth,andtotheeastofthestation,indicatetheruinsof
suburbanbuildings.Theseseemtohavebeeninvariableconcomitantsof
stationarycamps.Officerswishingtohavemorespacethanthefort
allowed,thefamiliesofthesoldiers,thecampfollowers,andothers,
whosoughttheprotectionofafortifiedpost,wouldoccupysuch
dwellings.Thesunnyexposureofthestreetsonthesouthofthecamp,
wouldrenderthempeculiarlyacceptabletotheLingoneswhocamefrom
thatpartofGaulwheretheMeuseandMarnehavetheirsource.[59]The
fossewhichprotectedtheeasternrampart,isstilldistinctlyvisible,
andgenerallycontainsalittlewater.Theaccompanyinglithographic
viewisgivenchieflywiththeintentionofshowingtheextensive
commandwhichthestationhadoftheriverbelowit;thesoutheast
angleoftherampartmaybetraceduponit,aswellasthefossebeyond.
Thealtar,representedintheforeground,wasfoundinthevicinityof
thestationafewyearsago,andisstillpreserveduponthespot,itis
withoutaninscription,buthasaholedrilledthroughitscentre,which
ithadwhenfound.Anextensivenaturalvalleyprotectedthewestern
sideofthecamp,whichsomeyearsagowaspartiallyfilledup,inorder
toformthewaggonway.ThehouseoccupiedbythelateMr.JohnBuddle,
theeminentcollieryviewer,isjustwithinthewesternwallofthe
station,andthat,formerlyoccupiedbyMr.JohnReay,isjustwithin
theeasternrampart.ThewaggonwayleadingfromtheWallsendpitseems
toenterthestationbyitswesternportal,andtoleaveitbyits
eastern,andthusexactlytraversesthe_viaprincipalis_ofthecamp.
Theonlytraceofthenortherndivisionofthestationthatremains,
consists[Sidenote:SEGEDUNUM.]oftheroadwhichhasapparentlyledfrom

SEGEDUNUMtotheoutpostsatBlakechestersandTynemouth.This
causewayextendsfromthestationtothenorthoftheShieldsrailway;
itisformedofamassofrubble,abouttwofeetdeep,andiseleven
yardswide.Itcannotbeploughed,andnothingthatrequiresanydepth
ofearthwillgrowuponit.
NumerousproofsofRomanoccupationhavebeendiscoveredatvarious
timesinthestationanditsvicinity.Brandsays,Ifoundafibula,
someRomantegul,andcoins,aring,&c.Immensequantitiesofbones
andteethofanimalsarecontinuallyturningup.Stoneswith
inscriptionswerefound,buttheincuriousmasonsbuiltthemupagainin
thenewworksofthecolliery.Dr.Lingardwastold,thatindigginga
cellarunderthediningroomofMr.Buddleshouse,adeepwellwas
found.IhavebeeninformedbyMr.JohnReay,thatanotherwas
discoveredoutsidethestation,atthespotshownontheplanofthe
station,PlateIV.Astructure,whichwasconceivedtobeabath,was
struckuponaboutthesametime,neartheriversbrink;itwas
immediatelyremoved,butitssiteismarkedontheplan.Manycoinshave
beenfound,butmostoftheminaverycorrodedstate.Abeautifulpiece
ofSamianwarewasgotinsinkingtheshaftofthecolliery,whichis
nowinpossessionoftheSocietyofAntiquariesofNewcastleuponTyne;
itisfiguredinasubsequentPlate.
[Sidenote:WALLSENDTONEWCASTLE.]
LeavingWallsend,andproceedingwestward,theWallischieflytobe
tracedbythepresenceofitsnorthfosse.Thisisverydistinctly
markednearlyallthewaytoByker.InfrontofStoteshouses,the
BeehousesofHorsley,itformsapond,whichisusedforfarmpurposes.
SometracesofthefoundationoftheWallmaybeseen,buttheyare
faint.ThirtyyearsagotheWallwasstanding,foraconsiderable
distance,threeandfourfeethigh,coveredwithbrushwoodofhazel,
oak,andalder.ThetendencyofthehalfruinedWalltogivelodgement
totherootsoftheseplants,isveryremarkable;wherevertheWallis
undisturbedtheyarefound,andinregionswherethehazeldoesnot
occurelsewhere,asintheneighbourhoodofBowness,itistobemet
withabundantlyupontheWall.
Amound,alittlemoreelevatedthantheneighbouringground,nearto
Stoteshouses,pointsoutthesiteofthefirstmilecastlewestof
Wallsend.Thetenantofthefarmtoldmethathehadgotagreat
quantityofstonesfromit.InHorsleystime,thereweretwodistinct
tumuliremainingneartheBeehouses;whatItaketobetherudiments
ofthemmayyetbetraced;oneofthemisjustbehindthestackyardof
thefarm,theother,theleastmarkedofthetwo,alittletothewest
ofit.
TheroadthatisseenstretchinginastraightlineupthehilltoByker
indicatesthedirectionoftheWall,andthoughthefirst,itisbyno
meansthemostremarkableinstancethatweshallmeetwith,ofthe
unflinchingandstraightforwardtendenciesofthisremarkablestructure.
TheWallstoodonthesouthsideofthepresentroad.Thefacingstones
havingalreadybeenremoved,anditbeingdesirabletohavetherocky
remnantentirelyclearedaway,thegroundwaslettopartieswithout
rentforashorttermofyears,onconditionoftheirclearingit,and
bringingitintocultivation.Itisonthisaccountthatthesiteofthe
Wallandfosse,evenyet,isportionedoutinlongnarrowslips,which
are,forthemostpart,usedaspotatogardens.
FromthetopofBykerhill,aninterestingviewisobtainedoftheTyne
andthenumeroushivesofbusymenwhichbestuditsbanks.Thiswouldbe
animportantpostfortheRomansoldier,whocouldeasilyseefromit
thestationsoneitherhandSEGEDUNUMandPONSLIIandallthatwas
goingonbetweenthem.

BetweenBykerandNewcastle,alltracesoftheWallarenownearly
destroyed.In1725,itwas,however,standinginaconditionofimposing
grandeur,asappearsfromStukeleysProspectofitintheIter
Boreale.Hewasinducedtomakethisdrawingbecausethecountrybeing
entirelyunderminedbycollieryexcavations,itmightsometimeor
othersink,andsodisorderthetrackofthisstatelywork.Hedreaded
animaginaryevil,andoverlookedarealone.
Thenorthfossewas,tillrecently,verydistinctwithinthewallof
Heatonpark;itisnowfilledup;manyofthestonesintheparkwall,
aretoallappearance,Roman.Beforedescendingthehill,aportionof
it,boldlydeveloped,mayyetbeseenattheendofasmallrowof
housescalledHowardstreet.
[Sidenote:COURSETHROUGHNEWCASTLE.]
AttheheadofthebankoverlookingtheOuseburnstoodamilecastle,
aswasusualinsuchsituations,toguardthepass.Twostoneswhich,I
ampersuaded,formedpartoftheentrancegatewayofthismiletower,
nowstanduponthestairsleadingtothegrandentranceofthekeepof
theCastleofNewcastleuponTyne.Theymeasuretwofeetbyone,andare
oftheformusuallyemployedintheportalsofmilecastles.Oneofthem
bearsarude,andalmostunintelligible,inscription.Thesestoneswere
foundbuiltupinastructureonthewestbankoftheOuseburn,were
thencetakentoBusyCottage,afterwardsremovedtoHeaton,andfinally
presentedtotheSocietyofAntiquariesofNewcastleuponTyne.
TheWallcrossedtheOuseburnveryneartheancientbridgewhichis
aboutahundredandfiftyyardssouthoftherailwayviaduct.In
preparingthefoundationsofMr.Beckintonssteammillabouttheyear
1800,theworkmencameupontheWall,and,withgreatgoodtaste,built
intotheoppositequaythreeofthelargeststonestheymetwith,in
ordertomarkitssite;theymayyetbeseenatlowwater,andare
evidentlymilecastlestones.
[Sidenote:COURSETHROUGHNEWCASTLE.]
ItisnotpossibletotracetheWallwithminuteaccuracythrough
Newcastle,atownwhichhasbeentheseatofalargeandactive
populationeversincethedaysofRomanoccupation.Inendeavouringto
followitsroute,IshallmainlydependupontheinvestigationsofMr.
GeorgeBouchierRichardson,whohasforseveralyearspastmadethe
antiquitiesoftheMetropolisoftheNorthhisespecialstudy,and
whosepaperuponthissubject,recentlyreadbeforetheSocietyof
Antiquariesofthistown,willdoubtlessspeedilyappearinthe
Archologialiana.
[Sidenote:NEWCASTLEUPONTYNE.]
RisingfromthewesternbankoftheOuseburn,ittraversedthenorth
sideofStepneybank,passedthroughthegardensattheRedBarns,along
thesiteofthepresentMelbournestreet,and,proceedingbehindthe
KeelmensHospital,cametotheSallyport.This,whichwasoneofthe
gatesofthetown,issometimesdescribedasaRomanbuilding,butisof
medivalorigin.Thence,theWallwentoverthecrestofthehillstill
calledtheWallknoll,wherethefoundationsofitwereturnedupabout
themiddleofthelastcentury.ItcrossedPandondeanonthenorthside
ofthelocalitycalledtheStockbridge,and,initswesterncourse,
ascendedthesteephill,onthesummitofwhichstandsAllSaints
church.Brandtellsusthatthecryptoftheoldchurchhadplainlybeen
builtofstonesplunderedfromtheadjacentWall.AwellofRoman
masonryissaidtohavebeendiscoverednearthechurchwhenthe
foundationsofthenewbuildingwereprepared.CrossingPilgrimstreeta
littleaboveSilverstreet,thecourseoftheWallisindicatedbythe
presentnarrowstreetcalledtheLowbridge.Untilacomparatively

recentperiod,thesiteofDeanstreetformedtheunenclosedbedofthe
Lortburn,andwasspannedbyanarchcalledtheLowbridge.Atthe
pointwherethismedivalviaductstood,itsRomanpredecessorcarried
theWall,withitsattendantmilitaryway,acrossthegully.Thechurch
ofSt.Nicholas,accordingtoLeland,whosestatementisconfirmedby
subsequentwriters,stonditheontheveryPictsWaulle.TheWall,
leavingthechurch,crossesCollingwoodstreetinanobliquedirection,
andpassingbySt.Johnschurch,theVicaragehouse,andthe
Assemblyrooms,makesfortheTownwallsomewhattothenorthofthe
siteoftheWestgate.Therecanbelittledoubtthatinitsexitfrom
thetown,theWalloccupiedtheelevationonwhichCumberlandrownow
stands.
[Sidenote:PONSLII.]
PONSLII.HavingtrackedtheWallinitspassagethroughthemodern
town,thesiteoftheancientstationofPONSLIInextdemands
attention.
Horsleyistheonlywriterwhohasattemptedtodefineitslimits,and
hehadbutslenderevidencetoguidehim.Hetakes,ashisdata,the
threefollowingfacts:1.ThecourseoftheWallwestward,whichhe
conceives,andnodoubtcorrectly,wouldformthenorthernboundaryof
thestation;2.ThedirectionoftheVallum,someportionsofwhich
remained,inhisday,justoutsidetheWestgate;3.'Atraditionary
accountoftheWallhavingpassedthroughSt.Georgesporch,nearthe
northwestcornerofSt.Nicholaschurch.'Asthisporchstandsa
littletothesouthofthelineofthegreatWall,aslaiddownbyhim,
heconceivesthatthistraditionarywallmusthavebeentheeastwallof
thestation,anddrawsituponhisplanaccordingly.[60]Thewestern
wallnowonlyremainedtobedetermined,andthispointwaseasily
settled,bysupposingthestationtohavebeensquare.Accordingtothe
lineassignedbyhimtotheVallum,sixchainsisthedistancewhich
wouldintervenebetweenitandtheWall;hethereforeplacesthewestern
rampartofthestationatthecorrespondingdistanceofsixchainsfrom
theeastern,andenclosesaltogetheranareaoflittlemorethanthree
acres.
ItmaywellbedoubtedwhethertheimportantstationofPONSLIIwould
besubjectedtotheordinaryrulesofcastrametation.Iamstrongly
disposedtothink,thatitwouldpartakeofthefeaturesofacommercial
aswellasofamilitarycapital,andthatitswallswouldnotonly
embraceawiderrangethanordinarycamps,butwouldbeallowedtoadapt
themselvesmorefreelytothenatureoftheground.
ThewantsoftheimmensebodyoftroopsrequiredtogarrisontheWall,
andmanitsoutposts,wouldcreateaconsiderableamountofcommerce.
TheinhabitantsofItaly,Gaul,andSpain,wouldbeunwillingallat
oncetoforegothecomfortsandluxuriesoftheirsunnyclimes,andto
beentirelycutofffromintercoursewiththelandoftheirnativity.
Thefragmentsofamphor,whicharesoabundantlymetwithontheline
oftheWall,shewthatthesoldierssometimesgladdenedtheirhearts
withthewineoftheirnativehills;andtheinnumerablesherdsof
Samianware,whichusuallybestrewthecampsofRomanoccupation,prove
thatacontinualintercoursewaskeptupwiththecontinent.Tothesea,
asameansofcommunicationbetweenmanyofthestationsofRoman
Britain,frequentrecoursewouldbehad.
Theexportsfromthisislandtothecontinentwereconsiderable.Camden
tellsus,thateveryyearnotlessthaneighthundredvesselsladenwith
cornaloneweresentoutofit.Certainitis,thattheimperial
governmentwouldexpectanadequatereturnfortheexpenditure
occasionedbythetroopsinthiscountry,andthatthecommoditiesof
thecontinentwouldnotbetransmittedtotheoccupantsoftheWallfrom

motivesofmerebenevolence.Lead,whichisnowsoabundantinthethree
northerncounties,wouldprobablyformonearticleofexport,andcorn
another.Thosewhohavenoticedthefertilityofsomeportionsofthe
regionwateredbytheTyne,willbeabletoconceivehowluxuriantwere
theharvestswhichitsalluvialsoilproducedwhenfirstturnedupby
theplough.Itiscertainthatcoalhasbeenwroughttosomeextentin
Romantimes,andsomeofitmayhavebeenexported.
NoplaceinthenorthofEnglandwassowellfittedasNewcastletobe
theemporiumofthecommerceoftheNorth.Situateduponanobleriver,
atabouttenmilesfromitsmouth,itcombinedthenavaladvantagesof
thecoast,withthesecurityofaninlandsituation.Thewealtharising
fromthecommerceoftheportwouldincreaseitsimportance,andthe
facilitywithwhichforeignnewsandforeignluxuriescouldbeobtained,
wouldrenderitthefrequentresortofthoseprefectsandtribuneswhose
usualpostswereinbleakerandmoreinhospitableregions.Thefactthat
theriverwasatthispartspannedbyabridgeofmanyarches,isa
strikingindicationoftheimportanceoftheplaceeveninthedaysof
theemperorHadrian.
NoaccounthascomedowntousofthestateofNewcastleinthedaysof
Romanoccupation,butif,afterithadbeendeprivedoftheadvantages
whichtheresidenceofthemuralgarrisonconferreduponit,the
venerableBedecallsit'anillustriousroyalcity''_vicoregis
illustri_'wemustconcludethatitwasaplaceofconsiderable
importance.Thenaturaladvantagesofthesituationstrucktheeyeof
Camden;Now,sayshe,wheretheWallandTinealmostmeettogether,
Newcastleshewethitselfgloriouslytheveryeyeofallthetownesin
theseparts.
Underthesecircumstances,thereseemstobenoreasonwhythewallsof
PONSLIIshouldformtheusualmilitaryparallelogramanymorethan
RomanRochester,orPompeii,orRomeitself,muchlessthatthestation
shouldoccupyanareaoflittlemorethanthreeacres.
ThecontourofthegroundonwhichthemodernNewcastlestands,is
peculiar.Itconsistsofthreetonguesofland,separatedbynatural
valleyspermeatedbyrivulets.Thewesternmostofthesepresentsthe
boldestfronttotheriver,andisthatonwhichtheCastlestands;the
Skinnerburnboundsitonthewest,andthevalleyoftheLortburn,the
presentDeanstreet,ontheeast.Thecontiguoustongueliesbetweenthe
LortburnandPandondean;andthatstillfurtherremoved,hasforits
easternboundarytheOuseburn.Thesamenaturaladvantageswhich
recommendedtheheightsofthemostwesterlyofthesestripsofground
totheNormansfortheerectionoftheirstronghold,wouldnodoubt
previouslyinducetheRomanstoselectitastheirchiefposition.They
probablyenclosednearlythewholeofitwithintheirwalls.Horsley,
indeed,placeshiscampinthisdivision,butintheleastadvantageous
partofit,whetherconsideredinamilitaryorinacommercialpointof
view.TheRomanswouldsurelynotoverlooktheimportanceoftheravine
ofDeanstreetasadefenceontheeast,especiallyatatimewhenthe
tideflowedupitasfarasthePainterheugh,andofthecliffthat
descendsfromtheCastletotheriveronthesouth.Thenecessityof
defendingthebridge,andcommandingtheTynewouldnotbeforgotten.
Takingallthesethingsintoaccount,wemayfairlysupposethewallsof
PONSLIItohavebeenthusdefined:TheWall,passingthroughthesite
ofSt.Nicholaschurch,would,ofcourse,beitsnorthernboundary;a
linecomingfromthechurch,andadaptingitselftothecrestofthe
hillthatoverhangsDeanstreet,crossingtheHeadoftheSideand
stretchingasfarastheelevatedangleonwhichtheCountycourtsnow
stand,willprobablymarkitseasternboundary;thesouthernrampart
wouldrunfromthisanglealongtheedgeofthecliffoverhangingthe
Close,asfarasthesiteoftheWhitefriartower,whichstoodatthe
headofthepresentHanoverstreet;thewesternwallmayhaveruninthe
lineoftheTownwallasfarasNevilletower,andthenhavestruckup

inastraightlinetomeetthegreatWall.Westwardofthisboundary,
thegroundslopesdowntotheSkinnerburn.Iftheselinesarecorrectly
drawn,RomanNewcastlewouldcontainupwardsofsixteenacres.
AlthoughthecampofPONSLIIoccupiedthistongueofland,thereisno
reasontosupposethatsuburbanbuildingswerenoterectedontheother
two,bothofwhicharewellprotectedbytheirnaturalsituation.There
isgoodgroundtobelievethatPandon,whichwasformerlyaseparate
townfromNewcastle,andisseatedonthemiddlestrip,wasofRoman
origin.VillasandgardensprobablyextendedasfarastheOuseburn.
Inordertorendertheprecedingdescriptionintelligibletopersons
unacquaintedwiththetopographyofNewcastle,aplanofthetown(Plate
V.)andalithographicviewofPONSLIIareappended.Intheplanof
thetown,Horsleysdemarkationofthestation,aswellastheonehere
proposed,islaiddown.FortheviewofPONSLII,thefrontispiece,I
amindebtedtothepencilofMr.G.BouchierRichardson;thecontourof
thegroundisveryaccuratelydelineated,andtheprobableoutlineof
thestationmarked;thedetailsofthepictureareofcoursefilledup
accordingtotheartistsfancyafancyregulatedbyhisantiquarian
knowledge.
_PLATEV._
[Illustration:
PlanofPONSLIIANDOFTHECOURSEOFTHEWALLTHROUGH_NEWCASTLEON
TYNE_.
And^w.Reids.c.
]
[Sidenote:NEWCASTLEUPONTYNE.]
Romanantiquities,which,whentheyabound,aresoserviceablein
definingtheseatofRomanoccupation,areunfortunatelyhererather
scantyandunimportant.Thiscannotbematterofsurprise.Inthemiddle
ages,Newcastleaboundedinchurchesandmonasticbuildings.Tothe
erectionoftheseandoftheCastle,theTownwall,andGates,every
stonewhetherlettered,sculptured,orplain,thatcouldeasilybe
obtained,wouldbeappropriated.
[Sidenote:PONSLII.]
TheprecinctsoftheCastlehaveaffordedthemostimportantdiscoveries
ofthiskind.ThepresentCountycourtsoccupythesiteofabuilding
whichusedtobecalledtheHalfmoonbattery.Thiswasprobablythe
positionofthesoutheastangleofthestationofPONSLII,andsome
ofthelinesoftheoctagonalfaceofthebatterypresentednodoubtthe
actualcurveofthestation.ToacertainextenttheNormanbuildersmay
haveconvertedtotheirownusesaportionofthelaboursoftheir
imperialpredecessors;appearancesseemedtoshewthattheCastlewall
betweentheHalfmoonbatteryandtheBlackgatehadresteduponaRoman
foundation.WhentheCountycourtswerebuilt,someimportant
discoveriesweremade.Mr.Hodgson,whowatchedtheprogressofthe
excavations,hasthusdescribedthem:
IndiggingforthefoundationsfortheNorthumberlandCounty
Courthouse,in1810,awellwasfoundfinelycasedwithRoman
masonry.Itstillremainsbelowthecentrepartofthepresent
courthouse.Ithadoriginallybeenaspring,orsunklowdownonthe
riverbank,anditscircularwall,raisedwithinanotherstrongwall
intheformofatrapeziumtotheheightoftheareaofthestation,
andthespacebetweenthemtraversedwithstrongconnectingbeamsof
oakbothhorizontallyandperpendicularly,andthentightlypackedup
withpureblueclay.Somebeamsofthistimberweretakenupand

formedintothejudgesseats,andchairsforthegrandjuryroom,now
inuse.Twooftheperpendicularbeamshadverylargestagshornsat
theirlowerend,apparentlytoassistinsteadyingthemtillclay
sufficientwasputaroundthemtokeepthemupright.Ontheoriginal
slopeofthebanknexttheouterwall,therewasathicklayerof
ferns,grasses,brambles,andtwigsofbirchandoak,closelymatted
together,andevidentlyshowingthatbeforetheseworkswere
constructed,manhadnottenantedthespot.[61]Herealsowereexposed
largeremainsofthefoundationsofotherverythickandstrongwalls,
oneofwhichroseintotheeasternwalloftheOldMoothall,which
wasofexactlythesamebreadth,bearing,andstyleofbuilding,and
doubtlessofthesamedateastheRomanfoundationsofwhichitwasa
continuance.
[Sidenote:ANTIQUITIESOFPONSLII.]
ThewholesiteoftheCourthouse,forseveralfeetabovetheoriginal
surfaceoftheearth,wasstrewnwithachaosofRomanruins.Iwas
frequentlyonthespotwhiletheexcavationswerecarryingon,andsaw
duguplargequantitiesofRomanpottery,twobronzecoinsof
AntoninusPius,partsoftheshaftofaCorinthianpillar,fluted,and
ofthefinestworkmanship;besidesmanymillstones,andtwoaltars,
onebearinganillegibleinscription,andtheotherquiteplain.The
altarswerefoundnearthenortheastcorneroftheCourthouse,and
nearthemasmallaxe,andaconcavestone,whichboremarksoffire,
wassplit,andhadthinflakesofleadinitsfissures.Thebroad
foundationwallswerefirmandimpenetrableasthehardestrock.On
Aug.11,1812,whenthefoundationsofthenorthporticoweresinking,
aRomancoinwasfound(ofwhatEmperorIhavenominute,)andthe
originalsurfaceofthegroundwascoveredwithathickstratumof
smallwood,somepartsofwhichwerewattledtogetherintheformof
cratesorthecorfsofcollieries,butinadecayedstate,andcutas
easilywiththeworkmensspades,asthebrushwoodfoundinpeat
mossesdoes.Astherewasmuchhorseormulesdungnearthem,and
somemulesshoesamongstit,Ithoughttheyhadbeenfixedthereas
cratesorrackstoeatfodderoutof.
[Illustration]
Sincethatperiod,fewimportantdiscoverieshavebeenmade.Incutting
thecrestofthehillinfrontoftheCastleforoneofthepiersofthe
Railwayviaduct,asmallstonefigureofMercury,representedinthe
adjoiningwoodcut,[62]wasfound.Itispreserved,amongother
antiquities,intheMuseumintheCastle.
Betweentheyears1840and1844,theWhitefriartowerandthe
contiguousportionsoftheTownwallofNewcastlewereremoved.Two
Romanaltarswerediscovered,whicharenowinthepossessionofthe
SocietyofAntiquaries,NewcastleuponTyne.Oneofthemisdestituteof
aninscription,andtheotherseemstobearthewordSILVANO.Several
coinsoftheRomanandmedivalagewerepickedupinitsimmediate
vicinity.TheRomancoinswereofboththeupperandthelowerempire.
Fromthemannerinwhichthepiecesofthemiddleandancientperiods
werecommingled,athingofrareoccurrence,itmaybeinferredthatthe
towerwasformedoutofRomanmaterials,andthattheRomancoinswere
reimbeddedwithoutbeingnoticed,whilsttheworkmeninadvertently
addedNurembergtokensandothercontemporarypiecestothenumismatic
treasuresofthespot.
But,perhaps,thestructurewhichgavenametoPONSLIIaffordsthe
mostinterestingfootprintsofRomanoccupationinNewcastle.
[Sidenote:THEBRIDGEOFLIUS.]

Horsleyreceivedsufficientevidencetoconvincehim,thataRomanroad
hadgonefromthesouthbankoftheTynetoChesterlestreet,and
thencetothesouthofEngland.Abridgewasnecessarytoconductthe
roadacrosstheriver.In1771,afloodhavingcarriedawayseveralof
thearchesofthebridgewhichthenexisted,andmateriallydamagedthe
restofthestructure,itwasfoundnecessarytoerectanewone.In
removingtheoldpiersthedistinguishingcharacteristicsofRoman
masonrywereobserved;andtheworkmenwereledtobelievethatthe
archesofthemedivalstructurehadbeenplaceduponthefoundations
whichHadrianlaid.Severalpilesoffineblackoak,whichhadsupported
thefoundation,weredrawnoutofthebedoftheriver,andfoundtobe
inastateofexcellentpreservation.[63]
[Sidenote:COINSFOUNDINTHEBRIDGE.]
Thecoinsthatwerefoundimbeddedinthepiersgivedecidedevidenceof
theRomanoriginofthestructure.Tosomeofthese,inthepossession
ofGeorgeRippon,esq.,ofWaterville,NorthShields,Ihavehadaccess;
theyarehererepresented.
[Illustration]
_Obv._HADRIANUSAUGUSTUS,CONSULTERTIUM.PATERPATRI.Bareheadof
Hadrian.
_Rev._GERMANIA.Theprovincepersonifiedasafemalestanding.Inher
rightsheholdsalance;herlefthandrestsuponaGermanshaped
shield.
[Illustration]
_Obv._IMPERATORCSARTRAJANUSHADRIANUSAUGUSTUS.Laureatedheadof
Hadrian.
_Rev._PONTIFEXMAXIMUSTRIBUNITIAPOTESTATECONSULTERTIUM.Afemale
figure,withhelmet,standing,holdingalanceinherlefthand,andin
herrightapatera,underwhichisanobjectthatappearstobean
altar.
[Illustration]
_Obv._Sameastheformer;butCONSULSECUNDUM.
_Rev._Legendsameastheformer,butintheexergueJUSTITIA.Afemale
seated;inherrighthandapatera,inherleftaspear.
[Illustration]
_Obv._Sameasthetwoformer.
_Rev._Sameasintheformer,butintheexergue.FELPR(Felicitas
PopuliRomani).Afemaleseated;inherrighthandacaduceus,inher
leftacornucopia.
[Illustration]
_Obv._SEVERUSAUGUSTUSPARTHICUSMAXIMUS.Laureatedheadofthe
emperor.
_Rev._PROVIDENTIAAUGUSTORUM.Thefigureofafemalestanding,witha
globeatherfeet.
ThecoinsofHadrianareremarkablyboldandsharp,andcannothavebeen
longincirculationbeforebeingdepositedinthebedwheresixteen
centuriesofreposeawaitedthem;thatofSeverusisagooddeal

corroded.Besidesthese,othercoinshavebeenfound.Brandhadoneof
Trajan,andheengravesacoppercoinofHadrian;healsohadinhis
possessiononeofAntoninusPius.Pennantdescribes,amongstothers,a
coinofFaustinatheElder,andoneofLuciusVerus.Hodgsonsawcoins
ofGordianandMagnentius,allofwhichhadbeenobtainedfromthesame
spot.
ThecoinsposteriortothetimeofHadrianwereprobablydeposited
duringtherepairsandalterationswhichthebridgereceivedafterits
originalconstructioninA.D.120.
[Sidenote:CHARACTEROFTHEBRIDGE.]
Itisprobablethattheancientbridgehadnostonearches,butwas
providedwithahorizontalroadwayoftimber.Pennant[64]whoderived
hisinformationfromtheworkmen,says,thattheoldpiersseem
originallytohavebeenformedwithoutanyspringsforarches.Thiswas
amannerofbuildingusedbytheRomans;witnessthebridgebuiltover
theDanubebyTrajan,atSeverin,whosepiers,Ibelieve,stillexist.
ThefoundationsofthepiersofthreeRomanbridgesintheregionofthe
Wall,stillremainoneacrosstheTyne,atCORSTOPITUM,oneacrossthe
NorthTyne,atCILURNUM,andanotheracrosstheReedwater,at
HABITANCUM;anexaminationofthesehasinducedmetobelievethatthey,
atleast,hadnoarches.Thepiersareofasizeandstrengthsufficient
towithstandthethrustofthewaterswithouttheaidofanarch;andin
oneatleastofthesecases,therequisitespringofthearchwouldhave
raisedtheroadtoaninconvenientheight.Anexperiencedmasonwho
examinedcarefullytheruinsofthebridgeatHABITANCUMtoldmethathe
observedthatallthestoneswhichencumberedthespotweresquare,none
ofthemhavingtheshapeofstonesusedinbuildingarches.Itis
certainthatinthemedivalperiodtheNewcastlebridgehadaroadway
oftimber;forMatthewofParistellsusthat,A.D.1248,it,andthe
greaterpartofthetownweredestroyedbyfire.
[Sidenote:SUPPOSEDMEDALOFTHEBRIDGE.]
Brand,misledbytheearlynumismatists,conceivedthatthebridge
acrosstheTynehadbeenhonouredbyacommemorativemedal.Hesays
Twocoinsappeartohavebeenstruckuponthebuildingoftwobridges
bythisemperor;oneisdoubtlesstobereferredtothatofRome;may
nottheotherhavebeenintendedtocommemoratetheworkwearenow
considering?Oneofthebridgesmarkedonthesecoinshasseven,the
otherfivearches.TheTiberbeingaveryinconsiderableriver,when
comparedwiththeTyne,wemustthereforeclaimthatwithseven
archesespeciallyaswefindaviewofthePonsliusatRomein
Piranesiscollection,withoutthemodernornaments,whereitis
representedasconsistingofexactlyfivearches.[65]
Alas!foratheorysobeautifulandsogratefultothefeelingsof
Newcastleantiquaries!Mr.Akerman,inhisworkonrareandinedited
Romancoins,haspronouncedtherelentlessverdictThemedallionwith
the_Pontlius_,quotedbytheearlynumismaticwriters,isamodern
fabrication.
Itisperhapstoomuchtosupposethatallthearchesofthemedival
bridgeresteduponRomanfoundations,butitismorethanprobablethat
thepiersoftheoriginalstructurewouldbeatleastasnumerousas
thoseofitssuccessor.Themedivalbridgehadtwelvearches.
[Sidenote:ORIGINOFTHENAMEPONSLII.]
Noaltarorotherinscribedstonehasbeenfoundtoconfirmtheopinion
thatNewcastlewastheancientPONSLII.Brandwasofopinionthatthe

inscriptionsbelongingtothestationofPONSLIIareallbuiltupin
theoldkeepoftheCastle,andthatarichtreasureofthiskindwill
sometimeorotherbediscovered,lurkinginitsalmostimpregnable
walls,byfutureantiquaries.Maytheantiquaryneverbebornthat
shallbeholdthistreasure!Suchevidenceis,however,scarcelyneeded
toleadustotheancientdesignationoftheplace.ThefactthatPONS
LIIoccursintheNotitiabetweenSEGEDUNUMandCONDERCUM,andthat
Newcastleliesbetweenthemodernrepresentativesofthesetwostations,
WallsendandBenwell,isstrongpresumptioninfavourofthetheory,and
thefactthataRomanbridgeherecrossedtheTyne,rendersitalmost
indubitable.ThisstructuretookthenameoftheBridgeoflius,after
Hadrian,[66]whowasofthelianfamily,andthebridgegavenameto
thestation.TheNotitiainformsusthatPONSLIIwasgovernedbythe
tribuneofthecohortoftheCornovii,apeople,saysHodgson,whose
nameisunnoticedbyalltheancientgeographersIhaveaccessto.
[Sidenote:THECASTLEOFNEWCASTLEUPONTYNE.]
BeforeleavingthestationofPONSLII,areferencetothemedival
structuretheNormankeepwhichgivesthetownitsmodernname,maybe
allowed.ItisthemostperfectspecimenofNormancastrametationinthe
kingdom;andacarefulexaminationofitsstructurewillyieldamore
correctviewofthemodeofwarfareadoptedatthetimeofitserection,
andofthemournfulconditionofsocietythenexisting,thanthefullest
verbaldescriptioncouldgive.Withinarecentperioditspassageshave
beenclearedanditsportalsopened,soastoaffordtheantiquaryan
opportunityofexaminingitthoroughly.TheCorporationofNewcastle,
whosepropertyitis,have,inthisrespect,setanexamplewhichmight
withadvantagebefollowedbythenationalgovernment.Tothestudentof
theWall,however,thecollectionofRomanantiquitieswhichthecastle
contains,willbetheobjectofgreatestinterest.Inthenumberand
importanceofitsaltarsandinscribedstones,itexcelseveryother
museuminBritain.AstheCastlecontainssomanyofthespoilsofthe
Wall,itismuchtobewishedthatitcouldbemadethedepositoryof
allthathavebeendiscoveredontheline.Numerousindividualobjects
ofinterestarescatteredoverthecountry,andhewhowouldexamine
themallmusttravelseveralhundredmiles,andpropitiatethefavourof
manyprivategentlemen,aswellaspublicbodies.Documentsillustrative
ofthehistoryofacountrymayberegardedasthepropertyofthe
country,sofaratleast,astobemadeeasilyaccessibletoall.PONS
LIIisthefittingplacetodepositthoseantiquitiesoftheWallwhich
cannotbecarefullypreservedonthespotwheretheRomansoriginally
placedthem.
[Sidenote:ROADTOBENWELL.]
Thereaderwillprobablynowbegladtodisentanglehimselffromthe
intricaciesofPONSLII,andtopursuewithrapidstepsthecourseof
theWallwestward.
BetweenNewcastleandBenwellhill,thetracesoftheworksarefaint
butinteresting.Theturnpikeroadrunsuponthebedoftheprostrate
Wall,sothat,exceptoccasionallyinaneighbouringbuilding,notone
stoneofitistobeseen;itsconstantcompanion,thenorthfosse,may,
however,berecognizedinakindofdepressionorslack,whichruns
nearlyallthewayparallelwiththeroadonthetravellersrighthand.
Onhisleft,hewillsometimesbeabletodiscernwithtolerable
certaintythecourseoftheVallum.Asmall,butwelldefinedportionof
it,ismetwithimmediatelyafterleavingthetown,behindarowof
houses,appropriatelytermedAdrianople.Thoughthestonewallhas
perished,thishumbleearthworkhassurvivedtheaccidentsofseventeen
eventfulcenturies!Itsdays,however,arenownumbered;acontiguous
quarryismakingrapidencroachmentsuponit.

[Sidenote:CONDERCUM.]
CONDERCUM.AbouttwomilesfromNewcastle,andnearthemodernvillage
ofBenwell,stoodthethirdstationoftheline,CONDERCUM.
Thepresentturnpikeroadrunsthroughit,occupying,inall
probability,verynearlythesiteofitsancient_viaprincipalis_.So
feeble,however,arethetracesofitwhichremain,thatthewayfarer
whodoesnotscrutinizethespotverynarrowly,willpassonhisjourney
withoutknowingthatheistreadinggroundoncejealouslyguardedby
imperialpowerthescene,forcenturies,ofacrowdedcitysjoysand
fears.
Thesituationofthecampisgood;withoutbeingmuchexposed,it
commandsanextensiveprospectineverydirection.Northwards,looking
overthegroundsofFenham,theSimonsidehillsappearinthedistance,
andstillmoreremote,istheloftyrangeofCheviot.Tothesouthis
thevaleofRavensworth,whichisexceededbythevaleofClwydonlyin
magnitude,notinbeauty,andtothesouthwest,thelordlyTynethreads
itswaythroughtherichestoflandscapes.
Thesunnyslope,southofthestation,wasfavourablefortheerection
ofthesuburbanbuildingsoftheoccupantsofthecamp,thefoundations
ofseveralhavingbeendiscovered.
InHorsleysdays,therampartswerelargeanddistinct;now,their
surfaceischieflymarkedbyageneralelevation,occasionedprobablyby
theaccumulatedruinsoftheancientfort.Itcontainsinallaspaceof
nearlyfiveacres.GordonconceivedthattheWallwascontinuedright
throughthestation.Thiswouldhavedivideditintotwodistinctparts.
AsHorsleyandBrandprove,theWallcameuptoitseasternandwestern
ramparts,butdidnotpassthroughit.Thenorthernwallofthestation
itselfwasasufficientdefenceinthatquarter.Aboutathirdofthe
stationwastothenorthofthelineoftheWall,theremaining
twothirdswerewithinit.TheVallum,Horsleytellsus,fellinwith
thesouthernrampart.
Theportionnorthoftheturnpikeroadisatpresentundertillage.In
Brandsdaysitwascoveredwithaplantation.Themanwhofirst
ploughedittoldmethatindoingso,hishorse,ononeoccasion,sank
uptoitsmiddleintraversingsomechambersthathadbeeninsecurely
covered.ThequantityofRomanpotterywhichisfoundinthisportionof
thecampisremarkable.Fragmentsmaybeseenateverystep.The
peculiarcharacteroftheRomanearthenware,especiallyofthe
coralcolouredkind,denominatedSamian,rendersthisaninteresting
evidenceofRomanoccupation.
Thelargerportionofthestation,thattothesouthoftheroad,is
enclosedwithinthewallsofBenwellpark.Theinequalitiesofits
grassysurfaceindicatethelinesofitsstreets,andthepositionof
someofitsprincipalbuildings.Nearitscentreisalargemound,which
wouldprobablyrewardexamination.Thesouthernrampart,withitsfosse,
isverydistinct.
[Sidenote:BENWELL.]
Twohypocaustshavebeendiscoveredinconnexionwiththisstation;one
withinitswalls,closetothesouthsideoftheroad,andbetweenforty
andfiftyyardsfromtheeasternrampart,theotherwithoutthem,and
aboutthreehundredyardstothesouthwest.Ofthelatterbuildinga
planisgivenbyBrand.Itcontainedeightornineapartments,fiveof
whichhadfloorssupporteduponpillars.Thefloorsconsistedofflags
coveredwithacompositionofvarioushardingredients,abouteighteen
inchesthick,suchassmallpiecesofbrickandblueandredpots,mixed

upwithrunlime.Thepillarswereallofstone,andweresoarranged
astoallowhotairtocirculatebeneaththeapartments.Theidea
generallyentertainedofthesearrangementsis,thattheywereintended
forhotbathsandsudatories.Inpursuanceofthisopinion,Mr.Shafto,
whodiscoveredthishypocaust,says:Herewerefoundmanysquarebricks
withholesinthemiddle,whichwereprobablyjoinedtogetherbywayof
pipes,toconductthewaterfromthetopofthehill,wheretherewas
alsotheappearanceofotherbaths,andwhere,probably,springshad
been,butsincedrainedbythecolliery.HowevermuchtheRomansin
theirownluxuriouscitymayhavebeenaddictedtotheindulgenceofthe
hotbathandthesweatingroom,itmaywellbedoubted,whether,inthis
coldclimate,theywouldhaveanygreatdesireforit,oriftheyhad,
whetherthedreadrealitiesofwarwouldallowthemtomake,onan
enemysfrontier,erectionssoextensiveasthishasbeen,forsucha
purpose.Nexttofood,warmthwouldbetheirmosturgentdemand,anda
moreeffectualmodeofmaintainingauniformtemperatureintheir
dwellingscouldnotbedevisedthanthatwhichthehypocaustsupplied.
[Illustration]
Brandtellsusthatgreatconduitsorsewers,composedoflargewrought
stones,werediscoveredinthenorthpartofthestationatthedepthof
aboutayardandahalf.
Severalinscribedslabsandsmallaltarshavebeenfoundinthestation.
Themostimportantoneofthese,whichispreservedintheparsonageat
Ryton,ishererepresented.BycomparingitwiththeNotitia,welearn
theancientnameofthestation,andthelocalityofitsoriginal
occupants.
MATRIBVSCAMPEST[RIBVS]
ETGENIOALPRI[M]HISPANORVM
ASTVRVM[OBVIRTVTEM]
[APPELLAT]GORDIANTITVS]
AGRIPPAPR[FECTVS]TEMPLVMAS[OLO]
[RES]TITVIT.
TotheCampestralMothers,
andtotheGeniusofthefirstwingofSpanish
Astures,onaccountoftheirvalour,
styledGordiana,Titus
Agrippa,theirprefect,thistemple,fromtheground,
rebuilt.
TheNotitiarecordsthattheprfect_alprimAstorum_wasstationed
atCONDERCUM.Thisslab,readsAst_u_rum,notAst_o_rum.Attwoother
stationsthesamepeopleresided;atCILURNUM,theNotitiaplacesthe
prfect_alsecundAstorum_,andatsica,thetribune_cohortis
primAstorum_.Atboththeseforts,aswellasinthecaseimmediately
beforeus,inscriptionshavebeenfoundwhicharewrittenAst_u_rum;the
probability,therefore,is,thataclericalerrorhascreptintothe
Notitia,andthatitwastheAstures,nottheAsti(apeopleof
Liguria),whogarrisonedtheseposts.TheAstureswereapeoplefromthe
easternpartofthemodernAsturias,inSpain.'Undertheempire,the
term_ala_wasappliedtoregimentsofhorse,raised,itwouldseem,
withveryfewexceptions,intheprovinces.'[67]Thisfracturedslab,
therefore,furnishesuswiththeinformationthatthecampatBenwell
wasancientlynamedCONDERCUM,andthatitwasgarrisonedbyaSpanish
cavalryregiment.Itsuppliesotherfacts.Thisregimentwasstyled,
probablyonaccountofsomeillustriousachievement,Gordiana.The
emperorGordian,fromwhomthistitleisderived,beganhisreigninthe
year238.Wehavethusaproofofthecontinuedoccupationofthecamp
untiladatesubsequenttothisperiod.Theeventrecordedbythe
inscriptionistothesameeffect.Atemplewhichhadbeenerected,
probablyatthefirstformationofthestation,hadthroughtimeorthe

chancesofwar,becomesoentirelydilapidated,astorequire
rebuilding,andTitusAgrippaaccomplishedthework.TheRomans,
althoughtheyhadatthistimebeenlongintheoccupationofthe
isthmus,hadthennothoughtsofrelinquishingit.Thewoodlanddeities,
towhomthetemplewasdedicated,willrequireseparatediscussion
afterwards.[Illustration:altar]Tothesameoccasionwillbereferred
aremarkablealtarinscribedtothethreeLami,whichwasdiscoveredat
thisstation.Twoaltars[68]oflessimportance,whichwerefoundhere,
mayatoncebedisposedof.Theyarededicatedtooneofthefavourite
deitiesofRomeMars.Thefocus,orplaceforburningtheoffering,is
deepandwellmarkedineachofthem.Theyaresmalldomesticaltars,
beforewhichthesoldierwouldperformhisprivatedevotions.Assuch,
theygiveusalittleinsightintotheheartandfeelingsofthe
worshipper.
DEOM
ARTIV
ICTOR[I]
VINDI[CI]
V[OTVM]
Tothegod
Mars
TheConqueror_and_
Avenger
Inperformanceofavow.
Alongwiththisaltar,asBrandtellsus,werefoundtwostones
resemblingpineapples.Thisisbynomeansanunusualornamentofthe
worksalongtheline.Thepineappleornamentisfrequentlyintroduced
inthestainedglassworksofthemiddleages.[Illustration:Altarto
Mars]Asthefruittowhichitbearsaresemblancecouldnotbeknownin
EuropeuntilafterthediscoveryofAmerica,theoriginofthefigureis
aninterestingspeculation.IamdisposedtothinkitisofMithraic
origin,andthattheprototypeofitwasamassofflameproceedingfrom
thetorchusuallyrepresentedinthestatuesofthatdeity.Theother
altar,heregiven,isinscribed
ARTI
IENV
ANIV[S]
V[OTVM]
Tothegod
Mars
Jenu
anius_erectedthis_
Inperformanceofavow.
Besidestheseandsomeotherinscribedstones,manycoinshavebeen
foundhere;amongstthem,BrandmentionsdenariiofTrajan,Hadrian,
Faustinasenior,andDomitian;brasscoinsofValentinian,Gratianus,
Diocletian,Faustina,andMaxentius,withmanyothersnotlegible.
ObscenefiguresarefrequentlyfoundinRomanstations.Theywereworn
byfemalesasareligiouscharm.Benwellhasfurnishedonesuchexample
ofaveryremarkablekind.Beforeleavingthestation,theinquiring
travellerwilldowelltoexaminethestonesoftheparkwall.Hewill
soondetectmanyofRomanmould,whosefaceshavebeenscarredbythe
blastsofmanycenturies.Thelargeroneshavebeenderivedfromthe
Wallthesmaller,fromthecurtainwallofthestation,orthedwellings
erectedwithinit.
[Sidenote:CONDERCUM.]
ThepleasantvillageofBenwellliesalittletothesouthwestofthe

station.TheoldtowerofBenwellhall,saysBourne,'wastheplace
wherethepriorofTynemouthresidedsomepartofthesummer,andthe
chapel,whichMr.Shaftoeopensandsuppliesforthegoodofthepeople
ofhisvillage,wasthepriorsdomesticchapel.'Whothatvisitsthe
spotwillsaythatthepriorwhomadetheselectionwasnotamanof
taste?Benwell,asHorsleyremarks,isnotimprobablythoughttohave
itsnamefromthenorthernword_ben_,(Saxon_binnan_)signifying
within,and_well_forwall,asbeingseatedwithin,oronthesouth
sideoftheWall.[69]WhitakerderivestheRomannameofthestation,
CONDERCUM,fromtheCeltic_Condargui_,theheightuponthewater.[70]
Theriverbeingnear,thedescriptionisapposite.
LeavingCONDERCUM,weagainpursueourjourneywestward.Theroadfor
severalmilesrunninguponthebaseoftheWall,thefacingstonesmay
notunfrequentlybeseenforsomedistancetogether,protrudingthrough
themetal.Thisusedtobemorethecaseformerlythanatpresent,for
sincethediversionofthetrafficfromtheroadtotherail,motivesof
economyhaveinducedtheroadsurveyorstoquarry,insomeplaces,the
lastremnantsofthisgreatworkofantiquity,formaterialswithwhich
torepairthehighway.Thenorthfosse,aswepursueourjourney,
becomesmoredistinctontherightoftheroad.
[Sidenote:THEWALLATDENTON.]
DescendingBenwellhill,thevillageofEastDentonisreached.Herewe
meetforthefirsttimewithafragmentoftheWall.Theaccompanying
woodcutexhibitsitspresentstate.WilliamHuttondescribesthe
interestingrelicwithbecomingreverence.
[Illustration:TheWallatEastDenton]
AtDentonDean,situatedatthebottomofBenwellhill,thegreatroad
veersafewyardstotheright,thatisintoSeverusditch,andgives
usforthefirsttimeasightofthatmostvenerablepieceof
antiquity,THEWALL,whichissixyardssouthoftheroad,andtwenty
shortofthebrookIamgoingtopass.Thefragmentisthirtysixfeet
long,hasthreecoursesoffacingstonesononeside,andfouronthe
other,andisexactlyninefeetthick.Anappletreegrowsonthetop.
IthaslostacourseoffacingstonessinceHuttonsawit,andtheapple
treeisbuttheshadowofwhatitwas.
Theturnpikeroad,whichusuallyrunsuponthesiteoftheWall,
uniformlyswervestotherightwhenpassingavillage.Thetruthis,
nearlyeveryhouseandhamletinthedistricthassprungoutofthe
Wall.Inmanyinstancesamilecastle,slightlyaddedto,hasformeda
medivaldwellingofsomestrength.Thenucleusthusprovided,became,
inthecourseoftime,clusteredroundwithcontiguoushabitations,so
thatwhen,afterthelastseasonofstrifewithwhichtheborderswere
visited,theroadcametobeconstructed,motivesofeconomyrequired
thatthesespotsofincreasedvalueshouldbeavoided.
Beyondtheburn,thegroundagainrises,andtheWall,stretching
onwardsinalinewiththeroad,formsadistinct,butturfcovered
mound.Atthedistanceofafieldtothesouthofit,theVallumisseen
ingreaterdistinctnessthanbefore.Bothoftheaggersandthe
interveningfossemaybeclearlymadeout.Someyoungashtreesgrowin
theditch.
[Sidenote:DENTONHALL.]
Advancingalittlefurther,wehaveDentonhall,formerlytheseatof
theliteraryMrs.Montague,ontheright;attractedbyherinfluence,
manyofthegreatspiritsoftheagewereoccasionallyfoundtobe

assembledwithinitswalls.Verynearlyoppositethehall,alargermass
ofruinthanusualbetokensthesiteofamilecastle.
AscendingthehillfromWestDenton,thefosseoftheMurusisvery
distinctlyseen.Theroadiselevatedtwoorthreefeetabovethe
naturalleveloftheground,theWall,probablysomecourseshigh,
formingitsnucleus.
Onthelefthand,thelinesoftheVallumarefeeblyindicated,butby
extendingourglancesomedistancebackwardsandforwards,wecan,with
tolerablecertainty,distinguishtheartificialmoundsfromthenatural
heavingsofthesurface.
[Sidenote:CHAPELHOUSE.]
Passingthefourthmilestone,wearriveatChapelhouses.Thisnameis
ofsufficientlyfrequentoccurrencealongthelinetosuggesta
momentaryinquiryintoitsorigin.IntheearlyagesofChristianity,a
milecastlemayhaveoccasionallybeentheresortoftheworshippersof
thetrueGod;orinthetroublesometimesofborderwarfare,whenthe
churchnotunfrequentlysharedinthegeneraldevastation,itmayhave
beensetapartasaplacefortheconfirmationofmatrimonialvows,and
fortheperformanceofreligiousrites.
Fromthecrownofthishillwehaveoneofthefinestviewswhich
Northumberlandcanafford.TheTyne,inallitsglitteringbeauty,
stretchesfarbeforeus.Itssouthernbankiscrownedbythepretty
villageofRyton,itsleftisvariegatedwiththeoncebeautiful,but
nowfurnacefuming,Wylam.Anamphitheatreofhillsshutsinthedistant
scene.[71]
Horsleydescribessomeruinedramparts,calledtheCastlesteadsnear
Chapelhouses,tothesouthofbothVallumandWall.Theywereprobably
temporaryencampmentsandhavenowdisappeared.
[Sidenote:WALBOTTLEDEAN.]
BeforecrossingWalbottle[72]dean,theVallum,whichisverydistinct,
andtheWall(_i.e._theroad)approacheachother,apparentlyfor
mutualsupport.Therearenotracesofabridgeacrosstheravine.
Asweascendthenexthill,andpassThrockley,[73]wehave,forthe
mostpart,thefosseontherighthand,andthemoundsoftheVallumon
theleft,veryboldlydeveloped.Bythetimethetravellerhasadvanced
thusfar,hewillhavelearntthenecessityofbearinginmindthathe
isinaminingdistrict.Ifheoverlookthiscircumstance,hewillbein
dangerofmistakingthetrackofsomeoldwaggonwayfortheterraced
linesofRomancultivation,oranoldpitheapforanindubitable
Britishbarrow.
[Illustration:
Cha^sRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey.Lith.
THEWORKSATHEDDONONTHEWALL
]
AfterpassingThrockley,justwhereagateonthelefthandentersthe
fieldfromtheroad,amoundcovered,inwinteratleast,withgreener
herbagethanthecontiguousgroundindicatesthesiteofamilecastle.
Alittlefurtheron,arangeofhousesofpeculiarappearance,called
theFrenchmansrow,attractstheeye.Itwastheresidence,afterthe
firstFrenchrevolution,ofanumberofrefugees.Thedialwhich
ornamentstheRowisoftheirfabrication.Thebuildingisnowusedasa
poorhouse.

[Sidenote:HEDDONONTHEWALL.]
Onthetopofthelittleeminence,atwhichwearrivebeforereaching
HeddonontheWall,thenorthfosseisdeeperandbolderthanithas
hithertoappeared;itmustbenearlyinitsoriginalperfection.The
worksoftheVallum,aboutfiftyyardstothesouth,arealsofinely
developed.Theditch,inbothcases,iscutthroughthefreestonerock.
Here,also,ifthetravellerwillforsaketheturnpike,fortheroad,as
usual,divergestotherightinordertoavoidthevillage,hemayseea
fragmentoftheWallmuchlongerandsomewhathigherthantheoneat
Denton.Itsnorthfaceisdestroyed,butaboutfivecoursesofthe
southernfaceareperfect.Theaccompanyinglithographshewsthepresent
stateoftheBarrierhere.TheWallisintheforeground,whileinthe
distance(lookingeastward)thesectionofthenorthfosse,andofthe
worksoftheVallum,isdistinctlyseen.
Aboutamilenorthofthevillageisastrikingprominencecalled
Heddonlaw.HorsleyremarksNotfarfromHeddonontheWallhavebeen
someremarkabletumuli.
TheditchoftheVallumcutsrightthroughthevillage,itslowestdip
formingthevillagepond;itisratherremarkablethatinsucha
situation,itshouldnotlongagohavebeenobliterated.
DescendingthehillonwhichHeddonontheWallstands,thelinesofthe
Barrierkeepclosetogether,andnotwithoutreason.Thecragonthe
south,nowthesceneofextensivequarryingoperations,completely
commandsthem.Surelyapostmusthavebeenmaintainedonthiseminence
inthedaysofRomanoccupation,thoughithadonlybeenforthesakeof
alookout.
Passingtheeighthmilestone,wheretheVallumisingoodcondition,we
approachthefourthgreatstationoftheBarrier.Aroad,crossingthe
turnpikeatrightangles,isclosetoitseastrampart.
[Sidenote:VINDOBALA.]
VINDOBALA.ThestationnowcalledRutchester,standsonflatground,but
commandsaconsiderableprospect.TheNotitiaplacesherethetribuneof
thefirstcohortoftheFrixagi,apeople[Sidenote:RUTCHESTER.]whose
countrydoesnotseemtobementionedbyanyancientgeographer.The
insidedimensionsofthisstation,fromnorthtosouth,are178yards,
andfromeasttowest,135;itconsequentlycontainsnearlyfiveacres.
TheWallstartedeachwayfromthenorthsideofitseastandwest
gates;sothataagreaterportionofthestationlayonthenorththan
onthesouthsideofit,asisshewnintheplanofit,PlateII.At
present,theturnpikeroadrunsbetweentheseportions;thatonthe
northhasbeenallploughed,andthreeofitssidesslopedintothe
ditch;itsgeneraloutlinesmay,however,bedistinguished;thesouthern
partisirregularinitssurface,withheapsofruins,stillcovered
withsward.[74]InHorsleystime,thenorthernpartwassufficiently
perfecttoenablehimtodiscernsixturretsinit,'oneateachcorner,
oneateachsideofthegate,andonebetweeneachcorner,andthose
adjoiningtothegate.'[75]TheVallumseemstohavejoinedthestation
inalinewithitssouthernrampart.Theditchonthewesternsideis
stilltolerablydistinct.Thesuburbshavebeentothesouthofthe
station,buttheirsitehasrecentlybeendisturbedbytheopeningofan
extensivequarrywhichhassuppliedlargequantitiesofthestoneused
incarryingtherailwayovertheTyne,andthroughNewcastle.
Onthebrowofthehill,justwestofthestation,thereisstilltobe
seen,hewnoutofthesolidrock,whatWalliscallsacoffin.Ithas
moretheappearanceofacistern.Itistwelvefeetlong,fourbroad,
andtwodeep,andhasaholeclosetothebottomatoneend.When

discovered,ithadapartitionofmasonryacrossit,threefeetfromone
end,andcontainedmanydecayedbones,teethandvertebr,andaniron
implementresemblingathreefootedcandlestick.Intheimmediate
vicinityofthisspot,threefineRomanaltarswerediscoveredin1844;
theyarenowinthepossessionofMr.James,ofOtterburn,andare
describedintheArchologialiana,iv.5.
[Sidenote:VINDOBALA.]
Theetymologyofthenameofthisstationseemstobetolerablyplain.
VINDOBALA,saysWhitaker,signifiesmerelythefortupontheheights.
_Bala_remains,tothepresentperiod,theWelshandIrishappellation
ofatown.Ihavereceivedasimilaraccountofthewordfromthose
acquaintedwiththeGaeliclanguage.Thestation,however,though
possessingtheadvantageofagentleelevationabovethecontiguous
ground,doesnotstanduponaloftyeminence.
Noinscriptionshavebeenfoundherementioningthefirstcohortofthe
Frixagi,which,accordingtotheNotitia,wasquarteredinVINDOBALA.
Thisisoflittleconsequence;thenamesofthecontiguousstationsboth
eastandwesthavingbeenascertained,theorderofthestationsinthe
Notitiaissufficientevidenceastotheidentityofthiswiththe
ancientVINDOBALA.
ThefarmhouseatRutchesterpartlyconsistsofanancientbuilding,
possessinggreatstrengthofmasonry.Agothiccarvingontheinterior
wallofitsprincipalapartmentshewsthatitisnotofRoman
construction.Itwasprobablyamedivalstronghold,madeoutofthe
ruinsofthestation.Itcontainsawell,nowboardedover,whichmaybe
ofRomandate.
MostofthestonesofthefarmbuildingsandadjacentfencesareRoman,
andoneortwofragmentsofRomaninscriptionsbuiltupinthestables,
besidessomesmallaltarspreservedonthepremises,giveinterestto
theplace.
[Sidenote:MURALHOSPITALITY.]
Mr.Huttonisusuallyveryparticularingivingadetailofthekindof
entertainmenthemetwithatthevariouspointsofhisjourney.The
recitalofhisreceptionatRutchesterkindlesintopoetry:
IsawoldSiratdinnersit,
Whone'ersaid,"Stranger,takeabit,"
Yetmight,althoughapoetsaidit,
Havesavedhisbeef,andraisedhiscredit.
Hisownappearance,hetellsus,wasalittlepeculiar,and
archologicalpursuitsnotbeinginvogueinthatday,thefarmer
probablyhadgravedoubtsastotheproprietyoftemptingthe
enthusiasticoldmantoprolonghisstay.
Ithasfrequentlybeenmylottoreceivethekindlyattentionsofthe
inhabitantsofthemuralregion.Oftenhavemyeyes,bedimmedwith
fatigue,beenenlightenedbypartakingofthebarleycakeofthe
cottager,(excellentfoodforathirstyclimb)aswellasthecostlier
viandsofthefarmtenant,orproprietor.NevershallIforgetvisiting,
ononeoccasion,afrailtenementnearChesterholm.Itsonlyinmate,an
oldwoman,inthespiritofregalhospitality,askedmetojoinwithher
inpartakingofheronlyluxuryherpipe.Irecentlyobservedwith
regret,thatthecottagewastenantless.
[Sidenote:NORTHUMBRIANYEOMEN.]
Theinhabitantsofthatpartofthedistrictwhichisremotefromtowns,

donotaffectthedress,orthespeech,orthemannersofpolished
citizens.Theyliketoknowapersonbeforetheywelcomehim,andmake
theirapproachescautiously.Butifslowingraspingthehand,theydo
itheartilyandsincerely.Thereisscarcelyalatchinthewilder
regionsofthecountry,thatIwouldnotfreelyliftintheassuranceof
asmilingwelcome.OftenasIhavegroanedunderthetoilstowhichmy
presentundertakinghasexposedme,Ihavereasontorejoice,thatthe
BarrieroftheLowerIsthmushasbeenthemeansofmakingmeacquainted
withmanyofthetrueheartedandintelligentyeomen,bothofmyown
county,andofCumberland,whomIshouldnototherwisehaveknown.
Althoughtheirdialectmaysoundstrangelytoasouthernear,yetitis
Englishinitsnativepurityandstrength;agreatauthority,Mr.
Thorpe,havingsaid,'IbelievethegenuineAngliandialecttobethat
whichisusuallydenominatedtheNorthumbrian.'[76]
Proceeding,now,afterthislongdigression,onourjourney,wepass,on
thelefthandsideoftheroad,aninngenerallycalledtheIronsign.
SomeofthebuildingsareentirelycomposedofRomanstones.Inthe
erectionnearesttheroadarethreecenturialstones.OnehasonitCOH
VIII,anotherhasthewordLVPI,probablytoannouncethefact,thatthe
portionoftheWallinwhichitwasoriginallyinsertedhadbeenbuilt
bythetroopunderthecommandofthecenturionLupus;thethirdis
illegible.
[Sidenote:HARLOWHILL.]
Passingtheninthmilestone,westanduponthetopofaneminencefrom
whichthereisagoodviewofHarlowhill,andoftheadjacentcountry.
TheWallhereslightlychangesitscourseforthepurposeofascending
thesummitbeforeit.TheVallumkeepscompanywiththeWallforashort
distance,buteventuallyswervestothesouthwiththedesignofpassing
alongthebaseofthehill;itrejoinstheWallontheotherside.This
isanarrangementwhichweshouldnothaveencounteredhadtheVallum
beenintendedforanindependentbarrieragainstanorthernfoe.The
northfosseishereverydistinct,formingadeepgrooveontheleftof
theroadallthewaytoHarlowhill.
JustbeforeenteringthevillageofHarlowhill,someportionsofthe
heartoftheWallmaybeseen,andacarefulscrutinywillenableusto
ascertainitscoursethroughthevillage,apartofitsfoundation,of
thefullwidth(ninefeet),yetremaining.Asusual,inpassingthrough
thevillage,theturnpikeroadleavestheWallforashortdistance.
TherewasamilecastleatHarlowhill,which,Horsleysays,hadahigh
situation,andalargeprospect;alltracesofitarenowgone.Afield,
abouthalfamilenorthofHarlowhill,bearstheominousnameof
Graveriggs;thetraditionaryaccountofitsoriginbeing,thataftera
bloodybattleinthetroublesometimes,itbecametherestingplaceof
slaughteredmultitudes.
ThevillageandancientstrongholdofWelton(acorruptionnodoubtof
Walltown)isabouthalfamiletothesouthoftheroad.Thefortletis
entirelybuiltofRomanstones.Theadjoiningmansion,atpresent
occupiedbythefarmtenant,bearsthedateof1616.Itslargehall,
withamplehearthandspaciousbowwindows,isredolentofancient
hospitality.Inthememoryofthevillagers,thefreaksofabenevolent
ghost,namedSilky,whichfrequentedtheoldtower,andthefeatsof
strengthperformedbyWilliamofWelton,stillsurvivetheweekly
intrusionofthenewspaper.
[Sidenote:WALLHOUSES.]
AtWallhouses,onthesouthsideoftheroad,tracesofamilecastle
areobscurelyvisible;betweenthispointandthefourteenthmilestone
allthelinesoftheBarrieraredevelopedinadegreethatisquite
inspiriting.Thenorthfosseis,foraconsiderabledistance,planted

withtrees,whichwillforsometimesaveitfromtheenviousplough.
[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey,Lith.
THEWORKSNEARCARRHILL.
]
[Sidenote:THEVALLUMATDOWNHILL.]
ImmediatelyafterpassingthefarmhouseofCarrhill,anappearanceof
greatinterestpresentsitself.TheworksoftheVallumarecoming
boldlyforwardincompanywiththeWall,whensuddenly,andatadecided
angle,theychangetheircourse,evidentlytoavoidmountingasmall
barrowlikeelevation,calledDownhill.[77]TheWallpursuesitscourse
straightforward.Theview,exhibitedontheoppositepage,takenfrom
theedgeofthehill,lookingeastward,shewsthisarrangement.The
road,withtheditchonitsnorthside,istherepresentativeofthe
Wall.TheVallumandWallagainconvergeastheyapproachHUNNUM.These
appearancesstronglycorroboratetheopinionthatallthelinesofthe
Barrierarebutpartsofonegreatengineeringscheme.IftheVallumhad
beenconstructedasanindependentdefenceagainstanorthernfoe,and
nearlyacenturybeforetheWall,wecannotconceivethatanelevation,
whichsoentirelycommandstheVallum,wouldhavebeenleftopentothe
enemy;especiallyasitwouldhavebeenjustaseasytotaketheVallum
alongthenorthflankofthehillasalongthesouth.Horsley,who
advocatestheopinionthatthenorthaggerisAgricolasMilitaryWay,
thatthesouthernaggersweretheworkofHadrian,andthattheWallwas
noterectedtillthetimeofSeverus,isratheratalosstoaccountfor
theseappearances.Hesays:
BeforewecometoHaltonchesters,somewhatappearsthatispretty
remarkable.HadriansVallumrunningfulluponalittlehill,turnsat
onceroundabouttheskirtofit,leavingthehillonthenorth,and
thereby,onewouldthink,renderingtheVallumitselfaweakdefence
atthatpart.Thenorthaggergoesclosetothesouthsideofthis
hill;sothattheywerealsoobligedtocarrytheVallumroundthe
hillinordertopreservetheparallelism.Ifthenorthaggerwasthe
OldMilitaryWay,andpriortotheVallum,therewasnothingimproper
incarryingitonthesouthskirtsofthehill;andthenwhenthe
Vallumcameafterwardstobebuilt,(foradefence,orplaceof
retreat)theywereunderakindofnecessitytoformitafterthis
manner.
SincesoableamanasHorsleycandevisenobetterdefenceofhis
theory,itmaywellbeabandonedaltogether.Itcannotbeconceived
that,underarulesovigorousasHadrians,thebuildersoftheBarrier
wouldbeallowedtogivetheenemyamaterialadvantage,inorderto
savethemselvesthetroubleofreconstructingtheMilitaryWayfora
shortspace.
Downhillbearsmarksofhavingbeenquarriedatsomedistantperiodfor
itslimestone.AlittletothesouthoftheVallumaresomecircular
lines,whichanexperiencedobservertellsme,aretheremainsof
sowkilns.Itwould,perhaps,berashtoclaimforthemaprimeval
date,thoughintheirappearancethereisnothinginconsistentwiththe
supposition.
[Sidenote:HALTONREDHOUSE.]
HaltonRedhouseisnextpassedontherighthand.Itisentirelybuilt
ofstonestakenfromtheneighbouringstation;theyhave,however,been
freshdressed.Inthefarmyardisarectangularstonetrough,whichwas
foundinthestation,andwhichitsownerdescribesasasmiddytrow,
andshewsupontheedgetheplacewhichhadbeenwornawaybythe

attritionoftheblacksmithsirons.Itmight,indeed,serveverywell
forsuchapurpose,buttroughsofthiskindareoftoofrequent
occurrenceinthebuildingsalongthelinetoallowustosupposethat
thiswastheirusualapplication.Theyaregenerallyveryrudelycarved
bothoutsideandin,andnotunfrequentlyareformedofanirregular
unsquaredblockofstone.Ithinkthattheywereusedfordomesticand
culinarypurposes.Thereisafragmentofonelyinginthehypocaustat
Chesters,theedgeofwhichisworndownbythesharpeningofknives
uponit.
Wenowapproachthefifthstationoftheline,
[Sidenote:Hunnum.]
HUNNUM.ThisancientabodeofRomeswarriors,withitswalls,streets,
temples,markets,andaqueducts,isnearlyoneunbrokensweepof
luxuriantvegetation.Thetravellermayreadilypassbyit,asHutton
did,withoutdiscerningsymptomsofRomanoccupation.Asmall,
halfruinedhutstandswithinitsarea,afittingemblemofthe
surroundingdesolation.Itisalmostneedlesstonameacity,whichhas
noexistence,butforconveniencesake,[Sidenote:HALTONCHESTERS.]
HorsleyconferreduponitthestyleandtitleofHaltonchesters.The
castleofHaltoniscloseby.
Theformofthestationispeculiar,asisshewnintheplanofit,
PlateII.TheWalljoinsthestationataboutonethirdthedistance
betweenitsnorthernandsouthernextremity.Theportionofthestation
whichistothenorthoftheWallisnotsobroadastheparttothe
southofit.Theonlyreasonwhichhasbeenassignedforthisis,that,
asHorsleyobserves,'thereisadescentorhollowgroundjoiningtothe
westsideofthispart,sothattheworkcouldnotbecarriedonany
fartherthatwaywithoutmuchtroubleandexpense;though,itmustbe
owned,theRomansdon'tusuallyseemtohavevaluedeithertheoneor
theother'.Itisremarkablethatinadaptingthestationtotheground,
theyhavenotgiventothewall,atthenortheastcorner,aslanting
direction,aswouldhavebeenmostconvenient,buthave,asusual,
adheredtotherectangularform.
Theturnpikeroad,keepingthelineoftheWall,crossesthestation
fromthesiteoftheeasterntothatofthewesterngateway.Thesection
northoftheroadwasbroughtundercultivationabouttwentyyearsago,
whenimmensequantitiesofstoneswereremoved.Itisnowcalledthe
Brunthapennyfieldinconsequenceofthenumberofcorrodedcopper
coinswhichwerefoundinit.Theportionsouthoftheroadhasagentle
slopeandafairexposuretothesun.Ithasnotrecentlybeenploughed,
andconsequentlyexhibits,withconsiderabledistinctness,thelinesof
theouterentrenchmentsandditches,aswellasthecontourofthe
ruinedbuildingsandstreetsoftheinterior.Thesuburbshavecovereda
finetractofpasturegroundtothesouth.Thevalleyonthewestside
ofthestationwouldmateriallystrengthenthepositioninthisquarter.
Theexcavationsmadeinthenorthernsection,afewyearsago,revealed
severalpointsofinterest.Thecarefulmannerinwhichthestones,even
ofthefoundation,weresquaredandchiselled,struckbeholderswith
surprise.Thethickness,ofonepartatleast,ofthewestwallofthe
stationIhavebeenassured,byapersonwhosuperintendedthework,was
ninefeet.[78]Intheangleofthenorthwestportionofthestation,
justoutsidetheWall,wasalargeheap,containingnumerousfragments
ofRomanpottery,thebonesofanimals,thehornsofdeer,andother
refusematteritmust,inshort,havebeenthedunghillofthecamp.
Evennow,althoughtheploughhaspassedrepeatedlyoverit,its
positionisshewnbythedarknessofthesoil.Onthesameoccasion,
therewaslaidopenanaqueductofaboutthreequartersofamilein
length,whichseemstohaveconductedwaterfromaspringorburninthe

highgroundnorthoftheplacewhereStagshawbankfairisheld.My
informant,whotraceditforbetweentwoandthreehundredyards,says,
thatitwasformedofstone,andwascoveredwithflags.[79]Incrossing
thevalleytothewestofthefort,itmusthavebeensupportedon
pillars,oramound.Themostremarkablecircumstancetobenoticed
respectingthiswatercourseis,thatitwasonthenorth,orthe
enemyssideoftheWall.ItisscarcelyprobablethattheRomanswould
dependforthatportionoftheirdailysupply,whichwasrequiredfor
drinkingandculinarypurposes,onsoprecariousasource;butitisnot
unlikelythatthewatersointroducedwasmeanttofillthefossetothe
northofthestation,andthustogivetheadditionalsecurityofawet
ditchtoaportionofthecamp,which,thoughmuchexposed,possessedno
naturalstrengthofsituation.[80]Crossingthestationdiagonallyfrom
belowtheeasterngatewaytothenorthwestangle,asewerordrainwas
found,ofconsiderabledimensions.Myinformantcreptalongitforabout
onehundredyards.Thebottomofitwasfilledwithhardenedmud,
imbeddedinwhich,werefoundalampandmanybonepins,suchasthose
withwhichtheRomansfastenedtheirwoollengarments.
Themostinterestingdiscoverymadeonthisoccasion,however,wasa
suiteofapartments,whichhavebeenusuallysupposedtobetheBaths.
Thebuildingwasonehundredandthirtytwofeetinlength,and
containednotfewerthanelevenrooms.Thefirstofthesewas
fortythreefeetlong,andtwentywide,andwastheplace,ithasbeen
conjectured,wherethebatherswaited,andemployedthemselvesin
walkingandtalking,tilltheirturncametobathe.Theothersbeyond
aresupposedtohavebeensetapartforthepurposesofundressing,
takingthecold,thetepid,andthehotbath,sweating,anointing,and
robing.IftheRomanprefectsallowedthemostimportantbuildingsof
theirfrontiercampstobedevotedtotheenjoymentofthebathinall
itselaboratedetails,theyweremoreindulgentthansomemodern
generalswouldbe.Thatoneortwoofthesmallerroomshavebeen
devotedtoablutionisnotunlikely,thisrangeofbuildingshaving
containedtwocarefullyconstructedcisternswhichmayhavebeenusedas
baths.Severaloftheroomshadhangingfloors,withfluesbeneath;
pipesofburntclay,fixedtothewallsbyTheadedholdfasts,
communicatedwiththefluesbelow,andconveyedthehotairupthesides
oftheapartments.Butnoprovisionforheatinglargequantitiesof
waterwasdiscovered,suchaswemighthaveexpectedtofind,ifthe
wholebuildinghadbeenusedforbathing.
Thewholeofthisinterestingstructurewasremovedastheprocessof
exhumationproceeded.Ouronlyconsolationis,thataminuteandable
descriptionofithasbeenleftusbyMr.Hodgson.
[Illustration:TheWorksnearCarrhill]
Severalinscribedandsculpturedstoneshavebeendiscoveredhere.
Camden,in1600,foundamonumentalslab,erectedtothememoryofa
soldieroftheAlaSabiniana;theregimentwhichtheNotitiarepresents
asbeingquarteredatHUNNUM.Astone,bearingtheinscription,LEG.II.
AVG.F.,_LegiosecundaAugustafecit_,isatAlnwickcastle,and
belongs,Ithink,tothisstation.Wallissays'assomelabourerswere
turningupthefoundationshere,forthesakeofthestonestomendthe
road,theymetwithacenturialstonewiththeaboveinscription,within
acivicgarland,thecrestoftheimperialeagleateachend,andthat
itwastakenintothecustodyofSirEdwardBlackett.Theonehere
shewn,thoughnotacenturialstone,mustbetheoneinquestion.[81]It
isoneofthemostelegantlycarvedstonesthathavebeenfounduponthe
line,andcloselyresemblesthestyleofthoseerectedbythesame
legionintheBarrieroftheUpperIsthmus.Theornamentintheupper
margin,andatthesides,hasprobablyformedthetypeofonethat
prevailedintheTransitionNormanandEarlyEnglishstyles.
Severalbustsofemperorsandempresses,preservedaboutthehouseand

groundsofMatfen,shewtheattentionwhichtheancientinhabitantsof
HUNNUMhavepaidtothedecorationofthecamp.
[Illustration:SlabFulgurDivom]
Alittletothewestofthestation,notfarfromthegateway,was
recentlyfoundtheslabwhichisherefigured.Althoughtheinscription
isnotdeeplycut,itisverylegible,anddoubtlessmeansThelightning
ofthegods.Whenanyspotwasstruckwithlightning,itwasimmediately
deemedsacred,andveneratedassuchbytheRomans,beingsurroundedby
abreastworkofmasonry,similartothatputroundthemouthofawell.
Consciousguiltmakescowardsofthemostdauntlesswarriors!Perhaps
somememberoftheSabinianala,hasteningforshelter,andbeseeching
meanwhiletheprotectionofJupiterTonans,washerearrestedonlifes
journey,andsummonedtohisgreataccount.
Amongtheminorantiquitiesfoundatthisstationwasaparticularly
massivefingerringofpuregold,setwithanartificialstone,onwhich
afulllengthfigurewasengraved.ItwasstolenfromladyBlackett,to
whomitbelonged,togetherwiththerestofherjewellery.
Anintelligentobserverinformsme,thatanancientroadofRoman
constructionwentdirectnorthfromHUNNUM.It,nodoubt,soonjoined
theeasternbranchoftheWatlingstreetwhichHorsleylaysdown,part
ofwhosecourseisrepresentedinthemapaccompanyingthisvolume.
[Sidenote:HALTONCHESTERS.]
Haltoncastleistothesouthofthestation.Itisentirelycomposedof
stonestakenfromtheRomanWall.Inthefarmbuildingsattachedtoit,
aresomeRomanmouldings,andaweatheredfigureofprimevalaspect.
NoprobableetymologicalaccountofthewordHUNNUMhasyetbeen
offered.IfthewordHaltoncanbesupposedtohaveanyaffinitywith
HUNNUM,besidestheinitialbreathing,thisisoneofthefewinstances
inwhichthereisanyresemblancebetweentheancientandmodernnameof
thestations.
LeavingHUNNUM,wesoonreachStagshawbankgate,wheretheancient
Watlingstreetcrossestheroadatrightangles.ThisRomanWaywas
probablyfirstconstructedbyAgricola,asameansofkeepingupa
communicationwiththegarrisonsinSouthBritain,whilehewasforcing
hiswayintoScotland.Afortformerlystoodheretoguardthepassage
throughtheWall;notraceofitnowremains.
[Sidenote:VALLUMNEARST.OSWALDS.]
Theearthworksbetweenthispointandthecrownofthehilldescending
totheNorthTyneareremarkablyperfect.ThedescriptionwhichHutton
givesofthemhappilyholdsgoodatthepresentmoment
Inowtraveloveralargecommon,stillupontheWall,withitstrench
nearlycomplete.ButwhatwasmysurprisewhenIbeheld,thirtyyards
onmyleft,theunitedworksofAgricolaandHadrian,almostperfect!
Iclimbedoverastonewalltoexaminethewonder;measuredthewhole
ineverydirection;surveyedthemwithsurprise,withdelight;was
fascinated,andunabletoproceed;forgotIwasuponawildcommon,a
stranger,andtheeveningapproaching.Ihadthegrandestworksunder
myeyeofthegreatestmenoftheageinwhichtheylived,andofthe
mosteminentnationthenexisting;allofwhichhadsufferedbut
littleduringthelongcourseofsixteenhundredyears.Evenhunger
andfatiguewerelostinthegrandeurbeforeme.Ifamanwritesa
bookuponaturnpikeroad,hecannotbeexpectedtomovequick;but,
lostinastonishment,Iwasnotabletomoveatall.

ThefirsttimeIvisitedthespot,thispassage,throughwhichthere
runssofineaveinofyouthfulenthusiasm,wasfreshinmy
recollection.Theshadesofeveningwerebeginningtogatherroundme,
andtheblacknessofthefurzewhichcoveredtheground,gaveadditional
solemnitytothescene.Ilookedforthevenerableoldman,asif
expectingstilltofindhimfixedinhisenthusiastictrance;buthewas
notthere.Afterall,hehadmovedon;andafewyearsmoreremovedhim
fromthisscene,tosleepinthechurchyardunderahumblerandless
durablemoundthanhisfavouritegeneralandemperorhadhereraised!
Thesectiongiveninpage52,exhibitsthestateoftheworksatthis
place.Thenorthfosseisveryboldlydevelopedbetweenthesixteenth
andeighteenthmilestone:thewholeofitscontentsliestrewedonits
outermargin.Neartheeighteenthmilestone,ontheleftoftheroad,is
amound,whichItaketobetheremainsofamilecastle.Inonepart
nearhere,theWall,asseenintheroad,measurestenfeetwide,butit
speedilybecomesnarrower.
[Sidenote:ST.OSWALDSCHAPEL.]
WherethegroundbeginstodipstronglytotheNorthTyne,St.Oswalds
chapelstands.Onthenorthsideoftheroad,isafieldcalled
Mouldsclose,inwhichanumberofbonesandimplementsofwarhave
fromtimetotimebeenturnedup,andwhichissupposedtobethesite
ofabattle.Thetraditionruns,thatfromthefightwhichwaswonhere,
Englanddatesheradvancinggreatness,andthat,fromthefatalresults
ofaconflicttobelostonthesameground,shewilldateherdecline.
[Sidenote:BATTLEOFHEAVENFIELD.]Hodgsonsays,Wasthisthesiteof
partofthebattleofHeavenfield,whichBedesayswasfoughtjust
northoftheRomanWall,andinmemoryofwhichthechapelofSt.Oswald
wasbuilt?Thatitwas,thenarrativeofthevenerablehistorianwill
probablyshew
Theplaceisshewntothisday,andheldinmuchveneration,where
Oswald(A.D.635),beingabouttoengage(withtheferociousBritish
kingCadwalla),erectedthesignoftheholycross,andonhisknees
prayedtoGodthathewouldassisthisworshippersintheirgreat
distress.Itisfurtherreported,thatthecrossbeingmadeinhaste,
andtheholeduginwhichitwastobefixed,thekinghimself,full
offaith,laidholdofit,andhelditwithbothhishands,tillit
wassetfastbythrowingintheearth;andthisdone,raisinghis
voice,hecriedtohisarmy,Letusallkneel,andjointlybeseech
thetrueandlivingGodAlmighty,inhismercy,todefendusfromthe
haughtyandfierceenemy;forHeknowsthatwehaveundertakenajust
warforthesafetyofournation.Alldidashehadcommanded,and
accordinglyadvancingtowardstheenemywiththefirstdawnofday,
theyobtainedthevictory,astheirfaithdeserved.Inthatplaceof
prayerverymanymiraculouscuresareknowntohavebeenperformed,as
atokenandmemorialofthekingsfaith;foreventothisday,many
arewonttocutoffsmallchipsofthewoodoftheholycross,which
beingputintowater,menorcattledrinkingof,orsprinkledwith
thatwater,areimmediatelyrestoredtohealth.Theplaceinthe
EnglishtongueiscalledHefenfeld,ortheHeavenlyField....Thesame
placeisneartheWallwithwhichtheRomansformerlyenclosedthe
islandfromseatosea,torestrainthefuryofthebarbarousnations,
ashasbeensaidbefore.Hither,also,thebrothersofthechurchof
Hagulstad(Hexham),whichisnotfarfromthence(itisinthevalley
directlybelow),repairyearlyonthedaybeforethatonwhichking
Oswaldwasafterwardsslain,towatchthereforthehealthofhis
soul,andhavingsungmanypsalms,toofferforhiminthemorningthe
sacrificeoftheholyoblation.Andsincethatgoodcustomhasspread,
theyhavelatelybuiltandconsecratedachurchthere,whichhas
attachedadditionalsanctityandhonourtothatplace.[82]

[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey,Lith.
THEWALLATBRUNTON.
]
Alittletothesouthoftheroad,atSt.Oswaldshillhead,is
Fallowfieldfell,wheretheWrittenrock,ofwhichanengravingis
given,page102,mayyetbeseen.Thefaceoftherockoccupiedbythe
inscriptionisfourfeetlong;thelettersaredistinct.[83]Continuing
todescendthehill,wecometoPlanetreefield,whereontheleftof
theroad,aconspicuouspieceoftheWallremains.Itisabout
thirtysixyardslong,andhas,insomeplaces,fivecoursesof
facingstonesentire;thegroutoftheinteriorwhichrisesstill
higher,givesroottosomefineoldthorns.Thissightmayberendered
moreinterestingbytheantiquaryscarryinghiseyeforward,and
tracingtheWallinitsonwardcourse;initsmodernrepresentative,the
turnpikeroad,itisseen,(havingcrossedtheNorthTyne,andpassed
thestationofCILURNUM,)boundinguptheoppositehillinitsusual
unflinchingmanner,andmakingforthewastesandmountainswhichitis
speedilytotraverse.
[Sidenote:THEWALLATBRUNTON.]
InthegroundsofBrunton,alittlebelowthis,asmallpieceofthe
Wallistobeseeninastateofverygreatperfection.Itissevenfeet
high,andpresentsninecoursesoffacingstonesentire.Themortarof
thefivelowercoursesisgood;thefaceofthesouthsideisgone.The
ditchalsoisherewelldeveloped.Theoppositelithographgivesan
accuraterepresentationofwhatHuttoncallsthisgrandexhibition.
Thealtarwhich,atpresent,standsasitisplacedinthedrawing,
formerlydischargedtheofficeofagatepostattheentryoftheyard
ofSt.Oswaldschapel.
[Sidenote:BRIDGEOVERTHENORTHTYNE.]
Forsomereason,whichitishardtodivine,theturnpikeroadnow
recedesfromtheWall,andcrossestheriveratChollerford,nearly
halfamileabovethespotwheretheRomanbridgespannedit.
_PLATEVI._
[Illustration:
REMAINSOFROMANBRIDGE
OVERTHE
NORTHTYNE.
_ReidLith._
]
_PLATEVII._
[Illustration:MiscellaneousAntiquities,Chesters,Cilurnum]
Theremainsofthisbridgemayyetbeseenwhenthewaterislow,and
thesurfacesmooth.Thereseemtohavebeenthreepiersofconsiderable
sizeandsolidity,setdiagonallytothestream.Thestonescomposing
themarelarge,regularlysquared,andfastenedwithmetallic
cramps.[84]Luisholes,indicatingthemodeinwhichtheyhavebeen
loweredintotheirbed,appearinseveralofthem.Thefirmnesswith
whichthesefoundationcoursesstillretainthepositionassignedto
thembythesoldiersofHadrianisveryremarkable;therollingfloods
ofsixteenhundredwintersseemtohavespenttheirrageuponthem
almostinvain.Astheeasternsideoftheriverisfrequently
overflowed,theVallumishereobliterated,butprobablybothworks

approachedthebridgeinclosecompanionship.Onthewesternside,
appearancesstillbearoutHorsleysstatement,thatthe'Wallfalls
uponthemiddleofthefort,andHadriansVallum,asusual,fallsin
withthesouthsideofit.'
AplanofCILURNUM,andadjoiningworks,asfiguredbyWarburton,is
giveninPlateII.Probably,fewwhoexamineitattentivelywill
questionthejustnessoftheconclusiontowhichhehasarrived,that
theWall,Vallum,stations,castles,andturrets,bytheirmutual
relationtooneanother,musthavebeenoneentire,uniteddefence,or
fortification.
Wearenowarrivedatthestationcalledinthelocality,Chesters,but
byHorsleynamed,forthesakeofdistinction,Walwickchesters.An
attentiveexaminationofitwillwellrewardtheantiquary.
[Sidenote:CILURNUM.]
CILURNUM.Thisstationhas,asusual,theformofaparallelogram,the
cornersbeingslightlyroundedoff.Itcontainsanareaoffullysix
acres.Inthelatterpartofthelastcentury,whenthemansionand
estateofChesterscameintothepossessionofthefamilyofClayton,
thisareawascoveredwiththeruinsofbuildingswhichhadapparently
stoodinstrait,narrowstreets,andalthoughthesurfaceofthestation
hassincebeenlevelledandmadesmooth,inordertofititforitsuse
aspartofthepark,yetitsrampartsandfosse,theWallandVallumas
theyapproachandleaveit,andtheroadleadingtotheriver,mayall
bedistinctlydiscerned;eventheruineddwellingsoftheinteriorarea,
asifdissatisfiedwiththeirlowlycondition,struggletorear
themselvesintonotice.AportionoftheWall,nearthenorthwest
angle,hasbeenfreedfromtheencumberingsoil;itisfivefeetthick,
andexhibitsfourcoursesofmasonryinexcellentpreservation.
Hutchinsonwasstruckwiththelinearcharacterwhichtheruinedstreets
ofthisforthadinhistime,andwasreminded,bytheirappearance,of
thearrangementsofthePolybiancamp.Thiswillbeobservedina
greaterorlessdegreeinallthestations,andtherecannotbeadoubt
butthatthedwellingswerearrangedinrowsparalleltothefoursides
ofthestations,andhence,intersectingeachotheratrightangles.It
wasnecessarythattheRomancamp,whetherofatemporaryorpermanent
character,shouldbenearlyuniforminitsplan.Ifthetroopsrested
butforanight,eachmanknewtheparthehadtofillinpreparingthe
fortification,andcouldsetaboutitatonce;intheeventofasudden
attackinthedarknessofthenight,eachknewhisposition,thoughhe
mayneverhaveresteduponthespotbefore.
Suburbanbuildingshaveoccupiedthespacebetweenthestationandthe
river,andruinsmoreextensivethanusualarespreadoverthegroundto
thesouth.Thereisnoappearanceofanyhabitationshavingbeenerected
tothenorthoftheWall.Wheneverthesurfaceofthecontiguousground
isbroken,fragmentsofSamianwareandothermarksofRomanoccupation
appear.
[Sidenote:CHESTERS.]
Tworemainsofgreatinterestarefoundwithinthestation.Oneofthese
isanundergroundvaultnearthemiddle.Itsmasonryisrough,and
somewhatpeculiar;thesidesinclineslightlyinwards,buttheroof,
insteadofbeinguniformlyvaulted,isformedofthreeribsarchedin
theusualmanner,andtheintervalsbetweenthemareintechnical
languagesteppedover,thatis,thestonesofeachcoursearemadeto
projectinwardsalittle,until,atlength,onelaidonthetop
completesthejunction.Thewoodcut,whichishereintroduced,together
withthefollowingextractfromHodgsonsdescriptionofit,willgivea

tolerablycorrectideaofthiscuriousstructure.
[Illustration:VaultatCilurnum]
Thisvault,whenitwasfirstfound,wassupposedtohavebeenthe
rariumofthestation.Betweenthejoiningsofthefloor,whichwere
ofthinfreestoneflags,werefoundseveralcounterfeitdenarii,both
ofcopperandironplatedwithsilver.Theapproachtoitwasbyfour
stepsdownwards,thelowestofwhichwasalargecenturialstone,
whichhadborneaninscription,butnearlyallofithadbeen
purposelyerased.Ontheoutsideofthethresholdwasfound,ina
sadlydecayedstate,itsoriginaldoorofwood,stronglysheathedwith
platesofiron,andthewholefirmlyrivettedtogetherwithlarge
squarenails.Withinthedoor,whichhadopenedinwards,theendwall
wastwofeetthick,plasteredandpainted.Itsinternalareaisten
feetbynine,anditsheighttothecrownofthearchsixfeetfour
inches.[85]
[Illustration:Groundplan,Hypocaust,CILURNUM.]
[Illustration:HypocaustsatCilurnum]
Somebuildingssituatedneartothespotwheretheeasterngatewaymust
be,andwhichhaverecentlybeenfreedfromtheearthandrubbishthat
havelongenvelopedthem,areobjectsofstillgreaterinterest.Their
generalappearance,asseenfromaslightelevation,isshewninthe
adjoiningwoodcut,while,foramoreminuteknowledgeoftheirsizeand
arrangements,referencemaybemadetotheplanontheoppositepage.
Eightapartmentshavealreadybeenexposed,andalittlemoreresearch
woulddoubtlessdisplayothers.
[Sidenote:THEHYPOCAUSTS.]
Descendingafewsteps(atLinthePlan),astreetthreefeetwideat
oneextremity,andfourattheother,isentered.Another,leadingfrom
itatrightangles,andwhichispavedwithflagstones,conductstothe
grandentrance(D)ofwhatappearstobetheprincipalsectionofthe
building.Thestepsareverymuchworndownbythetreadoffeet,and
evensomeofthestones,whichhaveevidentlybeenputintheplaceof
othersthathavebeentoomuchabradedtobeserviceable,exhibit
partialwear.Thissaloonmusthavebeenaplaceofgeneral
concoursecanithavebeenthehallofjustice,ortheplacewherethe
commanderofthestationtransactedthebusinessofthedistrictunder
hischarge?Thefloor(E)isprobablysupportedonpillars,andhasbeen
warmedbyfluesbeneath;butthiscannotbeascertainedwithoutinjuring
it.Theuppercoveringisofflags,thefracturedstateofwhichinduces
thebelief,thatthewallsofthesurroundingbuildinghavebeen
forciblythrowndownuponthem.ThenorthernenemiesofRome,knowing
theimportanceofthesestations,wouldnotbeslowininvolvingthemin
entireruin,whenpermitted,bythewithdrawalofthetroops,todoso
withoutmolestation.Passagesdivergefromthissaloon,totherightand
left,intootherapartments.Intheroomontheleftwasfound,ingood
preservation,acisternorbath(C),linedwithredcement.Abreachhad
beenmadeinthestreetwallofthischamber(atB),andintherubbish
which[Illustration:Rivergod]encumberedthegap,wasfoundthestatue
ofarivergod,ofwhichacorrectsketchisheregiven.Itisprobably
intendedtorepresentthegeniusoftheneighbouringrivertheNorth
Tyne.Althoughexecutedincoarsesandstone,itisnotwithout
considerablegracefulnessofattitudeandproportion.Itispreservedin
themansionatChesters.Ofthepresentstateoftheapartmentsbeyond,
thewoodcutinthepreviouspage,andthelithographhereintroduced,
willgiveanaccurateconception.Thefloorshavebeensupportedupon
pillars,someofthembeingofstone,othersofsquareflatbricks.The
stonepillarsare,forthemostpart,fragmentsofcolumnsandbalusters
whichhavebeenusedinapriorstructure.[86]Thestudentofmedival

architecturewillprobablyrecogniseinsomeofthemtypesoftheSaxon
style.Thedilapidatedstateofthefloorofthisapartmentallowsofan
easyexaminationofitsmodeofconstruction.Flags,abouttwoinches
thick,restuponthepillars;alayerofcompost,fiveinchesthick,and
formedoflime,sand,gravel,andburnedclayorpoundedtile,succeeds,
andabovethat,anothercoveringofthinflagstones.[87]Thisapartment
hasbeenprovidedwithasemicircularrecessatitseasternextremity
(G),and,attheanglenextthestreet(A),hasbeensupportedbya
buttress.Asimilaralcovedrecessexistedonthewesternsideofoneof
theprincipalroomsofthebathsatHUNNUM,andthesamearrangement
mayyetbeobservedinthecorrespondingbuildingatLanchester.Allof
thesebuildingshavebeenstrengthenedwithbuttresses,butitisonly
intheseandanalogouscases,thattheuseofthebuttressisadmitted
amongtheerectionsoftheBarrier;itneveroccursinthegreatWallor
thecurtainwallsofthestations.Inthecircularrecess[Sidenote:THE
HYPOCAUSTS.]ofthisapartmentisanaperture(G),whichprobablyhas
servedtoregulatethecurrentofaircirculatinginthehypocausts.The
furnacewhichwarmedthesuiteofapartmentswassituatednearthe
southeastextremityofthebuilding(atF);thepillarsnearthefire
havingbeenmuchacteduponbytheheat,thewholeofthispartofthe
floorwasreduced,onexposuretothefrostsofwinter,totheconfused
heaprepresentedinthedrawing.Thesootintheflueswasfoundas
freshasifithadbeenproducedbyfireslightedthedaybefore.[88]
Thewallsofthisapartmentwerecoatedwithplaster,andcoloureddark
red;exposuretotheweathersoonstrippedthemofthiscovering.An
archedpassagecuriouslyturnedwithRomantiletooktheheatedairfrom
thefurnacethroughthepartywall(atX)intothechambertothewest
ofit.Theroomstothewestwardoftheintersectingstreet(HD),seem
toformanindependentbuilding,andhavelessoftheaspectofaplace
ofpublicconcoursethantheotherportions.Theymayhavebeenthe
privateresidenceofthecommanderofthestation.They,too,areheated
byhypocausts.
[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey,Lith.
HYPOCAUSTATCHESTERS,(CILURNUM)
PrintedbyW.Monkhouse,York
]
[Sidenote:CILURNUM.]
Inurgingtheconviction,thatthehangingfloorsoftheseRoman
buildingsweremeanttoproduceacomfortablewarmth,ratherthanto
generatesteam,byhavingwatersprinkleduponthem,attentionmaybe
drawntothethicknessoftheirsubstance.Atpresent,thefloorofthe
principalapartmentisnineinchesthick,andwhenitsuppersurfacewas
overlaid,asitnodoubtwas,withatastefulconcreteormosaic
pavement,itwouldbeaninchortwomore.Itwouldrequireavery
powerfulfurnacetoraisethismassofmattertoaconsiderable
temperature.Ontheotherhand,iftheproductionofagenialand
uniformwarmthweretheobjectinview,nocontrivancecouldbemore
suitable.Theheatedairfromasmallfurnacepermeatingtheunderground
fluesandthewallsofasuiteofapartments,andnotpassingoffuntil,
initslengthenedpassage,ithadgivenoutthelargerpartofthe
warmthithadderived,would,inthelapseofsomehours,givetothe
wholebuildingacomfortabletemperature,whichitwouldnotreadily
lose.Anyinattentiontothefurnace,eitherbycausingittoburntoo
fiercelyortoofeebly,wouldnotbefelt.Thethicknessofthefloors
wouldpreventtheairfrombeingscorched,andproducingthat
disagreeablesensationwhichisexperiencedinroomsthatareheatedby
thestovesincommonuse.Itisnotimprobablethatwemayreturnto
thismethodofwarmingourchurchesandpublichalls,evenifwedonot
adoptitinourprivatebuildings.[89]

[Sidenote:METHODOFWARMINGBUILDINGS.]
Thedoorwaysofsomeoftheseapartmentshavebeenprovidedwithdouble
doors,probablyformoreeffectuallymaintainingthewarmthoftheroom.
Themasonryofthoseportionsofthewallswhicharestanding,isinan
excellentstateofpreservation.Intheanglenearthebuttress(A),the
actionofthetrowelingivingthefinishingtouchtothepointingmay
beperceived.Thewallsrestupontwostrongbasementcourses,theangle
oftheuppermostbeingbevelledoffwithaneatmoulding.
Someofthequoinsofthedoorwaysconsistofverylargestones;oneis
sixfeetlong,andisprobablyatoninweight.Thisprovesthatitwas
notfromlackofmechanicalmeansthattheinteriorbuildingsandwalls
ofthestationswerecomposedofsmallstones.Morethanoneofthe
thresholdshaveagrooveveryroughlycutinthem,apparentlytoallow
oftheegressofwater.Thishasprobablybeendoneafterthedeparture
oftheRomansandthegeneraldemolitionofthebuildings,bysome
houselesswanderers,who,havingcampedintheruin,wereincommoded
bythelodgementofrainonthefloor.
ThehydraulicpropertiesoftheconcreteusedinthefloorsofRoman
hypocausts,has,Ibelieve,escapedthenoticeofpreviouswriters,and
istheonlyotherpointwhichneedlongerdetainusinthisinteresting
building.Myattentionwasdrawntothissubjectbymybrother,Mr.
GeorgeBarclayBruce,MemberoftheInstitutionofCivilEngineers,in
thefollowingcommunication:
InmanyplacesonthelineoftheWall,themortarhashadmixedwith
itbrokentilesorburnedclay,toassistitinresistingthemoisture
oftheatmosphere.
TheconcreteatChestersplacedbetweentheslabsofthebathroom,
hasaverylargeproportionofthisburnedclay,andwouldthusbe
bettersuitedtoresisttheactionofheatbelowandwaterabovethan
purerlime.
Aportionofthisconcretewastaken,bywayofexperiment,andburned
inacrucible,asthoughithadbeenapieceoflimestone;itwasthen
groundfine,andmixedwithaproperquantityofwater;afterbeing
allowedtodryforthreeorfourhours,itwasimmersedinwater,
whereitsetinthesamemannerascommonmortardoesintheopenair,
clearlyprovingitshydraulicproperties.Thesameexperimentwas
triedwiththeordinarymortaroftheWall,butwithoutthesame
result,therenotbeingasufficientlylargequantityofburnedclay
toenableittostandsosevereatest.Inthecaseoftheconcrete,
itdidnotsetsoreadilyaswhatiscalledRomancement,but
sufficientlysotoprovethatitisastronghydraulicmortar,madeby
themixtureofburnedclaywithcommonlime.
[Sidenote:THECEMETERY.]
Biddingfarewelltotheseinterestingstructures,wemaynowbendour
stepsashortwaydowntheriver,onavisittothecypressgrovethe
burialgroundofthestation.This,whichinHorsleysdaysformeda
separatefieldcalledtheOxclose,isnowincludedintheparkofthe
domain.Neverwasspotmoreappropriatelychosen.Theriverhere
descendswithmorethanusualrapidityoveritsstonybed,andbending
atthesametimetotheleft,exhibitstotheeyethelengthenedvista
ofitswellwoodedbanks.Noearthlymusiccouldbettersoothethe
chafedaffectionsofthehopelessheathenmournerthanthemurmurofthe
streamwhichisceaselesslyheardinthissecludednook.Fromthisspot
havebeenprocuredseveralsepulchralslabswhichwillpresentlyafford
usinstruction;meantime,oneisgivenonthenextpagewhoselessonis
ofanegativecharacter.Theblankmemorialshewshowvainarethe

effortswhichevenaffectionmakestorenderbuoyantonthewaveoftime
thememoryofthosedeparted.Ourverymonumentsneedmemorials.But,
passingthis,thecharacterofthecarvingbetokensapoorstateofthe
arts,andfixesitsdateinthelowesttimesoftheempire:inthiswe
haveaproofofthelongcontinuedoccupationofthestation.Thefate
ofthestonehasbeensingular.WhenHorsleysawit,theinscriptionwas
legible;buthavingsincebeenusedasthedoorstoneofthecowhouse
atWalwickGrange,thelettershad,previoustoitsremovalto
Alnwickcastle(itspresentrestingplace),beenentirelyobliterated.
[Illustration:FunerealSlab,Cilurnum]
BetweenthestationandthecemeteryisawellenclosedwithRoman
masonry;itisnowinagreatmeasurefilledup.
[Illustration:FunerealSlabofHorseSoldier,Cilurnum]
[Sidenote:ITSNAMEASCERTAINED.]
ThestationofCILURNUM,whichisthesixthonthelineoftheWall,was
garrisonedbythesecondwingoftheAstures,(aregimentofSpanish
cavalry)commandedbyaprefect.Thisfacthasgraduallydeveloped
itselftotheantiquary.Camdenthoughtitprobable.Horsleyconcurred
intheopinion,and,intheabsenceofbetterevidence,sagaciously
referredtothetombstoneofwhichadrawingisherepresented,inproof
ofitshavingbeenoccupiedbyahorseregiment.Thatsomehorse,says
he,'keptgarrisonhereinthelowerempire,seemstobeprobablefrom
theinscriptionandsculptureyetremainingatWalwickgrange.'[90]The
lettersD.M.,heremarksinanotherplace,provethistobea
sepulchralmonument,andthefigureshewsthatthedeceasedbelongedto
thehorse,andthereforeprobablywasoneofthe_AlasecundaAstorum_,
whichinthelowerempirekeptgarrisonatCILURNUM,astheNotitia
informsus.
[Illustration:SlabAlaII.Asturum]
Moredecisiveevidencehassincebeenprocured.Theslabfiguredonpage
61,ispartofit.Astillmoresatisfactorydocumentofstonewas
discoveredatChestersseveralyearsago,whereitisstillpreserved:
thewoodcutaccuratelyportraysit.
IMP[ERATORI]CAES[ARI]_MARCO_AVREL[IO]
AUG[VSTO]............_PONTIFICIMAXIMO_
TRIB[VNITIA]P[OTESTATE]CO[N]S[VLI]_IV_P[ATRI]P[ATRI]DIV[I]
_ANTONINIFILIO_
DIVISEVER[I]NEP[OTI]
CAESAR[I]IMPER[ATORI]..........._DUPLARES_
ALIIASTVRV[M]_TEMPLUM_VETVSTAT[E]_CONLAPSUMRESTITU_
ERVNTPERMARIUMVALER[IANUM]_LEGATUMAUGUSTALEMPROPRTOREM_
INSTANTESEPTIMIONILOPR[FECTO]
DEDICATVMIIIKAL[ENDAS]NOVEM[BRIS]GRATOETSELE[VCO]
_CONSULIBUS_.[91]
TotheemperorMarcusAurelius
Augustus...........PontifexMaximus,
Withtribunitianpower,fourthtimeConsul,FatherofhisCountry,of
divineAntoninustheson,
OfthedeifiedSeverusthegrandson,
ToCsarouremperor........theduplares[92]
OfthesecondwingofAstures,thistemple,throughagedilapidated,re
storedbycommandofMariusValerianus,ImperialLegateandProprtor,
UnderthesuperintendenceofSeptimiusNilus,Prefect.
DedicatedOct.30th,intheconsulateofGratusandSeleucus.
Hutton,whohasdonesuchgoodservicetotheWall,underratedthe

valueofinscriptions.Whentheantiquary,sayshe,'haslaboured
throughaparcelofmiserableletters,whatishethewiser?'Letthis
fracturedanddefacedstoneanswerthequestion.[93]1.Thisdedication
wasmadebysoldiersofthesecondwingoftheAstures;wethuslearn
thenameofthepeoplewhogarrisonedthefort,andbyareferenceto
theNotitia,ascertainwithcertaintythatthiswas[Sidenote:CILURNUM.]
CILURNUM.2.Weacquirethefact,thatatemple,whichthroughagehad
becomedilapidated,wasrestored;learningthereby,notonlythe
attentionwhichtheRomanspaidtowhattheyconceivedtobereligious
duties,buttheirlongoccupationofthisspot.Ithasbeenalready
observed,thatsomeofthepillarsofthehypocausthavebeenportions
ofapriorbuilding;theruinandinscriptionthuscorroborateeach
other.3.Thedateofthededicationisgiven;thethirdofthecalends
ofNovemberfallsuponthethirtiethofOctober,andtheyearinwhich
GratusandSeleucuswereconsulscorrespondstoA.D.221;thedataon
whichantiquariesfoundtheirconclusions,arenotalwayssovagueas
someimagine.4.Eventheerasuresareinstructive.Byareferenceto
thedate,wefindthatHeliogabaluswasreigningatthetimeofthe
dedicationofthetemple;wefindthatwhatremainofthenamesand
titlesonthestoneapplytohim;he,consequently,istheemperor
referredto.Theyearfollowinghewasslainbyhisownsoldiers,his
bodydraggedthroughthestreetsandcastintotheTiber.Thesoldiers
inBritainseemtohavesympathizedwiththeircompanionsatRomeandto
haveerasedthenameofthefallenemperorfromthededicatoryslab.
Humannatureisthesameineveryage.Howoftenhavewe,inmodern
times,seenanamecastoutwithloathingwhichyesterdayreceivedthe
incenseofaworldsflattery!
Theaboveinscriptiongivesusthestationofthe_AlasecundaAsturum_,
inthereignofHeliogabalus,A.D.221.TheNotitiaImperiigivesusits
stationinthereignofTheodosiustheyounger,_ultratempusArcadii
etHonorii_,A.D.430,andwefindatbothperiodsthesameforcein
thesamestation,whichcorrespondswiththeunderstoodpracticeofthe
Romanarmywithregardtothepermanencyofthequartersofits
auxiliaryforces.Withreferencetothedifferencebetweenthespelling
oftheinscriptionandtheNotitia,AsturumandAstorum,itmaybe
observedthatastheNotitiaImperiiwaspreservedforathousandyears
inmanuscriptbeforetheartofprintingcametoitsrescue,itismore
likelythattheerrorshouldbeinthebook,thanonthestone.
Theancientnameofthestationhavingbeenascertained,theetymology
ofitmaybeinquiredinto.Whitakersaysitmeansacreek.Anauthority
acquaintedwiththeGaeliclanguagesuggeststhefollowingderivation;
_caol_,narrow,probablypronouncedbytheRomans_kil_,and_doir_,
water(incomposition_dhoir_,thedhnotsounded);sothat_caoloir_
isnarrowstream;the_um_isausualLatinaffix.Ofcourse,this
branchoftheTyneisnarrowincomparisonwiththeunitedfloods.The
wordmayhavehadanItalianorigin;theLatin_celer_,swift,hassome
resemblancetoit,andtheriver,whenswollenbyfloods,veryspeedily
dischargesitssuperfluouswater.Whateverbetheoriginoftheword,
thenamesoftheneighbouringplaces,ChollertonandChollerford,have
hadasimilarderivation.
[Sidenote:ROMANSCULPTURES.]
[Illustration:StatueofCybele,Cilurnum]
Themiscellaneousantiquitieswhichhavebeenfoundhere,andarestill
preserveduponthespot,areofaveryinterestingcharacter.Chief
amongthemisabrokenstatue,whichishererepresented.
Thefragment,consistingofafinegrainedsandstone,issixfeettwo
incheslong.Statuesofsolargeasizeareofveryrareoccurrencein
RomancampsinBritain.Itisgenerallysupposedtohavebeenmeantfor
Cybele,themotherofthegods.Thegracefulnessofthedesign,andthe

excellenceoftheexecution,showusthatthestateoftheartsinRoman
Britainwasnotsolowasissometimessupposed.Thearrangementofthe
drapery,andtheornamentplaceduponitsmargins,aresuggestiveofthe
modeinwhichthesedetailsweremanagedinthestatuesoftheearly
ecclesiasticalarchitects.Theancientbuildersprofessedlyfollowedthe
Romanmodes.
[Illustration:GroupofCarvedStones,Cilurnum]
ThefineCorinthiancapital,whichishereshewn,enablesustojudgeof
thebeautyofsomeofthebuildingswhichadornedtheancientCILURNUM.
Inthedrawing,itrestsupononeofthefoundationstonesofthe
bridge;ontherighthandsideofthegrouparetwocenturialstones,
inscribed
C[ENTVRIA]VAL[ERII]
MAXI[MI]
[CENTVRIA]RVFISABI
NI
Thecentury(orcompany)ofValerius
Maximus
ThecenturyofRufusSabi
nus.
Onthetopoftheseisapipeofredearthenware.
_PLATEVIII_
[Illustration:MiscellaneousAntiquities,Cilurnum]
_PLATEIX_
[Illustration:SamianWare]
[Sidenote:MISCELLANEOUSANTIQUITIES.]
Preservedinthecollectionhere,isatileoftheusualRoman
fabrication,onwhichareimpressedthefootmarksofadog,seemingly
oftheterrierspecies.Theanimalmusthaverunoveritwhiletheclay
wasinasoftstate.PlateVIII.fig.4.
Inmakingtheexcavationsatthehypocausts,manycoinsofsilverand
brasswerefound.TheyextendfromthereignofHadriantothatof
Gratian;thoseofConstantineandhisimmediatesuccessorsprevail.A
massivesilversignetring,representing,onacornelianstone,acock
peckingatananearofcorn,wasfoundinoneoftherooms.Asis
uniformlythecase,numerousfragmentsofthedifferentkindsofpottery
usedbytheRomanswereturnedup;someofthefragmentsofvesselsof
SamianwarearefiguredonPlateIX.Akey,fig.4.anironimplement
withspringsoneachsideofit,fig.1.andaspearheadfig.3.drawn
onPlateX.,werefoundhere.Somesolesofsandals,similarin
charactertothosewhichwillafterwardsbedescribed,severalglass
beadsofcuriousfabrication,andbrokenpiecesofglassvessels,were
pickedup.Apieceof_cut_glassprocuredhereisshewninPlateVII.
fig.10.Oneofthemostcuriousrelicsobtainedfromthistreasuryof
Romaneffectswasthetoothofabear;itisofalargesize,andis
piercedwithtwoholestoenableitspossessortosuspenditbya
string,andwearitasatrophyoracharmonhisperson.Itisfigured
ofthefullsizeinPlateVII.Bears,aswellaswolves,prowledinthe
forestsofancientBritain,andnodoubttheformidableanimalwhich
yieldedthistusk,costitscaptoraseverestruggle.
Nottheleastinterestingofthecircumstancesofaplaceofveryearly
occupation,arethetraditionsoftheancientsrespectingit.

Notwithstandingtheirrudeness,somelatenttruthmaygenerallybe
educedfromthem;andtheyalwaysmanifestthemodesofthoughtthat
prevailedinformertimes.SixtyyearsagothetraditionsoftheWall
mighteasilyhavebeengathered,butnowtheoldmenhavenearly
forgottenthetaleswithwhichtheirforeeldersusedtoentertain
themonawintersevening.Theproductsofthepresshavenearly
supersededthisunletteredlore.AfewfragmentsrelativetoCILURNUM
have,however,beensuppliedtome.Abeliefusedtoprevail,thatthere
existedasubterraneanstableunderthecampcapableofcontainingfive
hundredhorse.Itwas,moreover,currentlyrelated,thatbeneaththe
riveratunnelwasformed,whichledtotheoppositeside.Thereisa
poolinthevicinityofthestation,onitswesternside,calledthe
Inglepool,andwhich,untilpartiallyfilledupafewyearsago,was
verydeep;thepeasantrybelieved,thatitderiveditssuppliesbyan
undergroundcanalfromtheNorthTyne,atNunwickmill,betweenthree
andfourmilesuptheriver.
_PLATEX._
[Illustration:
J.STOREYDEL.ETLITH.PRINTEDBYAND^W.REID.
RomanSpears,etc.
]
Inthesetraditionswemayperhapsrecognisethefacts,thataregiment
ofhorsegarrisonedthestation;thattheRomanscarefullymaintained
themeansofintercoursewithbothsidesoftheriver;andthat,ifin
thisinstancetheydidnot,whichisbynomeanscertain,inothersthey
undoubtedlydidbringwaterfromgreatdistances,eitherforthepurpose
ofsustenance,ortostrengthentheirposition.
WemustnowtakeleaveofCILURNUM.Whatevermaybetheviewsofthe
reader,thevisitorwilldosowithregret.AsHodgsonwellremarks,
TheAstures,inexchangingthesunnyvalleysofSpainforthebanksof
thetawnyTyne,mightfindtheclimateintheirnewsituationworse,but
alovelierspotthanCILURNUMalltheAsturiascouldnotgivethem.
Duringmanydaysspentintheprosecutionofmyinquiriesherethe
beautyofthelandscape,theinstructivenatureoftheruins,andthe
pleasantintercoursewhichIwasprivilegedtoenjoywiththehospitable
familyatthehall,combinedtomakeadeepimpressionuponmymind.
[Sidenote:CHESTERS.]
Againwebendourstepswestward.BehindthegardenwallatChesters
standsafragmentoftheWall.Thenorthfosseisfilledwithwater.
AscendingthehillwhichleadstoWalwick,theearthworksareseenon
thelefthand.Whennearthetopofit,ouroutdoorantiquary,whilehe
pausesforbreath,willdowelltolookback,andcontemplatethescene
heisleaving.ThelinesoftheBarrierareseenboldlydescendingthe
wellwoodedandfertilebanksontheeastsideoftheriver.Wardenhill
istothesouth,andwillattractattentionbyitselevation.Itssummit
isseenstilltobearmarksofhavingbeenoccupiedbytheaboriginesof
Britain.WhilsttheworksoftheBarrierweregoingon,theymayhave
maintainedtheirpositionforawhile,and,frombehindtheir
entrenchments,scowledupontheintruderswhoweresoontodrivethemto
theremoterregionoftheCheviots.Afterwateringbothsides[Sidenote:
WARDENFELL.]ofthetongueoflandofwhichWardenfellconsists,the
NorthandSouthTynemeet,andtheirwatersrolloninaunitedstream
totheEmporiumoftheNorth.Wecanfollowitwiththeeyeforsome
distance,asitgoessparklinginthesunshine,spreadingfertilityand
beautyoneitherhand.
...Oyedales

OfTyneandyemostancientwoodlands;where
Oftasthegiantfloodobliquelystrides,
Andhisbanksopen,andhislawnsextend,
Stopsshortthepleasedtravellertoview,
Presidingoerthescene,somerustictower,
FoundedbyNormanorbySaxonhands.
NestledinthefairestpartofthevalleyistheabbeychurchofHexham;
closelyinspected,itisfoundtobeachastespecimenofthemost
simpleandbeautifulofourecclesiasticalstylestheearlyEnglish,
and,whenviewedfromadistance,asinthiscase,itsvenerabletowers
lendaquietcharmtothelandscape.
HowdifferentthescenewhichtheRomansbeheld!Intheirday,andfor
longafterwards,thepainfulcultivatorofthesoilknewnotwhoshould
reaptheharvest;thoseonly,therefore,whohadpowertoprotect
themselveswouldengageintheoccupation.Now,thehusbandmandreams
notofaforeignfoe,oroftroopsoflawlessmarauders;steadilyhe
evokestherichesofthesoil,andsomethinglikeanEdensmiles!
AstripoftheWall,thoughinadisorderedstate,andcoveredwith
brushwood,isinafieldbeyondWalwick;itsfosseisfinelydeveloped.
[Sidenote:TOWERTAY.]
Ascendingthenexthill,calledTowerTay,theearthworksarestill
veryconspicuous.Abouthalfwayuparetheruinsofatower,erected
aboutacenturyago,asanobjectinthelandscape.Itstandsonthe
Wall,andhasbeenentirelyformedoutofitsstones.Atthesummit,the
ditchesofbothWallandVallumarecutthroughthenativerock,of
whichthehillconsists,andareinexcellentorder.TheWallstands
veryneartheedgeofascar,sufficientlyelevatedtohaveformedof
itselfadefence;itisremarkablethattheRomansshouldhavethought
itnecessarytodrawaditchonthenorthsideofitatall.
Lookingforwardfromthetopofthishill,wesee,foraconsiderable
distance,allthelinesoftheBarrierproceedingontheircourse;
descendingonehillandascendingtheopposite,calledthe
Limestonebank,theykeepperfectlyparallel.Itwouldhavedelighted
Horsleyshearttonoticethatthepresentroadrunsuponthenorth
aggeroftheVallum,maintaining,ashedid,thatthiswastheMilitary
WayofAgricola.
Atashortdistance,furtherinadvance,theruinsofamilecastleare
seenontheright.Thewholeofthefacingstonesaregone,asis
usuallythecase,andtheplacewhereitstoodischieflymarkedbythe
vacuityoccasionedbytheirremoval.Thiscastellummeasures,inside,
fiftyfourfeetfromeasttowest,andsixtyonefromnorthtosouth;it
hasbeenprotectedbyafosse.AlongrangeoftheWallisnextseenin
theBlackcartsfarm,inanencouragingstateofpreservation;itis
betweenfiveandsixfeethigh,andshews,insomeplaces,sevencourses
offacingstones.
[Sidenote:TEPPERMOOR.]
Onthesummitofthenexthill,manyobjectsofgreatinterestawaitus.
Theviewfromitismostextensive.Tothenorth,avastsweepof
countrymeetstheeye;abeautifulundulatedvalleyoccupiesthe
foreground,behinditthehillsriseboldly,andtheloftyCheviots
boundthescene.Chipchasecastleoccupiesacommandingposition.The
modernmansionofNunwick,emboweredinwood,selectsthelowerground.
Towardsthewest,theloftycragstraversedbytheWallcomeintoview.
Inthecornerofafieldadjoiningtheroad,aretheremainsofanother
milecastle;itmeasuresfiftysevenfeetbyfiftyfour.Horsleysays,

itwasdetachedaboutayardfromtheWall,thereasonofwhichwasnot
veryobvious.AportionoftheRomanMilitaryWaymayherebeseenasit
curvestowardsthegatewayofthecastellum,andagainrecedesfromit.
Agoodsectionofitisobtainedatthemarginoftheplaceswhereits
stoneshavebeenremovedtoformthestonedikesofthefield.
[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Del.JohnStorey,Lith.
THEWORKS,TEPPERMOOR.
]
ThefosseoftheWallandVallumatthispointdeserveattentive
examination.Inpassingoverthecrownofthehill,theyhavebeen
excavatedwithenormouslabouroutofthebasaltofwhichthesummit
consists.Theworkmen,asifexhaustedwiththetaskofraisingthe
splinteredfragments,haveleftthemlyingonthesidesofthemoats.A
massontheoutsideofthenorthditch,thoughnowsplitbytheaction
ofthefrostintothreepieces,hasevidentlyformedoneblock,and
cannotweighlessthanthirteentons.Itisnoteasytoconceivehow
theymanagedtoquarrysotougharockwithouttheaidofgunpowder,or
contrivedtolift,withthemachineryattheircommand,suchhuge
blocks.Noluisholesappearinthem.
ThelithographpresentsaviewofthegiantworksoftheVallumand
fosseatthispoint.Itisquiteevidentthathere,atleast,thenorth
aggerdidnotformtheMilitaryWay.Thereareseveralbreaksand
irregularitiesinboththemounds;theworkshaveprobablybeenleftby
theRomansinarough,unfinishedstate.
BetweenthisspotandthecraggysummitonwhichSewingshields
farmhouseisperched,thegroundisflat,anddestituteofanydecided
descenttothenorth.Onthisaccount,andformutualdefence,thelines
oftheBarrierkeepclosetogether,soclose,sometimes,asscarcelyto
leaveroomforthepassageoftheMilitaryWaybetweenthem.
[Sidenote:PROCOLITIA.]
PROCOLITIAistheseventhstationarycamponthelineoftheWall.It
wasgarrisonedbythefirstBataviancohort,which,withtwoothersfrom
thesamecountry,andthetwoTungriancohorts,waswithAgricolainhis
greatbattlewithGalgacusintheGrampianHills.Thattheruinedcamp
atCarrawburghwastheadoptedhomeofthiscohort,isprovedbythe
altarengravedonpage62,andby[Illustration:SlabCoh.I.Batavorum]
thefracturedslabnowintroduced,[94]andwhichwasfoundhereinthe
year1838.Onthismutilatedstone,thewordsCOHIBATAVORVMarequite
distinct,andareofthemselvessufficient,notonlytofixthesiteof
theancientPROCOLITIA,buttocorroboratethetestimonyofTacitus,on
thepresenceofBataviansinBritainduringtheperiodofRoman
occupation.ThelinefollowingmayprobablybereadINST[ANT]EBVRRIO,
andbearsthenameoftheprefectunderwhosesuperintendencethe
buildingwaserected,towhichtheslabreferred.Inthelastline,the
wordCO[RNELIANOmaybeperceived.In237,whenMaximinuswasemperor,
TitiusPerpetuusandRusticusCornelianuswereconsuls.Thatthisisthe
dateoftheinscriptionisrenderedlikelyfromafragmentofthis
emperorsnameappearinginthebeginningofit.
Whitakergives,asthemeaningofthewordPROCOLITIA,thefortressin
thewoodlands.IntheGaelictongue,_coille_signifiesawood.
Thereislittleinthisstationtodetainus.Thecourseofitsramparts
andmoatscanbeeasilytraced,andtherichgreenswardofitsareais
seentocovernumerousirregularheapsofruins;everybuilding,
however,isprostrate;scarcelyonestoneisleftuponanother.TheWall

formsthenorthernboundaryofthestation;itseasternandwestern
gatewaysare,asusual,oppositetoeachother,butstriketheside
wallsbetweentheupperendandthemiddle.Thepositionofthesouthern
gatewaycannotbedetected;inthepresentstateoftheruins,thereis
noappearanceofone.Thesoutherncornersareroundedoff,buttheside
wallsofthestation,injoiningtheMurusonthenorth,seemto
preservetheirrectilinearcourse.Outsidethewesternwallarethe
ruinsofthesuburbs.Anaturalvalley,consistingatpresentofboggy
ground,givesstrengthtothefortificationonthisside.Horsleysawa
wellintheslack,casedwithRomanmasonry;itisnowremoved.
Nomodernhabitationisonthegroundorinitsimmediatevicinityto
relievethegeneraldesolation
...here,asinthewild,
Thedayissilent,drearyasthenight;
Nonestirringsavetheherdsmanandhisherd,
...ortheythatwouldexplore,
Discussandlearnedly.
[Sidenote:CARRAWBURGH.]
Passingonwards,wesoonreachthefarmhouseofCarraw,formerlya
ruralretreatofthepriorsofHexham.Onthecrownofthenext
elevation,theworksarebroughtintocloseproximity,apparentlyfor
thepurposeofavoidinganextensivebogonthenorth,andof
maintainingpossessionofthepointofthehillonthesouth.The
earthworksareveryboldlydeveloped,butareinaraggedstate.The
contentsofthenorthfossearepileduphighonitsoutermargin.The
fosseoftheVallumiscutthroughfreestonerock;itssouthernagger
isveryelevated,andwouldpresentaboldandangryfronttoany
intruderfromthesouth.
[Sidenote:THEGREATMURALRIDGE.]
Wemustnow,toadoptthelanguageofHutton,quitthebeautifulscenes
ofcultivation,andenterupontherudeofnature,andthewreckof
antiquity.Fourgreatmountainwavesarebeforeus,andseemtochase
eachothertothenorth,onwhichsidetheircrestsrisealmost
perpendicularly.Tothehighestofthese,thesecondfromthesouth,the
Walldirectsitscourse.Itisaridgeofbasalt,whichcrossesthe
islandobliquely,fromCumberlandtoHolyIsland.TheVallumhereparts
companywiththeWall,andtakesthetailofthehillonthecragof
whichtheotherruns.Theaccompanyingdrawingshewsthenatureofthe
countrybeforeus.
[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey,Lith.
APPROACHTOSEWINGSHIELDS.
PrintedbyW.Monkhouse,York
]
BeforeapproachingSewingshields[95]farmhouse,whichisonthelineof
Wall,anexperiencedeyewilldetecttheRomanMilitaryWay.Itrunsat
firstnearlyparallelwiththeWall,ataboutthirtysixpacesfromit,
but,initssubsequentcourse,recedesfromtheBarrier,orapproaches
it,accordingtothepositionofthemilecastles,andthenatureofthe
ground.Withbutfewinterruptions,itmaybetracedbytheappearance
ofitsherbage,byitsslightlyelevated,roundedform,andbythe
occasionalprotrusionofthestonescomposingit,allthewayfrom
SewingshieldstoThirlwall.
Thenorthfosse,whichwehavehadinviewfromtheverycommencementof
ourjourney,accompaniestheWallforashortdistanceupthehill,as

isseeninthelithograph,butwhenthegroundbecomesprecipitous,it
forsakesituntilthehighgroundsarepassed,onlytoappearwhenthe
Wallsinksintoagaporchasmbetweenthecrags.
[Sidenote:THEWALLONTHECRAGS.]
Adifficultywillherepresentitselftonearlyeverymind;whywasthe
Walldrawnalongthecliffsatall?Horsleycuttheknotinsteadof
untyingit.Assuchsteeprocks,sayshe,areasufficientfenceof
themselves,IaminclinedtothinktheWallhasnotinthosepartshad
eitherstrengthorthickness,equaltowhatithashadinotherparts.
PresentappearancesgiveusnoreasontosupposethattheWallonthe
cragswasinanyrespectinferiortowhatitwasinthelowgrounds.A
differentmethodofaccountingforthecircumstancehasbeenforcedupon
myattention.Itwasmyfortunetotraversetheheightsnear
SewingshieldslateinDecemberlastyear,whenthewindblewaviolent
galefromthenorth,andthethermometer,eveninthevalley,wasten
degreesbelowthefreezingpoint.Inordertomaintaintheordinary
temperatureofthebody,veryactiveexertionwasnecessary,andtomake
anyprogressonmyway,Iwasconstrainedtogetundertheleeofthe
hill.Theconclusionwasirresistible;iftheRomansweretokeepwatch
andwardhereduringthewinter,aWallwasnecessary,eventhoughonly
forthesakeofshelteringthemfromtheblast.Thehabitsoftheenemy
demandedcontinualvigilance;for,asTacitustellsus,beforethetime
ofAgricolatheyusuallyrepairedthelossestheyhadsustainedin
summerbythesuccessoftheirwinterexpeditions.Theloftierthe
mountainpeak,themorenecessary,inthisviewofit,wasthefriendly
shelteroftheWalltotheshiveringsoldiersofsouthernEurope.
[Sidenote:SEWINGSHIELDS.]
TheWallintheneighbourhoodofSewingshieldsisnotingoodcondition;
itssiteismarkedbytherubblewhichencumbersit,butthe
facingstonesaregone,havingcontributedtotheerectionofevery
buildinginthevicinity,fromthetimeofHonoriustothepresentday.
Aconsiderabletractofitwasremovedlately.Thoroughdraining,the
lifeofagriculture,isdeathtotheWall.
Theaspectofthecountryintheimmediatevicinityoftheheightsof
Sewingshieldsisdrearyenough,buttheelevationenablestheeyeto
revelinthefertilityandbeautyofthedistantlandscape.Hexhamis
distinctlydiscerniblefromthefarmhouse.Ontheflatstothenorthof
thecrags,thereformerlystoodtheborderfortress,Sewingshields
castle.[96]ItwasatonetimethepropertyofthelateRalphSpearman,
esq.,theMonkbarnsofTHEANTIQUARY.
[Sidenote:MURALTRADITIONS.]
Asituationsoremotefromthecrowdedhauntsofmenisfavourableto
thepreservationoflegendarylore.Itoccurredtomethathere,if
anywhere,Imightascertainthekindofideaswhichtherudeforefathers
ofthemuralregionentertainedrespectingtheWallanditsbuilders.
AlthoughontheAntonineWallalltraditionoftheRomanshasbeenlost,
thishascertainlynotbeenthecasehere;therecollectionofthemis
stilldistinctlypreserved,andsomestoriesofthemaretold,which,
thoughinseveralrespectsresemblingwrittenhistory,arenotderived
fromthissource.Forthefollowingscrapsoftraditionalinformation,I
amchieflyindebtedtothemasterofGrindonschool,intheimmediate
neighbourhoodofSewingshields,whosayshehasoftenheardthem
repeated.Thoughhedenominatesthemabsurd,thelearnedinmedival
legendswillprobablythinkthemworthpreserving.
TheRomansaresaidtohavebeenremarkablylazy,somuchso,thatin
thehotweatherofsummer,havingalmostnothingtodo,theylay
baskinginthesun,onthesouthsideoftheWall,almostinastate

oftorpor.TheScotswereinthehabitofwatchingtheiropportunity,
and,throwinghooks,withlinesattachedtothem,overtheWall,
caughtthepoorRomansbytheirclothesorflesh,andbythismeans,
draggingthemtotheotherside,madethemprisoners.
Anoldmaninthisneighbourhoodtoldme,thathehadoftenheard
peoplesay,thattheRomanshadremarkablybroadfeet,withstill
broadershoes,andthat,whenitrained,theylayontheirbacks,and
holdinguptheirfeetinaperpendiculardirection,protected,bythis
means,theirpersonsfromtheweather.Thislegend,undervarious
modifications,seemstohavebeenwidelydiffusedinthemiddleages.
SirJohnMaundevile,describingEthiope,saysInthatcontree,ben
folkthathanbutofoot;andtheigonsofast,thatitismarvaylle;
andthefootissolarge,thatitschadewetheallthebodyazenthe
sonne,whantheywolelyeandrestehem.Preciselysimilartothisis
Plinysaccount'Itemhominumgenus,quiMonoscellivocarentur,
singuliscruribus,mirpernicitatisadsaltum:eosdemqueSciopodas
vocari,quodinmajoristu,humijacentesresupini,umbrasepedum
protegant.'[97]
ItisthetraditionofthecountrythatallthestonesoftheWall
werehandedfromonemantoanotherbyasetoflabourersstationedin
alinefromthequarrytotheplacewheretheywererequired.Many
willtellyou,'Ihaveheardmymothersay,thattheWallwasbuiltin
asinglenight,andthatnoonewasobservedtobeengageduponit,
saveanoldwomanwithanapronfullofstones.'This,however,isa
traditionofalmostuniversalapplication.
ThepeoplesaythattheWallwashollow,or,astheyexpressit,hada
fluerunningthewholelengthofit,throughwhichthesentinels
communicatedintelligencebyaspeakingtrumpet.
SomeofthepeopleofthisneighbourhoodtellmethattheBritons,
tired,atlength,ofRomanoppression,roseinabody,anddrovethe
garrison,withconsiderableslaughter,fromalltheirstations.The
Romans,whenmakingtheirwaytotheseatolookforshipstocarry
themhome,weremetbyaseer,whotoldthemthatiftheyreturned
hometheywouldallbedrowned;andiftheywentbacktotheirold
stationstheywouldallbeslain.Thisprophecydisconcertedthem
greatly,andtheywereattheirwitsend;however,afterlong
consultation,theyresolvedtoescapebothcalamitiesbymarching
directtoWales.Thistheydid,andtherethepure,unadulterated
Romanbreedistobefoundtothisday.Canthisstoryrefertothe
passageofthesecondlegion,atanearlyperiod,toCaerleon?
[Sidenote:LEGENDSOFKINGARTHUR.]
Wenextpassontosometales,which,thoughnotconnectedwiththe
Wall,belong,asHodgsonremarks,totimesnearertheRomanthanthese
degeneratedays.TheychieflyrelatetokingArthur.SirWilliamBetham
observesthatthismonarchsnameismorecelebratedinScotlandthanin
Wales,whichwasthechiefresortoftheconqueredBritons,andis
disposedtothink,thatthisfavouriteheroofromancewasnota
RomanizedBriton,butaninvadingPictishking.Thisideawouldaccount
forthefrequentreferencetohisnameintheregionoftheWall.
Immemorialtraditionhasasserted,thatkingArthur,hisqueen
Guenever,hiscourtoflordsandladies,andhishounds,were
enchantedinsomecaveofthecrags,orinahallbelowthecastleof
Sewingshields,andweretocontinueentrancedtheretillsomeone
shouldfirstblowabuglehornthatlayonatableneartheentrance
ofthehall,andthenwiththeswordofthestonecutagarteralso
placedtherebesideit.Butnonehadeverheardwheretheentranceto
thisenchantedhallwas,tillthefarmeratSewingshields,aboutfifty
yearssince,wassittingupontheruinsofthecastle,andhisclew

fell,andrandownwardsthrougharushofbriarsandnettles,ashe
supposed,intoadeepsubterraneanpassage.Firminthefaiththatthe
entranceintokingArthurshallwasnowdiscovered,heclearedthe
briaryportalofitsweedsandrubbish,andenteringavaulted
passage,followed,inhisdarklingway,thethreadofhisclew.The
floorwasinfestedwithtoadsandlizards;andthedarkwingsofbats,
disturbedbyhisunhallowedintrusion,flittedfearfullyaroundhim.
Atlength,hissinkingcouragewasstrengthenedbyadim,distant
light,which,asheadvanced,grewgraduallybrighter,till,allat
once,heenteredavastandvaultedhall,inthecentreofwhich,a
firewithoutfuel,fromabroadcreviceinthefloor,blazedwitha
highandlambentflame,thatshewedallthecarvedwallsandfretted
roof,andthemonarchandhisqueen,reposingaroundinatheatreof
thronesandcostlycouches.Onthefloor,beyondthefire,laythe
faithfulanddeeptonedpackofthirtycoupleofhounds;andona
tablebeforeit,thespelldissolvinghorn,sword,andgarter.The
shepherdreverently,butfirmly,graspedthesword,andashedrewit
leisurelyfromitsrustyscabbard,theeyesofthemonarch,andofhis
courtiersbegantoopen,andtheyrosetilltheysatupright.Hecut
thegarter;andastheswordwasbeingslowlysheathed,thespell
assumeditsancientpower,andtheyallgraduallysunktorest;but
notbeforethemonarchhadlifteduphiseyesandhands,and
exclaimed:
Owoebetidethatevilday
Onwhichthiswitlesswightwasborn,
Whodrewtheswordthegartercut,
Butneverblewthebuglehorn.
Terrorbroughtonlossofmemory,andtheshepherdwasunabletogive
anycorrectaccountofhisadventure,ortofindagaintheentranceto
theenchantedhall.[98]
TothenorthofSewingshields,twostrataofsandstonecropouttothe
day;thehighestpointsofeachledgearecalledtheKingand
Queenscrag,fromthefollowinglegend.KingArthur,seatedonthe
farthestrock,wastalkingwithhisqueen,who,meanwhile,wasengaged
inarrangingherbackhair.Someexpressionofthequeenshaving
offendedhismajesty,heseizedarockwhichlaynearhim,and,with
anexertionofstrengthforwhichthePictswereproverbial,threwit
ather,adistanceofaboutaquarterofamile!Thequeen,withgreat
dexterity,caughtituponhercomb,andthuswardedofftheblow;the
stonefellbetweenthem,whereitliestothisday,withthemarksof
thecombuponit,toattestthetruthofthestory.Itprobablyweighs
abouttwentytons!
AfewmilestothenorthofSewingshieldsstandsanuprightstone,
whichbearsthenameofCummingscross.Cumming,anorthern
chieftain,havingpaid,oneday,avisittokingArthurathiscastle
nearSewingshields,waskindlyreceivedbytheking,andwas,asa
tokenoflastingfriendship,presentedbyhimwithagoldcup.The
kingssonscomingin,shortlyafterCumminghadleftthecastle,and
beinginformedofwhattheirfatherhaddone,immediatelysetoutin
pursuitofhim.Theyovertookhim,andslewhimatthisplace,which
hasbornethenameofCummingscrosseversince.
KingArthurschairusedtobepointedoutinthisvicinity.Itwasa
columnofbasalt,fiftyfeethigh,slightlydetachedfromtherestof
thecliff.Thetopofithadsomethingoftheappearanceofaseat.It
wasthrowndown,severalyearsago,byapartyofidleyoungmen,who
wereatgreatpainstoeffecttheirfoolishpurpose.
[Sidenote:SEWINGSHIELDSCRAGS.]
Wenowreturntoourmoreimmediateobject,theexaminationoftheWall.

SoonafterleavingSewingshields,anarrowchasmintherocks,slightly
aidedbyart,calledtheCatgate,admitsofanawkwarddescenttothe
plainbelow.Here,saysHutton,theScotsboredundertheWall,soasto
admitthebodyofaman.WhethertheRomansortheScotsmadethis
passage,itiscertainthatthegarrisonontheWallwouldsometimes
visitthecountrytothenorth,forthepurposesofplunderandof
slaughter,andwouldrequirethemeansofegress.
Themilecastlesmaynowallberecognisedinduesuccession.
[Sidenote:BUSYGAP.]
ThenextpointofinterestisBusygap,abroad,basinlikerecessin
themountainridge,aboutamilefromSewingshields.TheWallhere,
beingmorethanusuallyexposed,isnotonlystrengthenedwiththefosse
commoninthelowgrounds,buthastheadditionalprotectionofa
rampart,oftriangularform,tothenorthofthis.Thewoodcutwill
givesomeideaofthearrangement.Acommonstonedikeoccupiesat
presenttheplaceoftheWall,thefoundationsofwhich,and,forthe
mostpart,aportionofthegroutoftheinterior,remain.Atalittle
elevation,onthewesternsideofthevalley,isagatecalledthe
Kingswicket(Arthursagain,probably),throughwhichadroveroad
passes.Thegateiswellsituatedfordefence,andmayhavebeenaRoman
passage.
[Illustration:BusyGap]
Busygapwasinthemiddleagesaplaceofmuchnotoriety;itwasthe
passfrequentedbythemosstroopersandreaversofthedebateable
country.
[Sidenote:STATEOFTHEBORDERS.]
TheincessantwarwhichwaswagedbetweenEnglandandScotlandbefore
theunionofthetwokingdoms,renderedpropertyexceedinglyinsecure,
andnurturedaraceofmenwhohadnoexpectationofholdingtheirown,
unlesstheycouldrepelforcebyforce.Itwasthepolicyofthe
governmentsofbothcountries,tomaintainontheBordersabodyofmen
inuredtofeatsofarms,whom,onanyemergency,theymightcallto
theirassistance.Habitslongindulgedarenoteasilylaidaside.When
thepolicyofElizabeth,andtheaccessionofJamestothethroneof
England,allayedthenationalstrife,thesternwarriorsoftheBorder
degeneratedintosheepstealers;and,insteadofdyinginthefray,or
yieldingtheirnecks_honourably_totheheadsmansstroke,burdenedby
thescorethegallowstreeatNewcastleorCarlisle.ThevalesofNorth
TyneandtheRede,whichancientlyaboundedwithwarriors,became
infestedwiththieves.Itisimpossibletoimaginethedesolationand
miseryoccasionedbysuchastateofsociety.Landedpropertywasof
littlevalue.Preciouslifewasidlysacrificed.BernardGilpin,the
apostleofthenorth,wasesteemedabravemanbecauseheannually
venturedasfarasRothburytopreachthegospelofpeacetothelawless
peopleofthevaleofCoquet.CamdenandsirRobertCotton,though
ardentlydesirousofexaminingtheWall,durstnotventureintheir
progresseastwardbeyondCarvoran.Fromthence,Camdensays,theWall
goethforwardmoreaslopebyIverton,Forsten,andChesterintheWall,
neartoBusygap,aplaceinfamousforthievingandrobbing,wherestood
somecastles(chesterstheycalledthem),asIhaveheard,butIcould
notwithsafetytakethefullsurveyofit,fortherankrobbers
thereabouts.Insuchillreputewerethepeopleoftheseparts,evenin
theirowncounty,thatwefindtheNewcastleMerchantscompanyin1564,
enactingthatnofreebrothershalltakenonapprenticetoserveinthe
fellyshipeofnonsuchasisorshallbeborneorbroughtupinTyndale,
Lyddisdale,oranysuchlyckeplaces,onpainof20_ll_,because,says
theorder,thepartiestherebroughtupareknown,eitherbyeducation

ornature,nottobeofhonestconversation;theycommitfrequentthefts
andotherfelonys,proceedingfromsuchlewdeandwickedprogenitors.
TheoffenceofcallingafellowfreemanaBusseygaprogue,was
sufficientlyserioustoattracttheattentionofaguild;acaseofthis
kindbeingrecordedinthebooksoftheBakersandBrewerscompanyof
NewcastleuponTyne,1645.
Thetracesofthisdisorderedstateofsocietyremaineduntiltheearly
partofthereignofGeorgeIII.,whenthesheriffofNorthumberlandwas
firstenabledtoexecuteprocessinthenorthwesternpartsofthe
county.Withinmyownrecollection,saysMr.Hedley,almosteveryold
houseinthedalesofRedeandTynewaswhatiscalleda_Peel_house,
builtforsecuringitsinhabitantsandtheircattleinthemosstrooping
times.Verymanyoftheseyetexist.Fardifferentisthestateofthe
districtnow.Themenofthemuralregion,andofthevalesofNorth
Tyne,andRedewater,areasuprightasanyinEngland.Withthe
exceptionofafewagedindividuals,anuneducatedpersonisnottobe
found.Although,inadditiontotheordinarycourtsoflaw,theyhave
accesstocourtsleetandcourtsbaron,(thoseadmirableinstitutionsby
whichourSaxonforefathersgavetothepoorestvillagerthereadymeans
ofprocuringredressofwrong,)nowherehasthelawlessoccasion
forciblytoassertitsclaims.Propertyissecure,andlandbringsits
fullpriceinthemarket.OnsomeoftheextensivefarmsoftheCheviot
range,notfewerthantenthousandsheeparekept;theyarecountedbut
twiceayear,andseldomisoneamissing.Thevalueoflandin
Northumberland(exclusiveoftownsandmines)isseventimesgreater
thanitwasatthecommencementoftheeighteenthcentury,andtwo
hundredtimeswhatitwasinthemiddleofthesixteenth.Theantiquary,
whowillnotfailtorejoiceintheprosperityofthecountrythrough
whichheistravelling,aswellasinthesafetyofhisownperson,may
thereforegoonhiswaycheerfullyandinconfidence.
ThesecondmilecastlefromSewingshields,oppositethefarmhouse
calledtheKennel,isremarkableashavingbeenbuiltuponanabsolute
declivity.Hodgsonobservesthatithadaninteriorwalloneveryside
ofit,atthedistanceofabouttwentyfeetfromtheexteriorwall.
[Sidenote:THEBLACKDIKE.]
ShortlyafterleavingBusygap,twonarrow,butrathersteepgapsare
passedinquicksuccession,whichdonotseemtohaveobtainednames.
ThroughthefirstofthesetheBLACKDIKEhasprobablyrun.Thisisan
earthworkofunknownantiquity,whichissupposedtohavestretched,in
anearlystraightline,fromthebordersofScotlandnearPeelfell,
throughNorthumberlandandDurham,tothesouthofYorkshire.The
scantinessofthesoilonthecragsoftheWall,accountsforitsnot
beingdiscerniblethere,andthegroundimmediatelytothenorthand
southofitisboggy.Inaplantationonthehillside,oppositeto
wherewenoware,lookingsouth,thedikeexistsinexcellent
preservation.The_seuch_,orslackofit,maybeseenevenfromthe
Wall,onthewesternedgeoftheplantation,whichiscalledthe
Blackdikeplanting.Fromtheinformationofthosewhoknewithalfa
centuryago,Ishallsetdownitsprobablecourseinthisvicinity.
Cominginasoutheastdirection,itpassestheeastendof
Broomleelough;havingclearedtheWallandVallum,itgoesbythewest
ofBeggarbog,theeastofLowMorwood,throughtheMucklemoss,andso
totheBlackdikeplantation.Passingafterwardsafieldcalledthe
Blackhall,itislastseenonthenorthbankoftheTynenearthe
Waterhouse.ItreappearsonthesouthbankatMorley,andpassing
TedcastleandDeanrow,issupposedtogobyAllenheadsintothecounty
ofDurham.InthebestpieceofitwhichIhaveseen,theditchisten
feetacrossthetop,andaboutfivefeetdeep,reckoningfromthetopof
themoundonitseastside.Withinthememoryofmyinformants,itwas
muchdeeper.Thesheepwereoftencoveredupinitinasnowstorm,as
theynaturallywentthereforshelter.Theearthtakenoutoftheditch

isuniformlythrowntotheeastside,whereitformsanembankment.No
stones,orsuchonlyaswerederivedfromthecutting,havebeenusedin
itsformation.Theonlyconjecturehazardedrespectingitsoriginis,
thatitformedthelineofdemarcationbetweenthekingdomsof
NorthumbriaandCumbria;andcertainlythecoursepursuedbythe
Blackdikeisverynearlysimilartotheboundaryassignedtothese
regionsinthemostauthenticmapsofSaxonEngland.Theantiquityof
thecuttingmaybeinferredfromthecircumstances,thatforsome
distanceitformsthedivisionbetweentheadjacentparishesof
HaltwhistleandWarden,andthatitpassesthroughbogswhichprobably
owetheirorigintothedevastationscommittedinthenorthofEngland
byWilliamtheNorman.[99]TheBlackdikeislaiddowninthemapof
NorthumberlandwhichwaspreparedtoaccompanyHorsleysBritannia,and
inKitchinsMapofNorthumberland,underthenameoftheScotsdike.
Southoftheturnpikeroad,andbehindasmallhouse,calledBeggarbog,
isalowfreestonecrag,whichexhibitssomequarrylikeexcavations,
filledwiththechippingsofstone.Ithasprobablyfurnishedmaterial
fortheWall,thestonebeingofthesamecharacter.
ThestreamwhichwenextcrossistheKnagburn;itformstheeastern
boundaryofHousesteads.Passingit,wescaletherampartsofthis
farfamedstation.
[Sidenote:THEANCIENTBORCOVICUS.]
BORCOVICUS.ThissaysGordon,isunquestionablythemostremarkable
andmagnificentstationinthewholeisland;anditishardlycredible
whatanumberofaugustremainsoftheRomangrandeuristobeseenhere
tothisday,seeingineveryplacewhereonecastshiseyethereissome
curiousRomanantiquitytobeseen:eitherthemarksofstreetsand
templesinruins,orinscriptions,brokenpillars,statues,andother
piecesofsculptureallscatteredalongtheground.Stukely,inthe
vehemenceofhisadmiration,denominatesittheTadmorofBritain.Let
notthevisitor,however,approachitwithexpectationstoogreatly
excited.Thereisverymuchtoadmire,butnotagreatdealtostrike
theeyeatfirstsight.Thealtarsandsculpturedfigureswhichlayin
profusiononthegroundwhenGordonandStukelywerethere,havebeen
removed,[100]buttheruinsoftheplaceremainascompleteandvastas
ever.Thecityis,inagreatmeasure,coveredwithitsowndebris,but
theexcavationswhichhaverecentlybeenmade,shewusthatwhenthey
arecontinuedthroughouttheentirestation,theancientBORCOVICUSwill
bethePompeiiofBritain.
[Sidenote:HOUSESTEADS.]
ThestationofHousesteadscontainsanareaofnearlyfiveacres.'Half
ofithangsonaslope,withasouthernaspect:theother,ornorthern
half,isflat,flooredwithbasalt,coversthesummitofaloftyridge,
andcommandsaprospectontheeast,south,andwest,farawaybeyond
thevalleyoftheTyne,overblueairtintedgroundsandlofty
mountains;andtothenorthoftheWall,overthevastwasteofthe
forestofLowes,whereindeed,aproud,stupendoussolitudefrownsoer
theheath.'
TheWallformsitsnorthernboundary,andtheVallum,itisprobable,
cametothesupportofitssouthernrampart.[101]Itisnaturally
defendedonallsides,exceptthewest.Inorderdulytoprotectthis
side,thegatewayseemstohavebeenwalledupatanearlyperiod,anda
triplelineoframpartsdrawnalongit.
AlthoughthepositionofHousesteadsclearlyindicatesthatthisfort
waserectedfortheaccommodationofamuralgarrison,itwouldseemto
havebeenbuiltindependentlyoftheWall.Thefirstanxietyofthe

soldiersengagedinthatgreatworkwouldbetoerectasecure
habitationforthemselves.Thewestwallofthestation,insteadof
cominguptothegreatWallinastraightline,makesthecurvewhichis
usualinthosecornersofacampthatareindependentoftheWall;asis
shewninthewoodcutatthetopofthenextpage.
[Illustration:JunctionofWestWallofHousesteadswiththeWall]
[Illustration:GroundPlanofGateway,Housesteads]
[Sidenote:BORCOVICUS.]
Allthegateways,exceptthenorth,havebeenexplored,andpresentvery
interestingsubjectsofstudytotheantiquary.Thewestern[Sidenote:
WESTGATEWAYOFBORCOVICUS.]isinthebestcondition,andisspecially
worthyofattention.Itsarrangementswillreadilybeunderstoodbyan
inspectionofthegroundplanwhichishereintroduced,togetherwith
theviewsofitasseenfromtheoutsideandinsideofthestation,on
thenextpage.Thisgateway,aswellastheotherswhichhavebeen
explored,is,ineverysenseoftheword,double.Twowallsmustbe
passedbeforethecampcanbeentered;eachisprovidedwithtwo
portals,andeachportalhasbeenclosedwithtwoleavedgates.The
southernentranceoftheoutsidewallhasalone,asyet,beenentirely
clearedofthemasonrythatclosedit.Thejambsandpillarsareformed
ofmassivestonesofrusticmasonry.Thedoors,ifwemayjudgefromthe
fragmentsofcorrodedironwhichhavebeenlatelypickedup,wereof
wood,strengthenedwithironplatesandstuds;theymoved,asis
apparentfromthepivotholes,uponpivotsofiron.Inthecentreof
eachportalstandsastronguprightstone,againstwhichthegateshave
shut.Someofthelargeprojectingstonesoftheexteriorwallareworn
asifbythesharpeningofknivesuponthem;thishasprobablybeendone
bytheoccupantsofthesuburbanbuildingsaftertheclosingofthe
gateway.Theguardchambersoneachsideareinastateofchoice
preservation,oneofthewallsstandingfourteencourseshigh.Werea
roofputonthem,theantiquarymightherestandguard,astheTungrians
didofold,and,forawhile,forgetthattheworldissixteencenturies
olderthanitwaswhenthesechamberswerereared.Atleasttwoofthe
chambersinthispartofthecamphavebeenwarmedbyUshapedflues
runningroundthreeoftheirsidesbeneaththefloor.[102]These
chambers,whenrecentlyexcavated,werefoundtobefilledwithrubbish
sohighlychargedwithanimalmatteraspainfullytoaffectthe
sensibilitiesofthelabourers.Theteethandbonesofoxen,horns
resemblingthoseofthereddeer,butlarger,andboarstuskswerevery
abundant;therewastheusualquantityofallthekindsofpotteryused
bytheRomans.Itisnotimprobablethatthisrubbishmayhavebeen
derivedfromsomedunghilloutsidethewalls,andthrownherewhenthe
gatewaywaswalledup;itis,however,aremarkablefact,thatthesoil
oftheinteriorareaofthestationsontheWallis,forthemostpart,
thicklymingledwithbones.IsitpossiblethattheRomanshavethrown
onthefloorsoftheirapartments,andsufferedtoremainamongstthe
straworrusheswhichmayhavecoveredthem,therefuseoftheirfood?
[Illustration:OutsideViewoftheWestPortalofBORCOVICUS.]
[Illustration:InsideViewoftheWestPortalofBORCOVICUS.]
TheviewofHousesteadsintheaccompanyinglithograph,istakenfrom
besidetheeasterngateway,andgivesageneralideaofthesceneof
desolationwhichitpresents.[103]Theonlyhabitationnearisa
shepherdscottagetothesouthofthestation.Apeculiarityinthe
upperdivisionoftheeasterngatewayrequiresattention;thelower
division,asseeninthelithograph,hasbeenwalledupatanearly
period.Arut,nearlynineinchesdeep,appearsinthethreshold,on
eachsideofthecentralstoneagainstwhichthegatesclosed.Grooves,
similarincharacter,areseeninthegatewaysofthecampsat

BirdoswaldandMaryport.Wereitnotforthecentralstone,which
presentsanimpedimenttothepassageofchariots,noonewoulddoubt
thatthesehollowshavebeenoccasionedbytheactionoftheirwheels.
Thefollowingextract,explanatoryoftheconditionofthecityof
Pompeii,willprobablythrowlightuponthisandotherthingsbelonging
tothecamp.
[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey,Lith.
HOUSESTEADS(BORCOVICUS)FROMTHEEAST.
PrintedbyWMonkhouse,York
]
[Sidenote:RUTSINTHEGATEWAY.]
TheDomitianwaywhichledtoitwasnarrow,thecarriagewayseldom
exceedingtenfeetinwidth.Thestreetsofthecityitselfarepaved
withlargeirregularpiecesoflava,joinedneatlytogether,inwhich
thechariotwheelshavewornruts,stilldiscernible;insomeplaces
theyareaninchandahalfdeep,andinnarrowstreetsfollowone
track....Inmostplaces,thestreetsaresonarrow,thattheymaybe
crossedatonestride;wheretheyarewider,araisedsteppingstone
hasbeenplacedinthecentreofthecrossing.This,thoughinthe
middleofthecarriageway,didnotmuchinconveniencethosewhodrove
aboutinthe_biga_,ortwohorsedchariot,becausethewidthofthese
streetsbeingonlysufficienttoadmitthecarriage,thewheelspassed
freelyinthespacesleftbetweenthecurboneitherside,andthe
stoneinthecentre.[104]
Thestoneinthecentreofthedoorwaywouldnotbeagreaterimpediment
thanthesteppingstonesinthestreetsofPompeii.
TheremainsofthegatewaysofBORCOVICUSshewthatinplanand
constructiontheymusthaveresembledtheRomanGatewaywhich,underthe
nameofthePortanera,ispreservedentireatTreves,AUGUSTA
TREVIRORUM,oncetheseatofgovernmentoftheWesternEmpire.
InexaminingthisandotherRomancamps,thespectatorwill,perhaps,be
struckwiththenarrownessofthestreets,andtheverysmallcapacity
ofthethedwellings.Itiswelltorecollectthatintheirencampments
theRomansstudiouslyavoidedoccupyingalargerspacethanwas
absolutelynecessary.Gibbonobservesthatamodernarmywouldpresent
totheenemyafrontthreetimesasextendedasaRomanoneofthesame
force.Inthefield,tenmenwereapportionedtoatent,tenfeet
square;[105]asimilarproportionwouldwithoutdoubtbefollowedinthe
stationarycamp.
[Sidenote:BORCOVICUS.]
Itisnoteasytoascertaintheprecisecharacterofthedwellingsof
thesoldiers;themoreperfectoftheruinsinthisandotherforts,
inducethebeliefthattheyweredark,bare,andcheerless.Theroofs
wereprobablyformedoffreestoneslate.Severalthinslabsofthis
kind,withnailholesinthem,aswellassomeofthenailsthemselves,
havebeenfoundinthisandotherstations.[106]OnPlateXIII,figs.1,
7,aredrawnsomedoororwindowheads,foundhere;thesemostlikely
belongedtobuildingsofasuperiorclass.Theentranceintoachamber
atHABITANCUM,recentlyexcavated,wasfoundtobeonlyfourteeninches
wide;itwasrudelysteppedoveratthetop.Fragmentsofasortof
windowglassarefrequentlyfoundinsomeofthestations;thiswould
probablybearareluxury.[107]
[Sidenote:THECHAMBERSOFTHESTATION.]

AtHousesteads,twoorthreeoftheruinedchamberswill,abovethe
rest,attracttheattentionofthevisitor.Nearthecentreofthe
northerndivisionisonewhichisseventyfeetlongandeightbroad;it
musthavebeenaplaceofpublicconcourse.Inthefrontofitisakiln
whichhasprobablybeenusedfordryingcorn;nearthesoutherngateway
isanotherwhichwasnearlydestroyedintheendeavourmadetoextricate
acowwhichhadfallenintoit,and,instrugglingtorelieveherself,
hadthrustherheadandneckintotheflue.TheRomansseemtohave
kilndriedtheircornatthecloseoftheharvest;itwouldnothave
beensafetostackitintheopenfields.Theywouldthemorereadilydo
this,asitisstillbynomeansunusual,inthecentralandsouthern
partsofEurope,tothrashthecornatthecloseofharvestonthefield
whereitgrew.
Threehypocaustshavebeenfoundhere,twowithinthestation,and
anothertotheeastofit,ontheKnagburn;thefluesofthelatter
werefullofsoot;veryslighttracesofanyofthemnowremain.
Inthisandmostotherstations,writesHodgson,therearefound
considerablequantitiesoflimestone,havingpartlythecharacterof
stalagmite,andpartlythatofsuchcellularstoneasformsaboutthe
mouthsofpetrifyingwells.Someofitisinamorphouslumps;butthe
greatestpartofithasbeeneithersawnintorectangularpieces,or
formedinafluidstateinmoulds.Theyareprobablyartificial;at
HABITANCUM,wherethiscalcareoussubstanceisabundant,itseemsto
haveacquireditsporositybybeingmixedwithstraw.Theusetowhich
ithasbeenappliedisbynomeansobvious.Hodgsonthoughtthatithad
beeninsertedinthesidewallsofthehypocausts,toallowheatto
arisefrombelowwithoutsmoke.Thisisdoubtful.AtHABITANCUM,the
blocks,Iamtold,havebeenusedasordinarystones.Inthe
constructionofthePharosatDover,(wherebuildingstoneisscarce)
thecalcareouscompositionhasbeenlargelyused.Whyitshouldhave
beenemployedatHABITANCUM,andotherplaces,wherefreestoneis
abundant,doesnotappear.
[Sidenote:BORCOVICUS]
ThesuburbsofBORCOVICUShavebeenveryextensive,theruinsofthem
distinctlyappearingontheeast,south,andwestsidesofthestation.
Alittletothesouthofit,andstretchingwestward,thegroundhas
beenthrownupinlongterracedlines,amodeofcultivationmuch
practisedinItalyandintheeast.Similarterraces,morefeebly
developed,appearatBradley;Ihaveseenthemverydistinctlymarkedon
thebanksoftheRedewater,OldCarlisleandotherplaces.
Awell,casedwithRomanmasonry,isinfrontoftheshepherdshouse,
southofthestation;aspring,yieldingexcellentwater,isatthe
bottomofthesamefield;theKnagburnwashesthestationonits
easternside,andthereisafinewellunderthehighbasalticcliff
onwhichthenorthernwallofthestationstands,whichisstillwell
walledround,andhasoccasionallybeenusedasabath.Nonehasbeen
discoveredwithinthestationitself.
_PLATEXI_
[Illustration:BrokenColumns,Borcovicus]
_PLATEXII_
[Illustration:SculptedFigures,Borcovicus]
_PLATEXIII_
[Illustration:SculptedFigures,etc.]

[Sidenote:ARCHITECTURALREMAINS.]
Inthevalleybelowisasmallsandstoneridge,calledChapelhill,from
theideathatatemplestooduponit.Twofinealtarshavebeenfound
here.[108]TheruinsthatcontainedtheMithraicantiquities,towhich
referencewillbemadeafterwards,stoodalittletothewestofthis
hill.Alltracesofthesmall,darktemple,wherethehorridmysteries
ofthegodwereperformed,arenownearlyobliterated.
ThefragmentsofcolumnswhichareengravedinPlateXI,enableusto
imaginetheoriginalgrandeuroftheplace.[109]Withsomeofthe
certaintywithwhichacomparativeanatomistdecidesuponthecharacter
andhabitsofananimal,fromaninspectionofafragmentofitsosseous
system,anarchitectdeterminesthesizeandstyleofabuildingfroman
examinationofsomeofitsparts.Thus,thecircularcolumn,ofwhich
oneofthestones(PlateXI.)thatnowliesinthevalleybelowthe
station,hasformedapart,wasprobablynotlessthantwentyfeethigh;
howimposingmusttheentiretemplehavebeen!
PlatesXIIandXIIIexhibitseveralofthecarvedfigureswhichformerly
layinconfusionamongtheruinsofthestation.Theyareinteresting,
asexhibitingthestateoftheartsinBritainatthattime,themodeof
dressadoptedbytheRomans,andthe[Illustration:FigureofVictory]
highdegreeofattentionwhichtheypaidtothedecorationoftheir
stations.RomanartinBritainhassurelybeenratedtoolow.
Thefigureintroducedonthispagewasfoundhere.Itrepresentsoneof
oldRomesmostfavouritedeities,Victory,careering,withoutstretched
wings,overtheglobe.Howstrongmustthepassionforconquesthave
beeninthebreastofapeople,who,thoughnurturedinasouthern
climate,bravedformorethanthreecenturies,thefogs,andstorms,and
desolationofthiswildregion!Whereverthewingedgoddessled,they
followed,and,mostpertinaciouslytoo,maintainedtheirground.But,
thereisatideintheaffairsofmen.
ARomanpoet,inthefulnessofhisheart,sang
Urbsoritur(quistunchocullicredereposset?)
Victoremterrisimpositurapedem.
Cunctaregas:etsismagnosubCsaresemper
Speetiampluresnominishujushabe.
Etquotiessteterisdomitosublimisinorbe,
Omniasinthumerisinferioratuis.
Howdifferentthestrainswhich,inadistantage,andinanotherclime,
weretoflowfromthelyreofabrotherbard,andhowappropriatetothe
presentconditionofthedesertedBORCOVICUS!
WhereisRome?
Shelivesbutinthetaleofothertimes;
Herproudpavilionsarethehermitshome,
Andherlongcolonnades,herpublicwalks
Nowfaintlyechotothepilgrimsfeet,
Whocomestomuseinsolitude,andtrace,
Throughtherankmossrevealed,herhonoureddust.
ThatHousesteadsistheBORCOVICUSoftheempire,[Illustration:
SepulchralSlabtoayoungPhysician]appearsplainfromthenumerous
inscriptionsthatalludetothefirstcohortoftheTungrians,which,
accordingtotheNotitia,wasquarteredthere.Oneoftheseinscriptions
isshewnonpage63;another,asepulchralstone,isherepresented.The
figureonthetopoftheslabItaketobearabbit,andsuspectthatit
hadsomereferencetotheworshipoftheobscenegod,Priapus.The
inscriptionisusuallyreadinthefollowingmanner,though,perhaps,
_ordinario_mightwithequalproprietyberead_ordinato_:

D[IIS]M[ANIBVS]
ANICIO
INGENVO
MEDICO
ORDI[NARIO]COH[ORTIS]
PRIMTVNGR[ORVM]
VIX[IT]AN[NIS]XXV
_Sacred_tothegodsoftheshadesbelow.
ToAnicius
Ingenuus,
physician
inordinary,ofcohort
thefirstoftheTungrians.
Helivedtwentyfiveyears.
FromaninscriptionfoundatCastlecary,itappearsthatthiscohortof
TungriansbuiltonethousandpacesoftheAntonineWallinScotland.
TheywerefromaboutTongres,onthebanksoftheMse,inBelgicGaul.
Theirrank,asamilliarycohort,conferredonthemthedangeroushonour
ofadvancinginthevanofthearmytobattle,andtheiracknowledged
valourprobablyprocuredforthemtheappointmenttothisexposedand
dangerouspost.
[Sidenote:THENAMEASCERTAINED.]
Theetymologyof_Borcovicus_iseasy.Ahighhilltothesouthofthe
stationiscalledBorcumorBarcomb,aneighbouringstreamisdesignated
Bardonburn,andavillagenearitsconfluencewiththeTyne,
Bardonmill._Bar_,inCeltic,meansaheight,andprobablyformsthe
rootofallthesenames;thetermination,_vicus_,isaLatinword,
signifyingavillage.
Thestoneusedintheinsideofthewallsofthestation,andforother
ordinarypurposes,hasbeenquarriedoutofthecliffsinthesandstone
ridge,alongwhichthepresentmilitaryroadpasses.'Thealtars,
columns,andquoins,andmuchoftheashlarwork,havebeentakenfroma
stratumoffreestoneonthenorthsideoftheWall,andsimilartothat
inwhichtherecesses,calledtheKingandQueensCaves,onthesouth
sideofBroomleelough,areformed.'[110]
[Sidenote:THEVALLUMCOMMANDEDBYTHECRAGS.]
AgaintakingtheWallasourguide,wewillpursueourcoursewestward.
Forthegreaterpartofthewayalongthehighground,theWallisina
sufficientlygoodstateofpreservationtomakeitavariedand
interestingstudy;itnotunfrequentlyexhibitsfive,six,andeven
sevencoursesoffacingstones.TheNorthumbrianlakesalsolendacharm
tothescene.Thoughappearinginnativesimplicityandrudegrandeur,
theywillnotonthataccountbelessappreciatedbymenoftaste.The
Vallumisgenerallyveryboldlydeveloped,andrunsforseveralmilesin
thevalleybelow,completelycommandedbythehillonwhichtheWall
stands,asisshewninthesection,PlateIV.Thisfactissurelyfatal
tothetheoryofitshavingbeenerectedtowithstandthebruntofa
northernfoe.Itwouldhavebeenimpolitictoallowtheenemytooccupy
theseheightsevenasapostofobservation.Itistrue,thattheVallum
isoccasionallycommandedbytherisinggroundonthesouth:opposite
Sewingshieldsitisso,andoppositeHotbank,alittletothewestof
wherewenoware,itisoverlookedonbothsides.Thisdifficultyisnot
averyformidableone.TheengineeroftheBarrierhasdrawntheVallum
chieflyinstraightlinesfromonepointtoanother,andhasnotthought
itnecessarytoguardwithexcessivejealousyeverylittlerisingground
tothesouth;henever,however,departsfromhiscoursetogoroundthe

northofahill,ashedoestogoroundthesouthofthatonenear
Haltonchesters.Thecases,moreover,inwhichtheVallumisexposedto
observationfromthesouth,areveryfew.Horsleysowntestimonyupon
thispointisdecided.Hewrites
Itmustbeowned,thatthesouthernprospectofHadrianswork,and
thedefenceonthatside,isgenerallybetterthanonthenorth;
whereasthenorthernprospectanddefencehavebeenprincipally,or
onlytakencareofintheWallofSeverus.[111]
[Sidenote:RAPISHAWGAP.]
Afterpassingamilecastlewecometoadepressionintheridgeof
basalt,thatplacesusoppositethewestendofBroomleelough;thecrag
onthewestsideofthisslackiscalledCuddyscrag.Alittlefarther
on,wereachamoreextensivepass,calledRapishawgap;aroadpasses
throughitunderthesamecircumstancesasthatthroughBusygap,a
littleabovethebottomofthevalley.Thetravellermayherewith
advantagegotothenorthoftheWall,inordertoexaminethe
geologicalcharacterofthecliffshehaspassed;theyareseentorise
inrudeandpillaredmajesty.
Regainingthehighgrounds,theWallforashortspaceisfoundto
possesslessthanitsusualinterest;thegroundontheeastsideofthe
Bradleyestatewasformerlycommon,andtheobjectofourstudywas
everymansprey.Otherobjectsofinquiry,however,abundantlyrelieve
theattention.Langleycastle,onthesouthbankoftheTyne,isin
sight,andduringourwesternjourneywilllongcontinuetobeso.Itis
asquarebuildingstrengthenedbyrectangulartowersatthecorners.
FormerlyaseatofthePercys,itbecameafterwardsthepropertyofthe
Radcliffes.Itpassed,ontherebellionof1715,alongwiththeother
possessionsoftheearlofDerwentwater,intothehandsofthe
commissionersofGreenwichHospital,whoatpresentretainit.Destroyed
byfireatanearlyperiod,ithasneverbeenrepaired;itsmasonryis
notwithstandinginexcellentpreservation.Onacleardaythesingularly
strongtongueoflandonwhicharetheruinsofStawardlepeel,may
alsobediscernedtothesouth.But,moretoourpresentpurpose,the
high,brownhillofBorcum,fromwhichtheRomansobtainedmuchofthe
stoneusedintheconstructionofthispartoftheWall,isinthe
foreground.[Sidenote:ANCIENTQUARRY]Aninterestingdiscoverywasmade
herein1837,towhichsubsequentreferencewillbemade.Onopeningan
ancientquarryonthetopofit,nearthelongstone,aworkmanfounda
smallcoppervessel,containingalargenumberofRomancoins;fourof
thesewereofthetimeofHadrian,andalltherest,ofpreviousreigns.
ThoseofTrajanandHadrianwereasfreshasifnewfromthedie.The
conclusionisnatural,thatthequarryhadbeenlastwroughtinthetime
ofHadrian,theWallitselfbeingpossiblyofthesamedate.An
extensiveearthencampisonthesummitofthehill,probablyraisedby
thesoldierswhowereengagedinquarryingtherock.
Greenleeloughistothenorth;onitswesternmarginisamodern
structure,Bonnyrig,thepropertyofsirEdwardBlackett.
Proceedingwestward,theWallagainrisesintonotice.Muchofit
remainsofveryvariousthicknesses,thewholeoftheperpendicular
outsetsandinsetsbeingonthesouthside.
[Sidenote:HADRIANSLAB.]
Onthetailofthecragonwhichwenoware,thefarmhouseofBradley
stands.Builtupinthedoorwayofitsoldkitchen,wasastone,nowat
Matfen,bearingthefragmentofaninscription.Anotherfracturedslab,
formerlyinthepossessionofthejudiciousWarburton,andnowat
Durham,whenjoinedtoit,givesaninscriptionpreciselysimilartoone
immediatelytobenoticed,withtheexceptionofaletterortwointhe

lineofthefracture.Thefragments,doubtless,asHodgsonconjectures,
formedonestone,depositedinthefoundationofsomecastelluminthis
neighbourhood,asamemorialofitserectionbyHadrian.Thewoodcut
annexedhasbeenpreparedfromdrawingscarefullymadeofthetwo
portionsintheirseparatelocalities.
[Illustration:SlabtoHadrian,Bradley]
[Sidenote:BRADLEYHALL.]
Once,atleast,sincethedaysofHadrian,thiscentralregionofthe
Wallhasbeenhonouredwiththepresenceofroyalty.Hodgsonsays,
OntheauthorityofdocumentsinRymer,Prynne,andtheCalenderof
PatentRolls,IfindEdwardtheFirsttestingrecordsinthepresence
ofseveralgreatofficersofstate,atLanchester,onAug.10;at
Corbridge,Aug.14;atNewburgh,Aug.28,30,31,andSep.4;at
BradleyinMarchiaScoti,Sep.6and7;atHaltwhistleonthe11th,
andatThirlwallonthe20thofthesamemonth;andatLanercoston
Oct.4,A.D.1306,atwhichlasthousehecontinuedallwinter.The
BradleyherementionedisprobablyBradleyhall,ontherightbankof
Cragloughburn,andalittlesouthbothofVallumandWall,notthe
farmhouseofBradley,whichisbetweenthetwobarriers._Northd._
II.iii.288.
Theexigenciesofwarhaveagainandagaindrawntothissecludedspot
themightiestpotentatesofearth;asyetthisimperialgroundhasnot
beentroddenbythefeetofMajesty,attractedbythesweetallurements
ofpeace.
Onthemarginofthemilitaryroad,oppositetous,istheonlyInnin
thedistrict,whichisknownbynoothernamethanthatof_Twice
Brewed_.BeforetheconstructionoftheRailwayitwasmuchresortedto
bythecarrierswhoconductedthetrafficbetweentheeasternand
westernportionsoftheisland.Asmanyasfiftyhorsesandabouttwenty
menwouldbeputuphereforthenight.Now,itisnearlyforsaken.
Huttontookuphisabodehereonacarriersnight.Thedifficultyhe
hadinprocuringanexclusivebedwascompensatedbytheamusementof
observingthecarriersattheirmealhesoonperceivedthattheyhadno
barricadeinthethroat;andbecameconvincedthateatingwasthechief
endofman!
[Sidenote:MILKINGGAP.]
Thenextbreakinthebasalticridge,istheMilkinggap.Asweapproach
it,Cragloughisseenlavingthebaseoftheperpendicularcliffalong
whichtheWallruns.Inordertotakethehighground,westwardofthe
gap,theWallhereturnsataconsiderableangle.Inthisvalley,the
northfosseagaincomestothehelpofthestructure.Infrontofthe
farmhouse,calledHotbank,aredistincttracesofamilecastle.In
takingupitsfoundations,theslab,ofwhichtheannexeddrawingisa
faithfulcopy,wasfound,whichwouldseemtobeatabletprecisely
similartothatwhichisformedbythejunctionofthetwofragments
referredtoabove.
[Illustration:SlabtoHadrian,Milkinggap]
IMP[ERATORIS]CAES[ARIS]TRAIAN[I].
HADRIANIAVG[VSTI]
LEG[IO]SECVNDAAVG[VSTA]
AVLOPLATORIONEPOTELEG[ATO]PR[O]PR[TORE.]
OftheEmperorCsarTrajanus
HadrianusAugustus,
Thesecondlegion,styledtheAugust,

AulusPlatoriusNepos,beinglegateandproprtor.
OfalltheinscriptionsdiscoveredinBritain,Hodgsonpronouncesthis
tobeofthegreatesthistoricalimportance,inasmuchasitleadstothe
truereadingofseveralfragmentsofsimilarinscriptions
throwing[Sidenote:MILKINGGAPINSCRIPTION.]lightupontheauthorship
oftheWall.OneofthesewasknowntoHorsley,andseemstohave
puzzledthatgreatantiquary.Itandotherfragmentswhichhavesince
beenfoundindifferentmilecastles,tendtoproducetheconviction,
thatthemilecastles,(whichareonthelineoftheWall,ascribedto
Severus,)werebuiltbyHadrian.Thesimplicityoftheinscriptionwill
striketheclassicalreader,whowillnotfailalsotoobservethe
peculiarityofthenameoftheemperorbeinginthegenitivecase.
Althoughthestationof_Vindolana_liesconsiderablytothesouthof
thelinesoftheBarrier,itisrankedbytheNotitiaamongthestations
_perlineamvalli_,andassuch,mustbeexaminedbyusinourmural
peregrination.LeavingMilkinggapwiththisview,andcrossingthelow
groundstothesouthoftheWall,theVallumisobserved,contraryto
itsusualtendency,makingtworapidcurves,somethingintheformof
theletterS,toavoid,apparently,theswellingsofthecontiguous
marsh.AtHighshields,acottageonthelittleridgesouthofthe
turnpikeroad,thestationcomesintoview.Itstandsuponapartially
detachedeminence,surrounded,thoughnotsocloselyastobecommanded,
byhillsofsuperiorelevation.Onallsides,exceptthewestern,itis
naturallydefended,whilstthesummitsofthesurroundingheightsafford
itadegreeofshelterwhichwouldbepeculiarlygratefultothenatives
ofsouthernEurope.TheChineleyburnflowspastit,andthesituation
isaltogetheroneofpeculiarbeauty.Inmoderntimes,theplacehas
beenvariouslydesignatedLittleChesters,theBowers,andChesterholm.
[Sidenote:VINDOLANA.]
VINDOLANA.AsthisstationisdetachedfromtheWall,andliesuponthe
lineoftheancientroadwhichranfromCILURNUMtoMAGNA,itisnot
improbablethatitwasoneofAgricolasforts.Theroadwhichconnected
itwiththeWallmayyetbedistinctlytracedbetweenHighShieldsand
thefarmhouseofChesterholm.
Thewalls,ditches,andgatewaysofthestationarealldiscernible.The
northerngatewaywouldbetheonechieflyusedbythegarrison,asit
opensdirectlyupontheGreatMilitaryWay.Anexaminationofthe
westerngateway,someyearsago,ledtothebeliefthatithadbeen
walledupatanearlyperiod;thisisthemostexposedsideofthecamp.
Aportionofthewallofthestationnearthenortheastcorner,when
clearedbyitslateowner,Mr.Hedley,stoodtwelvecourseshigh.In
thiscase,asinmanyothers,theresearchesoftheantiquaryhaveonly
facilitatedtheoperationsofthedestroyer;muchofithassincebeen
removed.Thesizeofthestones,whichisconsiderableinthefoundation
course,graduallydiminishesupwards.
[Sidenote:CHESTERHOLM.]
Atleasttwobuildingsprovidedwithhypocausts,havebeendiscovered
here.Oneofthesestoodaboutfiftyyardsbeyondthewesternrampart,
andwhendiscovered,containedasquareapartment,vaultedabove.Some
ofthevaultingstonesarestillpreservedatChesterholm;theyare
groovednearthelowerextremity,apparentlytoallowofthejoints
beingstrengthenedbytheinsertionbetweenthemofkeysofslateor
wood.TheremainsofthisbuildingweremorecompletewhenHodgsonwrote
thefollowingparagraphthanatpresent:
Thepillarsofthehypocaustarestillveryblackwithfireandsoot;
andpeoplesaythattheBowers,fromtheRomanagetillwithinthe

lastcentury,wastheelysiumofacolonyoffairies;andthisruined
bath,thekitchentooneoftheirpalaces,ofwhichthesootamongthe
stoneswasundeniableevidence;andconfidentbeliefaffirmed,that
longpassagesledfromthislaboratoryofsavourymessesto
subterraneanhallsthateverechoedtothefestivitiesandmusicof
theQueenoftheBowers,andherarialcourt.
[Illustration:AltartoFortune,Chesterholm]
TheotherhypocaustwaspartiallyexploredbyWarburtonin1717,but
morefullybytherev.Ant.Hedleyin1831.Itstoodwithintheareaof
thecampnotfarfromtheeasterngateway.Initsruins,Warburtonfound
thefinealtartoFortune,hereengraved.Itisnowpreservedinthe
LibraryoftheDeanandChapteratDurham,thejudiciousantiquarynot
havingbeenabletoobtainhispriceforitofmylordOxford.[112]Here
alsoMr.Hedleydiscoveredthethreenoblealtars[Illustration:
HypocaustPillar]whicharestillpreservedatChesterholm.Thepillars
whichsupportedthefloorofthehypocaustswereofdifferentshapesand
diameters;someofthemwereportionsofsquarecolumns,asinthe
annexedexample,somecircular,likethebalustersofstairs,asmaybe
seenbythespecimensoftheminthegardenatChesterholm.TheRomans
themselves,Hodgsonremarks,seemtohavetreatedthefallenworksof
theirpredecessorsherewithverylittleceremony,whentheycutdown
thehandsomecolumnsofhallsandtemplesintopillarsforsooty
hypocausts.
Aboutafurlongwestofthecampisacopiousspring,fromwhichthe
waterwastakenbyachannelformedoflargestonesintothestation.
Thewaterstill,insomemeasure,followsitsancienttrack,asthe
appearanceoftheherbageshews,andpoursitself,byacoveredpassage,
intotheChineleyburnontheoppositeside.
[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey,Lith.
MILESTONEATCHESTERHOLM.
]
Inthevicinityofthecampisanobjectofpeculiarinterest.Onthe
lineoftheancientRomanroadwhichskirtsitsnorthernrampart,stands
amilestoneatthespotwherethesoldiersofAgricolaorHadrian
placedit.Theoppositelithographshewsitintheforeground;thecamp
isinthedistance.Itisupwardsofsixfeethigh,andisnearlytwo
feetindiameter.Therearetracesofaninscriptiononitswestern
face,butscarcelyalettercannowbedeciphered.[Sidenote:ROMAN
MILESTONE.]Anothermilestoneformerlystoodtothewestofthis,but
itwasremovedandsplitupbyitstastelessowner,intotwogateposts.
Horsleysaysthatitboretheinscription
BONOREIPVBLICNATO.
Toonebornforthegoodoftherepublic
aninscriptionwhich,supposingittobeperfect,thoughthisisa
littledoubtful,ishappilycontrivedtobecomplimentarytoeach
successiveemperor.TheRomans,withwisepolicy,paidgreatattention
totheirroads;thestoneswhichtheyerectedateverymilewere
generallyinscribedwiththenameoftheconsuloremperorunderwhose
auspicestheyweremade.Horsleymentionsanothermilestone,whichwas
totheeastofthepresentone.
Closebythemilestoneisatumulusofconsiderablesize.
InthehouseandgroundsofthelateMr.Hedley,arepreservedsomevery
valuableantiquarianremains.AveryfinealtartoJupiterisreserved
forsubsequentdescription.Another,whosefocusisreddenedbythe

actionoffire,ishereintroducedonaccountoftheevidencewhichit
affords,incorroborationoftheconjectureofHorsley,thatLittle
ChesterswastheVINDOLANAoftheRomans,where,accordingtothe
Notitia,thefourthcohortoftheGaulswasstationed.
[Illustration:AltartoGeniusofthePretorium]
GENIOPRTORI[I]SACRVMPITVANIVSSECVNDVSPRFECTVSCOH[ORTIS]IV
GALLOR[VM]
TothegeniusofthePrtoriumsacred;PituaniusSecundusprfect
ofthefourthcohortoftheGauls,_erectsthis_.
SeveralotherinscriptionsbythefourthcohortoftheGaulshavebeen
foundheresincethetimeofHorsley.
ThealtartoFortune,giveninapreviouspage,shewsusthatatleasta
detachmentofthesixthlegionhad,atsomeperiod,itsabodehere.
[Sidenote:THETWENTIETHLEGION.]Astone,[Illustration:alt=Symbol,
Leg.XX.]preservedattheplace,andofwhichanengravingishere
given,bearstestimonytothepresenceofthetwentiethlegionalso,
whichwassurnamedV[ALENS]V[ICTRIX],thevaliantandvictorious,and
ofwhichthesymbolwasaboar.Thislegionwasfirstsentoverto
BritainbyClaudius,andremainedinituntiltheislandwasabandoned
bytheRomans.Horsleyconceivesthatthislegionwasconcernedinthe
erectionoftheVallum,though,headds,wehavenoinscriptionsto
proveit.HesuspectsthatitwasnowayconcernedinbuildingtheWall,
because,amongallthecenturialinscriptionswhichhadcomeunderhis
notice,notonementionedthislegion,oranycohortbelongingtoit.
Thediscovery,sincethepublicationoftheBritanniaRomana,ofthis
andothermemorialstobenoticedasweproceed,renders[Illustration:
alt=PartofSlabtoHadrian]itprobablethatthetwentiethlegionwas
engageduponboththeWallandtheVallum;andas,accordingtoHorsley,
itisevidentthatthislegionwasatChesterintheyear154,where
itlongcontinued,theprobabilityisstrengthened,thattheWall,as
wellastheVallum,wasbuiltbeforethatperiod.Afragmentofan
inscription,representedabove,bearsdirectreferencetoHadrian.The
Milkinggapslab,towhichithasaverycloseresemblance,enablesus
tosupplythepartsthatarewanting.Theonlydifferenceseemstobe,
thattheemperorsnameisinthedativecaseinsteadofthegenitiveas
intheotherexample.
_IMPCA_ESTRAIA_N_
_HAD_RIANO_AVGPP_
_LE_GII_AVG_
_APLATORIONEPOTELEGPRPR._
ThecottagewhichMr.Hedleyerectedforhisownresidenceis,withthe
exceptionofthequoins,[Illustration:alt=Copingstone,Roman
broaching]entirelyformedofstonesprocuredfromthestation.In
additiontothealtarswhichstandinfrontofthehouse,several
objectsofconsiderableinterestarebuiltupinthecoveredpassage
whichleadsfromthekitchentotheburn;amongthemisarangeofRoman
copingstones,oftheformshewninthecut.Thebroachingofthe
stoneshasbeenalludedtopreviously.
Nearthestablesattachedtothehouse,isaRomanaltarconvertedinto
aswinetrough;thefigureonitssideseemstohavebeenintendedfor
aneagle,theemblemoftheimperialJove.Aforetastethisoftheday
wheneveryidolshallbecasttothemolesandtothebats.Mayit
speedilyarrive!
[Illustration:
JohnStorey,Del.etLith.

THECRAGS,WESTOFCRAGLOUGH.
]
[Sidenote:VINDOLANA]
TheprobablemeaningofthewordVINDOLANA,isthehillofarms;
_vin_,withslightvariationsofpronunciation,signifying,inallthe
Celticdialects,aheight;and_lann_,intheGaelic,weapons.Thename
wellaccordswiththosecommoninOssianspoems.
RejoiningtheWallatMilkinggap,andcontinuingourcoursewestward,
wesoonarriveataconspicuousgap,ontheSteelriggrounds.TheWall
ontheeasterndeclivityofthispassmaybestudiedtogreatadvantage.
Thecoursesarelaidparalleltothehorizon;themortarofeachcourse
oftheinteriorseemstohavebeensmoothedoverbeforethe
superincumbentmasswasadded.Inordertogivetheindoorantiquaryan
ideaofitscondition,adrawingofitishereintroduced.
[Sidenote:PEELCRAG.]
Mountinganotherhill,andagaindescendingintothevalley,wefind
anothergap,inwhichtheremainsofamilecastlewillbenoticed,from
whichithasreceivedthenameoftheCastlenick.Alittlefarther
removedisPeelcrag,oneofthemostprecipitousfaceswhichtheWall
hashadtotraverse.Themilitarywayingeniouslyavoidsthesudden
descentbywindingroundthesouthernprojectionsoftherock.After
passingacottage,calledthePeel,amodernroadisencounteredwhich
leadstoKeilder,andsointoScotland;initsprogressnorthwards,
however,itsoondegeneratesintoameretrack.Asthispassismore
thanusuallyopen,thefosseagainappearssurmountedbyamoundonits
northernmargin;theearthworksarestronglymarked,buttheWallis
gone.
Thelithographicviewrepresentsthenorthernaspectofthecrags,as
theyappearhere.
Onthewesternsideofthis,shelteredbyafewtrees,isthefarmhouse
ofSteelrig.AttainingthenextelevationWinshieldscragweareon
groundreputedtobethehighestbetweenthetwoseas;aturfcairnhas
beenerectedonitforthepurposesoftheordnancesurvey.Fromthis
loftysummit,thevesselsnavigatingtheSolwaymayeasilybedescried.
[Sidenote:BLOODYGAP.]
Proceedinginthesamedirection,wereachanothergapofwide
dimensions,butverysteeponbothdeclivities.HeretheWallhasbeen
providedwithaditch,strengthened,asusualindangeroussituations,
witharampartonitsoutermargin.Ifthelocalvocabularydoesnot
furnishthispasswithaname(andIhavenotbeenabletofindthatit
does),Bloodygap,fromthefollowingcircumstance,wellbefitsit.
Nearlydirectnorthfromit,isarisingridgeofground,called
Scotchcoulthard.Whenthemosstroopers,whoaboundedintheseparts,
succeededinsafelyreachingit,theirpursuerscommonlyconsidered
fartherchaseuseless.BetweentheWallandthispointofsafety,
therefore,theraceandtheconflictwerenecessarilyofthemost
desperatecharacter;thatmanydeadlyconflictshavetakenplace,is
evidencedbythenumerousskeletonswhichareturnedupindrainingthe
ground.
Alonelycottage,uponanexposedpartoftheridge,iscalled
ShieldontheWall.
Nearthemodernmilitaryway,twolargestones,calledthemareand
foal,arestanding.InArmstrongsmapofNorthumberland,threeare
marked;theyareprobablyremainsofaDruidicalcircle.

[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey,Lith.
THEWALLATSTEELRIG.
PrintedbyW.Monkhouse,York
]
[Sidenote:ANCIENTTRADITIONS.]
Shortlyafterwardswecometoagapofveryboldproportions.Popular
faithassertsittohavebeentheabodeofevilspirits,anditisknown
bytheominousnameofBoglehole.Thesidesofthegaparesteep;on
thewesterndeclivitythecoursesoftheWallareforthemostpart
conformabletotheground,buttheyarestayedupbyoccasionalsteps
paralleltothehorizon.Inthevalley,tothesouth,theVallumisseen
bendinguptowardstheWall,apparentlytoassistindefendingthepass;
itwouldnothavedoneso,haditbeenanindependentfortification.The
vicinityofBogleholeseemsafittingplaceforintroducingthe
followingpassagefromProcopius,awriterofthefifthcentury.Wecan
readilyconceivethatataperiodwhentheinroadsoftheCaledonians
werestillfreshinthememoryoftheinhabitants,thecountrynorthof
theWallwouldberegardedwithsuperstitiousdread.Doubtless,manywho
passedtheboundary,found,totheircost,thatinthisregionlaythe
pathwaytotheworldofspirits:
Moreover,inthisisleofBrittia,menofancienttimebuiltalong
wall,cuttingoffagreatportionofit:forthesoil,andtheman,
andallotherthings,arenotalikeonbothsides;forontheeastern
(southern)sideoftheWall,thereisawholesomenessofairin
conformitywiththeseasons,moderatelywarminsummer,andcoolin
winter.Manymeninhabithere,livingmuchasothermen.Thetrees,
withtheirappropriatefruits,flourishinseason,andtheircorn
landsareasproductiveasothers;andthedistrictappears
sufficientlyfertilizedbystreams.Butonthewestern(northern)side
allisdifferent,insomuchindeed,thatitwouldbeimpossiblefora
mantolivethere,evenhalfanhour.Vipersandserpentsinnumerable,
withallotherkindsofwildbeasts,infestthatplace;and,whatis
moststrange,thenativesaffirm,thatifanyone,passingtheWall,
shouldproceedtotheotherside,hewoulddieimmediately,unableto
enduretheunwholesomenessoftheatmosphere.Deathalso,attacking
suchbeastsasgothither,forthwithdestroysthem....Theysaythat
thesoulsofmendepartedarealwaysconductedtothisplace;butin
whatmannerIwillexplainimmediately,havingfrequentlyheardit
frommenofthatregionrelatingitmostseriously,althoughIwould
ratherascribetheirasseverationstoacertaindreamyfacultywhich
possessesthem._GilessAncientBritons_,I.404.
[Sidenote:CAWGAP.]
ThenextdefileisCawgap;someruinedcottages,formedofWallstones,
standinit.TheextremejealousywithwhichtheRomansdefendedan
exposedsituationiswellshewnhere.Thefosse,whichguardsthepass
throughthelowground,isdiscontinuedonthewesternsideassoonas
theWallattainsasufficientelevation,butuponthetheground
drooping,thoughonlyforthespaceofafewyards,itreappearsfor
thatshortdistance.
Aroadrunsthroughthispasstothenorth,whichsoonbecomesamere
track.Itpassesasolitaryhouse,calledBurnDeviot,nearlyduenorth
fromthegap,whichwaslongtheresortofsmugglersandsheepstealers.
Thememoryofitslasttenants,NellNicholandhertwodaughters,who
wereapesttothecountry,isstillfreshinthedistrict.Thoughmany
yearshaveelapsedsinceanyoneoccupiedthedwelling,lightsaresaid
oftentobeseenatthewindowsatnight,visibletokensofthepresence

ofthespiritsofthemurderedchildrenofNellsdaughters.
[Sidenote:CAWFIELDSCRAGS.]
Thecragsalongwhichwesoonfindourselvestobeproceeding,possessa
perpendicularelevationofnearlyfivehundredfeetabovetheplains
below.Passinganothersmallgap,calledtheThornyDoors,wecometoa
tractofWallinanexcellentstateofpreservation.Thelowercourses
havelatelybeenfreedfromtherubbishwhichforcenturieshascovered
them,andthefallenstonesreplacedintheirproperorder.Thewhole
faceoftheWallhasaremarkablyfreshappearance,andnowherecanthe
toolingofthestonesbeexaminedwithmoreadvantage.Amongstthe
fallenstones,onewaslatelyfoundwhichfurnishesuswithadditional
evidence,thatthetwentiethlegionwasengagedintheerectionofthis
partoftheWall.It[Illustration:alt=MuralStone,Leg.XX.V.V.]is
preservedamongsttheantiquitiesatChesters,andisrepresentedinthe
adjoiningcut.ThissculpturecannothavebeenderivedfromtheVallum,
intheconstructionofwhich,inthetimeofHadrian,thetwentieth
legionisacknowledgedtohavebeenemployed;fortheVallumishere
distantmorethanthreehundredyardsfromtheWall.Thereaderwillof
courseperceivethebearingwhichthisfacthasuponthequestionofthe
contemporaneousoriginofthetwostructures,andtheconstructionof
theWall,aswellastheVallum,byHadrian.
Whiletheantiquaryiseagerlyscrutinizingindentationsinstoneswhich
werechiselledsixteencenturiesago,hiseyewilloccasionallyrest
uponthememorialsofanantiquitysoindefiniteastothrowintothe
shadeevenhisprimevalrecords.Lepidodendra,andotherfossilsofthe
millstonegritandcoalseries,areofoccasionaloccurrence.Whoshall
tellwhenthesegiantplantsflourished,howtheywereenvelopedin
theirsandybed,andhowhardenedintotheflintystonemadeuseofby
theRomansoldiers?Imaginationreelsatthequestionssuggested.
[Sidenote:PILGRIMS'GAP.]
Wearenowarrivedatthemostperfectmilecastleremainingonthe
line,generallynamed,fromthefarmhousetothenorthofit,the
CawfieldsCastle.Thegapwhichitguardedwasdenominatedbythe
peripateticpartyof1849,incommemorationoftheirvisit,the
Pilgrimsgap,anamewhichisbeginningtoberecognisedbythe
inhabitantsoftheneighbourhood.
[Sidenote:THECAWFIELDSCASTELLUM.]
Untilrecently,thecastellumwasnearlycoveredwithitsownruins.
Sincetheannexeddrawingwastaken,therubbishhasbeenentirely
removedfromtheinside,aswellastheout.
Thebuildingisaparallelogram,butthecornersatitslowersideare
roundedoff.Itmeasures,inside,sixtythreefeetfromeasttowest,
andfortyninefeetfromnorthtosouth.ThegreatWallformsits
northernside.Thestonesusedintheconstructionofthisbuildingare
ofthesamesizeandcharacterasthoseemployedintheWallitself;the
mortarhasdisappearedfrombetweenthecoursesofthefacingstones,
butportionsoflimeareseeninthegroutoftheinterior.Inthe
westernwall,ninecoursesofstonesarestanding.Thesidewallsofthe
castlehavenotbeentiedtothegreatWall,buthavebeenbroughtclose
uptoit,andthejunctioncementedwithmortar.
[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardsonDelt.JohnStorey,Lith.
MILECASTLENEARCAWFIELDS
PrintedbyW.MonkhouseYork.
]

Itisprovidedwithagatewayoflargedimensions,bothonitsnorthern
andsouthernside.InHorsleysday,itwasamatterofdoubtwhether
therewasanyopeningthroughtheWall,exceptingatthepointswhere
theWatlingstreetandtheMaidenwaycrossedit;thedisintermentof
thismilecastlesetsthequestionatrest,andjustifiesusin
believingthatthepassagesatBusygap,Rapishawgap,andotherplaces,
areofRomanformation.
Thegatewaysareformedoflargeslabsofrusticmasonry,andtogive
themfulldevelopment,thewallsarethickerherethaninotherparts.
Thewidthofthewallatthelowergatewayisninefeetthreeinches;at
theupper,whichwas,ofcourse,themoreexposed,tenfeetsixinches.
Theopeningofeachgatewayistenfeet.Twofoldingdoorshaveclosed
theentrance,which,whenthrownback,havefallenintorecesses
preparedforthem.Someofthepivotholesofthedoorsremain,which
exhibitacircularchafing,andareslightlytingedwiththeoxideof
iron.Thesecurityofthenortherngatewaydidnotentirelydependupon
thesolidityofitsmasonry,orthestrengthofitsdoors.Itopensupon
asortofcliff,andtheroadfromitdoesnotleaddirectlyaway,but
runsforalittledistanceundertheWall,soastogiveanopportunity
ofmorereadilyactingagainstanenemy.
Themasonryofthewholebuilding,butparticularlyofthegateways,is
peculiarlyfresh.Thelinesthathavebeenlightlychiselledonsomeof
thelargerusticslabsofthegateways,inordertoguidetheworkmenin
correctlyplacingthoseabovewhichprojectlessthanthantheothers,
arestillquitedistinct.Thestoneisofaverydurablenature,butit
isdifficulttoconceivehowsuchslendermarkings,particularlywhenin
ahorizontalposition,couldlongresisttheactionoftheweather.Were
wetojudgeonlyfromtheappearanceofthemasonry,wemightbeledto
supposethatthebuildinghadbeenenvelopedinitsownruinsnotlong
afteritserectionperhapsinthatdreadfulirruptionoftheCaledonians
whichbroughtSeverustothiscountryandthatitwasneverafterwards
repaired.
Inclearingouttheinteriorofthisbuilding,notracesofpartywalls,
ofasubstantialcharacteratleast,werefound.Itstandsuponaslope
ofaboutonefootinfive,and,towardsthehangingsideofit,the
groundhasbeenrenderedhorizontalbymadeearth.Somefragmentsof
grayslate,piercedforroofing,werefoundamongtherubbish;itis
thereforenotimprobablethatashedwaslaidagainstthesouthernwall
fortheprotectionofthesoldiers.Atabouttheelevationwhichthe
raisedfloorwouldreach,theWallis,inoneplace,eatenawaybythe
actionoffire.Here,probably,wasthehearthroundwhichtheshivering
soldiersofthesouthclustered,toforget,intherecitaloftheir
countrystales,thefierceCaledonianswhoprowledaroundthem,orthe
stillfiercertempests,whichalltheirvalourandalltheirengineering
skillcouldnotexcludefromtheirdwellings.Withtheexceptionofsuch
sheds,ormeretemporaryerections,thewholebuildingseemstohave
beenopenabove.Twolargefragmentsoffunerealslabswerefoundinthe
castellum;oneofthemhasbeenroughlyshapedintoacircularform,and
isreddenedbyfire;theletterswhichremainaredistinctandwell
formed.Hasitbeenthehearth?Theinscriptionhasbeenerasedfromthe
other.Anotherstoneofstillgreaterinterestwasfoundhere,
furnishingadditional[Illustration:PartofSlabtoHadrian]evidence
oftheerectionofthemilecastlesbyHadrian.Fromtheannexedcut,it
willatoncebeperceivedthatitisaduplicateoftheinscription,
alreadydescribed,inwhichthesecondlegionendeavourstoperpetuate
itsname,andthoseofitsemperor,Hadrian,andAulusPlatoriusNepos,
hislegate.TherecannotbeadoubtthatthecastellumandtheWallwere
builtatthesametime,andbythesameparties;ifHadriantherefore
builttheone,theotheriserroneouslyascribedtoSeverus.
Twosmallsilvercoinswerefoundamongsttherubbishwithinthe

castellum,oneofVespasian,theotherofMarcusAurelius.Although
theirtestimonyisofanegativecharacter,itwillbeobserved,thatit
isnotinconsistentwiththeidea,thatthecastlewaserectedinthe
timeofHadrian,andwiththeopinionalreadyhazarded,thatitwas
dismantledatanearlyperiod.Therewerealsofoundlargepiecesof
earthenware,chieflyofthecoarserkinds,andfragmentsofmillstones
formedoflava,whichshewthatculinaryoperationswerecarriedon
withinthesecold,barewalls,andasolitaryoystershellamongthe
rubbishboretestimonytotheattachmentoftheRomanstothisarticle
ofluxury.Themilecastleisverynearlymidwaybetweentheseas.
Besidesthearticlesalreadyenumerated,therewerepickedupwithinthe
castellumsomelargeglassbeadsofsomewhatsingularappearance,(Plate
VII.,figs.7,8)andafibulaofbrass.Thewholeoftheserelicsare
safelydepositedinthecollectionofantiquitiesatChesters.The
interestingbuildingis,happily,uponanestatebelongingtoJohn
Clayton,esq.;thehandofthespoilerwillthereforenotbeallowedto
touchit.
Aboutonehundredandfiftyyardssouthofthecastellum,isaspringof
excellentwater.Nearit,aboutmidwaybetweentheVallumandtheWall,
analtartoApollowaslatelydiscovered,whichwillafterwardsbe
described.
[Sidenote:TEMPORARYCAMP.]
Aroadleadsfromthevicinityofthemilecastletothetownof
Haltwhistle,intheshelteredvalleyoftheTyne,whither,shouldthe
shadesofeveningbeapproaching,thewaywornantiquarymaybegladto
bendhissteps.Atthepointwherethepathjoinsthemodernmilitary
road,aRomancampwillbeobserved.Onthesideswhicharemost
exposed,doubleandtriplelinesofearthworkshavebeenraised.The
rockonthewesternfaceofthegroundwherethecampstands,hasbeen
wroughtbytheRomansforstones,andthecamphasgiventhemtemporary
protection.Itwasherethattheinscriptiononthefaceoftherock,
LEG.VI.V.,wasdiscoveredin1847,asalreadymentioned,page81.The
quarry,notbeingrequiredfortheuseofthedistrict,wasshortly
afterwardsclosed.
[Sidenote:HALTWHISTLE.]
TheCastlehillatHaltwhistleis,apparently,adiluvialdeposit;
ramparts,stillquitedistinct,runroundthemarginofitssummit.
Severalpeelhousesinthetownanditsvicinity,willinterestthe
antiquary.[113]
TothosewhocherishthereligiousviewsoftheearlyAnglican
reformers,itwillbeinterestingtoremember,thatthisisthenative
districtofNicholasRidley,bishopandmartyr.Willimoteswickcastle,
hisreputedbirthplace,isonthesouthbankoftheTyne,aboutthree
milesbelowHaltwhistle.[114]
[Sidenote:HALTWHISTLEBURNHEAD.]
RejoiningtheWall,Haltwhistleburnheadisthefirstobjectof
interestthatwemeetwithinourcoursewestward.Theburn,towhich
importantreferencewillpresentlybemade,isderivedfromthe
overflowingsofGreenleelough.Betweenitssource,andthegapbywhich
itpassestheridgeonwhichtheWallstands,itiscalledtheCawburn;
belowthatpointitbearsthenameofHaltwhistleburn.
Asthewidthofthedefile,andthepassageofthestream,renderthisa
weakpointinthebarrier,thetwolinesoffortificationapproachvery
neartoeachother;theyafterwardsagaindiverge.

WestwardofBurnheadfarmhouse,thefosseisboldlydeveloped,butthe
Wallistraceableonlyintheruinsofitsfoundation.Asweproceed
onwardstoGreatChesters,thefoundationsofamilecastlewhichhas
stoodhalftothenorthoftheWall,andhalfwithinit,maybe,though
notwithoutcarefulscrutiny,observed.Thetowerwhichformerlystood
atPortgateistheonlyotherknownexampleofasimilararrangement.
[Sidenote:GREATCHESTERS.]
SICA,orGreatChesters,isthetenthstationarycamponthelineof
theWall.Itssuperficialcontentsare3acres,35poles.Theramparts
andfosseareclearlydefined.Thesoutherngatewaymaybetraced;itis
nearertheeasternthanthewesternside.Adoublerampartofearth
seemstohavegivenadditionalsecuritytothewesternside,which,by
situation,istheweakest.Avaultedroominthecentreofthecamp
stillanswersverycorrectlytothedescriptiongivenofitin1800by
Dr.Lingard,(quotedbyHodgson,II.iii.203.)
Itis6feetsquare,and5feethigh.Itwasdescendedbysteps,and
had,attheoppositeendtoitsentrance,asortofbench,raisedon
masonwork,2feetwideandhigh,andcoveredwithaslabofstone.
Theroofconsistedofsixsimilarandcontiguousarchesofstone,each
15inchesbroad.Ithadalsoonepillar.Thefloorhadonitagreat
quantityofashes,wasflagged,andonraisingoneofthestones,a
springgushedout,whichconvertedthevaultintoawell.
Aboutonehundredandfiftyyardssouthofthestation,inafieldwhich
hasforyearsbeenfurrowedbytheplough,theremainsofabuildingof
somewhatrudeconstructionhavejustbeendiscovered.Itsfloor,
consisting,forthemostpart,oftheusualcompost,isnearlyafoot
thick.Furtherexaminationwouldprobablydisclose,initsvicinity,the
foundationsofnumeroussuburbanbuildings.
Anancientroadleadsfromthesoutherngatewayofthestationtothe
greatmilitarywaywhichranfromCILURNUMtoMAGNA.
[Sidenote:SICA.]
ThestationofSICA,accordingtotheNotitia,wasabouttheyear430,
garrisonedbythe_cohorsprimaAstorum_.[115]Horsley(writingin1731)
observes,thatnoinscriptionshadbeenfoundherementioningthefirst
cohortoftheAsti,oranyothercohort.In1761,however,an
inscriptionwasdugupinthisstation,whichisnowdepositedinthe
museumatNewcastleuponTyne,recordingthatinthereignofAlexander
Severus(200yearsbeforethedateoftheNotitia)thecohorssecunda
Asturumrebuiltagranaryherewhichhadfallenintodecayfrom
agehorreumvetustateconlabsum.Itistobeobservedthatthe
spellingofAsturumissimilartothatoftheinscriptionatCILURNUM,
andwedonotfindthatthe_second_cohort,eitheroftheAstior
Astures,ismentionedelsewhereaspartoftheRomanauxiliaryforcesin
Britain.
Neartheeasterngatewayofthestationtherehasbeenlatelydugupa
largemuraltablet,shewninthewoodcut,andbearingthefollowing
inscription:
[Illustration:
IMP.CS.TRAI[A]N.HADRIA
NOAVG.P[ATRI]P[ATRI].
TotheemperorCsarTrajanusHadria
nusAugustus,thefatherofhiscountry.
]

ItisnotprobablethatthisslabhasbeenderivedfromtheVallum,
whichisupwardsofaquarterofamilefromthestation.[116]Whythe
upperpartofthetabletwasleftblankdoesnotappear;enough,
however,hasbeeninsertedtosupportthetheory,thatHadrianbuiltthe
Wall.Althoughseveralofthestationswereprobablybuiltbeforethe
Wall,andwerequiteindependentofit,thiscanscarcelyhavebeenone
ofthem;itspositionseemstoindicatethatitwascalledinto
existenceinordertoaccommodatethemuralgarrison.
[Illustration:
_SURVEYEDBYI.T.W.BELL1860__A.ReidsLithog.117
PilgrimSt.Newcastle._
Planof
ANANCIENTWATERCOURSEEXTENDINGFROM
SAUGHYBIGWASHPOOLTOSICAGREATCHESTERS.
]
[Sidenote:ETYMOLOGYOFSICA.]
CelticauthoritiesallagreeintracingthenameSICAtoaword
signifying_water_.Theproprietyofsuchanappellationdoesnotat
firstsightappear.Thecampisfarfromeithertheeasternorwestern
sea;nolakeisvisiblefromitsramparts;theonlywaterwhichisnear
istheHaltwhistleburn,asomewhattinystream.Thelowgroundtothe
southhasafennyaspect,butthestationitselfstandshighanddry,
thoughuponapartofthemuralridgelesselevatedthanusual.Itis
notimprobablethatitmayhavederiveditsnamefromanaqueductwhich
leadsthewaterfromtheGreenleeloughtothecamp.Asthis
watercoursehashithertoescapedthenoticeofwritersupontheWall,
andisaworkofconsiderableinterest,asomewhatdetaileddescription
ofitmaybeallowable.
THEWATERCOURSEATSICA.
Thecamp,thoughnotgreatlyelevated,standshigherthantheground,
eithernorthorsouthofit.Thecountrytothenorth,though
generallyflat,isstuddedwithnumeroushillsofmoderateelevation.
Onthesidesofsomeofthese,abouttwothirdsup,maybenoticeda
linethatremindsthespectatoroftheparallelroadsinGlenroyand
otherplaces.Onexamination,itisfoundtobeanartificialcutting,
madewithevidentreferencetothemaintenanceofthewaterlevel.The
sectionsgiveninPlateXVI.,shewitssizeandform.Insomeplaces
thewaterstandsinityet;inothersamassofpeatfillsit;and
veryfrequently,wherethechannelhasbeenobliterated,itscourseis
shewnbyalineofrushes,whichgrowonthedampground.Whereverthe
watercoursecanbedistinctlydiscerned,ithasbeenlaiddowninthe
accompanyingplanbyagreenline;wherethetracesofitarelost,
thelineofthewaterlevelhasbeenpursued,andisindicatedbydots
ofthesamecolour.
[Sidenote:THEWATERCOURSE.]
Thewholelengthofthewatercourseissixmiles;thedistanceina
straightlineislittlemorethantwomilesandaquarter.Ittakes
itscommencementattheSaughyrigwashpool,whichisformedbythe
occasionaldammingupoftheCawburn,ataboutamilefromitsexit
fromtheGreenleelough.Intheimmediatevicinityoftheburn,the
sideofthewatercoursenexttherivuletwhichwouldbeendangeredby
theoverflowingofthenaturalstream,ismadeupwithflatstonesput
inendwise,someofwhichstillremainasshewninthesectionatB,
intheplan.Initscoursetothestation,inorderatonceto
preservethelevel,andavoidthenecessityofusingforced

embankmentsorstoneaqueducts,itistakenalongthesidesofthe
moderatelyelevatedhillswhichrisefromtheplain.Soingeniouslyis
thisdone,thatonceonlyhasitbeennecessarytocrossavalleyby
anartificialmoundofearth.Thishasbeenataspotbetweenthe
thirdandfourthmileofthewatercourse,andwhichisstillknownin
thedistrictbythenameofBenksbridge,thoughprobablyfewofthe
inhabitantsareawareoftheevidentoriginoftheterm.Some
ingenuityhasbeenemployedinfixingthesiteofthismound.Itis
placedinthatpartofthevalleywherethereisaslightdescenton
eachsideofit;thedrainageofthesurfaceisthusprovidedfor
withouttheuseofaculvert;thesurfacewateronthewest,naturally
makingfortheHaltwhistleburn,thatontheeastfortheriver
Tipalt.Themoundwhichhastakenthewatercourseacrossthevalley
atBenksbridgehasentirelydisappeared,havingprobablybeen
absorbed,inthecourseofages,bythemossygroundonwhichit
stood.Thewholefallofthewatercourse,reckoningfromthe
Washpooltothebottomofthearchedchamberinthecentreofthe
stationisthirtyfeet.Thisisdistributedoveritsentirelengthin
thewayshewninthefollowingtable:
ft.in.m.f.c.ft.in.
CommencingatA00At2601110fall
m.f.c.275E144
006B210fall.300216
015310303237
02437306235
034373132910
04936335253
06037350Northend,254
Benksbridge.
07840350Southend,297
Do.
10641415299
113374582911
13236535286
140C3105442811
20559555290
216114600Present304
bottomof
arched
chamberin
centreof
station.
229D112
Thenatureofthegroundthrewconsiderabledifficultiesinthewayof
theengineer,whichaccountsfortheexceedinglytortuousnatureof
thetrackpursued.Itisindeedremarkablethatwithouttheaidof
accuratelevellinginstruments,anyonecouldbesofullyassuredthat

therequisitefallexistedastoventureuponthetaskofits
formation.Theworkmenintheexecutionofthedesignprobablydrew
thewateralongwiththemastheyproceeded.Inoneplace,(G)they
seemtohavemadetoofreewiththefall,andafterproceedingfor
somedistance,(upwardsofafurlong)haveretracedtheirsteps,and
constructedthecuttingatahigherlevel.Incrossingthevalleys,
thereissometimesanunusuallossoffall.Thisisparticularlythe
caseatthethirdmile(E)wherethereisadifferenceinthelevelof
thecourse,ontheoppositesideoftheslack,ofnearlytenfeet.
Thisvalleyispermeatedbyastreamlet,andtotakethewateracross
itatthelevelpreviouslypreserved,astoneaqueductwouldhavebeen
necessary.Appearancesseemtoindicatethataneasierplanwas
adopted.Adambeingformedacrossthehangingsideofthevalley,the
waterofthecoursewasallowedtodeliveritselffreelyintoit,and
eventuallyrisingafterthemannerofamillheadtothelevelofthe
courseonthewesternside,pursueditswayasbefore.Thatthisplan
wastheresultofachangeinthedesignofthearchitectseems
evident,forontheeasternsideofthevalleyasecondcutting(E)
hasbeenmadeatalowerlevelthantheother,apparentlywiththe
viewofleadingthewatermoregraduallytothelowerpoint.
Unfortunatelyalltracesofthewatercoursearelostforsome
distancebeforeapproachingthestation,sothatitcannotbe
ascertainedwhereitenteredit,ifitdidsoatall.
Thatsomeimportantobjectwasgainedbytheformationofsolonga
cuttingisundoubted,butwhatthatobjectwasisaperplexing
question.ItcanscarcelybesupposedthatthegarrisonatSICAwere
dependentfortheirdailysupplyofsoimportantanarticleaswater
uponanopencuttingoutsidetheBarrier.Thefeeblestoftheirfoes
could,inaninstant,cutofftheprovision.Nodoubtthecountry,for
somedistancenorthoftheWall,washeldinsubjectionbytheRoman
forces,butwhentheWallwasbuilt,andthestationplanned,suchwas
notthecase.Thestationitselfisnotdestituteofwater.Awell,
sunksomeyearsago,tothedepthoftwentyfourfeet,yieldstothe
tenantsofthefarmhouseanunfailingsupply.Iamdisposedtothink
thatthewaterbroughtbythecuttingwastogivetothenorthrampart
ofthestationtheadvantageofawetditch.Bythrowinganembankment
acrossthedepressiononthenorthofthestation,asitbeginsto
slopedowntothebedoftheHaltwhistleburn,aconsiderablebodyof
waterwouldlodgehere.ThestationofSICAwasanimportantone.In
aparticularlywilddistrict,atanunusualdistancefromthegreat
linesofRomancommunication,andclosebesidethegreatopeningin
themuralridge,bywhichthewatersoftheForestofLoweseffecta
passagetothelowgrounds,itwouldbepeculiarlyexposedtothe
attacksoftheenemy.Althoughsomewhatelevatedabovetheground
northoftheWall,itisnotsomuchsoastobeimpregnableonthat
quarter.Abodyofwatercollectedheretokeeptheenemyatastill
greaterdistancemightnotbebeneaththeattentionofthegarrison.
Anytemporaryinterferencewiththeaqueductwouldinthiscasebe
productiveofnoinconvenience.Theexistenceofawatercourseonthe
enemyssideoftheWallatHUNNUM,whichmayhaveservedasimilar
purpose,hasalreadybeennoticed.AtBREMENIUM,HighRochester,some
gutteredstones,coveredwithflags,wererecentlyfoundlyingina
directionwhichledtothesupposition,thattheybroughtwaterfrom
somespringsoutsidethestationtotheeasternmoat.
IntheArchologialiana[117]isaplananddescriptionofanancient
aqueduct,whichbroughtwaterfromsomedistantrivuletstothe
stationatLanchester.Itconsistsoftwobranches,thelongerof
whichisnearlyfourmilesinextent.Earthenembankments,topreserve
thelevel,areoccasionallyusedinbothofthem,and,astheyrun
oversandyground,thebottomofthemhasbeenpuddled.Thetwolines,
afteruniting,delivertheirwaterintoareservoiroutsidethe
station,neartoitssouthwestcorner.Thatthewaterofthis

aqueductcannothavebeenusedfordomesticpurposesappearsfromwhat
Hodgson,theauthorofthepaper,addsSeveralwellshave,fromtime
totime,beendiscoveredherebylabourers,ontheoutsideofthe
walls,andthereisaplentifulspringatashortdistancefromwhere
thebathstood.
Whatevermayhavebeentheobjectserved,thewatercourseatSICAis
astrikingmemorialoftheskill,forethought,andindustryofthe
Romangarrisons.Atthepresentday,inahighlycivilizedcountry,
andaftertheenjoymentofalongperiodofinternalpeace,wearebut
beginningtoseethenecessityofbringingwaterfromadistanceinto
ourlargetowns.Anindividualgarrison,exposedtoallthehazardsof
war,scruplednot,evenfourteenorsixteencenturiesago,forsome
purposewhichtheythoughtimportant,tocutawatercoursesixmiles
long!
Itisnotalittleremarkabletoo,thatafterthelapseofsolonga
period,thecuttingshouldbedistinctlyvisiblethroughsolargea
portionofitstrack.
Theviewwhichisheretakenoftheobjectofthewatercourseisnot
givenbecauseitisabsolutelysatisfactory,butbecauseitpresents
thefewestdifficulties.Wemighthaveexpectedthatifaminiature
lakehadbeenformedonthenorthofthestation,someremainsofthe
embankmentnecessarytoconfineitswaterswouldappear;noneare,
however,tobeobserved.Thesoil,onbeingturnedup,hasnotthe
blackandsludgyaspect,whichmightbeanticipated,butisofa
yellowhue;thebottomofapondatWallmill,whichwasdrained
withinlivingmemory,has,however,apreciselysimilarappearance.
TothesouthofGreatChestersisWallmill,neartowhichtheburying
groundofthestationseemstohavebeen.Brandobservedhereseveral
remarkablebarrows,andwasshewnsomeofthegraveswhichhadbeen
opened.Theyconsisted,hetellsus,ofsidestonessetdownintothe
earth,andcoveredattopwithotherlargerstones.Hetookthemtobe
veryearlyChristiansepulchres;thisismorethandoubtful.The
progressofagriculturalimprovementhasobliteratedalltracesofthe
cemetery;toone,however,ofitssepulchralmonumentsreferencewill
afterwardsbemade.
TheRomanssystematicallyavoidedintramuralinterments.Thefollowing
isoneofthelawsoftheTwelveTables:
HOMINEMMORTUUMINURBENESEPELITONEVEURITO.
Itisremarkablethatatsoearlyaperiodofthehistoryofthe
republic,attentionshouldhavebeenturnedtothissubject,andthatin
adigestoflegislationsobriefasthatreferredto,thisshouldform
oneoftheenactments.
[Sidenote:COCKMOUNTHILL.]
ShortlyafterleavingSICA,thecragsagainappear,andtheWall
ascendstheheights.AtCockmounthill,aboutaquarterofamile
forward,theMurusisfourorfivefeethigh.OntheOllaleeground,it
issixandsevenfeethigh,andshewsonthenorth,ninecoursesof
facingstones;atanotherplace,tencoursesappear,andtheheightis
sixfeetfourinches.[118]Theearthworksareseeninthevalleybelow,
coveredwiththewhin,calledbybotanists,_GenistaAnglica_.The
continuoussandstoneridgeisdeeplyscarredwithancientquarries.[119]
Heretheviewismostextensive,Skiddaw,Crossfell,andother
celebratedsummits,shewingthemselvesconspicuouslyonthesouth,and
Burnswark,apeculiarflattoppedeminence,andseveralmoredistant
hills,onthenorth.Atruncatedpyramidofstonesandearth,usedby

theordnancesurveyors,[120]hasbeenleftupontheelevatedridge,
calledMucklebankcrag.
[Sidenote:WALLTOWNCRAGS.]
Thenextdefilethatwereachisaverywideone,andisdenominated
Walltowncrags.Walltownconsistsofasinglehouse,which,thoughnow
occupiedbythetenantofthefarm,bearsmarksofhavingformerlybeen
aplaceofstrength,andtheresidenceofpersonsofconsideration.
RidleytheMartyrreferswithmuchaffectioninhisvaledictoryletter
tohisbrotherwhoresidedhere:
Farewell,mydearlybelovedbrotherJohnRidleyoftheWaltoune,and
youmygentleandlovingsister,Elizabeth,whom,besidesthenatural
leagueofamity,yourtenderlove,whichyouweresaidevertobear
towardsmeabovetherestofyourbrethren,dothbindmetolove.My
mindwastohaveacknowledgedthisyourlovingaffection,andtohave
requiteditwithdeeds,andnotwithwordsalone.Yourdaughter
ElizabethIbidfarewell,whomIloveforthemeekandgentlespirit
thatGodhathgivenher,whichisapreciousthinginthesightof
God.
Inthecrevicesofthewhinrock,nearthehouse,chivesgrow
abundantly.Thegeneralopinionofthecountryis,thattheyarethe
produceofplantscultivatedbytheRomans,whoweremuchaddictedto
theuseofthisandkindredvegetables.Thisbeliefisbuta
modificationofthemoreextendedstatementsofourearliestwriterson
theWall.SampsonErdeswickein1574,says
TheSkottslyches,orsurgeons,doyerelyrepayrtothesaydRoman
Wallnexttothes,(CaerVurron)togethersundryherbsforsurgery,
forthatitisthoughtthattheRomaynestherebyhadplantedmost
nedefullherbesforsundrypurposes,buthowsoeveritwas,these
herbesarefowndverywholesome.
Camdengivesanaccountpreciselysimilar.
Ontheeasterndeclivityofthegap,andnearthelineoftheWall,isa
well,which,inthedistrict,isgenerallycalledkingArthursWell.
Brand,however,givesadifferentaccountofit:
AtWalltown,IsawthewellwhereinPaulinusissaidtohavebaptized
kingEcfrid.Ithasevidentlybeenenclosed,whichindicatessomething
remarkableinsoopenandwildacountry.Somewroughtstoneslaynear
it.Thewaterisverycoolandfine.
Thewesternascentissteep.Huttontellsushewassometimesobligedto
crawlonallfours.Onthesummitareevidenttracesofamilecastle.
[Illustration:NinenicksofThirlwall]
[Sidenote:NINENICKSOFTHIRLWALL.]
Wenowenteruponamostinterestingpartoftheline.Themuralridge,
dividedbyfrequentbreaksintoasmanyisolatedcrags,isdenominated
theNineNicksofThirlwall.Theviewfromtheedgeofthecliffis
extensive;stuntedtreesunitewiththecraggycharacteroftherockin
givingvarietytotheforeground.TheWalladheres,withtolerable
pertinacity,totheedgeofthecrags,andhencepursuesacoursethat
isbynomeansdirect.Theaccompanyingwoodcut,whichexhibitsthe
viewlookingeastwards,shewsthezigzagpathwhichitadopts.Nearly
allourhistoriansagreeinstatingthatthemostperfectspecimensof
theWallnowremaining,areonWalltowncrags.Certainitisthatall
whohaveexaminedtheotherpartsoftheWallwithcare,willvisitthis
withpeculiarpleasure;butsucharethevariedfeatureswhicheach

sectionoftheBarrierpresents,andtheconsequentinterestwhicheach
excites,thatitisdifficulttodeterminewhichpart,onthewhole,is
mostworthyofattention.
[Sidenote:WALLTOWNCRAGS.]
Foraconsiderabledistancealongthecrags,theWallisinexcellent
preservation,presenting,onthenorthside,inseveralplaces,ten
coursesoffacingstones,andinone,twelve.Inthehighestpartitis
eightfeetnineincheshigh,andninefeetthick.Themilitarywaymay
inmanyplacesbeseen,avoidingverydexterouslythemoreabrupt
declivitiesofitsrockypath.
Atlengththecliffs,whichextendinanearlyunbrokenseriesfrom
SewingshieldstoCarvoran,sinkintoaplain,andthefertilityandthe
beautyofawellcultivatedcountryreappear.
Howeverpleasingthechange,thetravellerwillnotfailoccasionallyto
lookbackupontheroadhehastrod,andviewwithsecretsatisfaction
thoseboldandairyheightswhichsowellsymbolizetheaustereand
undauntedspiritofthatgreatpeoplewhoseworksheiscontemplating;
andwheninafteryears,anditmaybeinsomeregionfardistant,the
imageofthemrisesinhisimagination,hewillbereadytoexclaim
Ifeelthegalesthatfromyeblow
Amomentaryblissbestow.
[Sidenote:CARVORAN.]
MAGNA,themodernCarvoran,liestothesouthbothoftheVallumand
Wall.Thenatureofthegroundinitsneighbourhoodseemstohave
dictatedthisarrangement.TheWalloccupiestheedgeofastripof
elevatedground,thebenefitofwhich,asapositionofstrengthagainst
anenemy,itwasdesirablenottolose.Hadthestationbeenplacedas
usualonthelineoftheWall,theVallum,inskirtingitssouthern
rampart,wouldhavebeenbroughtintoaswampthatoccupiesthevalley
betweenthehighgroundonwhichtheWallstands,andthesomewhat
commandingsiteofthestation.BoththelinesoftheBarrierhave
thereforebeenallowedtopursuetheirparallelcoursenearlytogether,
andthestationhasbeenplacedabouttwohundredandfiftyyardswithin
theWall,onaplatformwhichissufficientlydefendedonthesouthby
thedeclivitythatslopesfromittothemodernvillageofGreenhead.
Itisnotimpossible,however,thatMAGNAmayhavebeenoneof
Agricolasforts,thevalley,throughwhichtheriverTipaltflows,
requiringtheadoptionofthismethodofresistingtheaggressionsof
theCaledonians.
Thestationhasenclosedanareaoffouracresandahalf.Having,afew
yearsago,beenbroughtundertillage,itiswithdifficultythateven
itsoutlinecannowbetraced;somefragmentsofthenorthrampart,
however,remain,andthenorthfosseisdistinct.[121]
[Sidenote:MAGNA.]
Inthefrontofthefarmhousewhichwaserectedintheyearlongtobe
rememberedintheseparts1745,isbuiltupaRomanaltar,apparently
withoutaninscription.Inthegarden,andbehindthedwelling,are
severalotherinterestingmemorialsofRomanoccupation.Amongstthem
arebrokencapitalsandfragmentsofcolumns,mouldedcopingstones,
gutterstones,andtroughs,ofvariousshapesandrudeconstruction.
Severalbasesofcolumnsliescatteredabout,theprevailingformof
whichissquare,asshewninPlateXIII.,fig.5;oneofthemis,
however,ofcircularshape,andisornamentedwithacablepattern

moulding,resemblingtheHousesteadspedestal,giveninPlateXI.[122]
Therearealsopreservedhereasmallaltar,inperfectpreservation,
inscribed,D[E]OBE[L]ATVCADRO,someimperfectaltars,severalcenturial
stones,abrokeneffigyofthebirdofJove,apairofbronzeshears
(figuredofthefullsizeonPlateXIV.,fig.1),evidently,fromtheir
proportions,meanttobehandledbyfairfingers,fragmentsofSamian
wareandamphor,afewbeads,andsomeimplementsofiron.Amongstthe
articlesdisinterredfromthestationsontheline,therearegenerally
tobefoundnumeroussmallflatcircularimplements,ofwhichexamples
areengraved(ofthefullsize)onPlateXI.Theyvaryfromhalfaninch
totwoinchesindiameter,andhaveacircularholeinthecentre.For
themostparttheyarecomposedofsherdsofSamianware,occasionally,
ofjet,andofamber;atCarvoranaresomeofrudeshape,madeof
imperfectlyburntclayandshale.Variousconjectureshavebeenhazarded
respectingtheiruse;themostprobableis,thattheywereemployedas
tallies,thesmallbeadsrepresentingunits,thelarge,tens.Intheinn
atGlenwheltarepreservedamagnificentpairofstagshorns,nearly
perfect,whichwerefoundinthewellofthestation;eachantlerisa
yardlong.InthepossessionoftheSocietyofAntiquaries,
NewcastleuponTyne,areseveralvaluableinscribedstonesderivedfrom
thisstation,whichhavebeenpresentedbyColonelCoulsonofBlenkinsop
Hall.
_PLATEXIV._
[Illustration:
Lamp,Fibula,Shears,andCompasses
]
MAGNA,duringthedaysofRomanoccupation,musthavebeenaplaceof
considerableimportance.Notonlydidtheroadwhichleadsdirectlyfrom
CILURNUM,comeuptoit,buttheMaidenway,fromWhitleyCastleandthe
south,ranthroughit,asissupposed,toBewcastleandtheother
stationsnorthoftheWall,asshewnontheMap,PlateI.
RejoiningthelinesoftheBarrier,wefindthemabouttodescendinto
thevalleywateredbytheTipalt,_insaniensflumen_,asCamdencalls
it.ThemoatoftheWallispeculiarlywelldeveloped,thatofthe
Vallum,thoughlessso,isstilldistinct;theyareexactlyparallelto
eachother.Beforethetravellerforsakeshispresentelevation,itwill
bewellforhimtomarkthewestwardcourseoftheobjectsofhisstudy,
lesthelosetheirtrackintheswampygroundfrontingThirlwallCastle.
Avalleyofconsiderableextentstretchesbeforehim;onthenorthbrow
ofit,atthedistanceofaboutthreemiles,GilslandSpaissituated;
theworksoftheBarrierstanduponitssouthernedge.Thetroughofthe
northfossemayeasilybediscernedwhereitisintersectedbythe
railway.
IthasbeensuggestedthatoneoftheobjectscontemplatedbytheRomans
intheconstructionofadoublelineoffortification,wastheenclosure
ofaspaceofgroundwhichmightbecultivatedbythegarrison,and
wheretheircattlemightgrazeinsecurity.Ifthishadbeenthecase,
theWallwouldhavebeendrawnalongthenorthernmarginofthewideand
fruitfulvalleyofGilsland,andtheVallumalongitssouthernedge.
[Sidenote:THIRLWALLCASTLE.]
ThirlwallCastleis,asHutchinsoncallsit,adark,melancholy
fortressofthemiddleage.[123]Itwasformanycenturiespreviousto
itspurchasebytheancestorsoftheearlofCarlisle,theresidenceof
anancientNorthumbrianfamilyofthenameofThirlwall.Amongstthe
witnessesexaminedontheoccasionofthefamoussuitbetweenthe
familiesofScropeandGrosvenor,fortherighttobeartheshield
azure,abendor,whichwasopenedatNewcastleuponTynein1385,

beforekingRichardII.inperson,wasJohnThirlwall,anesquireof
Northumberland.Thewitnessrelatedwhathehadheardonthesubjectof
thedispute,fromhisfather,whodiedattheageof145,andwaswhen
hediedtheoldestesquireinalltheNorth,andhadbeeninarmsinhis
timesixtynineyears.Suchisthelanguageoftherecordofthese
proceedings,preservedintheTowerofLondon.
Thislocalitymayalsobringtothereadersremembrancethelinesin
Marmion
ThewhilesaNorthernharperrude
Chauntedarhymeofdeadlyfeud,
_HowthefierceThirlwalls,andRidleysall,
StoutWillimondswick,
AndHardridingDick,
AndHughieofHawdon,andWillotheWall,
HavesetonSirAlbanyFeatherstonhaugh,
AndtakenhislifeattheDeadmansshaw_.
Itisnotgenerallyknownthatthisancientditty,whichsirWalter
Scottgivesatlengthinanoteasagenuineantique,isamodern
fabrication,theproductionofhiscorrespondentSurtees,thehistorian
ofDurham.Theballad,however,breathestheveryspiritofthefierce
borderers,oritwouldnothavedeceivedsoaccomplishedanantiquaryas
Scott.
Thewallsofthecastleareninefeetthick,andarefaced,bothinside
andoutside,withstonestakenfromtheRomanWall.Itisasingular
thingtoseeabuilding,formedoutofapriorstructure,itselfin
ruins,andbecomingapreytoyetmoremoderndepredators.Thestones
remainmeanwhile,whetherintheprimevalstructure,orinthoseof
medivalandrecentdate,asgoodasever.Brandobserves
ThereisbuiltupneartheinnatGlenwhelt,amostbarbarous,
giganticheadofstone,whichismostcertainlynotRoman.Itcame
fromThirlwallCastle,andhasnodoubtbelongedtosomeofthose
hideousfiguresmadeuseofancientlyinsuchcastlestofrightenthe
distantenemy.
Brandsoriginalstillgracesthevicinityoftheinn,anditseffigy,
thispage.ItsuglinessisnoproofthatitisnotRoman;but,after
all,whosebeautywouldnotbetarnishedbyexposuresuchasithas
endured?
[Illustration:StoneEffigy]
[Sidenote:CENTRALREGIONOFTHEBARRIER.]
ThatportionofthelinewhichliesbetweentheTipaltandtheIrthing
isprobablyweakerthananyotherbetweenWallsendandBowness.Notonly
isthegroundflat,butitisdestituteoftheaidwhichcopiousrivers
giveit,bothatitseasternandwesternextremities.Throughoutthe
wholeofthisdistrict,bothbarrierskeepclosetogether.Exceptinthe
neighbourhoodofRosehill,noportionofthestoneWallremainsinall
thistract.
ThecountrybetweentheTipaltandtheSolwayischaracterizedbya
numberofdiluvialhills,notunfrequentlyresemblingbarrows.Tothe
southofBrampton,theyaresonumerousandsonearlyuniforminsize
andshapeastosuggesttotheplayfulimaginationtheideaoftheir
beinggiganticmolehills.Theoccurrenceoftheseinthelineofthe
BarriermusthavecausedsometroubletotheengineeroftheWall.The
difficulty,however,wasovercome.Thefirsthillofthisdescription
thatwemeetwith,occursimmediatelywestwardofthepointwherethe
NewcastleandCarlislerailroadcrossesthemuralline.TheWall

unhesitatinglyascendsitontheoneside,anddescendsitontheother,
thoughitwouldscarcelyhavedescribedalargerarchaditgoneround
itsbase.
[Sidenote:VALLUMATWALLEND.]
Abouthalfamileonwardisasmallvillage,calledWallend.The
earthworksare,forashortdistance,inanadmirablestateof
preservation;nowhereelseistheVallumseentogreateradvantage.
ApeculiarityintherelativepositionoftheWallandVallumwillhere
forceitselfupontheattention.TheWall,which,forthelargerportion
ofitscourse,standsconsiderablyabovetheVallum,nowtakesalower
level,andfornearlythewholespacebetweenthispointandthe
Irthing,iscompletelycommandedbytheearthenramparts.Thefollowing
diagramwillgiveageneralideaofthecountry,andofthemutual
relationbetweenthetwostructures.HadtheWall(A)andVallum(B)
beenindependentundertakings,thisarrangementwouldnothavebeen
adopted.TheearthworksascribedtoHadrianhavingbeenfound
inefficient,wouldhavebeenrelentlesslycutinuponbytheofficersof
Severus,whowoulddoubtlesshaveplantedtheWallinthosepositions
whichwerenaturallythestrongest,irrespectiveofanypriorwork.As
itis,togivetheVallumtheadvantageofaneminenceinresistinga
southernfoe,theWallrelinquishesaportionoftheacclivitywhichit
mightwithadvantagehavetaken.
[Illustration:SectionofWorksnearWallend]
[Sidenote:CHAPELHOUSE.]
ChapelhouseandFowltown,twocontiguousfarmhouses,arenextmet
withinourcourse.Chapelhouseisprobablythesiteofamilecastle,
ithavingbeenconstructedoutofthematerialsofa[Illustration:Slab
toHadrian,byLeg.XX.V.V.]priorbuilding,whichboastedwallsof
greatthickness.Aninscribedstone,ofwhichthewoodcutisacopy,is
tobeseenlyinginanouthouse,fromthewallsofwhichithas
recentlybeentaken.Thelettersononeendhavebeenwornaway.The
inscriptionmayberead
NERVN[EPOTI]
TRA[IANO]HADRIA[NO]
AVG[VSTO]
LEG.XX.VV.
TothegrandsonofNerva,
TrajanusHadrianus
Augustus,
Thetwentiethlegion,valiantandvictorious.
Thisisanothertestimonywhichrecentresearchhasbroughttolight,of
thepartwhichHadrianandthetwentiethlegionboreinthe
construction,bothoftheWallandtheVallum.
AtthevillageofGap,theVallum,whichisverydistinct,stands
considerablyabovetheWall.Theplaceissaidtotakeitsnamefromthe
Wallhavingbeenbrokenthroughhereatanearlyperiod.
Rosehillisahillnolonger.Thetopofthediluvialmountwasthrown
intothesurroundinghollow,inordertoaffordasitefortherailway
station,thathasassumedthenameofthesummitwhichitdisplaced.
[Sidenote:MUMPSHALL.]
IntheimmediateneighbourhoodofRosehillisMumpshall,formerlythe
residenceoftheMegMerriliesofsirWalterScott:

'Mumpshall,'saysHodgson,'accordingtotradition,wasoncea
publichouse,keptbyanotoriouspersonofthenameofMegTeasdale,
whodruggedtodeathsuchofherguestsashadmoney.InGuyMannering
sheglaresinthehorridcharacterofMegMerrilies.Butcertainlyall
thistraditionisdeeplycolouredwithunpardonableslanderagainst
theancientandrespectablefamilyoftheTeasdalesofMumpshall.'
SirWalterScottwasinearlylifeanoccasionalresidentatGilsland.
Thebroad,flatstoneispointedout,alittleabovetheShawsHotel,
onwhichtraditionassertshewasstandingwhenhedeclaredtothe
subsequentladyScotttheemotionswhichagitatedhisbosom.Hehad
thereforetheopportunityofbecomingacquaintedwiththedistrictand
itstraditions.
Thesmallthatchedcottage,oppositetotheroadleadingfromthe
railwaystation,isusuallypointedoutastheresidenceofMeg,but
itisnottheonewhichwasoccupiedbyher.Shelivedinthelarger
buildingbeyond,roundwhichtheroadbendsatarightangle.The
frontofthehouseismodernized,butthebackofitstillretainsthe
characterofaborderfortress.Myinformationuponthisandother
subjectsrespectingher,hasbeenderivedfromanindividualresiding
inthedistrict,whosemotherknewMegwell,andvisitedheruponher
deathbed.AlthoughtheheroineofMumpshallwascastinamould
somewhatsuitedtothestateofthedistrictatthattime,shewasnot
thefiendlikewomanthatsheisgenerallyrepresented.Onemurder,
however,thetraditionofthecountrylaystohercharge.Apedlar
havingcalleduponMegsbrother,whokeptaschoolatLongByers
(midwaybetweenRosehillandGreenhead),accidentallypresentedto
himaboxfilledwithguineasinsteadofhissnuffbox.Thetraveller
wasrequestedtoconveyanotetoMumpshall,whichhedid,butwas
notseenaliveafterwards.Suspicionarising,thehousewassearched,
andthebodyfoundconcealedamonghayinthebarn;buttheparties
whomadethediscoverydurstnotrevealit,forfearofinjuryto
themselvesandfamilies.Aboutsixweeksafterwardsthebodywasfound
lyinguponthemoors.Myinformantaddedtohisnarrativeprobably
thelawswerenotsoactiveinthosedaysasatpresent,forthese
thingscouldnotescapenow.
WhenMegwasuponherdeathbed,thecuriosityoftheneighbourhood
wasexcited,andmanyofhercroniesvisitedher,inhopesofhearing
herdisburthenherconsciencerespectingthedeathofthepedlar.They
were,however,disappointed;forwheneversheattemptedtospeakupon
thesubject,someoneofthefamily,whoalwaystookcaretobe
present,placedahanduponhermouth.
UpperDentonchurchishardby.Itisevidentlyaveryancient
building,andpossiblyexhibitssomeSaxonwork.Itisoneofthe
smallestchurchesinEngland,andisasdampandmouldyasfelons
dungeonsusedtobe.Megandseveralofthemembersofherfamilylie
inthechurchyard.Fourtombstones,rangedinarow,marktheir
restingplaces.
[Sidenote:POLTROSSBURN.]
TheworksoftheBarrierarecrossedbytherailwayalittletothewest
ofRosehillstation.TheWallhereexhibitsthreeorfourcoursesof
facingstones.Alittlebeyondthispoint,thelines,stillclearly
defined,crossthestreamcalledPoltrossburn,whichdividesthe
countiesofNorthumberlandandCumberland.Thegorgeinwhichthestream
flowsisdeepandwellwooded.Therearenoremainsofabridgeinthe
valley,buttracesofamilecastle,bywhichthedefilehasbeen
guarded,aredistinctuponitswesternbank.Beforereachingthe
Irthing,atafarmhousecalledWillowford,thesiteofanother
castellummaybediscerned.Fromthispointtothewatersedge,the

WallandVallumhaveprobablygoneinclosecompanionship;butthisisa
matterwhichcannotnowbeascertained.Thewesternbankoftheriveris
loftyandprecipitous.Consisting,asitdoes,chieflyofdiluvialsoil
andgravel,onwhichthewaterofthestreambelowiscontinually
acting,itisnotsurprisingthatalltracesoftheWall,ifitever
ascendedtheheight,havelongsincedisappeared.Ontheverybrinkof
theprecipiceabove,theremainsoftheWallandfossereappear.The
faithfulfollowersoftheWall,whohavecloselypursueditstrackfrom
theeasternsea,willnotbewillingtodeserttheircompanion,evenfor
abriefspace,atthispoint.Thecliff,however,willtesttheir
constancy.Huttonhadhistroubles;hesays,somewhatmagniloquently
[Sidenote:PASSAGEOFTHEIRTHING.]
Ihadthisrivertocross,andthismountaintoascend,butIdidnot
knowhowtoperformeither.Ieffectedapassageovertheriverbythe
assistanceofstonesaslargeasmyself,sometimesinandsometimes
out;but,withdifficulty,reachedthesummitoftheprecipicebya
zigzagline,throughthebrambles,withafewscratches.
ThelatesthistorianoftheWallattemptedtoascendthebankinaright
line;hehasgivenustheresultofhisexperience,asawarningto
others.
Noneofthepartycompletelysucceededinascendingtheprecipitous
bankbythecourseoftheWall.Theattemptisverydangerous,and,as
successaccomplishesnothing,shouldneverbetriedbythosewhose
lifeandexistenceareinanywayuseful.
Onthetopofthecliffisamilecastle.Tothenorth,twoconical
summitsappear,whichstronglyresemblebarrows.Wenowapproach
Birdoswald,thetwelfthstationontheline.
[Sidenote:AMBOGLANNA.]
AMBOGLANNA,theBirdoswaldofthepresentday,isaninteresting
station.[Illustration:alt=AltartoJupiter,byCoh.I.Ael.Dac.]
Numerousinscriptionshavebeenfoundwithinitswalls,mentioningthe
firstcohortoftheDacians,surnamedthelian,which,accordingtothe
Notitia,wasquarteredatAMBOGLANNA.Oneofthem,inthepossessionof
RobertBell,esq.,oftheNook,Irthington,isherefigured.
I[OVI]O[PTIMO]M[AXIMO]
ETN[VMINIBVS]AVG[VSTI]
COH[ORS]PRIMAAEL[IA]
DAC[ORVM]CVIPR[EST]
GALLICVS
TR[I]B[VNVS]
ToJupiter,thebestandgreatest,
AndthedeitiesofAugustus,
Thefirstcohort(thelian)
OftheDacians,commandedby
Gallicus,
TheTribune.
ThenameAMBOGLANNAseemstosignify,thecirclingglen.Theformerpart
oftheword,meaning_about_,ismetwithinmostofthewestern
languages;astheWelsh_am_,theIrishandGaelic_umain_,theSaxon
_ymb_or_embe_,theGreek,andtheLatin(incompoundwords)
_amb_._Glanna_isobviouslysynonymouswiththemodern_glen_,aterm
ofveryfrequentuseinthelandoftheGel.
Herethenamehasbeenmostappropriatelybestowed.Thecampstandsupon
theprecipitousedgeofatongueofland,which,oneverysideexcept

thewest,isseveredfromtheadjoininggroundbydeepscars.Hodgson
describesthespotwithgreataccuracy
TheIrthing,infrontofthestation,makestwograndandsweeping
turns,underredscars,whichhaverichflatgroundsbeforethem,
deeplyfringedalongthemarginoftheriverwithaborderofalder,
heckberry(_PrunusPadus_,orbirdcherry,)andotheruplandtrees.
Whenthebanksarenotsteep,theyaredeeplywooded:anddiluvial
hills,roundedintovastandbeautifulvarietiesofform,presentto
theeyerichsylvanandcultivatedscenes,whiletheircomponent
parts,astheriverpassestheirsides,exposetothegeologist
roundedspecimensofthedifferentkindsofrockstobefoundinthe
plainsofCumberland,andthehighmountainsthatlieoneachsideof
theFirthoftheSolway.
[Sidenote:BIRDOSWALD.]
Themodernnamepresentsgreaterdifficultiesthantheancientone.Had
kingOswaldbeenadenizenoftheseparts,whichhewasnot,wemight
havesupposedthatBirdoswaldwasa_burgh_ofhis.Thenameisoneof
oldstanding,buttheetymologyofitcanonlybeasubjectof
conjecture.[124]
Thestationcontainsanareaofbetweenfiveandsixacres.Thewalls
areinanunusuallygoodstateofpreservation;thesouthernrampart
shewingeightcoursesoffacingstones.Camdensstatementisstilltrue
totheletter;ithasbeensurroundedwithastatelywallof
freestone,aboutfivefeetthick,asmaybefairlymeasuredatthis
day.Themoatwhichsurroundedthewallmayalsobesatisfactorily
traced.
AlthoughtheWalladaptsitselftothenorthrampartofthefort,the
stationisentirelyindependentoftheWall(seethewoodcut_p._84),
andmusthavebeenbuiltbeforeit.Probablythefirststeptakeninthe
constructionoftheBarrier,ineverycase,wastheerectionofthe
stationarycamps.
TheVallumcannotnowbetracedintheimmediatevicinityofthe
station;butGordontellsus,thatitcamecloseuptothesouthern
rampart.
[Illustration:WestGateway,Birdoswald,Amboglanna]
Thesoutherngatewaymaybediscerned,thoughitisencumberedwith
rubbish;theeasternandwesternhaverecentlybeendivestedofmuchof
thematterthathasforagesobscuredthem.Thewoodcut,representing
thewesternportal,asseenfromtheinside,exhibitsthepivotholesof
thegates,andtherutswornbythechariotsorwagonsoftheRomans.
Therutsarenearlyfourfeettwoinchesapart,theprecisegaugeofthe
chariotmarksintheeastgatewayatHousesteads.Themoreperfectof
thepivotholesexhibitsasortofspiralgrooving,whichseemstohave
beenformedwithaviewofrenderingthegateselfclosing.Theaperture
inthesillofthedoorway,nearthelowerjamb,hasbeenmade
designedly,asasimilarvacuityoccursintheeasternportal;perhaps
theobjectofithasbeentoallowofthepassageofthesurfacewater
fromthestation.
Thewholeareaofthecampismarkedwiththelinesofstreetsandthe
ruinsofbuildings.Thepresentfarmhouseoccupies,accordingto
Horsley,thesiteofthepretorium.Ontheeastsideofthesouthern
gatewayaretheremainsofakilnfordryingcorn;thestonesare
reddenedbyfire.Neartheeasterngatewayabuilding,furnishedwitha
hypocaust,hasbeenpartiallyexcavated.Fromitsruinsasculptured
figure,draped,andinasittingposture,hasrecentlybeentaken.The
headandotherhighlyrelievedpartswerefoundtohavebeenbrokenoff:

itremainsontheground.
[Illustration:MuralStone,Leg.VI.V.F.]
Alargealtarwithaninscription,whichisinagreatmeasure
illegible,lieswithinthewallsofthecamp.Astonebrokenintwo
pieces,andwhichispreservedonthespot,bearstestimonytothe
presenceofthesixthlegionhere;itmayberead,LEGIOSEXTAVICTRIX
FIDELISTheSixthlegiontheVictoriousandFaithful.
[Sidenote:AMBOGLANNA.]
Theboldnessofthelettering,andthedepthandclearnessofthe
cutting,givereasontosupposethattheinscriptionisofearlydate.
Besidesthese,severalcenturialstones,millstones,andcopingstones,
aswellasportionsoftile,andfragmentsofpottery,arepreservedin
thefarmhouse,andyieldtothevisitorindubitableproofsofRoman
occupation.Indrainingthefieldtothewestofthestation,manysmall
altars,withoutinscriptions,havebeenfound,whichwereremorselessly
broken,andusedwithothermaterialsforfillingthedrains.Strange,
thataltarsbeforewhichRomansoffiercecountenancehavebowed,
shouldbeputtosuchause!
ImperiousCsar,dead,andturnedtoclay,
Mightstopaholetokeepthewindaway:
O,thattheearthwhichkepttheworldinawe,
Shouldpatchawalltoexpelthewintersflaw!
Ontheeastofthestationareextensiveandwelldefinedmarksof
suburbanbuildings.
Theaccompanyinglithographistakenfromthewesternsideofthe
station.Itwellrepresentsthechillyandsomewhatforbiddingaspectof
thisnownearlydesertedplace.
[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Delt.JohnStorey,Lith.
BIRDOSWALD,WESTERNRAMPART.
PrintedbyW.Monkhouse,York.
]
WestwardofBirdoswald,theWallisinanunusuallygoodstateof
preservation.Takingintoaccount,notonlytheheight,butthelength
ofthefragment,andthecompletenessofthefacingstonesonboth
sides,itmaybepronouncedthefinestspecimenofthegreatstructure
thatnowremains.Someportionsofit,however,arebeginningtoexhibit
evidentsignsofdecrepitudeanddecay.
[Illustration:SectionofWorks,Wallbours]
Withinashortmileofthestation,theremainsofacastellumappear.
HeretheVallumexhibitstheunusualfeatureofasecondditch,asis
representedinthesubjoinedsection.[125]Hodgsonsays
Throughabog,aboutamilewestofAMBOGLANNA,theVallumhashadtwo
ditches,probablyintendedfordrainingthemilitaryroadthatran
betweenthem.Theyarestillverydistinct.
Acarefulexaminationofthespotinducesmetothink,thatthe
additionalfortificationwasintendedtogiveincreasedsecuritytoa
defile,which,runningfromthevicinityoftheWalltothebedofthe
Irthingbelow,renderstheworksinthispartmorethanusuallyliable
toattackfromthesouth.

[Sidenote:THEWORKSATWALLBOURS.]
Atthewesternextremityofthisextraditch,theWallandVallumcome
intocloseproximity;thespacebetweenthemwas,withtheexceptionof
roomforthemilitaryway,occupiedbythefoundationsofacastellum.
TheplacebearsthenameofWallbours.
TheBarriernextcrossesasmallhillcalledthePike.TheVallumisa
littlebelowthesummitoftheeminence,onitssouthernside;ifthis
fortificationhadbeenformedirrespectiveoftheWall,itwould
doubtlesshavebeendrawnalongthetopoftheheight.Thesameremark
appliestoHarehill.
TheviewfromthePike,oftheflatandfertilevalebelowistruly
magnificent.
[Sidenote:THEWALLATHAREHILL.]
SoonafterpassingBanksburn,wearriveatHarehill,whereaportion
oftheWallstandsninefeetteninchesinheight.Thisisthehighest
pieceoftheWallthatisanywheretobemetwith;but,owingtothe
smallnessofthefragment,andtoitsbeingentirelydeprivedof
facingstones,itislessimposingthanitwouldotherwisebe.Huttons
enthusiasm,however,neverfailshim;hisremarkatHarehillis
Iviewedthisrelickwithadmiration:Isawnoparthigher.
Atthispointofourprogress,theantiquarymaybedisposedtoturn
asideforalittle,toviewtworelicsofthemedivalperiodofgreat
interestLanercostPrioryandNaworthCastle.Theprioryisabeautiful
specimenoftheearlyEnglishstyle,andbearsarchitecturalevidenceof
havingbeenbuiltsomewherebetweentheyears1155and1160.Besidesthe
church,partiallyinruinsandpartiallyinrepair,therefectoryand
someportionsofthemonasticbuildingsremain.Thewholestructurehas
beenformedofstonestakenfromtheRomanWall.Inadditiontosome
altarspreservedinthecryptofthechurch,severalcenturialand
carvedstonesaretobeseeninthewallsoftheadjacentbuildings.
[Sidenote:NAWORTHCASTLE.]
NaworthCastle,thoughstillaninterestingbuilding,isdestituteof
someoftheattractionswhichitoncepossessed.TheRomanaltarsand
otherprimevalmonumentscollectedbylordWilliamHoward,havelong
beendispersed,andafirein1844,almostentirelydestroyedthe
baronialresidenceofthatrenownedborderchief,which,untilthat
event,remainednearlyinthestateinwhichitwasinhisownday.The
dungeons,however,inwhichthedaringmosstrooperswereimmured,
remain,andtwomagnificentoaktreesnearthegrandentrancestill
extendthosebrawnyarmsonwhich,accordingtotradition,lordWilliam
suspendedthevictimsofhislawlesspower.Theloadoftwentygasping
wretcheswouldnotmateriallyweighdownthelargerboughsofthesefine
trees.ThatthegovernmentoflordWilliamtheBeltedWillofBorder
taleswasofavigorouscharacter,therecannotbeadoubt;butthathe
usedhispowercapriciously,cruelly,ortyrannically,thereisno
evidence.LordWilliamseemstohavesentthemostdesperateofhis
prisonerstoNewcastleuponTyneorCarlisle.Theywouldprobablyhave
asgoodachanceforlifeatBeltedWillstribunalasattheassizesof
eitherofthesetowns,ifwemayjudgeofthestateoffeelingtowards
themfromNorthsLifeofLordkeeperGuildford.Hislordship,thensir
FrancisNorth,cametoNewcastle,onthenortherncircuit,in1676.His
biographersays
Thecountryisyetverysharpuponthieves;andaviolentsuspicion,
there,isnexttoconviction.Whenhislordshipheldtheassizesat
Newcastle,therewasoneMungoNoble,supposedtobeagreatthief,

broughttotrialbeforehislordship,uponfourseveralindictments;
andhislordshipwassomuchasouthcountryjudgeasnottothinkany
ofthemwellproved.Onewasforstealingahorseofapersonunknown,
andtheevidenceamountedtonomorethanthatahorsewasseen
feedingupontheheathnearhisshiel,andnonecouldtellwhowasthe
ownerofit.Inshortthemanescaped,muchtotheregretofdivers
gentlemen,who_thoughthedeserved_tobehanged,andthatwas
enough.Whilethejudgeatthetrialdiscoursedoftheevidenceand
itsdefects,aScotchgentlemanuponthebench,whowasaborder
commissioner,madealongnecktowardsthejudgeandsaid'Mylaird,
sendhimtohuzz,andyesne'erseehimmair.'
OnrejoiningtheBarrier,wefind,thatthoughthelineoftheWall,in
itscoursetotheEden,mayyetbedistinctlydiscerned,inveryfew
instancesanyportionofthemasonryremains.
[Sidenote:MONEYHOLES.]
ThesiteofamilecastlenearlyoppositeLanercostPriory,istermed
Moneyholes,inconsequenceoftheeffortsmadetodiscoversome
treasuresupposedtobeconcealedinit.AtCraghillthenorthditchis
verybold.AtHaytongate,adroveroad,probablyanancientpass,
crossesthelineoftheWallfromnorthtosouth.AtRandilandsthe
northfosseisstillwelldeveloped.Aftercrossingtherivulet,called
Burtholmebeck,apieceoftheWallisseen,whichstandsaboutseven
feethigh;itsfacingstonesaregone,buttheroughpebblymortar
possessesitsoriginaltenacity.Asisoftenthecase,theruinis
tuftedwithhazelbushesandstuntedspecimensofthealderandoak.The
VallumisaboutseventyyardstothesouthoftheWall.
ApproachingLowwall,[126]somethinglikeanoutworkappearsonthe
northsideoftheBarrier.Hastherebeenadoublelineofwallhere?
Aftercrossingaroad,denominatedFriarwaingate,whichleadsfrom
BewcastletoLanercost,wereachanotherhousecalledWall;Romanmasons
mightclaimmanyofthestonesastheirs.AtHowgillisacottage,
whereprobablyamilecastlestoodtodefendthebeck,Inthemodern
structuremaybeobservedstonesbroachedintheRomanfashion,and
othersvariouslytooledbyRomanhands.
ThefarmhouseofDovecoteisontheeasternbankoftheKingwater.
ThefosseandthefoundationoftheMurusareseencrossingthehillon
thenorthernsideofthesummit:theVallum,whichisindistinctly
marked,probablytookacorrespondingpositiononthesouthernside.
[Sidenote:WALTON.]
ThevillageofWalton,byitsveryname,bearstestimonytoits
relationshipwiththegreatBarrierline.ManyofthestonesoftheWall
maybedetectedinitscottages.Oneofitsdwellingsfurnishesagood
specimenofthemodeofcottagebuildingformerlyprevalentinthe
North.Theraftersofthehouse,whichconsistoflargeand
rudelyshapedpiecesoftimber,insteadofrestinguponthewalls,come
downtotheground;theyaretiedtogethernearthetopbyatransverse
beam,andthemudwalls,aswellasthethatchedroof,partiallydepend
uponthemforsupport.Horsleysays,'atWaltownthereseemstohave
beensomefortificationorencampment.Onesideofthesquareisyet
veryvisible,andtherampartsprettylarge,abouteightyyardslong.It
ishighgroundanddry.Perhapsithasbeenasummerencampmentor
exploratorypostforthegarrisonatCambeck.'
AtSandysikefarmhousethefoundationoftheWallaswellasabundant
tracesofmuralvicinagearetobeseen.ThebarnconsistsofRoman
stonesmarkedwiththediamondbroaching.Severalsculpturedstonesare
builtupinthegardenwall;amongstthemisonewhichdisplaysthe
thunderboltofJove;thewallfruitpeacefullyrestsuponit.Another,

exhibitingthewheelofNemesis,theemblemofswiftjustice,andwhich
nodoubtonceformedpartofanaltartoJupiter,isbuiltintoa
pigsty.Amillstoneofpeculiarshape,andcloselyresemblingoneat
NaworthCastle,ispreservedonthegrounds;itisprobablyRoman.
[Sidenote:PETRIANA.]
PETRIANA,theCambeckfortofHorsley,andtheCastlesteadsofthe
locality,istothesouthoftheVallumandWall.Adeepscarseparates
itfromthelinesoftheBarrier.Thesiteofthestationmaybe
recognised,butitislongsinceitsrampartswereoverthrown,andthe
ruinedbuildingsoftheinteriorentirelyobliterated.
Itsrichsoilandsunnyexposurerecommendedittothefatherofthe
presentproprietorofWaltonhouseasafittingsiteforagarden,and
suchitisatthepresentday.Ithasyieldedmanyaltarsand[Sidenote:
CAMBECKFORT.]sculpturedstones,someofwhicharestillpreservedupon
thespot,andfromtimetotimethespadestillrevealstothe
numismatist,treasures,overthelossofwhich,Romansinancientdays
mayhavemourned,thoughnotinadegreeproportionedtotheirpresent
value.Woodcutsofthreeofthecoinswhichhavebeenfoundat
Castlesteadsarehereintroduced,astheycommemoratethefamilyofa
manwhosenameisintimatelyconnectedwiththeWall.Theyareinthe
cabinetofRobertBell,esq.,ofIrthington.
[Illustration:CoinofSeverus,Julia]
JULIA,thesecondwifeofSeverus,andthemotherofCaracallaand
Geta.Severus,whowasabelieverinastrology,onthedeathofhis
firstwife,lookedoutforanotherwhosenativitywasfavourableto
theambitiousviewswhichheatthattimeentertained.Heheardofa
womaninSyriawhosedestinyitwastomarryaking,andaccordingly
solicitedandobtainedinmarriageJuliaDomna.
[Illustration:CoinofCaracalla]
BASSIANUS,commonlycalledCaracalla.HewascreatedCsarbyhis
father,A.D.196,whenhetookthenamesofMarcusAureliusAntoninus.
InA.D.198,hewasinvestedwiththedignityofAugustus.Amongsthis
othertitles,heborethenameofBritannicus,asisshewnonthe
coin.Theengraverofthediefromwhichthiscoinwasstruck,has
probablygivenacorrectlikenessofhissubject;atleast,hehas
representedanindividualwhoappearscapableofattemptinganaged
fatherslife,andofimbruinghishandsinthebloodofabrother.
Vengeanceatlengthovertookhim.
[Illustration:CoinofGeta]
GETA,who,togetherwithhisbrotherCaracalla,accompaniedhisfather
toBritain.HewasmurderedbyCaracallaA.D.212.
Thefinestofthealtars,standinginthegardenofWaltonhouse,is
hereengraved.ThethunderboltofJupiteradornsonesideofit,the
wheelofNemesistheother.TheinscriptionhasbeenreadbyMr.Thomas
Hodgson,ofNewcastleuponTyne,inthefollowingway,afteracareful
andlearnedexaminationofit,andkindredinscriptions.
[Illustration:AltartoJupiter,Coh.II.Tungr.]
I[OVI]O[PTIMO]M[AXIMO]
COH[ORS]SECVNDATVNGR[ORVM]
M[ILLIARIA]EQ[ITATA]C[IVIVM]L[ATINORVM]CVI
PRAEESTALB[VS]
SEVERVSPR

AEF[ECTVS]TVNG[RORVM]IN
STA[NTE]VIC[TORE]SEVRO
PRINCIPI
ToJupiter,thebestandgreatest,
ThesecondcohortoftheTungrians,
Amilliary_regiment_,havingaproportionatesupplyofhorse,_and
consistingof_citizensofLatium,
CommandedbyAlbus
Severus,pre
fectoftheTungrians,_erectsthis_;
TheworkbeingsuperintendedbyVictorSevrus(orSeverus),the
princeps.[127]
[Sidenote:PETRIANA.]
TheNotitiaplacestheAlaPetriana,underaprefect,atPETRIANA.
Althoughtwoinscriptionsbelongingtothisplacementionthesecond
cohortoftheTungri,nonehavebeenfoundherewhichnametheAla
Petriana.Itispossiblethatthiscohortmayhavebeenapartofthe
AlaPetriana,butuntilthispointbesettled,orsomefurtherlight
thrownuponthesubject,theoccurrenceofCambeckfort[Sidenote:
CAMBECKFORT.]nextinordertoAMBOGLANNA,mustberegardedasthebest
evidenceofitsbeingthePETRIANAoftheNotitia.
[Illustration:ViewofPigeonCrag]
[Sidenote:WRITTENROCKOFGELT.]
BeforecrossingtheCambeckwateritmaybewelltoremindthereader,
thattheriverGelt,onwhoserockybankstheRomanquarrymenhaveleft
letteredmemorialsoftheirtoil,isaboutfourmilestothesouthof
thisplace.Withtheviewofclearlydisplayingtheinscription,which
hasfrequentlybeeninaccuratelyengraved,thelithographoppositeto
page81,hasbeendrawntoascalewhichprecludesthepossibilityof
shewingtheheightofthecliff.Theadjoiningwoodcutpartlysupplies
thisdeficiency;itexhibitsanotherinscription,notofavery
intelligible.[Sidenote:PIGEONCRAG.]character,onthePigeoncrag,
whichisalittlehigherupthewater,andshewsthegeneralcharacter
ofthesceneryonthisbeautifulstream.
ThedistanceofthesequarriesontheGelt,fromthelineofthe
Barrier,rendersitveryquestionablewhetherlargesupplieswere
derivedfromthemfortheWall.Hodgsonremarks
ThequarryatHelbeckscar(theWrittenrock)mightserveforthe
largeststonesforpartoftheMurus,andthestationsat
Bramptonoldchurch,andWaltoncastlesteads;forthegeneralpurpose
oftheMurus,stone,however,couldbegotinplacesmuchnearerthan
Helbeckscar.
AtthequarriesofHighandLowBreaks,aboutamileandahalfnorthof
theWall,therearemarksofextensiveancientworkings;thequarries
arestillinuseandyieldstoneofgoodquality.
TheWrittenrockwillnotbeeasilyfoundbyastranger,butdirections
andassistancemaygenerallybeobtainedfromtheworkmenemployedupon
amodernquarry,whichisnotfarfromthespot.
[Sidenote:HEADSWOOD.]
WenowrejointheBarrier.ThepassageoftheCambeckwaterseemsto
havebeenguardedwithsomecare.Ontheeasternmarginofthestream,

tothenorthoftheWall,isanearthworkraisedalittleabovethe
generallevelofthesurface,whichhereissomewhatdepressed.Stones,
whichdonotappearinthecontiguousparts,liescatteredaboutthe
place.Thesecircumstancesseemtofavourtheideaoftherehavingbeen
someadditionalfortificationinthispart.Thewesternbankofthe
streamconsistsofaboldbreastworkofredsandstone,risingabout
fiftyfeetabovethelevelofthewater.ThefosseoftheWallhasbeen
deeplycutintothisrock;itstillremainsinastateofgreat
perfection.TheolddroveroadbetweenNewcastleandCarlisle,which,
forsomedistancewestofthis,runsuponthesiteoftheWall,orclose
byit,hereavailsitselfofthefosseasameansofclimbingthebank.
TheditchoftheVallumisalsodiscernible.ThefarmhouseofBeckis
partiallyconstructedofRomanstones,andontheeastsideofthe
rivuletofBeckafewstonesoftheWallareintheiroriginal
situation.Headswood,asitsnameimplies,occupiesacommanding
position.TheditchoftheVallumisatthisplacepeculiarlybold,and
isaboutthirtyfiveyardsdistantfromtheWall.ThefosseoftheWall
[Illustration:MuralStone,Leg.II.Aug.]bendsroundanobjectwhich
hastheappearanceofbeinganadditionalfortificationoutsidethe
Wall.AtthewestendofNewtownofIrthingtonaretheremainsofa
largemilecastle;thestonesstilllieinconfusionuponthesite.The
stonerepresentedinthemarginwasfoundatthisplace.Wenextcometo
Whiteflat,wheretherubbleofthefoundationoftheWallisvery
discernibleandtheditchverydeep.Hurtleton(thetownofstrife)is
nextreached;bothlinesoffossearedistinctandinclosecontiguity.
Inthecornerofafield,calledChapelfield,thereareevidentsigns
ofamilecastle;theplough,however,hasbeendrawnoverthesite.The
twoworks,whichbetweenWhiteflatandthispointhaveapproachedeach
otherveryclosely,nowquicklydiverge,theWallbendingtothenorth.
[Sidenote:IRTHINGTON.]
ThevillageofIrthingtonisalittletothesouthoftheBarrier.Here
formerlystoodoneofthestrongholdsofthepowerfulNormanfamilyof
DeVallibus;thebuildingisnowentirelyremoved,itssitebeing
occupiedbytheNook,theresidenceofRobertBell,esq.Thefoundations
ofsomeofitswallshaverecentlybeenexposed.Thekeepprobably
occupiedaloftyearthenmoundwhichisnowcrownedwiththrivingtrees.
Theparishchurchhasrecentlybeenrenewedwithmuchskillandtaste.
TheoldfabricwasentirelybuiltofRomanwallstones.Inthecourseof
itsrestoration,astrikingproofofthedisturbedstateoftheborder
districtinthemiddleageswasdisclosed;anumberofskeletons,
confusedlythrowntogether,beingfoundburiedwithinitsarea.The
church,originallyaTransitionNormanbuilding,hadevidentlyatsome
periodafteritserection,beencontractedinitsdimensionsbythe
rejectionofthesideaisles.Theouterwallsconsistedoftheoriginal
columnsoftheaisles,filledupveryroughlywithcommonrubble.The
columnsboredecidedmarksoffire.Theneighbouringparishchurchof
Kirklinton,whichhasalsobeenrecentlyrebuilt,exhibitedsimilar
appearances.Ontakingdowntheoldtower,whichwasafortified
stronghold,thebonyremnantsofupwardsofsixtybodieswerefoundina
spaceofnotmorethanfiveyardssquare;otherswerefoundinconfused
massesinotherparts.[Sidenote:BORDERSTRIFE.]Theprobable
explanationofthesecircumstancesisthis:Afterthebattleof
Bannockburn,theScottishforces,flushedwithsuccess,enteredEngland,
andtheinhabitants,unabletowithstandthem,fledtothechurchesfor
protection.Butneitherthestrengthofthebuildingsnortheirsupposed
sanctitycouldyieldthemeffectualsuccour;themiserablepeoplewere
slain,andtheirbodiesleftamongthesmoulderingruins.Thoseoftheir
countrymenwhoescaped,buriedtheminahastymanneruponthespot.
Whenthedesolateddistricthadrecoveredenergyenoughtorepairthe
churches,itsutmosteffortswerebarelysufficienttoenclosethose
partswhichhad,bytheirsolidity,withstoodthefire;andthereduced
populationrequirednothingmore.

ThecoinsofEdw.I.andII.arecomparativelyabundantinthisdistrict,
thearmiesofthatmonarchandhisimmediatesuccessors,frequently
takingthewesternroute,intheirmarchestoandfromScotland.
RejoiningtheWall,wemeet,whenwithinaquarterofamileof
Oldwall,withthesiteofamilecastle.Theruinsofthebuilding
slightlyraiseitabovethegenerallevel,andpreventtheploughbiting
intoit.Theroadformerlydeviatedfromitstracktogoroundit.An
altar,anurn,andseveralcoinsofEdwardI.,havebeenfoundinit.In
thebuildingsatOldwall,manyRomanstoneswillbenoticed,andthe
earthworksofbothlinesoftheBarriermaybetraced.TheWallis
entirelyuprooted;upwardsofsixhundredcartloadsofstones,within
therecollectionoftheinhabitants,havebeentakenfromitinthis
immediatevicinity.
BetweenthispointandStanwix,theworksmaybetracedwithtolerable
satisfaction,anancientdroveroadrunninguponthesiteoftheWall
forthegreaterpartoftheway.
[Sidenote:BLEATARN.]
AtBleatarn(bluetarnorlake),onthesouthsideoftheWall,isa
moundofearthresemblinganelongatedbarrow;betweenthisearthwork
andtheWall,isamarshyhollow,whichissaidtohaveformerlybeen
thebedofalakeortarn.TheVallumtakesasweeptoavoidthis
morass,andatitsgreatestdistanceisremovedfromtheWallabouttwo
hundredandtwentyyards.
AbouthalfamilesouthfromBleatarn,isthesiteofaRomancamp,
whichHorsleyconceivedtobeoneofthestations_perlineamValli_;it
isnowcalledWatchcross.Ifitbeastationofthisclass,andifthe
orderinwhichthestationsarearrangedintheNotitiaexactly
correspondswiththeirconsecutivepositionsinreality,thenameofit
wasABALLABA,whichwasgarrisonedbya_numerus_ortroopofMoors,
underaprefect.Thereis,however,reasontodoubtwhetherthiswasa
stationarycampatall,aswillpresentlyappear.
Asalreadyremarked,noinscribedstoneshavebeenfoundtoidentifyany
ofthestationswestofAMBOGLANNAwiththelistgivenintheNotitia.
EventhoughthisdifficultyrespectingWatchcrosshadnotoccurred,to
goonappropriatingthenamesoftheNotitia,stationafterstation,
guidedsolelybytheslenderthreadoftheorderoftheirsuccession,
wouldbeahazardousundertaking,andisrenderedstillmoresobythe
uncertaintyexistingastothosewhichare,andwhicharenot,
_stationesperlineamValli_.Inourjourneyfromthispointwestward,
thestationswill,therefore,bedesignatedbytheirmodernnames;when
theLatinnamesareadded,itistobeunderstoodthattheyare
conjectural.
[Sidenote:WATCHCROSS.]
_WATCHCROSS._Horsleygivesthefollowingaccountofthisstation:
Alittledetachedfromthewall,tothesouth,isaRomanfort,of
aboutfourchainsandanhalfsquare,calledWatchcross;andasIwas
assuredbythecountrypeople,andhavehaditsincefurther
confirmed,amilitarywayhasgonenearit,orbetweenitandthe
militarywaybelongingtotheWall;fortheyoftenploughuppaving
stoneshere,andthinkpartofthehighwaytoBramptontobeuponit.
ThisistheleaststationonthelineoftheWall,andisasusual,
plunderedofitsstones,asthatatBurghandDrumburgh.However,the
rampartsandditchesareveryfairandvisible.

Thecommononwhichitstoodhavingbeenenclosedaboutseventyyears
ago,andbroughtintocultivation,alltracesofthecamphavebeen
obliterated.Onacarefulexaminationofitssite,Ifailedtodiscover
anyfragmentsofRomanpottery,orothermarksofRomanoccupation.In
thosepartsofCumberlandwherethesoilisnotnaturallystony,the
siteofamilecastleorstation,whichhasbeenbroughtinto
cultivation,mayoftenbedistinguishedbytheoccurrenceinthat
particularspotofnumerousfragmentsoffreestone.Nosuchappearance
herepresentsitself.Thepersonwhofarmsthegroundsaysitisof
betterqualitythanthesurroundingland;still,itdoesnotseemto
possessthepeculiarfertilityofaspotthathasatanyperiodfora
lengthoftimebeentheresortofacrowdedpopulation.Hutchinson
describesthewholegroundplotasbeingcovered,inhisday,witha
lowgrowthofheath;thesitesofalltheothercitiesoftheWallare
toorepletewithanimalremainstoyield,evenunaidedbycultivation,
socoarseaproduct.Iamthereforestronglydisposedtothink,with
Hodgson,thatitwasameresummerencampment.Thespothasbeenwell
chosen;for,thoughnotgreatlyelevated,ithasanextensiveprospect.
Horsleyhimselfhadsomedoubtsoftheproprietyofadmittingitinto
therankofastationarycamp,byreasonofitsbeingsosmall,and
havingnoremainsofstonewalls.Thedistance,however,between
CambeckfortandStanwix,whichisrathergreaterthanthatbetweenany
othertwostations,inducedhimtogiveitthisposition.
FromBleatarntheantiquarywill,withsomecare,beabletotracethe
BarrierbyWallhead,Walby,andWallfoot,toTarraby.Fromthis
villagetoStanwix,aruralroadrunsuponthefoundationsoftheWall;
theditchonitsnorthside,whichwithinlivingmemorywasveryboldly
marked,althoughpartiallyfilledupisyetdistinctlytraceable.
[Sidenote:STANWIX.]
_STANWIX._ThechurchandchurchyardofStanwixoccupythesiteofthe
stationwhichguardedthenorthernbankoftheEden.Recentexplorations
havedisplayeddistinctremainsofancientedifices.Inpullingdownthe
oldchurch,tomakewayforthepresentstructure,averyfinefigureof
Victory,somewhatmutilated,wasdisclosed,whichisnowinthemuseum
atNewcastleuponTyne.Thenameoftheplaceindicates,thatwhilstthe
dwellingsinthevicinityweremadeofclay,asmanyofthemareyet,by
reasonoftheplunderoftheRomanstation,itcouldboastofbeinga
_townofstones_.Thesituationisoneofgreatbeauty.Totheeast,at
aconsiderabledistance,theNinenicksofThirlwallreartheirrugged
peaks;andtothesouthandsouthwest,appearthebeautifulgroundsof
Rickerbyhouse,theriverEdenpermeatingarichandwellcultivated
country,theancientcityofCarlislecrownedwithitsvenerable
cathedral,andthelongvistaofcountryterminatingintheCumbrian
mountains.
BetweenthestationandthenorthbankoftheriverEden,thefosseof
theWallisdistinctlymarked,andahollowedline,formedbythe
excavationofthefoundationoftheWallitself,shewsitstracktothe
watersedge,neartotheHyssopholmewell.WearetoldbyCamden
ThattheWallpassedtheriveroveragainstthecastlewhereinthe
verychannel,theremainsofit,namely,thegreatstones,appearto
thisday.
ThattheWall,ontheothersideoftheriver,clamberedupthatpartof
thecastlebankwhichprojectsmostboldlyforward,isrenderedprobable
bytheappearanceofmasonry,resemblingitsfoundations,beneaththe
grassysurface.Atthispoint,however,welosealltraceofthegreat
structureuntilwegetbeyondtheboundariesofthefamousBordercity
oftheWest.

[Sidenote:CARLISLE.]
AllantiquariesagreethatCarlisleistheLUGUVALLIUMoftheRomans.It
isnotimprobablethatitwasoneofAgricolasforts.Itisnotnamed
inthelistofthestations_perlineamValli_givenintheNotitia.The
Notitiamentionsonlythefortshavingseparategarrisons,anditis
probablethataftertheerectionofthecampatStanwix,LUGUVALLIUM
becamesubordinatetothatcamp,andhadnodistinctgarrison,which
willaccountforitsomission.
WhitakersaysLUGUVALLIUMsignifies,intheancientCeltic,thefort
upontheWaters.
ExtensiveremainsoftheancientcityliebeneaththemodernCarlisle;
seldomisthegroundpenetratedtoanyconsiderabledepthwithout
disclosingancientmasonry,Samianware,andRomancoins.
Carlislecontainstwointerestingstructuresofthemedivalperiodthe
castleandthecathedral.Thekeepofthecastleisagoodspecimenof
theNormandonjon,thoughsomepartsofithavebeenmodernized.Onthe
wallsanddoorofoneofitschambers,usedasaprisonintheFifteen
andtheFortyfive,aretobeseenthecoatsofarms,thedevices,and
marksofthesorrowfulsighings,oftheunhappyrebels,whobeguiled
theirwretchedhoursincarvingthem.Thecathedralexhibitssome
interestingspecimensoftheNormanaswellaslaterstyles.Itseast
window,whichisofthedecoratedperiod,isthefinestinthekingdom,
withtheexception,perhaps,ofthewestwindowatYork.
Aboutaquarterofamilebeyondthecanalbasin,andnearlymidway
betweenthecanalandtheriver,thetrackoftheWallmayagainbe
discerned.Owingtothedifficultyofentirelyuprootingit,its
foundationshavebeensufferedtoremain;theyformacartroadwhichis
usedforfarmpurposes.Alittlefartheron,theploughhaswontheday,
andauniformgreenswardorluxuriantharvestbafflesourresearch.
[Illustration:Altarobrestransvallumprosperegestas]
[Sidenote:KIRKANDREWS.]
AturfcoveredmoundontheeastsideofthechurchofKirkandrews,is
occasionedbyaportionoftheruinsoftheWall.Inthevillageis
preservedthealtarofwhichthewoodcutgivesarepresentation.Itwas
foundatKirksteads,aboutamilesouthoftheWall,andbearsmarksof
havingbeencutdowntosuitthepurposeofsomecomparativelymodern
builder.Thefocusofthealtarisunusuallylarge;theboldnessofthe
letteringindicatesanearlydate.Itmayberead
L[VCIVS]IVNIVSVIC
TORINVSET(?)
C[AIVS]AELIANVSLEG[ATI]
AUG[VSTALES]LEG[IONIS]VIVIC[TRICIS]
P[I]F[IDELIS]OBRESTRANS
VALLVMPRO
SPEREGESTAS.
LuciusJuniusVic
torinus,and
Caiuslianus,Augustallegates
Ofthesixthlegion,victorious,
Pious,andfaithful,onaccountofachievementsbeyond
TheWallpros
perouslyperformed.
Thisisavividmemorialofdeedsofcommonoccurrenceduringtheperiod

ofRomanoccupation.Theoriginalpossessorsoftheisthmus,drivenfrom
theirhomes,andforcedtoseekanasyluminthehillstothenorthof
theWall,wouldbeaccountedthelawfulpreyoftheaggressor.
Thegatesofmercyshallbeallshutup;
Andthefleshedsoldier,roughandhardofheart,
Inlibertyofbloodyhand,shallrange
Withconsciencewideashell;mowinglikegrass
Yourfreshfairvirginsandyourfloweringinfants.
WhilsttheRomanwarriorgloatedoverhissuccess,andfeasted,and
thankedhisgods,andrecordedhisexploitsonthevotivestone,the
routedremnantsoftheCaledonianbandswouldmournovertheir
slaughteredcomradesanddesolatedhomesteads.
ThegreatscarcityofstoneinthewesternpartofCumberlandhas
renderedtheWallavaluablequarrytotheinhabitantsfromtime
immemorial.Inourfutureprogressweshallseelittleofit,exceptin
thebuildingscontiguoustoitssite.Theheartoftheantiquarywill,
however,occasionallybegladdenedbytherecognitionofthelinesof
theearthworkstheirslightlyelevatedmoundsappearingtohiseager
gazescarcelylessbeautifulthanthemouldedformsproducedbythe
geniusofthesculptor,indistrictsmorerichthanthis,intheremains
ofantiquity.
TheVallumappearstohavegonenearlyduewest,alongthevalley,from
KirkandrewstoBurgh;theWallproceeds,afteritsusualmanner,from
eminencetoeminence.
[Sidenote:BURGHUPONSANDS.]
_BURGHUPONSANDS_isthenextstation.InHorsleysdaytheremainsof
itsrampartsweretobeseenataplacecalledtheOldcastle,alittle
totheeastofthechurch.Hesays
Onthewestsidetheseremainsaremostdistinct,beingaboutsix
chainsinlength.AndSeverussWallseemstohaveformedthenorth
rampartofthestation.Iwasassuredbythepersontowhomthefield
belonged,thatstoneswereoftenploughedupinit,andlimewiththe
stones.Urnshavealsofrequentlybeenfoundhere.Isaw,besidesan
imperfectinscription,twoRomanaltarslyingatadoorinthetown,
butneithersculpturesnorinscriptionsarenowvisibleuponthem.
......Ifbesidesallthis,weconsiderthedistancefromthelast
stationatStanwix,Ithinkitcanadmitofnodoubtbuttheremust
havebeenastationhere,thoughmostofitsrampartsarenow
levelled,thefieldhavingbeenintillagemanyyears.Ishallonly
furtheradd,thatitwasverypropertohaveastationateachendof
themarsh,which,ifthewaterflowedashighassomebelieve,would
makeakindofbay.
Atpresent,littlemeetstheeyeoftheinquirer,toinformhimofthe
spotwherethestationstood,butwhenthesurfaceofthegroundis
broken,thetracesofaRomancityarestillsufficientlydistinct.The
churchyardisfilledwithfragmentsofredsandstoneblocks.Atthe
depthoftwofeet,itcontainsseveraldistinctlinesoffoundations.
Entirelachrymatoryvesselsandfragmentsofunglazedjarsandurns
haverepeatedlybeendugup.Asmallbronzefigurewasrecentlyfound.
Whenthecanalwascut,blocksofstone,blackenedbysmoke,weredug
outofthesoiltothesoutheastofthechurch.
AfewinscribedstoneshavebeenfoundsinceHorsleysday,butnoneof
themnamethecohortwhichwasstationedinthecamp.Hencewehaveno
meansofknowingwhetherWatchcrosshasbeenrightlythrownoutofthe
listofstationsalongtheline,andwhetherBurghis,asHorsley
statesittobe,theAXELODUNUMoftheNotitia,orCONGAVATA,according

totheopinionofHodgson.
IntheabsenceofmoredecidedremainsofthecamporWall,an
examinationofthechurchofthislongstragglingtownwillrewardthe
attentionoftheantiquary.Itisagoodspecimenofthefortified
Borderchurches.Ithasservedthethreefoldpurposeofachurch,a
fortress,andaprison.
IncaseofaninroadfromtheScottishcoast,thecattleappearto
havebeenshutupinthebodyofthechurch,andtheinhabitantsto
havehadrecoursetothelargeembattledtoweratitswesternend.The
onlyentrancetothistowerisfromtheinsideofthechurch,andit
issecuredbyaponderousirondoor,fasteningwithtwolargebolts.
Thewallsofthetoweraresevenfeetthick.Itslowestapartmentisa
vaultedchamber,lightedbythreearrowslits.Atthesouthangleisa
spiralstonestaircase,leadingtotwoupperchambers.
Manyofthestonesofwhichthechurchisbuilt,areRoman,andexhibit
reticulatedtooling.
[Sidenote:KINGEDWARDSMONUMENT.]
NeartoBurghisthesiteonwhichthecastleofsirHughdeMorville,
oneofthemurderersofThomasBecket,formerlystood.Theadjoining
fieldiscalledHangmantree,doubtlessbecausemylordhadhis
gallowshere,alwaysreadyforuse.Aneighbouringenclosurebearsa
designationnotlessominousSpillbloodholm.Butthemost
interestinghistoricalmemorialwhichtheneighbourhoodofBurgh
affords,isthemonumenttokingEdwardI.,whichstandsonthemarsh.
Longshankshadmarshalledhisarmy:hisnumeroushostlayencamped
uponthesandyflatonthenorthofthetown:thewatersoftheSolway
aloneseparatedhimfromtheobjectsofhisvengeance.Herethemighty
Edwardwascalledtoenterintoconflictwithanenemywhomhehad
oftenbravedonthebattlefield,butwhowasnowtoapproachhimbya
newmethodofassault.Inthisstruggle,hisvalouravailedhim
nothing,hischivalroushostscouldyieldhimnoaid,andnodevoted
Eleanorwastheretoabstractfromhisveinsthesubtlepoisonwhich
thekingofterrorshadinfused.OnBurghmarshtheruthlessking
breathedhislast.Amonument,representedinthevignetteatthe
closeofthispart,marksthespot.
[Sidenote:TOWEROFREPENTANCE.]
Anotherstructure,ontheoppositesideoftheFirth,maybenoticedby
thetraveller.ThehistoryoftheTowerofRepentanceisstrikingly
illustrativeofthedisorderedstateofsocietyinthisdistrictbefore
theunionofthetwokingdoms.
Achieftainfromthenorthernsidehavingmadeasuccessfulinroad
intotheEnglishborder,wascrossingtheSolwayonhisreturn,laden
withbooty,whenasuddenstormarose.Inordertolightenhis
labouringvessel,hethrewhisprisonersoverboardinpreferenceto
thecattlewhichhehadstolen.Thedangerpast,hewassmittenwith
remorse.Inordertomakesuchamendsashecould,hebuilta
beacontowerwhichoverlookstheSolway,andtothisdayiscalledthe
TowerofRepentance.Traditionaversthatthepenitenthimselfcarried
allthestonesusedinitserectiontothetopofthehill.Itisnot
farfromthetownofEcclefechan.
InpassingalongthevillageofBurgh,theobservingvisitorwillnotice
thelargenumberofboulderstones,someofthemhalfatoninweight,
whicharestrewedovertheground;severalofthemhavebeenusedin
formingthefoundationsofthecottages.Theyareofgranite,andin

somedistantagehavebeenwrenchedfromthesummitofCriffel,thehill
whichlendssomuchbeautytothelandscapeonthenorthernsideofthe
Solway.
OnthewesternsideofthevillageofDykesfield,whichwenext
encounter,isacommonthatcontainsseveralearthenrampartsand
temporarycamps.
BetweenDykesfieldandthenextstation,Drumburgh,anextensivemarsh
occurs,whichevennowisoccasionallyoverflowedbythewatersofthe
Solway.Hodgsoninclinestothebelief,thattheWallrandirectly
acrossit.Horsley,however,tookadifferentviewofthesubject.
FromhencetoDrumburghCastlenovestigeoftheWallistobeseen;
thoughIthinkitcertainthattheWalldidnotpassthroughthe
marsh,butbyBousteadhillandEaston,forbothtraditionandmatter
offactfavourthiscourseofit.Thecountrypeopleoftenstrikeupon
theWall,andcouldtellexactlyseveralplacesthroughwhich,bythis
means,theyknewithadpassed,andalwaysbythesideofthemarsh.
BesidesitisnowayreasonabletosupposethattheRomanswouldbuild
theirWallwithintidemark.
[Sidenote:EASTONMARSH.]
Aftercarefulinquiry,IamdisposedtoadoptHorsleysview;evennow,
stoneswhichappeartobeWallstones,areturnedupbytheoperations
ofthehusbandmeninthelinewhichtheWallissupposedtohavetaken
byBousteadandEaston.Itneednotbeasubjectofsurprise,thatthe
Wallinthisdistricthasbeensothoroughlyremoved,asthereisno
quarrywithinaconvenientdistance,andtheWall,therefore,hasbeen
thesourcefromwhichtheinhabitantsofthecountryhavedrawntheir
supplyofbuildingstones.TheRomansseemtohavegonetoHowrigg
quarry,whichisnotlessthaneightmilessouthoftheBarrier,for
theirfacingstones;thosewhichtheyusedfortheinterioroftheWall
correspondincharacterwiththeproceedsofStonepotscar,aquarryon
thenorthshoreoftheSolway.
WemustnowpartcompanywiththeVallum.Thiswonderfulearthwork,
whichhasoutlivedtheaccidentsofseventeencenturies,andwhichwe
havetraced,withbutfewinterruptions,fromthemodernrepresentative
ofPONSLIItothispoint,isnotobservedgoingbeyondit.Asthe
VallumfallsshortoftheWallatitseasternextremitybyaboutfour
miles,soitdoesatitswestern.Horsley,whowrotemorethanacentury
ago,andwho,consequently,hadbetteropportunitiesofjudgingthanwe
cannowhave,says
WhetherHadrianswork(theVallum)hasbeencontinuedanyfurther
thanthismarsh,ortothewatersidebeyondDrumburgh,isdoubtful.
ButIamprettyconfidentthatitwasnotcarriedonsofarasthe
WallofSeverusatthisend,anymorethanattheother.AndIcanby
nomeansyieldtoMr.Gordonssentiments,thattheone,foragood
spaceateachend,wasbuiltuponthefoundationoftheother.
However,itiscertainthatfromthesideofthemarshtothewestend
oftheWallthereisnoappearanceofHadrianswork,oranything
belongingtoit.
[Sidenote:DRUMBURGH.]
_DRUMBURGH_containsdistinctremainsofasmallstationarycamp.This,
ifWatchcrossberejected,wasthesixteenthstationoftheWall,and
consequently,theAXELODUNUMoftheNotitia,whichwasgarrisonedbythe
firstcohortoftheSpaniards.ThecampisonthegroundsofRichard
Lawson,esq.Therampartsarewelldefined,aswellastheditchwhich
surroundsthem.Thewholeareaiscoveredwithaluxuriantsward,and
itsnorthernmarginisshadedbysomethrivingashtrees.Noportionof

theWallremainsinitsvicinity,butitspresentproprietorremembers
witnessingtheremovalofthefoundation.Thenorthernrampartofthe
stationdidnotcomeuptotheWall,butwasremovedafewyardsfrom
it;probablythemilitarywayranbetweenthestationandtheWall.The
stationatBarrhill,ontheAntonineWall,issimilarlysituated.
Southofthestationisawell,enclosedbyacircularwallofRoman
masonry.Itisstillinuse,thoughthewaterisdrawnfromitbya
pump.
Themedivalcastle,ofwhichthereareconsiderableremains,isavery
finespecimenoftheancientfortifiedmanorhouse.ItisbuiltofRoman
stones.ExtensivealterationsweremadeuponitinthereignofHenry
VIII.Thehabitablepartofitisnowoccupiedasafarmhouse.
Thetranquillityofthisregionwasnotalwayswhatitnowis.
Standingonthenorthernrampartofthestation,Mr.Lawson,theaged
proprietor,directedtheattentionofthePilgrimpartyof1849toa
smallcottageontheoppositeshore.There,saidhe,liveda
Scottishreaver,whointhedaysofmygrandfathermade,onnineteen
successiveEastereves,asuccessfulforayontheEnglishside.A
twentiethtimehepreparedtogo;hisfamilyremonstrated,hehowever
persisted,sayingthatthisshouldbehislastattempt.Ourpeople
werepreparedforhimandslewhim.Someofthepartyaskedwhat
noticedidthelawtakeofthetransaction?'None;thelawwhich
couldnotprotectaman,wouldnotpunishhimfortakingthelawinto
hisownhands.'
Now,nearlyarrivedatthewesternextremityofthegreatBarrier,we
meetwithbutfewtracesofitscharacteristicmasonry;enough,however,
remainstolureuspleasantlytoourjourneysend.
IncuttingthecanalfromCarlisletotheSolwayFirth,in1823,a
prostrateforestofoakwasdiscovered,whichbelongedtoanage
anteriortothatofHadrian.Theengineerofthecanalsays
[Sidenote:PRIMEVALFOREST.]
Asubterraneousforestwascutthroughintheexcavationofthecanal,
nearthebanksoftheSolwayFirth,abouthalfamilenorthwestof
thevillageofGlasson,andextendingintoKirklands.Thetreeswere
allprostrate,andtheyhadfallen,withlittledeviation,ina
northerlydirection,oralittleeastwardofit.Someshorttrunks,of
twoorthreefeetinheight,wereinthepositionoftheirnatural
growth;butalthoughthetrees,withtheexceptionoftheiralburnum
andallthebranches,wereperfectlysound,yettheextremityofthe
trunks,whetherfallenorstanding,weresorugged,thatitwasnot
discoverablewhetherthetreeshadbeencutdown,orhadfallenbya
violentstorm.Theleveluponwhichthetrunkslay,wasalittlebelow
thatofhightides,andfromeighttotenfeetbelowthesurfaceof
thegroundtheywereembeddedin;which,exceptingthesuperficial
soil,isasoftblueclay,havingtheappearanceofmarine
alluvion....Althoughthepreciseperiodwhenthisforestfellisnot
ascertainable,thereisapositiveproofthatitmusthavebeenlong
priortothebuildingoftheWallbecausethefoundationsoftheWall
passedobliquelyoverit,andlaythreeorfourfeetabovethelevel
ofthetrees._Arch.l._ii.117.
Theforestextendsoveraconsiderabletractofground.Itis
probablethatitwasoverthrownbyatempestfromthesouthor
southwest,atatimewhentheseaoccupiedalowerlevelthanit
doesatpresent.Thewoodwassosound,thatitwasusedincommon
withotheroaktimberinformingthejettiesattheoutletofthe

canalintotheSolwayFirth.ThepresidentschairoftheSocietyof
Antiquaries,NewcastleuponTyne,isformedofit.
AtPortCarlisleisamoundresemblinganancientBritishbarrow,called
Fisherscross.Abouthalfamiletothewestwardofitisanotherwhich
hasbeensomewhatencroacheduponbytheroadthatrunsalongthemargin
oftheSolway,andisdenominatedKnockscross.Theproverbiscommon
throughoutCumberland,'AsoldasKnockscross.'
InthefrontoftheSteampackethotel,PortCarlisle,isbuiltupthe
fragmentofasmallRomanaltar,bearingtheinscription,SVISMATRIBVS.
Itisoneofthenumerousinstancesthatwemeetwith,alongthelineof
theWall,ofaltarsdedicatedtothe_DeMatres_.
[Sidenote:BOWNESS.]
BetweenPortCarlisleandBowness,thesiteoftheWallmaybetraced
nearlythewholeway;notunfrequentlythefoundationsofitandits
fossemaybediscerned.Inoneplacesomelargestonesresemblingthose
usedinformingthegatewaysofthemilecastleswillbenoticed.In
BrandsdaysomeconsiderableportionsoftheWallremained,between
thesepoints.Hesays
AboutthreequartersofamiletotheeastofBowness,somefragments
ofSeverusWallremain,ofagreatheight;onmeasuringoneofthem,
wefoundittobeabouteightfeethigh;itwasboundandovergrown
withivyinamostpicturesquemanner.Thefacingstonesonbothsides
havebeentakenaway.
OnmyfirstvisittoBowness,IsawaportionofitasHodgsondescribes
it
Itissixfeethigh.Itsruggedandweatheredcore,stillhardasa
rock,isthicklybeardedwithsloethornandhazel,andmantledbelow
withivyandhoneysuckle.
Thisinterestingobjecthasbeenentirelyremoved,whichisthemoreto
beregretted,asnoadvantagehasbeengainedbyitsdestruction;it
servedasafencebetweentwofields.
[Illustration:
H.BurdonRichardson,Delt.JohnStoreyLith.
BOWNESS.
]
[Sidenote:TERMINATIONOFTHEWALL.]
_BOWNESS_isthenameofthelow,bowshapedness,orpeninsula,atthe
extremepointoftheleftbankoftheSolwayFirth.Itisslightly
elevatedabovethesurroundingcountry,asisplainlyseenwhenitis
viewedfromadistance.Alittletotheeastofthesiteofthestation,
theSolwayiseasilyfordableatlowwater;butnoone,inthememoryof
theinhabitantsoftheseparts,hasfordedtheestuarywestwardofthe
town.ThiscircumstancewouldrenderBownessafitplaceatwhichto
terminatetheBarrierWall.Withdifficultytheantiquarydetectssome
slighttracesofthewallsofthestation,itssouthernlinesnearthe
churchbeingthosewhicharemostapparent.Noquarrybeingwithin
severalmilesofthespot,theWallandstationhavefurnishedthe
materialsofwhichthechurchandmostofthehabitationsofthetown
arecomposed.Asmallaltarbuiltupinthefrontofabarninthe
principalstreet,hasaninscriptionimportingthatitwasdedicatedto

Jupiterthebestandgreatest,bySulpiciusSecundianus,thetribuneof
thecohortforthesafetyofourlords,theemperorsGalbusand
Volusianus.
BownessmaybetheGABROSENTUMoftheNotitia;Horsleyreckoning
Watchcrossamongthestationsoftheline,conceivesittobe
TUNNOCELUM.
OverthatbeautifulexpanseofwatersboundedbytheCriffelandother
Dumfriesshirehills,whichweseefromthesomewhatelevatedbeachthat
hasformedthenorthernmarginofthestation,theeyeoftheRoman
sentinelmustoftenhavelistlesslyrolled,ashepacedhistedious
hoursaway.ThememoryofRomanandCaledonianfeudsgivestothe
picture,aswenowbeholdit,acharmenhancedbycontrastwiththe
stateofthingswhichexistedinancientdays.[Sidenote:CHANGEOF
TIMES.]Thehillshavetheaspectwhichtheyformerlybore,thewatersof
theSolwayebbandflowastheywerewont,thesameclearskyspansthe
vaultofheavenwhichwasoutstretchedinRomandays;butthen,the
occupantsoftheoppositeshoresscowleduponeachotherwithdeadly
hate,andplannedthemeansofmutualslaughter.Stealthilytheycast
thenetandthrewtheleisterintothemarginofthesea,orwhenthey
openlyappeareduponthewaters,itwasingalleysarmedforsanguinary
aggression;now,witheachreturningtide,thefishermanplieshis
peacefultrade,fearlessofharm,andtheinhabitantsofboththe
northernandthesouthernshorehaileachotherasfriendsand
fellowcountrymen.
[Illustration:MonumenttoEdwardI.]

Footnote54:
Hewhohastheheartofapilgrim_perlineamValli_,willnotfail
toaccompanytheauthor,whileheattempts,attheverycommencement
ofhislocalperegrination,topayatributeofrespecttothree
departedworthieswhomadetheWalltheirespecialstudy.
JOHNHORSLEYwasthefirstandmightiestofthethreeisittoomuch
tosaythathewasthefatherofthescienceofArchology?Borninan
unknownlocalityofthiscounty,receivinghiselementaryeducationat
Newcastle,hisacademicalatEdinburgh,hespentthegreaterportion
ofhislifeasthepastorofaPresbyteriancongregationinMorpeth.
Histastes,andgreatfamiliaritywiththeclassics,inducedhimto
devotehisleisurehourstothestudyoftheantiquitiesof
Northumberland.HadheconceivedthattheBritanniaRomanawouldhave
costhimonethirdofthetimewhichitsexecutionrequired,theworld
wouldneverhaveseenit.Havingembarkedintheundertaking,hefelt
ithisdutytomakeitasgoodashecould.Howseverehistoils,how
greathispecuniarysacrifices,howardenthisaspirationsafter
emancipationfromhisselfimposedtask,inorderthathemight
entirelydevotehimselftohissacredcalling,whoshalltell?The
thoughtthathisflockmighteventuallybenolosers,thathisfamily
andhisownfairfamemightgainbytheenterprise,buoyedhimupin
hiscourse.On2Jan.17312,heputthefinishingstroketohis
labours,thededicationofhisworkbearingthatdate.Nowhemight
hopetoreapthefruitsofhistoilstheenjoymentofrest,suchas
theweariedonlyknow,thecongratulationsoffriends,theapprobation
ofthelearned,thereplenishmentofhisexhaustedmeans.Noneof
thesefruitsheenjoyed.Hecanscarcelyhavehadthesatisfactionof
castinghiseyesuponacompletedcopyofhiswork.Theinkofhis
dedicationwashardlydrywhenhewassummonedtotheunseenworld.
RespectinghimwhorecordedthemightydoingsoftheRomansin
Britain,theparishclerkofMorpethmadethefollowingentryinthe
churchyardcalendar:Buried,

_17312,Jan.15_,Mr.JohnHorsley.
Vanityofvanities,allisvanity.Asregardsthehonoursor
enjoymentsofthisworld,hediedanutterlyunrequitedman.Evenof
thatbubble,posthumousfame,anattemptwasmadetorobhim.
Warburton,inhisVallumRomanum,transfersHorsleyinbulktohis
pagesheevencopies,withoutalteration,theopinionswhichHorsley
expressesinthefirstperson.ThehonestHuttonoftenquotesthe
judiciousWarburton,littleknowingwhosethefeathersarewhichhe
sojustlyadmires.Theprecisespotwherehisremainsrestisunknown.
Hewhoselotitwastointerpret,afterthelapseofmanycenturies,
thethrobbingsofnaturalaffectionoverdepartedrelativesinthe
heathenbreast,hadnoonetoerectoverhim,thoughaChristian
minister,amemorialthatshouldoutliveasinglecentury.Eventhe
parishclerk,inhisattachmenttothealtarandthethrone,denies
him,inthesepulchralregister,thetitlewhichcourtesy,atleast,
wouldhaveaccordedhim._Requiescatinpace!_
TheRev.ANTHONYHEDLEY,wasalsoanativeofNorthumberland;hewasa
manofliterarytastes,andconsiderableantiquarianacquirements.He
enteredpubliclifeascurateofHexham,wherehispreachingwasthat
ofaBoanerges.Hesubsequentlyheldsometemporaryappointmentsat
Whelpington,Newcastle,andWhitfield.Having,however,actively
espousedthecauseofthatpoliticalbody,who,untillordGreybecame
premier,hadnopatronagetobestow,itwashislottosighinvain
forasummonstoactiveoccupationintheworkwhichheloved.When
thepartywhomhehadlongandconscientiouslyserved,cameinto
office,neglectwashisportion.Oneoftheoriginalmembersofthe
SocietyofAntiquariesofNewcastleuponTyne,hedidmuchtopromote
thestudyofprimvalarchologyinthefruitfulregiontraversedby
theWall.Biasedbyhistasteforantiquities,hewasledtoselect,
ashisabodeforlifesevening,thebeautifulvalleyoftheChineley
Burn.Theruralhallaroseathisbidding,nearlyeverystoneofwhich
waschiseledbyRomanhands.ThemilliarywhichtoldtoHadrians
soldiersthatanothermilehadbeentraversed,stoodbyhisbarn.The
stationofVINDOLANAwasinhisgroundsmanybeautifulaltarsand
otherimportantreliqueshadhedugoutofithecouldtellwherethe
prtoriumstood,wherethestandardsweredeposited,whereevery
soldierslept.Scarcelywereallthearrangementsforhiscomfortable
residenceatChesterholmmade,whendeathseizedhimasitsvictim.
Imprudentlysuperintending,whilstsomewhatindisposed,theexhumation
ofanurninthestation,hismortalpartwasafewdaysafterwards
depositedinthechurchyardatBeltingham.Hediedin1835,andhis
beautifulabodehassinceremaineddesolate.
WestmorelandhasthehonourofgivingbirthtotheRev.JOHNHODGSON,
butNorthumberlandenjoyedtheadvantageofhisyouthfulandmaturer
labours.SuccessivelycurateofSedgefield,Lanchester,andHeworth,
andafterwardsvicarofKirkwhelpington,hewasshortlybeforehis
deathpromotedtothelivingofHartburn.Hewasthechieffounderof
theSocietyofAntiquariesofNewcastleuponTyne,andthechief
contributortoitstransactions.Histastesledhimtocontemplate,
andanhonourabledesiretomakeprovisionfortheeducationand
settlementofhisfamily,inducedhimtobegin,ahistoryof
Northumberland.Seldomhavelaudabledesignsbeensosignally
defeated.Helivedbuttocompleteapartofhistask;hishealth
failed,andhismindgavewayunderhisexcessivelabours.His
fortuneswerenotbetteredbythem;Ihavelived,saidhe,'tosee
thatworksofthiskindarenotsuitedtothetimesIlivein,perhaps
toanytime.Itisnotprofitabletomeitisnotsuitedtomy
professionIoughttodomydutyinmyprofessiontotakeupnightand
daytodoitwell.Well?no;butaswellasgoodintentions,holy

zeal,everythoughtandfacultyofmymindfullyexerted,coulddo
it.'HodgsonpaidgreatattentiontotheWall,anditsantiquities.
Thelastpublishedportionofhishistorycontainsavastmassof
learnedinformationuponthesubject.Itisperhapsenoughforthe
presentauthortosay,thathadnotHorsleyandHodgsonclearedthe
waybeforehim,hewouldneverhaveadventuredtowriteabookupon
theBarrieroftheLowerIsthmus.ThoughhecannotbeaHorsleyora
Hodgson,hehopeshewillneverproveaWarburton.
Footnote55:
BrandconceivesthatSEGEDUNUMmaybederivedfromtheSaxon_secg_,a
sedgeorflag,and_dun_,whichisanAngloSaxon,aswellasaCeltic
word;thiswouldgive,asitsmeaningthehillofsedge.Ifwecan
supposethatanyoftheGermanichordeshadobtainedsocompletea
settlementhere,astogivethemthepowerofformingalocal
vocabularyinaccordancewiththeirownlanguagepriortotheRoman
occupationofthispost,theSaxonoriginofthetermisbynomeans
improbable.InnopartofEnglandwasanearlysettlementmorelikely
totakeplacethanontheeasterncoastofNorthumberland,but,after
all,wemustprobablyassignalaterdatetothefirstarrivalofour
Gothicforefathers.IfaSaxonderivationbeatalladmissible,
anothermightbesuggested:_sige_istheAngloSaxonforvictory,and
_tun_istownthetownofvictoryanappropriatenameforastation
occupiedeitherbyRomanorSaxonforces.
Footnote56:
ThisstatementImakeontheauthorityofthelateMr.Buddle,who
said,asIremember,thatinhisyouthhehadseenthestones
extendingfarintotheriver.
Footnote57:
Thisplacederiveditsearliernamefrombeingtheproperty,and
perhapsthesuburbanresidenceofJohnCosyn,aworthyaldermanof
NewcastleuponTyne,intheseventeenthcentury.About1740,sir
RobertCarre,aLondonknight,anddraper,butalso,itisthought,a
burgessofthenorthernmetropolis,boughtCosynshouseatWallsend,
andthenceforwarddesignateditCarreville.Thepresentmansionis,
withsomelittleimpropriety,calledCarville_hall_.
WhenIbeganmyinquiriesatWallsend,Ihadmuchdifficultyin
ascertainingwhichwasCousinshouse.Onemantoldmehehadlived
allhislifeinWallsendsixtyyearsandhadneverheardofit.Our
booksstillcontinuetocopyfromHorsley,andtogiveusthe
outofdateinformationthattheWallbeganatCousinshouse.
Footnote58:
IndistrictswheretheWallhasbeenlevelledwiththeearth,a
footpathorbridleroadfrequentlyindicatesitscourse.Whenland
wasoflessvaluethanitisnow,thefarmers,whoappropriatedthe
stonesoftheWalltotheirownuse,werenotatthetroubletoremove
itsfoundation.Thestonytrack,however,affordedafirmroad,and
whentheincreasedvalueofthegroundrendereditworthwhileto
bringthewholeintocultivation,arightofwayhad,inmany
instances,beenestablished.
Footnote59:
Hodgson,II.iii.169.
Footnote60:

Horsleystraditionaryaccountwasprobablyderivedfromthesame
sourceasLelands;andthereforemayindicate,notthestationwall,
butthegreatWallitself.If,astheexcavationsmadesinceHorsleys
dayseemtoprove,theWallcrossedobliquelyfromthesouthtothe
northsideofCollingwoodstreet,itmusthavepassedoverthesiteof
St.Nicholaschurchnottothenorthofit.
Footnote61:
Soinvitingapostwouldnotescapethenoticeoftheancient
BritishwarriortheappearancesMr.Hodgsondescribes,arenot
inconsistentwithitshavingbeenanAncientBritishstronghold.
Footnote62:
Drawntotwicetheusualsize.
Footnote63:
Theauthor,astheleaderofthepilgrimbandwhotraversedtheWall
inthesummerof1849,usedastaffmadeoutofthisprimevaloak.It
isnowintheNewcastlecollectionofantiquities.
Footnote64:
Tour,iii.313,quotedbyBrand,i.37.
Footnote65:
BrandsNewcastle,i.37.
Footnote66:
JerusalemwascalledafterhimliaCapitolina,andthegamesat
Pincum,inMsia,liaPincensia.
Footnote67:
SmithsDictionaryofGreekandRomanAntiquities.
Footnote68:
InthepossessionoftheSocietyofAntiquariesatSomersethouse.The
woodcutsaredrawntotwicetheusualscale.
Footnote69:
Baxter,inhisglossary,derivesitfromtheancientBritishwords
_Penual_,theheadoftheWall.Acomparativelymodernvillagewould
hardlytakeaCelticname;besides,althoughtheRomanstationhasa
commandingprospectinamilitarypointofview,itisscarcelyso
elevatedastobeentitledtotheepithetofPenorBen;thevillage
ofBenwellisbelowit.
Footnote70:
HistoryofManchester,i.224.
Footnote71:
ThecottageisstillstandingintheneighbourhoodofWylam,inwhich
GeorgeStephensonfirstsawthelight.Aided,induetime,byhisson,
worthyofsuchafather,hedidmorethananyothermantoelaborate
ourpresentrailwaysystem.Theantiquarywhohasbeenrevellingin
theassociationsofthepastwillscarcelyfail,ashelooksdownfrom

hisWalltraversedheightsuponthevalewhichgavebirthtosucha
man,togiveforamomentthereinstohisimagination,andsuffering
hismindtopenetratethemistsoffuturity,ruminateuponthechanges
whichtheeffortsoftheStephensonsaredestinedtoproduce,notonly
inthephysical,butinthemoralaspectofsociety.
Footnote72:
Derivedfromwalland_botle_,theSaxonforanabode.
Footnote73:
AncientlywrittenThrocklow.Low,orLaw,isappliedeithertoalow,
roundtoppedeminence,oranartificialmound.
Footnote74:
Hodgson,II.iii.178.
Footnote75:
BritanniaRomana,139.
Footnote76:
NoteinLappenbergsAngloSaxonKings,i.91.
Footnote77:
TheroadleavestheWallhere,andkeepstotherightofthehill.The
northsideofthehillisplantedwithtrees,anditisinterestingto
noticeinthesummitoftheplantation,adip,correspondingtothe
depressionofthefosseoftheWall.
Footnote78:
Unabletoresistthepositivetestimonyofanintelligenteyewitness,
Iwas,atfirst,disposedtothinkthathehadincludedinhis
measurementsomechamberontheinsideofthestationwall.Iamnow
preparedtoreceivethestatementwithoutdeduction.Somerecent
excavationsatRisinghamhavelaidbareapartofthecurtainwall
whichhasbeenbuiltdouble,theinterveningspace,orchamber,being
filledupwithrubbleandrubbishruntogetherwithlime,soasto
formasolidmassofmasonryofconsiderablethickness.Theobjectof
thisarrangementmayhavebeen,toformasolid,elevatedplatform,
fortheuseofthesoldiery.
Footnote79:
BothHorsleyandLingardhadpreviouslynoticedit.Horsleysayshe
wastoldbyacountrymanthatitwaswhatthespeakingtrumpetwas
laidin.
Footnote80:
TheaqueductwasnottracedontheHaltonsideofthevalley,sothat
theprecisepointwhereitjoinedthestationisnotknown;itisnow
entirelyremoved.
Footnote81:
SeveralofthesculpturesatMatfenweresenttoAlnwickCastle.
Wallisusestheterm,centurialstone,veryloosely,applyingit
eventothelargeMilkinggapslab.

Footnote82:
BedesEcclesiasticalHistory,b.III.ch.ii.Gilesstranslation.
Footnote83:
Althoughawalkofafewminuteswillbringthetraveller,whoknows
exactlywhithertobendhissteps,tothiscuriousrelic,astranger
mayfruitlesslyspendmuchtimeinexaminingthemanylowscarswhich
diversifythesurfaceofthefell.Itisadeeplyinterestingobject.
Footnote84:
Thecrampsseemtohavebeenofvariouskinds.Someauthorsspeakof
ironcramps.Oneantiquary,Iknow,spentalivelongsummersday
kneedeepinthewater,extractingonewhichprovedtobeentirelyof
lead.A.cramp,ofverycuriousformandstructure,takenfromthis
bridge,ispreservedinthemuseumatChesters,andisfiguredPlate
VII.fig.1.;itseemstohavebeentriplydovetailed;thesubstance
ofitisiron,butithasbeencoatedallovertothethicknessof
oneeighthofaninchwithlead.Theironwouldgivetheinstrument
tenacity,andtheleadprotectthemorecorrosivemetalfrom
oxidization;trulytheRomansbuiltforperpetuity.
Footnote85:
HistoryofNorthumberland,II.iii.180.
Footnote86:
TheinitialL,page103,isformedoftwooftheseRomanbalusters.
TheloweroneisatChesters,theuprightoneatChesterholm.
Footnote87:
ThesectionofthehypocaustwallonPlateIIIistakenfromthis
example,andshewsthehangingfloor.
Footnote88:
SeeaninterestingAccountofanExcavationrecentlymadewithinthe
RomanStationatCILURNUM,byJohnClayton,esq.intheArchologia
liana,iii.142.
Footnote89:
Theimprovedmethodofmakingdrainingtilesforagriculturaluseshas
suggestedtheformationofhollowbricksforbuildingpurposes.A
floormightbepavedandsidewallsformedofthese,soasreadilyto
admitofthecirculationofairthroughoutthewholesubstanceofthe
apartment,andahandfulofcokeorcharcoal,placedattheentrance
oftheflue,wouldeffectuallywarmthewhole.Specimensofbricksof
thiskind,remarkablystrong,andingeniouslycontrivedforsecurely
lockingintooneanother,arebeforeme,forwhichIamindebtedto
RobertRawlinson,esq.,afterwhosedesigntheywereformed.TheLatin
comedyrepresentsthemiserbegrudgingthesmokethatescapedfromhis
chimneywellmaythebenevolentmanregretthatwhilsthispoor
neighboursarebendingunderthechillsofwinter,threefourthsof
theheatgeneratedinhisparlourgrateisabsolutelywasted.
Footnote90:
NowatAlnwickcastle.
Footnote91:

Thewordsprintedinitalicshavebeensuppliedfromcontemporaneous
inscriptions;theycanscarcelybesaidtobeconjecturalreadings.
Footnote92:
Soldierswhobytheirgoodconducthadearnedadoubleallowanceof
cornorpay.
Footnote93:
HodgsonlearnedlyexplainsthisinscriptionArch.l.i.128.
Footnote94:
PreservedintheinterestingcollectionatChesters.
Footnote95:
ThispeculiartermisprobablyderivedfromtheSaxon_Seuch_,a
furroworfosse,and_Shiel_,ahutforthosewhohavethecareof
cattle,andthussignifies,thecottagebythefosse.
Footnote96:
Itisreportedintheneighbourhood,thatMrs.Spearmanhavingdreamt
thatshefoundarichhoardoftreasureamongtheruinsofthecastle,
madediligentsearchforit,butwithoutsuccess.Whenthecastlewas
removed,however,thefarmerobtainedavaluabledepositofmedival
manure.
Footnote97:
PlinysNaturalHistory,lib.vii.c.2,q.
Footnote98:
HodgsonsNorthumberland,II.,iii.,287.
Footnote99:
Thecountrybeingdepopulated,landsonceintillage,againbecame
wastes.Theforestsbeingpartiallydestroyed,eitherbyfireorthe
axe,thestreamswhichusedtopermeatethelowgroundswerearrested
intheircoursebyprostratetrunksandbranches,andgaveriseto
extensivemorasses.Inthebogsofthedistrictwearenow
considering,immensequantitiesoflargeoakandbirchtimber,aswell
asofoakleavesandhazelnuts,arecontinuallybeingfound.TheDike
wouldnot,ofcourse,originally,bedrawnthroughswampyground.
Footnote100:
ManyofthemarepreservedintheMuseumoftheSocietyof
Antiquaries,NewcastleuponTyne.
Footnote101:
Horsleyremarks,'IcannotsaythatHadriansVallumhasmadethe
southrampartofthisstationatHousesteads,butIthinkithas
passeditnotmuchtothesouth,andseemstohaveasmallturnjust
atthebrook,inordertocomenear,ifnotuptoit.'Thislooksas
ifHorsleycouldnotaltogetherthrowofftheideathattheworks
exhibitunityofdesign.Huttonnoticeshisinconsistency,and,
quotinghim,(astransferredtothepagesofthejudicious
Warburton,)writesButcanathingbebroughtneartowhatdoesnot

exist!Hadrianwasdeadlongbeforetheappearanceofthisstation.
Footnote102:
Thiscircumstance,togetherwiththefact,thatallthecampsofthe
Barrieraboundinstonesreddenedwithfire,isconfirmatoryofthe
view,thatthebuildingssuppliedwithhypocaustswerenotnecessarily
baths.
Footnote103:
Thesiteofthewesterngatewayismarkedbyafigureinthe
backgroundofthepicture.
Footnote104:
Pompeii.LibraryofEntertainingKnowledge.
Footnote105:
Twoofthisnumber,however,wouldalwaysbeonduty,tothevery
greatcomfortoftheeightwhoremained.
Footnote106:
TheinitialN,page43,isformedofthreenailsfromHousesteads,
drawntothreefourthsoftheactualsize.
Footnote107:
ThemostsatisfactoryspecimenthatIhaveseenisatCarvoran;ithas
apparentlybeenrolled,wheninasoftstate,onastonetable,and
presents,fromitsslightlyroughenedsurface,thedegreeofopacity
whichplateglasshasbeforeitispolished.
Footnote108:
Oneofthemisengraved,onp.63,theinscriptionoftheotheris
illegible;bothareintheMuseumatNewcastle.
Footnote109:
Seealsothevignette,page42.Mostofthesearestillontheground.
Theyaredrawntotheusualscale.
Footnote110:
Archologialiana,i.268.
Footnote111:
BritanniaRomana,125.
Footnote112:
HutchinsonsNorthumberland,i.60.
Footnote113:
Adilapidatedbuilding,neartheeastendofthetown,illustrates
someofthepeculiaritiesofthisspeciesofborderfortress.The
lowerportionofitwasdevotedtothereceptionofcattletheupper
wasoccupiedbythefamily.Thefloorofthesecondstoryconsistsof
stoneflagslaiduponmassivebeamsofoak,veryroughlydressed.The
objectofthisarrangementhasprobablybeentopreventtheenemy,who

mightgetpossessionofthelowerpartofthebuildingwithoutbeing
abletotaketheupperpartbystorm,fromapplying,withmuchsuccess
atleast,firetothefloor.Thestoneslatesoftheroofwere
generallyfastenedwiththebonesofsheepstrottersamostdurable
fasteninginsteadofwoodenpins;but,inthisinstance,theoriginal
roofhasbeenremoved.
Footnote114:
Whilstlyinginprison,andcheerfullywaitingforthetimewhenhe
shouldbeoffered,hismindrevertedtothescenesandcompanionsof
hisyouth.'MyhopewasoflatethatIshouldhavecomeamongyou,and
tohavebroughtwithmeabundanceofChristsblessedgospel,
accordingtothedutyofthatofficeandministrywhereuntoamongyou
Iwaschosen,named,andappointed,bythemouthofthatourlate
peerlessprince,kingEdward.'Inaletter,inwhich,asoneminding
totakeafarjourney,hebidsfarewelltohislovingbrothersand
sisters,andhiswellbelovedandworshipfulcousins,hespecifies
manyofthewellknownlocalitiesofthisdistrict,thentheirplaces
ofresidence.
Footnote115:
LabbeseditionoftheNotitiaImperii,publishedatParis,1651.
Footnote116:
ItispreservedinthecollectionofantiquitiesatChesters.
Footnote117:
Arch.liana,i.118.
Footnote118:
HistoryofthePictsorRomanoBritishWall,35.
Footnote119:
Hodgson,II.iii.293.
Footnote120:
HistoryofthePictsWall,35.
Footnote121:
Theownerofthegroundwasprovokedtoobliteratetheremainsofthis
ancientcity,inconsequenceofthemannerinwhichcuriositymongers
(notantiquaries)trespassedonhisfields,intheirwaytothe
station,insteadoftakingthebeatentrack.
Footnote122:
Ihavebeenstronglyremindedofthesecircularpedestalsbythe
figuresofthecolumnsoftheRomanpartofReculverchurch,given(p.
198)inMr.C.RoachSmithsadmirableworkonRichboroughand
Reculver.Thenorthernexamplesare,however,ofcoarserworkmanship
thanthesouthernseemtohavebeen;themouldingthatencirclesthe
Carvoranspecimenresemblesstrawropesratherthancarefully
fabricatedcables.
Footnote123:
Thirl,fromtheSaxon_thirlian_,signifiestopierce,tobore.Itis

generallysupposed,thatthisstrongholdderiveditsnamefromthe
ScotshavingbrokenthroughtheWallhere.Itmay,however,havetaken
itfromthesluiceorbridgewheretheriverpassedthroughtheWall;
thirl,saysHutchinson,beingfrequentlyappliedtotheopeningleft
inmoorfencesforsheeptopassthrough.
Footnote124:
CanithavebeenderivedfromtheSaxon_bryddeswald_or_weald_,the
birdsforest?Thelocalpronunciationofthenameoftheplaceis
peculiarandratherfavourstheproposedetymology.
Footnote125:
TheWallisattoogreatadistancefromtheVallumtobeintroduced
intothesection;itisbeyondtheextrafosse,ontherighthandside
ofthewoodcut.
Footnote126:
Inthislocality,thetravellerisapttolosehisreckoning,in
consequenceofthenumberofcottagesandvillageswhichare
denominatedWall.
Footnote127:
Someantiquarieshaveconceived,thatinthelasttwowordsofthe
inscription,areferenceismadetotheemperorSeptimiusSeverus.
Thiscannotbeadmitted,for1.Theemperorsnamewouldnotbeplaced
afterthatoftheprefect:2.Theterm_instante_impliesthe
dischargeofasubordinateduty;for,nottomentionotherexamples,
thetempleofwhichtheCILURNUMslabrecordstherestoration(p.
186),wasbuiltbycommandofMariusValerianus,underthe
superintendenceof(_instante_)SeptimiusNilus:3.That_princeps_
wasthedesignationofasubordinateofficerinthearmy,appearsnot
onlyfromacollationofotherinscriptions,butfromthefollowing
statementofManutius'Inalegiontherewerethreekindsoffoot
soldiers,_hastati_,_principes_,and_triarii_,andineachthere
weretencenturions,whowerecalledthefirst_hastatus_,thesecond
_hastatus_,thethird,andsoon,uptothetenth;thefirst
_princeps_,thesecond,andsoon;butthe_triarii_,thebravestof
all,werenamedinadifferentmanner,fortheydidnotcallthem
firsttriarius,but_primipilus_,or_primipilicenturio_.'_Arch.
l._,ii.88.
_Principi_isdoubtlessintendedforthemoreusualformofthe
ablative,_principe_.

[Illustration]
~TheRomanBarrierofthe
LowerIsthmus.~

PARTIV
THESUPPORTINGSTATIONSOFTHEWALL.
AlthowehavenowtraversedthelineofthemuralBarrierfromone
extremitytotheother,andexaminedallthecampsthatlieuponits

track,wehavemetwithbutseventeenoreighteenofthetwentythree
thatarementionedintheNotitiaasstations_perlineamValli_.
AccordingtoHorsley,fiveremaintobeaccountedfor,andaccordingto
Hodgson,whorejectsWatchcross,six.Thesemustbesoughtforamong
thestationswhichsupportthegreatBarrieronitsnorthernorsouthern
side.AsthenamesofthecampsnorthoftheWallhavebeenascertained
byindependentauthority,andastheydonotcorrespond[Sidenote:
SECONDARYFORTSOFTHENOTITIA.]withthoseoftheremainingstationsof
theNotitia,itisagreedonallhands,thatthelististobecompleted
fromamongthefortifiedplaceswhichsupporttheBarrieronthesouth.
Withoutdwellinguponthereasonswhichhaveguidedtheconjectures,
(fortheyarebutconjecturesatthebest),ofthegreatauthorofthe
BritanniaRomana,andotherantiquaries,inappropriatingtheremaining
namessuppliedbytheNotitia,itmaybesufficienttosay,thatasthe
primarystations,sofarastheyhavebeenascertained,arefoundtobe
arrangedinthatdocumentinregularconsecutiveorder,beginningatthe
easternextremityoftheline,itisconceivedtobehighlyprobable
thatasimilarcoursehasbeenpursuedwiththesecondarycamps.If,
therefore,wecouldcorrectlyascertainwhich,ofallthecampsthatdot
thecountryinthesouthernvicinageoftheWall,aremuralstations,we
might,withtolerableplausibility,bestowuponthemintheirorderthe
remainingnamesoftheNotitiaroll.Butthisisataskofgreat
difficulty,andconsiderableuncertaintymustnecessarilyattendthe
appropriationofthenamesuponthisprinciple.
Anexaminationofthefortsthemselves,however,onbothsidesofthe
Wall,isataskequallyeasyandinstructive,anditisonewhichis
essentialtoacorrectestimateofthestrengthoftheprincipal
fortificationtheWall.SirJohnClarkmusthavealtogetheroverlooked
theexistenceofthesesupportingstations,whenhewroteinthe
followingstraintohisfriendGale:
Afterall,Icannotbuttakenoticeoftwothingswithregardtothe
Wall,thathavegivenmegreatmatterofspeculation.Thefirstis,
whyitwasmadeatall,foritcouldneverbeaproperdefence,and
perhapsatBownesslessthanatanyotherplace,sinceourbarbarian
forefathersonthenorthsidecouldpassoveratlowwater,andifthe
seawashigherordeeperthanitisnow,couldmaketheirattacksfrom
thenortheastsidebyland.Thesecondis,whytheScotshistorians,
vainenoughbynature,havenottakenmorepainstodescribetheWall,
aperformancewhichdidtheirancestorsmorehonourthanallthe
triflingstoriesputtogetherwhichtheyhavetransmittedtous.Itis
truetheRomanswalledouthumanityfromus;butitisascertainthey
thoughttheCaledoniansaveryformidablepeople,whentheyatsomuch
labourandcostbuiltthisWall;asbeforetheyhadmadeaVallum
betweentheForthandtheClyde.
[Sidenote:THEBARRIERNOTANAKEDWALL.]
TheRomansdidnotopposetotheenemyasinglelineoffortification
only,which,bysomecasualnegligenceontheirpart,orasudden
exertionofdesperatebraveryonthesideoftheirantagonists,mightin
amomentberendereduseless.InadditiontotheWall,stationarycamps
wereplantedalongitswholecourse,atafewmilesdistancefromit,
bothtothenorthandthesouth;sothat,inreality,atriplelineof
fortresseswasopposedtothepassageofanenemyfromeitherquarter.
ThesesubsidiarystationswereconnectedwiththegarrisonsontheWall,
andtosomeextentwitheachother,bygoodroads.Inmaintaininga
surveillanceoveranenemy,whethertothenorthorthesouthofthe
chiefmemberofthefortification,infurnishingasecureretreatfor
thesoldierywhenventuringbeyondtheirline,andinstemmingthefirst
shockofanonset,theimportanceoftheoutstationscannotbe
overrated.
[Sidenote:THESUPPORTINGFORTSOFDIFFERENTERAS.]

Itisnotcontendedthatallthestationswhichareimmediatelyonthe
northandsouthoftheWallwereerectedwiththeexpressviewof
supportingit.Severalofthemdoubtlesswere,butothers,thereis
reasontobelieve,weremadebyAgricola,beforetheWallwasprojected
orthoughtof.Allthatisnecessaryforustoadmitis,thatthey
contributedmateriallytothestrengthofthemainstructure,andas
such,formedanimportantelementinthecalculationsoftheengineerof
theWall.
Intakingacursorysurveyofthesupportingstationsoftheline,it
maybewell,first,toexaminethosewhichdefendeditseastern
extremity:next,thosewhichareuponWatlingstreetthegreatchannel
ofcommunicationbetweenthenorthernandsouthernsectionsofBritain
ontheeastsideofthesummitlevel:afterwards,thosewhichareonthe
Maidenwaytheroadonthewestofthesummitlevel:andreservetothe
last,theimportantstationswhichstrengthenedtheworksonthe
northernandsouthernshoresoftheSolway.
_TYNEMOUTH._TheCastleandPriorystanduponapeninsulasostrongand
soeasilydefended,thatitcouldnothaveescapedtheattentioneither
oftheaboriginalBritonsortheRomans.Thealtar,whichwaserectedby
thefourthcohortoftheLingones,[Illustration:Tablet,GyrumCumbas]
hasbeenalreadydescribed(_p._109).Anotherletteredstone,found
alongwithit,ishererepresented.
GYRVMCVMBAS
ETTEMPLVM
FECITCIV
MAXIMINVS
LEGVIVI
EXVOTO
Aboutthereadingofthefirstlineofthisinscription,whichBrand
translates,acircularharbourfortheshipping,thereissome
uncertainty;butthereisnodoubtabouttheotherlines,whichimport
that
CaiusJuliusMaximinus,_of_theSixthLegion,victorious,
intheperformanceofavow,erected_this_temple.
Themerecircumstanceofitsselectionasthesiteofatemple,proves
thistohavebeenaplaceofsomeimportanceintheRomanage.Thename
ofthebuilderofthetemplefixes,withanearapproachtoprecision,
thedateofitsdedication.CaiusJuliusVerusMaximinuswasaThracian
shepherdofgreatpersonalstrength;heattractedatanearlyperiodof
hislifethenoticeofSeptimiusSeverus,andunderCaracallaattained
totherankofcenturion.OntheassassinationofAlexanderSeverus,in
235,heassumedthepurple,andwashimselfassassinatedin238.He
probablyaccompaniedSeptimiusSeverusintoBritain,andonthis
occasionerectedthetemplecommemoratedbythisinscription.The
followingamusingaccountofthepersonalqualificationsofMaximinus,
isgiveninDr.WilliamSmithsadmirableDictionaryofBiographyand
Mythology.
Hisheightexceededeightfeet,buthispersonwasnotungraceful,for
thesizeandmusculardevelopementofhislimbswereinproportionto
hisstature,thecircumferenceofhisthumbbeingequaltothatofa
womanswrist,sothatthebraceletofhiswifeservedhimfora
ring....Theremarkablemagnitudeofhiseyescommunicatedaboldand
imposingexpressiontohisfeatures.Hewasablesinglehandedtodrag
aloadedwagon,couldwithhisfistknockoutthegrinders,andwitha
kickbreakthelegofahorse;whilehisappetitewassuch,thatina
dayhecouldeatfortypoundsofmeat,anddrinkanamphoraofwine.

Atleastsucharethestatementsoftheancientwriters.
NearlyalltracesofthecampatTynemouthhavebeenerased.Someyears
afterthemodernwellneartheentranceintothecastlewassunk,
anotherofwidediameter,andcasedwithmasonry,wasdiscovered,in
consequenceofthefallinginofitscovering;itissupposedtobe
Roman,butwasagainclosedbyorderofthecommanderofthegarrison,
beforeitcouldbeproperlyinspected.
[Sidenote:MEDIVALREMAINS.]
ThemedivalremainsatTynemouthareofgreatinterest.Thecastellated
gatewaywhichformerlydefendedtheapproachestotheprioryprecincts
hasbeensadlymutilatedbytastelessrenovators,buttheecclesiastical
buildings,whichhavehappilybeenlefttothemercyoftheelements,
exhibitevenintheirruins,muchoftheiroriginalbeauty.The
churchyard,affordsarestingplacetomanywhoforyearshadbeen
tossedupontherestlessocean,andtosomewho,venturingintothe
brinyfloodinsearchofhealthandpleasure,metwithanuntimelyend.
Friendlytombstones,speakofthem;somenames,however,areindanger
ofbeingforgotten.
ThemurderedbodyofOswinkingofDeira,wasdepositedinthe
churchyardofthismonastery.Heretoo,wereburiedMalcolmCanmore
kingofScotlandthefriendoftheSaxonandhisson,princeEdward,so
namedafterhismaternalancestortheConfessor;theywerebothslainin
thesamefatalbattlefoughtnearAlnwick,A.D.1094.QueenMargaret,
throughwhomherpresentmajesty,queenVictoria,derivesherSaxon
blood,survivedtheslaughterofherhusbandandsonbutafewdays.
[Sidenote:BLAKECHESTERS.]
_BLAKECHESTERS_,atthehighendofNorthShields,isthesiteof
anothercamp.Waterville,theresidenceofGeorgeRippon,esq.,is
withinitsbounds.Severalcarvedstones,muchwornbytheweather,are
ontheground,andmanyRomanbuildingstonesmaybeobservedinthe
contiguousfences.
Thesearenottheonlycampswhichweresituatedontheeastcoastnorth
oftheWall.Hodgsonsays
FromtheWallnorthward,arenumeroussmallsquarecamps,strengthened
withdeepditches,scatteredoverthecountry,asiftheyhadbeen
intendedforruralpurposes.[128]Alineofthemmaystillbetraced
throughtheparishesofLongBenton,pastCramlington,intothePlessy
grounds.
ThereiseveryprobabilitythatthesiteofMorpethcastlewasfortified
bytheRomans.Someportionsofthecurtainwallstillstandinghave
beenpronouncedbycompetentjudgestobeofRomanmasonry.
[Sidenote:FORTATSOUTHSHIELDS.]
_SHIELDSLAWE._ThesouthernshoreoftheestuaryoftheTynewasas
wellprotectedasthenorthern.Acamp,comprehendingseveralacres,
stoodupontheslightlyelevatedheadlandatSouthShieldscalledthe
Lawe.Theexcellenceofthesituation,asapostofobservation,is
provedbytheactsofthepilotswhohaveplantedabeaconanderected
manyoftheirresidencesuponit.In1798,thefoundationsofmanyold
walls,whichobstructedtheplough,wereremoved.Thelowestcourseof
someofthemconsistedofroughwhinstone,evidentlybroughtfromthe
shore,asthebarnacleswerestilladheringtothem.Theremainsofa
hypocaustwerediscoveredatthesametime.Severalcoinswerealso

found,andassomeofthemwereofthereignofValentinian(A.D.380),
itmaybepresumedthatthestationwasinuseonlyashorttimebefore
thedesertionofBritainbytheRomans.Analtar,despoiledofits
inscription,whichwasfoundinthisstation,ispreservedinthe
libraryatDurham.
TheancientmilitarywaycalledtheWreckendiketerminatedatthis
station.Untilarecentperiod,onebranchofitcouldbetracedby
Laygate,theDeanbridge,andJarrowslake,toGatesheadfell.Italso
ledtoLanchester,Binchester,andtheSouth.
[Sidenote:STATIONATJARROW.]
_JARROW._AtnearlythesamedistancefromthecampontheLawe,onthe
southsideoftheriver,asBlakechestersisfromTynemouth,onthe
north,thesiteofanotherRomanfortoccurs.Hodgson,whofirstdrew
attentiontoit,says
AtJarrow,anoblongsquareofaboutthreeacres,withitscorners
roundedoff,overlookingtheestuaryofJarrowslake,andfrontingon
thesouththebankofthenavigablestreamcalledtheDon,is,ongood
grounds,supposedtohavebeenthesiteofastationorfortifiedtown
oftheRomans.Undergroundfoundationsofawallofstrongmasonry
markoutitsareaoneveryside,andincludewithinthemthesiteof
thepresentchurchandchurchyard,andsomeraggedremainsofthe
ancientmonasteryofJarrow.Indigginguppartoftheremainsof
thesewallsin1812,asilverdenariusofAulusVitelliuswasfound
embeddedinmortarintheheartofthewall;andwhentheroadwas
formedpastJarrowrow,in1803,twosquarepavementsofRomanbrick
werediscovered.
[Illustration:323]
Twoinscribedstoneshavebeenfoundherewhichgivestrengthtothe
opinionthatJarrowwasaRomanstation.Oneofthem,nowat
Somersethouse,isshewninthewoodcut.AsBrandobserves,itis
interestingascontainingthenameofourislandatlength.Ithasbeen
read
DIFFVSISPROVINC_IISIN_BRITANNIAADVTRVMQVE
O_CEANVM_EXERCITVS_FECIT_.
Thearmyerectedthis,ontheextensionoftheRomandominionin
Britain,fromthewesterntotheeasternsea.
Theotherstonehasformedpartofanaltarerectedinhonourofthe
adoptedsonsofHadrian.
ThechurchofJarrowisasimplebuilding,butitcontainssome
undoubtedSaxonwork.Withinthewallsoftheancientmonastery,some
portionsofwhichexist,thevenerableBedepassedhisusefuland
unostentatiouslife.Ofhim,Surtees,theHistorianofDurham,observes
Thelampoflearning,trimmedbythehandofasinglemonasticwho
neverpassedthelimitsofhisNorthumbrianprovince,irradiatedfrom
thecellofJarrow,theSaxonrealmofEnglandwithaclearandsteady
light;andwhenBededied,historyreversedhertorch,andquenchedit
indeepnight.
Thisvenerablemandied,A.D.,735,intheactofcompletinga
translationintoAngloSaxonoftheGospelofSt.John.Hisnamewould
havebeenworthyofallreverence,evenhadhedonenothingmorethan
givetohiscountrymentheScripturesintheirvernaculartongue.It
musthoweverbeconfessedthathefelloneviltimes,andthathis

worksembodymanyoftheerrorsandsuperstitionsoftheperiod.
[Sidenote:WARDLEY.]
_WARDLEY._Ananciententrenchmentcontaininganareaofupwardsofsix
acres,mayyetbeobservedatWardley,intheparishofJarrow,nearly
oppositetoWallsend.Hodgson,whoresidedforseveralyearsinthis
neighbourhood,wasnotabletolearnthatanyRomanantiquitieswere
everfoundinit.Hewasdisposed,however,tothinkthatitbelongedto
theRomanera.Itmayhavebeenasummerencampmentofthegarrisonat
Wallsend,andassuch,wouldcontributenotalittletotheircomfort,
andthedefenceoftheriver.
Wardley,thereissomereasontosuppose,istheWredelauofthe
chroniclers,wherethebodyofSt.Cuthbertbecameimmoveable,andwhere
thewanderingmonasticsreceivedtherevelationwhichdirectedthemto
Durham.
Suchwerethestrongholdsbywhichthegarrisonsontheeastern
extremityoftheWallwereassistedinmaintainingtheirgroundagainst
thefoe.
Watlingstreet,runningnorthandsouth,crossedtheWallatabout
twentymilesfromitsterminationatWallsend.Themodernturnpikeroad
betweenCorbridgeandWestWoodburnadheresverycloselytoitstrack,
andoccasionallytheancientditchesprotectingitonbothsidesareto
beseen.ItsstationswereprobablyplantedbyAgricola,butwerenoton
thataccountlessusefultothesoldiersoftheBarrier.Ourexamination
ofthemmustbebrief.
_CHEWGREEN._Here,closeupontheScottishborder,isanextensive
Romancamp;investigationisnecessarytodecidewhetheritwasofa
temporaryorpermanentcharacter;itisprobablyonlyanearthen
entrenchment.
[Sidenote:HIGHROCHESTER.]
BREMENIUM,orHighRochester,isastationofconsiderableinterest.It
standsuponWatlingstreet,atabouttwentytwomilesnorthoftheWall.
BetweenRochesterandChewgreenthepavementoftheRomanroadmaybe
distinctlytracedformanymilestogether.Thesiteonwhichthestation
standsishighandmuchexposed;but,inamilitarypointofview,itis
verystrong.Onallsidesthegroundslopesfromit,butonthenorthit
sinkssorapidly,astogiveittheprotectionofaboldbreastwork.The
wallsofthestationarestrongerthanthoseofthefortsonthelineof
theWall;theyarenotonlythicker,butarecomposedoflarger
stones.[Sidenote:BREMENIUM.]Amoathassurroundedthecamp;onthe
eastside,whichisbynaturetheweakest,twoditcheshavebeenformed,
whichthereisreasontobelieveweresuppliedwithwater.Allthe
gatewaysmaybetracedwithconsiderabledistinctness;thesouthernone
hassufferedleastfromdepredation.Theinteriorofthestationis
filledwiththeruinsofbuildings;someofthemwouldwellrepay
examination.Ofthemodernstructureswhichhavebeenraisedwithinits
area,twoarepeelhousesorfortifieddwellingsofconsiderable
strength.Thesuburbanbuildingsofthestationhavebeensituatedon
thewestside,wheretheirfoundationsstillappear.Heretheywouldbe
protectedbythevalleyalongwhich,ataboutaquarterofamiles
distance,theSillsburnruns.Thestonesoftherampartsarestrongly
markedbythediamondbroaching.Thestationcontainsanareaoffour
acresandthreeroods.
Atabouthalfamiledistantfromthestation,inasoutheast

direction,therehaverecentlybeendiscoveredthefoundationsofsome
Roman_cippi_orfuneralmonuments.Theyareclosebytheroad,andas
wasusuallythecase,onthesouthsideofit.Threeofthemaresquare,
thefourth,whichisthelargest,iscircular.Themasonryofallof
themisremarkablyfresh.Thecirculartombhastwocoursesofstones
standing,besidestheflatstoneswhichformthefoundation.Onclearing
outtheinterior,ajarofunburntclaywasfound;ithadnobonesin
it.Thenaturalsoilwasfoundtohavebeenacteduponbyfiretothe
depthofmorethanafoot.Mixedwiththerubbishwasaquantityof
whiteashes.AcoinofAlexanderSeveruswasfoundwithinthearea,a
circumstancewhichstrengthensthepresumptionthatthestationwas
occupiedbytheRomansuntilalateperiod.
Thereareseveraltemporarycampsinthisneighbourhood.Personswell
acquaintedwiththecountry,andwhohavenoticedthepeculiarstructure
ofRomanroads,giveitastheiropinionthataRomanwayhasproceeded
eastwardsfromRochesterbyYatesfield,PottsDurtrees,Yardhope,
Holystone,andGlanton,inadirectionwhichrendersitprobablethatit
joinedthatbranchofWatlingstreetwhichtraversedtheeasternsideof
Northumberland,andisofteninelegantlytermedtheDevilscauseway.
Somedistancesouthofthestation,andneartothepointatwhich
Watlingstreetcrossesthemodernhighway,(infrontofRedesdale
cottage)theremainsofanancientlimekilnwererecentlyfound.Itwas
situatedontheslopeofarockyhill,andhadbeenformedpartlybythe
excavationofthenaturalrock,andpartlybyregularcoursesof
masonry.Inordertotakeadvantageoftheformoftheground,themouth
fordrawingoutthelimewasplacedinfront.Thestonesweremuch
reddenedbytheactionoffire,andportionsoflimewereadheringto
them.Thereisexcellentlimestonenearthekiln,andseveralbedsof
coalareinthevicinity.Severalheapsofrubbish,onthelineof
Watlingstreet,wherethecoalcropsout,renderitprobablethatthis
mineralwaswroughtbytheRomans.
[Sidenote:THEITINERARYOFANTONINE.]
InascertainingtheRomannamesofthestationsonthelineoftheWall,
referencehashithertobeenmadeonlytotheNotitiaImperii.Another
documenthascomedowntoourtime,ofwhichwemaynowavail
ourselvestheItineraryofAntonine.Itdoesnotmentionanyofthe
stationsimmediatelyupontheWall,butnamessometothenorthandand
southofit.ItisasortofroadbookofthewholeRomanempire,andis
supposedtohavebeenmadebyoneoftheemperorswhoborethenameof
Antoninus.HorsleythinksthatCaracallaisbestentitledtobe
accounteditsauthor.ThatpartofitwhichrelatestoBritaincontains
fifteenroutes;thetownsuponeacharenamed,andthedistancesfrom
onetoanothergiveninRomanmiles.Theaidwhichsuchadocumentgives
inascertainingtheancientdesignationsofthestationsthatoccurin
itisobvious.ThefirstIterisentitledARoutefromtheLimit,
thatis,fromtheWall,toPRTORIUM,156miles.Itbeginsthus
FromBREMENIUMtoCORSTOPITUMXXmiles.
ToVINDOMORAIX
ToVINOVIAXIX
ThesecondIteralsobeginsattheWall,andgoestothe
Ritupianport,Richborough,481miles.
Thefirstportiononly,ofitalso,bearsuponourpresent
investigation.
FromBLATUMBULGIUMtoCASTRAEXPLORATORUMXIImiles.
ToLUGUVALLIUMXII
ToVOREDAXIV

ThetenthIter,whichisfromGLANOVENTAtoMEDIOLANUM,150miles,
beginswithtownswhicharesupposedtobeinthevicinityoftheWall.
FromGLANOVENTAtoGALAVAXVIIImiles.
ToALIONE(orALIONIS)XII
ThatRochesteristheBREMENIUMofthefirstroute,isestablishedby
thediscoveryofanaltarinit,whichprofessestobeerectedbythe
_duplares_oftheexploratorytroopsstationedatBREMENIUM.Inno
positionwouldexploratorytroopsbemoreneededthanhere,andnoplace
couldbemoreappropriatelyfixeduponasthestartingpointofan
Iterthanthis.Severaloftheinscriptionsbelongingtothisstation
bearthenameofCaracalla.BothBREMENIUMandHABITANCUMseemtohave
undergoneimportantrepairsinthetimeofthisemperor.
EightmilessouthofHighRochester,andonthelineofWatlingstreet,
isanotherRomanstation.
[Sidenote:HABITANCUM.]
HABITANCUMisthenamewhichCamden,andHorsley,ontheauthorityofa
stonefoundnearthestation,andwhichwasinspectedbythemboth,
agreeinbestowinguponthemodernRisingham.
ThepositionofHABITANCUMwillstrikeastrangerwithsurprise.Instead
ofoccupyinganeminence,itisplacedinavalley,andcloseuponthe
banksoftheRede.Hillsenvironit,thoughnotveryclosely,onevery
side.Theywho,inearlyspring,havebeenexposedontheneighbouring
heightstothesleetyshower,willknowthereasonoftheselection.The
climateofRisinghamispeculiarlymild.Thewestwindblowswiththe
steadinessofatradewind,andtheharsheastseldomdescendsintothis
favouredvalley.ThevillageofWoodburnisontheoppositesideofthe
river.ThelinesinRokebywellcharacterizethespot,thoughitswood
isfastdisappearing
WhereRedeuponhismarginsees
SweetWoodburnscottagesandtrees.
Notwithstandingthesecludednatureofthesituation,itisnot
destituteofmilitarystrength.TheRededefendsitonthenorth,which
wasthepointofgreatestdanger;and,exceptingonthesouth,wherean
outpostseemstohavebeenmaintained,anenemycouldbedescriedlong
beforeapproachingthecamp.
Thewallsofthestationhavebeenconstructedofthesamestrong
masonryasthoseofBREMENIUM.Owingtotheexcellenceofthestone,the
marksofthetooluponthemarepeculiarlydistinct.Inthehillbehind
thestation,calledtheBellknowe,theancientquarrymenhaveleft
numerouswedgeholesandotherindicationsoftheirlabours.Althougha
fosseusuallysurroundedtherampartsofastation,andalthoughsir
WalterScotthassungof
ThemoatedmoundofRisingham,
[Sidenote:RISINGHAM.]
Risinghamdoesnotappeartohavebeendefendedinthisway.Incompany
withtheowneroftheproperty,whohadalittlebeforethoroughdrained
thegroundborderingonthesouthandeastsidesofthecamp,Isought
invainforanytracesofafosse.Theruinsoftheinteriorwouldyield
arichharvesttothecarefulexplorer.Recentexcavationshaverevealed
somechambersofgreatinterest;but,withtheexceptionofthosenear
thesoutheastcorner,theyhavebeenremovedassoonasdisplayed.Some
ofthebuildingswereevidentrestorationsofpriorstructures:a

circumstancewhichconfirmstheconclusiondeducedfromother
considerations,thatthestationwaslongoccupiedbytheRomans.After
beingdeserted,aportionofitsnorthramparthasbeencarriedawayby
theriver.Untilrecently,theremainsofthebridgebywhich
WatlingstreetcrossedtheRede,onthewestsideofthestation,were
distinctlyvisible.Thesoilwhichcoversthecampispeculiarlyrich,
beingrepletewithanimalmatter.Manyimportantantiquariantreasures
havebeenprocuredfromthisspot.Thelargeslab,sixfeetlong,which
formsthegroundworkoftheinitialletteratthebeginningofthis
part,wasfoundamongtheruinsofthesouthgateway.Theinscription
mentionstherestorationofthegatewiththewallsofthestation
(PORTAMCUMMURISVETUSTATEDILAPSIS).Theupperpart,whichislost,
probablycontainedthenameofSeverus;inwhatremains,someofthe
titlesofCaracallaappear.Getasnameseemstohavebeenerased.The
stoneisnowatNewcastle.Anotherveryfineslabfoundatthisstation,
isatCambridge.Someofthealtarsdiscoveredherewillbedescribedin
thelastpart.
HorsleyisnaturallysurprisedthatHABITANCUMisnotnamedinthe
AntonineItinerary.Oneconjectureinwhichheindulges,inorderto
accountforthisis,thatthestationmightbeneglectedbeforethe
reignofCaracalla,whichisprovedtobeunfoundedbytheslabalready
referredto,andbythediscoverylastyearofsomelargefragmentsof
inscriptions,mentioningthatemperorbyhistitleAdiabenicus.Asecond
suppositionwhichheentertainsmaybethecorrectone.Hesays
PossiblyRisinghammightbelookedonastoonearto
Rochester,tomakeitanothermansioninthisroute.And
thoughtwoplacesaresometimessetdowninthesameiter,
whichareatnogreaterdistance,yetothercircumstances
mightrenderthisproperatoneplace,andnotsoatanother.
Itisnotimprobablethatthetwostationsmayhavebeenunderone
command.TheexposedsituationofBREMENIUMwouldrenderithighly
desirablethatthe_exploratores_,afterhavingbattledforaseason
withtheelementsandtheCaledonians,shouldbeallowedaperiodof
comparativereliefinsomemoreshelteredspot,suchasHABITANCUM.
[Sidenote:CORSTOPITUM.]
CORSTOPITUMisthenextplacethatoccursinthisiter,inwhichitis
setdownasbeingtwentymilesfromBREMENIUM.Atthedistanceofabout
twentythreeEnglishmilesfromthecampofHighRochester,andonthe
lineofWatlingstreet,arenowtobefoundtheremainsofthestation
ofCorchester.
[Sidenote:CORCHESTER.]
This,whichisalittletothewestofthetownofCorbridge,is
doubtlesstheancientCORSTOPITUM.Thestation,whichisnowentirely
levelled,andcanwithdifficultybetraced,hasstooduponagently
swellingknollonthenorthbankoftheTyne.Abridge,thefoundations
ofwhichthefloodsofseventeencenturieshavespared,connectedit
withtheoppositebankoftheriver;theremainsofthisbridgeare
preciselysimilarinappearancetothoseontheNorthTyneatCILURNUM.
Thebridgehascrossedtheriverobliquely,acircumstancewhich
corroboratestheopinionformerlyexpressed,thatthebridgesinthese
partsconsistedofhorizontalroadways,supporteduponpiersunless,
indeed,wesupposethattheRomanswereacquaintedwiththeconstruction
oftheskewarch.Hutchinsonstates,thatamilitarywaypassesfrom
thisplacesouthwestthroughDilstonPark,overHexhamFelltoOldTown
inAllendale,andmeetswiththeMaidenwayatWhitleyCastle.
Abundanceofmedals,inscriptions,andotherRomanantiquities,have
beenfoundatCorchester.PiecesofRomanbricksandpotsarespread

overthesurfaceoftheground.ThechurchatCorbridgehasbeenraised
attheexpenseofthestation.Horsleyconceivesthatthisfortwas
abandonedbeforethecompilationoftheNotitia,asitisnotmentioned
inthatdocument.ItisabouttwomilessouthoftheWall.
Thelargealtarwhichisfiguredintheinitialletteratthebeginning
ofthisvolume,formed,inHorsleysdays,theshaftofthemarketcross
atCorbridge.Itisnowonthestairsoftheentrancetower,atthe
castleofNewcastleuponTyne.Theinscriptionisdefaced,butthe
carvingonbothsidesremains;ontheonesideisasoldier,armedthe
representativeprobablyofwar;ontheotherisawarrior,havinglaid
asidehisweapons,dragginganamphoraofwineapicture,emblematicof
peace.Thesingularusemadeofthisheathenrelicsuggeststhe
insertionhereofthestoryoftheFairystone,asitisstilltoldin
thisneighbourhood.
ARomanaltarinthevicinityofBywellwas,duringthetroublesome
timesof1715,puttoauselittlecontemplatedeitherbythe
ancientsormoderns.Itwasemployedasthepostofficeofthe
nonjuringgentryofthedistrict.Theparties,wishingtokeepupa
correspondencewitheachother,arrangedtodeposittheir
communicationsinahollowofthealtar.Inthegrayofthemorning
littlegirlscladingreen,andtrainedtothetask,approachedthe
stonewithadancingstep,and,havinggottheletters,retiredwith
anticgestures.Sowelldidtheyperformtheirpartthattheywere
mistakenforfairies,andtheobjectoftheirvisitswasnot
discoveredforalongtimeafterwards.Thestonewasknownbythename
oftheFairystone.
[Sidenote:CORBRIDGELANX.]
ButthegreatestcuriositywhichhasbeendiscoveredatCORSTOPITUM,is
thesilver_lanx_,ordish,whichisrepresentedonthenextpage.A
pieceofplatesomassive,isofrareoccurrenceinthestationsofthe
North.ItisinthepossessionofthedukeofNorthumberland.Thereis
anaccuratecastofitintheNewcastleMuseumofAntiquities.
[Illustration:CorbridgeLanx]
'Itwasfound(saysMr.RobertCay,inaletterof4thMarch1734)
nearCorbridge,bysomeignorantpoorpeoplewhohavecutoffthefeet
insuchavilebarbarousmanner,thattheyhavebroketwoholes
throughthetable,andasmallpieceoffoneofthecornerstoo.'It
is19incheslong,and15broad;itweighsabout150ounces.Therim
oftheplaterisesnearlyaninchabovetheinterior.Thefigureshave
beenpunchedintoform.Galesconjectureastoitsuseisprobably
thecorrectone.Thisisbigenough(hesays)tocontainthe_exta_
ofasheep,orothersmallvictims,whichseemstometobethe
likeliestemploymentforit,andthatitwasoneofthesesacrificing
utensilsthatVirgilcalls_Lances_:
Lancibusetpandisfumantiareddimusexta.
Theprincipalfiguresontheplateareprobably,thoseofDiana,
Minerva,Juno,Vesta,andApollo.
OntheleftsideofthedesignisDiana,armedwithabowandarrow.
Belowherfeetisanurnwithwaterflowingfromit;infrontofher,
isanaltarwithanoffering,ofaglobularform,uponit,andbelow
thealtar,isadogofthegreyhoundspecies,lookinguptothe
goddess.
ThenextfigureisMinerva.Shewearsahelmet,andherbreastis
adornedwiththeGorgonshead.Aspearisinherlefthand.Thethumb
andfirsttwofingersofherrighthandareuplifted,asifintheact

ofbestowingabenediction.
ThenextfigureissupposedtobeJuno,thoughnosymbolisgivenby
whichshecanbedecisivelydistinguished.Herrighthandisuplifted
inamannersimilartoMinervas.Atherfeetliesadeadbuck.
Vestasucceeds.Sheisseated;partofherpeplusormantleisdrawn
overherhead;thetwoforefingersofherlefthand,whichis
apparentlyrestinguponherbosom,areupraised.Beneaththegoddess
isanaltarwiththefireburning.
OntherightofthepieceisApollo,standingunderacanopy.Hisbow
isinhislefthand,aflowerinhisright.Hislyreisontheground
byhisside,andagriffinisbelowhim.
Aneagleandsomeotherbirdsareamongthebranchesofthetreein
theupperpartofthepiece.
Underthewholerepresentationsomereconditemeaningisprobably
concealed,whichcanonlybeasubjectofconjecture.(_SeeHodgsons
Northumberland_,II.iii.246.)
[Illustration:AltartoAstarte]
[Sidenote:GREEKALTAR.]
Twoimportantaltars,withGreekinscriptionshavebeenfoundat
Corbridge.OneisdedicatedtotheTyrianHercules;theother,whichis
representedintheadjoiningwoodcut,toAstarte,theAshtarothofthe
Scriptures.

OfAstarte,
Thealtar
Yousee,
Pulcher
replaced.
Josephustellsus,thatHiramkingofTyre,builttwotemples,whichhe
dedicatedtothesedeities.TheIsraelites,inforsakingthelivingGod,
notunfrequentlybetookthemselvestotheabominationsoftheSidonians.
...Withtheseintroop
CameAstoreth,whomthePh[oe]nicianscalld
Astarte,queenofheaven,withcrescenthorns;
Towhosebrightimagenightlybythemoon
Sidonianvirginspaidtheirvowsandsongs,
InSionalsonotunsung,...
ItisdeeplyandpainfullyinterestingtodigupinourBritishsoil
decidedtracesofthisgrossidolatry.[129]
[Sidenote:HEXHAMCRYPT.]
_HEXHAM_isgenerallyadmittedbyantiquariestohavebeenaRomantown,
thoughtheproofofitisnotabsolutelydecisive.St.Wilfridbuilta
churchandmonasteryhereabouttheyear673,aftertheRomanmanner,
whichwasconsideredthewonderoftheage.Wearetoldbythe
historiansofthatperiodthatsecretcellsandsubterraneanoratories

werelaidwithwondrousindustrybeneaththebuilding.Somevaults
[Illustration:CryptofHexhamAbbeyChurch]stillremainingprobably
formedthecryptofthisancientstructure.Thestoneswhichcompose
thisundergroundbuildingareallRoman;thepeculiarmodeinwhich
theyarechiselledisexhibitedintheannexedwoodcut,representing
oneofitschambers.ThewallsexhibitseveralRomanmouldingsand
cornices,besidesinscriptions.[130]Itisnotlikelythatthesestones
wouldbebroughtfromCorbridge(thenearestRomanstation,ifHexhambe
notone),whichisontheothersideoftheriver,andthreemiles
distant;especiallyasthereisabundance[Illustration:SlabtoSeverus
atHexham]ofstoneintheimmediateneighbourhood.Themostimportant
oftheinscribedslabswhicharewalledupinthecrypt,ishere
exhibited;itisone[Sidenote:INSCRIPTIONTOSEVERUS.]ofthe
inscriptionsbearingthenamesoftheemperorSeptimiusSeverus(who
addedtohisownnamethatofhispredecessor,Pertinax),ofhiseldest
son,Caracalla,whostyledhimselfMarcusAureliusAntoninusPius,and
ofGeta,hisyoungerson,whosenameandtitlehaveobviouslybeen
erasedfromthetablet,anoperationwhichwefindhasbeenstudiously
performedonmanysimilarinscriptions,doubtlessafterhismurderby
hisunnaturalbrotherCaracalla.Thedateofthisinscriptionismarked
bytheunionofSeverusandhistwosonsintheimperialtitle.Its
objectdoesnotappearfromwhatremainsofthestone,furtherthanthat
itrecordedsomeactdonebyavexillationofsomeportionoftheRoman
forces.
ThemedivalantiquitiesofHexhamarehighlyinteresting.Thegateways
andembattledtowerswillrepayexamination;butthegemofthisfine
oldtown,whichintheSaxonerawasanepiscopalsee,isthe
Abbeychurch.Thechoirandtranseptsaloneremain;theyexhibitmuch
beautyofdetail,andtheirseveralpartsblendmostharmoniously
together.Thechurchformerlypossessedtherightofsanctuary.The
fridstoolisstillinitsplace.Thecrosswhichmarkedtheeastern
boundaryoftheprivilegedterritoryisnearlyentire,andiskeptnear
itsoriginalsite,intheyardofthepoorhouse.The_disjectamembra_
ofthatwhichmarkedthenorthernboundaryofthesanctuaryliebythe
sideoftheroadgoingoverCrossbank,ahillbetweentwoandthree
milesnorthofHexham,andfromwhichthetravellerapproachingthetown
fromthenorthfirstobtainsaviewofthevenerableabbeychurch,and
surroundingtown.Theprospectisnow,tothepeacefulantiquary,
guiltlessofhisneighboursblood,singularlyinterestingwhatmustit
havebeenwhendescriedinancienttimesbypantingfugitives,pressed
byanavenginghand,andfleeingtothesanctuary!Thiscrossremainsa
monumentofthedisorderedstateofsocietyinthemiddleages,and
leadsthereflectingpassengertocontrasthispresenttranquilitywith
theinsecurityofformertimes.Nofavouredspotisnownecessaryto
shieldtheinnocentfromtherageofastrongerassailant,orwillbe
allowedtostaythecourseofjusticeupontheguilty.
[Sidenote:EBCHESTER.]
_EBCHESTER_,situateduponthelineofWatlingstreet,is,asitsname
indicates,aRomanstation.Surteesthusdescribesit:
Ebchesterstandsatthefootofalongdescent,yetontheedgeofa
stillsteeperdeclivity.Itscottagesandtreesarescatteredalonga
loftybrowoverhangingthegreenhaughlandsoftheDerwent.Onthe
veryedgeofthesteep,thevallumofaRomanstationisstill
extremelydistinct,andthelittlechapelofEbchester,afarmhold,
andafewthatchedcottages,standwithintheveryareaoftheancient
VINDOMORAifVINDOMORAitbe,forthepointisbynomeansstatedas
beyondcontroversy.
[Sidenote:LANCHESTER.]

_LANCHESTER_is,ontheauthorityoftheitineraryofRichardof
Cirencester,conceivedtobetheEPEIACUMoftheRomans.Thoughseveral
milesremovedfromtheWall,itspositionuponWatlingstreetwould
renderitusefulasasupportingstation.Itoccupiesaloftybrowto
thewestofthevillage,onatongueoflandformedbythejunctionof
twosmallstreams.Onthreesidesthegroundfallsfromthecamp;onthe
westonlyitiscommandedbyahighmoorlandhill,whoseprospectranges
fromtheCheviots,inthenorth,totheClevelandhills,inthesouth.
Thestationisoneofthelargestclass,containinganareaofabout
eightacres.Thewallsmaybedistinguishedonallsides.Thesouth
wall,thoughdeprivedofitsfacingstones,standseightfeethigh,and
shewsninecoursesofthinrubblestonesarrangededgewiseinaleaning
direction.Alayerofveryroughmortarhasbeenplacedoneachcourse
ofstonesaftertheyhavebeenplacedintheirbed.Ontheoutsideof
thesoutheastangleasubterraneanchamberhasbeendiscovered;the
descenttoitisbysteps.Itisdifficulttoconjecturetheuseto
whichithasbeenput;asimilarchamberwasfoundtooccupythesame
positionoutsidethecampatPlumpton.Themasonryofsomechambersnear
thesoutheastcornerofthestation,whichwhenfirstopenedwerefound
tobefullofbones,isveryperfect.Theremainsofahypocaustmaybe
seenneartotheplacewherethepretoriumhasprobablystood.
Lanchesterseemstohavebeengarrisonedalmostthroughouttheentire
periodofRomanoccupation;alargeproportionofthecoinsfoundatit
areofthehigherempire,buttheseriesextendsdowntoValentinian.
ThenameofGordianoccursontwoinscriptionsastherestorerofsome
ofitsbuildings.Thedestructionofthestationwasprobablyowingto
somesuddenandviolentcatastrophe.TheobservationsofSurteesonthis
subject,areapplicabletomanyofthecampsoftheBarrier.
Theredashesofthebasilicaandbath,thevitrifiedflooring,and
themetallicsubstancesevidentlyrunbyfire,whichoccuramongstthe
ruins,formastrongindicationthatthestructureperishedinthe
flames.
Ithasalreadybeenobserved(p.261)thattwoaqueductshavebrought
watertothestationfromadistanceofsomemiles.Thisisthemore
remarkableasseveraldeepwellshavebeenfoundnearthecamp,and
thereareopenspringswithinfiftypacesfromthesouthandeastwall.
Thesurroundingmooraboundsinironstone;ofthistheRomansseemto
haveavailedthemselves,forimmenseheapsofslag,ofancient
production,havebeenfoundintheneighbourhood.
_BINCHESTER_isstillfarthertothesouth,onthesamelineofroad;
but,onaccountofitsdistance,wouldhavebutlittleintercoursewith
thestationsimmediatelyconnectedwiththeBarrier.Itcontainssome
hypocausts,whicharepeculiarlyworthyofcarefulexamination.
Retracingourstepsandagainpenetratingtheregionoffierce
Caledonianonslaughtsandborderfeuds,wefindBewcastleoccupyinga
positionnorthoftheWall,ontheMaidenway,correspondingwiththat
whichRisinghamdoesonWatlingstreet.
[Sidenote:BEWCASTLE.]
_BEWCASTLE_standsinthebottomofabasinformedbyawide
amphitheatreofbleakandloftyhills.Thecampoccupiesaplatform
slightlyelevatedabovetherivulet,theKirkbeck,whichwashesits
southernrampartsandpermeatesthevalley.Thenorthernsideisthe
weakestpartoftheposition,butevenherethereisadepressioninthe
contouroftheground,whichwouldrenderitmoreeasilydefensible.In

thisquartertootherearemarksofartificialfortificationsbeyondthe
stationwall.Thefort,inordertosuitthenatureoftheground,is
notoftheusualsquareform,butissixsided;itprobablyenclosesan
areaofaboutfouracres.Thegroundonwhichthecampstandsis
reckonedthemostfertileinallCumberland.Itwasinthedepthof
winterthatIvisitedit(1,Jan.1850)buteventhenthespaceoccupied
bythefortificationsmightbedistinguishedbyitspeculiarverdure.To
theeastofthecamparesomebarrowlikemounds,andonthewestofit
areterracedlines,bearingtestimonytotheagriculturalindustryof
theRomans.Ontheeminencewestwardofthecamparethefoundationsof
squarebuildings,probablypostsofobservation.Ontheloftysummitsof
someoftheadjacenthillstheconcentriclinesofBritishencampments
plainlyappear.TheystillseemtobiddefiancetotheRomanfortinthe
valley.
Withinthelinesofthecamp,andprotectedbyamoatofitsown,isa
darkandfrowningcastle;itisterselydescribedinanancient
manuscript,asastrengthagainsttheScotsintimeofwarre.The
captainofBewcastlewasamilitarychiefofconsiderablepower;heis
frequentlymentionedinBorderminstrelsy.Thecastleisbuiltwiththe
stonesofthestation.Itsmasonryisveryrude;themortarwhichhas
beenusedisrough,containing,besidesgravelandsand,piecesofcoal,
charcoal,burntclay,andbrokenbricks.Atower,apparentlyaddedafter
themainstructurewasreared,guardstheentrancegateway.
This,orsomepreviousbuilding,givesnametoBewcastleBuethscastle.
Buethwas,beforetheconquest,lordofBewcastleandGilsland.After
somepreviouschanges,HenryII.,byagrant,dated_apudNovum
CastrumsuperTynam_,gavethemanorofGilslandtoHubertde
Vallibus,oneofhisNormanretainers.TheSaxonswerenotmenquietly
tosubmittowrong.GilbertBueth,sonofthedispossessedproprietor,
collectingabandoffollowers,madefrequentincursionsintohis
ancientpatrimony.RobertdeVallibus,sonofHubert,theformer
possessor,suggestedaconference,atwhichhebaselyassassinatedthe
unarmedSaxon.Expiationwaseasy;the[Sidenote:ORIGINOFLANERCOST
PRIORY.]prioryofLanercostwasfoundedandrichlyendowed.Itis
traditionallysaidthatpartoftheexpiatoryceremonyconsistedin
thedemolitionofthewallsofhiscastleatCastlesteads
(Cambeckfort),andsowingthesitewithsalt.Thebaronialresidence
wastransferredtoIrthington,where,asalreadyobserved,sometraces
ofitremain.RobertdeVallibuswasafterwardsemployedbyHenryII.
asajudgeofassize.Howlaxmustthestateofmoralityhavebeen,
whenamurdererwasallowedtosituponthebench!Hisillgotten
landswerenotpermittedtodescendtohisposterity,William,his
onlychild,dyingbeforehim.
ThefarfamedRuniccross,respectingwhichsomuchhasbeenwritten,
holdsitsancientplaceinthechurchyardofBewcastle.The
inscription,whichisnowhardlylegible,ispronouncedbyKemble
(Archologiaxxviii.347)tobeanAngloSaxon,notaNorseone.Two
Romaninscriptions,notnowtobefound,havebeendescribedas
belongingtothisstation.Oneofthem,whichCamdensawusedasa
gravestone,boretheletters,
LEG[IO]IIAVG[VSTA]
FECIT
Thesecondlegion,theaugust,
made_this_.
Theother,muchfractured,Horsleysawfulfillingthesameoffice.He
says,ItakeittohavebeenanhonorarymonumenterectedtoHadrian,
bythe_LegiosecundaAugusta_,andthe_Legiovicesima_.

[Sidenote:WHITLEYCASTLE.]
_WHITLEYCASTLE_isthemodernnameofanotheroutpost,whichis
situatedontheMaidenway,asfarsouthoftheWallasBewcastleis
northofit.Animperfectinscriptionfoundhere,anddescribedby
CamdenandHorsley,commemoratesthededicationofatempleto
Caracalla,inhisfourthconsulship(A.D.213),bythethirdcohortof
theNervii.AstheNotitiaplacesthethirdcohortoftheNerviiat
ALIONIS,itisconceivedthatsuchmayhavebeentheancientdesignation
ofthecampatWhitleyCastle.Thestationstandsuponthegently
incliningsideofahill,abouttwomilesnorthofthetownofAlston.
Therailwayapproacheswithinafewfurlongsofit.Theformofthecamp
ispeculiar,beingthatofatrapezoid,whereastheusualfigureisthat
ofaparallelogram.Inanotherrespectitdiffersfromalltheother
campsthatwehavehithertoexamined;itissurroundedbyan
extraordinarynumberofearthenentrenchments.Onthewesternside,
whichisthemostexposed,therearenofewerthansevenditches,with
correspondingramparts,andonthenorth,four.Theseearthworksarein
astateofwonderfulpreservation.Thestrengthoftheselines,andthe
comparativeabsence,bothwithinandwithoutthestation,ofRoman
stones,renderitprobablethatthegarrisontrustedtobreastworksof
earth,ratherthanofmasonry.Thegenerallevelofthecampiselevated
abovethesurfaceofthecontiguousground,inconsequence,probably,of
themassofruinswhichitcontains.Itswholearea,includingthe
entrenchmentsandditches,amountstonineacres.
Alargealtarprocuredfromthestationisintheneighbouringfarm
house;theinscriptionisillegible,butithasontheupperpartofits
foursides,acarvinginboldrelief.
[Sidenote:ROMANDUNGHILL.]
ItisnounusualthingtofindintheneighbourhoodofaRomanstation
manifesttracesofthedunghillofthefort.Asmightbeexpected,such
arepositoryisrepletewithobjectswhich,thoughoncedespisedand
castawayasworthless,wellrepaythesearchoftheantiquary.Notfar
fromthenortheastangleofthiscampalargedunghillwasfound,which
hasbeenrecentlyremovedforfarmpurposes.Itcontainednumerous
fragmentsofRomanearthenwareandglass,aswellasarmillofjetor
finecannelcoal.Itsmostcuriousproduct,however,wasalargestore
ofoldshoesorsandals.Thesoleswereallmaderightandleft,and
consistedofseveralfoldsofleatherfastenedtogetherwith
roundheadednails.(SeePlateXVIII.figs.3,4,5.)Werethistheonly
placewherethesecuriousobjectshavebeenfound,wemighthesitateto
assigntothemaprimevaldate,butverymanyhavingbeendiscoveredin
diggingthefoundationsofCarlislegaol,andsomeinclearingthe
buildingsatCILURNUM,aswellasotherplaces,andbeingaccompaniedin
everyinstancebyotherarticlesofundoubtedRomanmanufacture,weare
entitledtoconsiderthemastheproduceofRomanhands.Modernartists
mightexaminethemwithadvantage;Romanshoemakersthoughtitno
dishonourtoletnatureprescribetheformthattheirhandyworkshould
assume.
[Sidenote:WALLISSENTHUSIASM.]
Wallis,theauthoroftheNaturalHistoryandAntiquitiesof
Northumberland,wasbornwithintherampartsofthiscamp;thehouseis
nowremoved.Intheprefacetohisworkheaccountsfortheantiquarian
biasofhismindinthefollowingstrain:
NorthumberlandbeingRomanground,andreceivingmyfirstbreathin
oneoftheir_castra_,Iwasledbyasortofenthusiasmtoaninquiry
andsearchaftertheirtowns,theircities,andtemples,theirbaths,
theiraltars,their_tumuli_,theirmilitaryways,andotherremains

oftheirsplendourandmagnificence;whichwilladmitofathousand
viewsandreviews,andstillgivepleasuretosuchashaveagustfor
anythingRoman;everyyearalmostpresentingnewdiscoveriesofthe
wisdom,thecontrivance,ingenuity,andeleganceofthatrespectable
people.
AlthoughnearlyacenturyhaselapsedsinceWalliswrotethis,thefield
ofRomanoBritishantiquitiesstillretainsmuchofthefertilityhe
ascribestoit,anddoubtless,hasstoresyetinreserveforthe
assiduousinquirer.
Beforeproceedingtothestationswhichsupportedthewesternextremity
oftheWall,therearetwocamps,onetotheeast,andanothertothe
westoftheMaidenway,whichdemandalittleofourattention.
_OLDTOWN._Horsleyentertainedtheideathathehadfoundtheremains
ofaRomancampatOldTown,nearCattonBeacon,inAllendale.Hodgson
treatstheopinionwithsomedegreeofridicule.Iamdisposedtothink
thatHorsleyisright,thoughtheinquiriesImadeonthespotdidnot
leadmetoadecisionofthequestion.
[Sidenote:STATIONNEARBRAMPTON.]
_BRAMPTON._AboutamilewestofthemoderntownofBrampton,upona
gentleeminencecommandingaviewineverydirectionofamostbeautiful
country,arethetracesofasmallRomancamp.ThefatherofEnglish
topography,guidedinsomemeasurebythesimilarityofthenames,fixed
theancientBREMETENRACUMatBrampton;butHorsley,inconsequenceof
theabsenceofRomanremains,demurredtothecorrectnessofthe
conclusion.Itisnotsurprisingthatthiscampescapedtheattentionof
Horsley,asitissituatedwithintheancientparkofBrampton,
considerableportionsofwhichwere,acenturyago,coveredwithtangled
brushwoodandvenerableforesttrees.Itstrenches,thoughstill
visible,arefastdisappearing;everytimeitisploughed,thefurrowis
turnedintothehollowofitsfosse.Thoughhundredsofcartloadsof
stoneshavebeentakenfromit,thegroundonwhichthecampstoodis
thicklystrewedwithstonyfragments.Onwalkingoverthespot,Ipicked
upapieceofdovecolouredpottery,partofamillstone,andseveral
portionsofRomantile.Besidesindividualcoinswhichhaveoccasionally
beenfoundhere,anearthenjar,containingalargehoard,wasturnedup
bytheploughin1826.Itcontainednotfewerthanfivethousandpieces,
allofthemofthelowerempire.
IfWhitleyCastlebetheALIONISoftheNotitia,this,ascomingnextin
order,maybe,asCamdenconjectured,BREMETENRACUM.[131]
[Sidenote:ANCIENTTUMULI.]
Intheplaintothesouthofthecamp,aresomeremarkable_tumuli_.One
moundoflargedimensions,standingalone,iscoveredwithoaktrees.
Threeothersofsmallsize,andclosetoeachother,areattheeastern
extremityofthesamefield.Twoofthemarecircular,andabouttwelve
yardsindiameter;thethirdiselongated,andmeasuresaboutthirtytwo
yardsinlength.Whateveropinionwemayformrespectingthelarger
mound,therecanbenodoubtthatthesmalleronesareartificial
barrows;thehollowmadebytheexcavationofthesoilfortheir
formationisdiscernible.Theydonotappeartohavebeenopened,but
willnodoubtsoonyielduptheirlonghoardedtreasurestosome
enterprisingantiquary.
BetweenthestationandthetownofBrampton,maybenoticedthefaint
tracesofanearthenencampmentoftheusualRomanform;itisfast
disappearingundertheactionoftheplough.Westofthestation,stands

anancientchurch,formedofRomanstones.Thoughthelivinghave
forsakenthevenerablepile,thedeadarestillbeinglaidinits
churchyard.
WenowapproachthestationswhichsupportedtheBarriernearits
westernextremity;itwillbewelltoexaminefirstthosenorthofthe
Wall.
[Sidenote:CAMPATNETHERBY.]
_NETHERBY._ThenucleusoftheseatofsirJamesGrahamisaborder
tower,withwallsofgreatthickness.Thesewallsweredoubtlesserected
attheexpenseoftherampartsandbuildingsofthecamp,withinwhich
themansionissituated.Theformofthestationcannotnowbe
satisfactorilydefined;butthenumberandimportanceofthecoins,
altars,andsculptures,whichhavebeenfoundwithinit,provethatit
wasaplaceofconsequenceduringtheperiodofRomanoccupation.The
site,thoughnotgreatlyelevated,commandsanextensiveprospectin
everydirection.Thebankonitswesternside,whichslopesdowntothe
valleyoftheEsk,issaidtohavebeenwashedinancientdaysbythe
watersoftheSolway.
Amongthemanyimportantinscriptionsdiscoveredhere,isoneto
Hadrian,closelyresemblingthosewhichhavebeenfoundatMilkinggap,
Bradley,andotherplaces.Thestonehaslongbeenlost,butinGoughs
Camdentheinscriptionisgiventhus
IMP.CAES.TRA.
HADRIANO
AVG.
LEG.II.AVG.F.
[Sidenote:SCULPTUREATNETHERBY.]
Someveryfinesculpturedstones,foundinthestation,arepreservedon
thespot.Amongstthemisonewhichisfiguredontheadjoiningpage.A
youthstandsinaniche,amuralcrownisonhishead,acornucopiain
hislefthand,andapatera,fromwhichhepoursoutalibationonan
altar,inhisright;itisoneofthefinestcarvingsthatistobemet
withonthelineoftheWall.Fromthegrooveswhicharecutinthe
lowerpartofthestone,[Illustration:GeniusoftheWall]wemay
naturallyconclude,thatthefigurehasbeenformerlysetinmasonry,
perhapstoadorntheapproachtosometemple.Gordonsupposesthefigure
tobeintendedforHadrian;Lysonsthinksthatitwasmeantforthe
GeniusoftheWallofSeverusletuscombinethetwoideas,and
suppose,thatthefigureisthatofHadrian,representing,ashehadthe
bestrighttodo,theGeniusoftheBarrier.
Referencewillafterwardsbemadetothefiguresofthe_DeMatres_
whichhavebeenfoundhere.
[Sidenote:BLATUMBULGIUM.]
NetherbyissupposedtobetheCASTRAEXPLORATORUMofthesecond
AntonineIter,whichwasgarrisonedbya_numerusexploratorum_.Its
situationisverysuitableforanexploratorygarrison;anditsdistance
fromCarlisleontheonehand,andMiddlebyontheother,nearly
correspondswiththedistanceatwhichitissetdownintheItinerary
bothfromLUGUVALLIUMandBLATUMBULGIUM.
[Sidenote:CAMPNEARMIDDLEBY.]

_MIDDLEBY._TothesouthofMiddlebyKirk,inthecountyofDumfries,is
acampwhichiscalledinthedistrictBurns,orBirrens.Itoccupiesa
lowandshelteredsituation,butpossesses,notwithstanding,
considerablenaturalcapabilitiesofdefence.ThewaterofMeinwashes
theearthyscarwhichformsitssouthernmargin,andtheMiddlebyburn,
whichjoinstheMeinatthesoutheastangleofthecamp,runsparallel
toitseasternrampart.Itappears,fromtheplangiveninRoys
MilitaryAntiquities,tohavebeenprotected,inadditiontoitsstone
walls,onthreesidesbyfourearthenramparts,withintervening
ditches;andonthenorth,whichwasatoncebynaturetheweakest,and
thequartermostexposedtotheattackoftheenemy,bynotfewerthan
six.Thenorthernrampartsremaininnearlytheiroriginalcompleteness,
buttheoverflowingsoftheMeinonthesouth,theconstructionofa
roadontheeast,andtheoperationsofagricultureonthewest,have
destroyedtherampartsonthesesides.A_procestrium_,oroutwork,
protectedbyitsownramparts,appearstohavebeenappendedtothewest
sideoftheoriginalcamp;or,perhaps,tospeakmorecorrectly,the
suburbanbuildings,whichweresituatedinthisquarterwereembracedby
anadditionalfortification.Insoexposedasituation,sucha
precautionwouldbehighlyproper.Thefieldinwhichthe_procestrium_
was,hasbeenbroughtintocultivation,andagreatnumberofcarved
stones,whichwerefoundinit,takentoHoddamCastle.Thecornersof
thecampare,asisusuallythecase,rounded;thefourgatewaysare
clearlydiscernible.Theinteriorareaofthestationmeasuresthree
acresandthreequarters.Onthesouthsideofthestationalarge
vault,archedwithstone,waslaidopenmorethanacenturyago.Popular
credulityhasmagnifieditintoanundergroundpassage,whichextended
allthewaytoBurnswark;thepeopleintheneighbourhoodaverthatthey
haveknownpersonsgoaconsiderablewayalongit.
Thealtarsandsculpturesfoundatthisplaceareengravedand
described,apparentlywithgreataccuracy,inStuartsCaledoniaRomana.
Amongstthemisastonetablet,bearingthewords
IMP.CAESARITRAIAN.LEG.SECVND.AVG.
Apieceofanother,withtheinscription
LEG.XX.VICT.
Thelamentedauthorofthisworksays
WiththeexceptionofabrasscoinofGermanicus,andtheinscription
containingthenameofHadrian,thegreaterpart,ifnotallthe
antiquitiesfoundatBirrens,maybeascribedperhapstothethirdor
fourthcentury.Thestrikingsimilarityofstyleandexecutionwhich
existsbetweenthemandthebulkofthosediscoveredinthenorthof
England,ofwhichthedatescanbeascertained,issufficienttostamp
themastheproductionsofaperiodsubsequenttothereignof
SeptimiusSeverus._CaledoniaRomana_,130.
Itdidnotbelongtotheauthorssubject;toinquire,howthefactof
sofewofthememorialsofthemurallinebeingoftheageofSeverus,
comportedwiththepopularideathathebuilttheWall!
[Sidenote:BURNSWARKHILL.]
_BURNSWARK_,orBirrenswork.Asolitaryhill,nearlythreemilestothe
northwestofMiddleby,risestotheheightofnearlysevenhundredand
fortyfeetabovethelevelofthesea.'Onitstopliesanunequal
plain,aboutninehundredfeetlong,byfourhundredandfiftyofmean
widthalmostinaccessibleontwoofitssides,andbynomeansofeasy
attainmentonany.'[132]Fromthiselevatedsummit,themountainridges
whicharescatteredovernotfewerthansixoftheScottishcountiescan

bedescried;lookingeastward,theNinenicksofThirlwallareinsight;
southward,thefamiliarformsofSkiddaw,Saddleback,andCrossfell
riseintoview;tothesouthwest,thecraggypeaksoftheIsleofMan
arresttheattentioninfavourablestatesoftheatmosphere;and,not
unfrequentlyalong,blackstreak,onthedistantvergeoftheocean,
indicatesthepositionofIreland.Accordingtotheformerpolitical
divisionsoftheBritishempire,fourkingdomswerethustobeseenfrom
Burnswarkhill.
SocommandingapositionwasnotneglectedbytheancientBritons.
'Aroundtheareaofthesummitmaystillbetracedtheremainsofa
wall,composedofearthandstones,whichseemstohavebeenraisedat
everyspotwheretheprecipitousrockdidnotofitselfafford
sufficientprotection.'Unhappilymostofthestoneshavebeenhurled
intothevalleybelow,toformalongboundaryfence.Theenclosureis
dividedintotwocompartmentsofnearlyequalsize;oneofthemcontains
acircularrangeofstones,theremainsapparentlyofanancientcairn
orwatchtower.
[Sidenote:CAMPSONTHEHILL.]
OntwoofthesidesofBurnswarkarethevestigesofRomanmilitary
works.Thelargest,whichisonthesouthernslope,enclosesanareaof
twelveacres.Ithasbeenoriginallyencompassedbytworamparts,
separated,asusual,byadeeptrench;ithadthreegatesontheupper,
andapparentlythesamenumberontheunderside,withasingleoneat
eachend.Thesegatewayshavebeenprotectedbycircularmounds,thrown
upbeforethem,andfortifiedonthetop.Thepretorium,orgenerals
quarters,defendedbyanentrenchmentofitsown,wasplacedonthe
northwestangleofthecamp.Thiscircumstancewouldseemtowarrantus
insupposing,that,eveninthestationarycampsoftheWall,the
pretoriumwasnotuniformlyplacedintheupperpartofthecentral
area,where,accordingtotheusualtheory,weshouldexpecttofindit.
Alltheentrenchmentsareofearth,andonthenorthsidetheyare
peculiarlybold.
Thecamponthenorthernfaceofthehillhasbeenconstructeduponthe
sameprinciple,butisinalessperfectcondition.Itisofthesame
length,buthasonlyhalfitsbreadth.Acoveredwayconductsfromthe
onetotheother.Itisprobablethatboththesecampshavebeenthe
summerquarters,_castrastiva_,ofthegarrisonatMiddleby.So
importantapositionwouldnot,however,atanyperiodoftheyearbe
abandonedtotheenemy;'whennotfilledwiththetentsofitssummer
inhabitants,itisprobablethatasmallgarrisonwasmaintainedonits
summit.'[133]
[Sidenote:CAMPATPLUMPTON.]
_PLUMPTON._Severalcampssouthoftheline,andatnearlyequal
distancesfromtheWallandfromoneanother,addedsecuritytothe
fortificationinthewesterndistrict.Plumpton,orOldPenrith,called
inthelocalitybythecommonnameofCastlesteads,isalargestation
aboutthirteenmilessouthofCarlisle.TheconjectureofHorsley
ascribedtoit,thenameofBREMETENRACUM.Theturnpikeroadgoesclose
pastit,asdidtheancientRomanwaywhichledfromLUGUVALLIUMtothe
southofBritain.Thestationpresentstheusualcharacteristicsofa
Romancamp.Thoughnotmuchelevated,itissufficientlyraisedtoenjoy
amostextensiveviewofthesurroundingcountry.Thewesternsideis
thestrongest,beingprotectedbythedeepbutnarrowvalleyinwhich
theriverPeterelflows.Itsrampartsareboldlymarked,andthe
interiorofthestationisfilleduptotheirlevelbyamassof
prostratehabitations.Thelargestheapofruinsisonthenortheast
quarter;itmaybetheremainsofthepretorium.Thefosseiswell
definedonthenorth,south,andwestsides.Enoughoftheeasterngate

remainstoshewthatithasbeenadoubleportal.Onestoneofthe
thresholdyetretainsitsposition;itiswornbythefeetofthe
ancienttenantsofthecity,andiscircularlychafedbytheactionof
thedoorinopeningandshutting.Severalverylargestones,whichhave
beenusedintheconstructionofthesouthgateway,lieneartheir
originalsitesomeofthemyetexhibittheholesinwhichthepivotsof
thedoorsturned.Thelineofthestreet,whichwentfromtheeasternto
thewesterngateway(_viaprincipalis_),isdiscernible.Ontheoutside
ofthesoutheastcornerofthestation,anarchedchamber,orpassage,
wasdiscoveredafewyearsago;butitisnowfilledupwithrubbish.
[Sidenote:OLDPENRITH.]
Extensiveremainsofancientfoundationshavebeenremovedfromthe
fieldontheeastofthestation;here,accordingtotradition,Old
Penrithstood.Therearealsoindicationsofsuburbanbuildingstothe
westofthestation.Intheneighbourhoodofthecamp,andevenatsome
distancefromit,wemeet,inthehousesandstonefences,withsucha
numberofthesmallneatstoneswhichwereusuallyemployedinthe
constructionofRomandwellings,astoimpressuswiththeidea,that
thesuburbanbuildingswereveryextensiveineverydirection.
Inrecentlyloweringapartoftheturnpikeroad,aboutaquarterofa
milesouthofthestation,awell,casedwithRomanmasonry,was
exposed.Itissquare,andissetdiagonallytotheroad;itnow
copiouslysuppliestheneighbouringfarmhouses,whichformerlywere,in
dryseasons,muchinconveniencedbythescarcityofwater.
Severalsculptured,andinscribedstones,aswellascoins,havebeen
foundhere;butnoneofthemareofanaturesufficientlyinterestingto
detainuslongeratPlumpton.
[Sidenote:OLDCARLISLE.]
_OLDCARLISLE_isnearlytwomilessouthofWigton.Thestationisa
largeone;theruinsofitsrampartsandinteriorbuildingsareboldly
marked.Adoubleditch,withinterveningvallum,seemstohave
surroundedthefort.TherivuletWizarunsinadeepravineimmediately
belowthestation,onitswestside,andataremoterdistance,onits
southalso,therebylendingtoitadditionalstrength.[Illustration:
AltartoJupiterforthesafetyofSeverus]Theremainsofsuburban
buildingsmaystillbeseenoutsidethewalls,onthesouth,east,and
west.Withinthefort,astreetmaybedistinctlytracedfromthenorth
tothesouthgate,andanotherfromtheeasttowardsthewest.Nearthe
centreofthestationisamoistspotofgroundwherewemayconceivea
welltohavebeen.Uptoarecentperiod,theRomanroadsleadingfrom
thisstationontheonehand,toCarlisle,andontheothertoMaryport,
weredistinctlyvisible.Ofthemanyimportantinscribedstonesdugout
ofthisstation,thatwhichisrepresentedaboveisprobablythemost
interesting.Itwasfoundintheyear1775,abouttwohundredyardseast
ofthecamp,andisnowinthecollectionatNetherby.
I[OVI]O[PTIMO]M[AXIMO]
PROSALVT[E]
IMP[ERATORIS]L.SEPTIM[II]
SEVERIAVG[VSTI]N[OSTRI]
EQVITESALAE
AVG[VST]CVRANTE
EGNATIOVERE
CVNDOPRA
EF[ECTVS]POSVERVNT
ToJupiter,bestandgreatest.
Forthesafety

oftheemperorLuciusSeptimius
Severus,ourAugustus;
Thecavalryofthewing_styled_
theAugustan,underthedirectionof
EgnatiusVere
cunduspre
fect,placed_this_.
[Sidenote:CAMPNEARMARYPORT.]
_MARYPORT._OnthecliffsoverhangingthemoderntownofMaryport,are
themanifestremainsofalargeRomanstation.Itspositiongivesita
commandingviewoftheSolwayFirthandIrishChannel.Thecampisa
verylargeone,andthelinesofitsrampartsareveryboldlydeveloped.
Theeasternside,whichistheonlyonethatisnotdefendedbya
naturaldefile,orvalley,wasprotectedbyadoubleditch.Thereare
sometracesofmasonryalsonearthegatewayonthisside,whichrender
itprobablethatthisentrancehadbeenguardedbyadditionaloutworks.
Someportionsofthisgatewayremain;thesillofitisstronglymarked
bytheactionofchariotwheels.Therutsareaboutfiveinchesdeep,
andfivefeetteninchesapart.Withinthestationisawell,encased
withcircularmasonry.Theinteriorofthestationwasexcavatedin
1766.Thefollowingaccountoftheappearanceswhichwerethenobserved,
isgiveninLysonsCumberland:
Theworkmenfoundthearchofthegatebeatviolentlydownandbroken;
andonenteringthegreatstreet,discoveredevidentmarksofthe
houseshavingbeenmorethanonceburnttothegroundandrebuilt;an
eventnotunlikelytohavehappenedonsoexposedafrontier.The
streetshadbeenpavedwithbroadflagstones,muchwornbyuse,
particularlythestepsintoavaultedroom,supposedtohavebeena
temple.ThehouseshadbeenroofedbyScotchslates,which,withthe
pegswhichfastenedthem,layconfusedlyinthestreets.Glass
vessels,andevenmirrorswerefound;andcoalshadevidentlybeen
usedinthefireplaces.Foundationsofbuildingswereroundthefort
onallsides.
[Sidenote:HOSPITALCAMP.]
InthegroundsofNetherHall,theseatofJ.PocklingtonSenhouse,
esq.,isasmallentrenchmentcontaininganareaofaboutanacreanda
half;itisinalowandshelteredposition,andhasprobablybeena
retreatforinvalids.Ancientroadshavedivergedfromthisstation,
leadingtoBowness,Wigton,andPapcastle.Ondraining,lately,the
fieldsonthelineofroadleadingtowardsOldCarlisle,itspavement
wasmetwith,andtoagreatextentremoved.Thebodyoftheroadwas
composedoflargegraniteboulders,someofthemaquarterofatonin
weight;theintersticesbeingfilledupwithsmallerstones.Onthe
southsideofthiswayseveralslabsofstonewerefound,lyingflaton
theground.Theyprobablycoveredtheashesofthedead;fragmentsof
redpotteryandglasswerefoundbeneaththem.
[Illustration:AltartoJupiter,Maryport]
[Sidenote:ANTIQUITIESATNETHERHALL.]
Verynumerousandveryimportantaretheremainsofantiquitywhichthis
stationhasyielded.Withtheexceptionofonefinealtar,theyareall
carefullypreservedinthehouseandgroundsatNetherHall.Manyofthe
sculpturedstoneswhichhavebeenfoundhere,aremorehighlycarvedand
moretastefullydesignedthanisusualinthemuralregion.Analtarto
thegeniusoftheplace,whichhasbeenremovedtoWhitehavenCastle,
andwillbedescribedinthelastPartofthiswork,ischaracterizedby
Camdenas_arapulcherrimaaffabrartificioantiquoexculpta_,anda

moregracefulaltarthanthatwhichisshewninthiscut,wehavenot
metwithinourmuralperegrination.Itisimportant,also,asproving
theresidencehereofthe'_primacohorsHispanorum_.'Inconsequence,
probably,ofsomeservicedonetoHadrianthiscohortseems,
subsequentlytothededicationofthisaltar,tohaveobtainedthetitle
ofliaandtherankof_milliariaequitata_.Theinscriptionmaybe
read.
I[OVI]O[PTIMO]M[AXIMO]
COH[ORS]IHIS[PANORVM]
CVIPRAE[EST]
MA[RCVS]MAENI
VSAGRIP[PA]
TRIBV[NVS]
POS[VIT]
ToJupiter,thebestandgreatest.
ThisfirstcohortoftheSpaniards,
Commandedby
MarcusMni
usAgrippa
TheTribune,
Erected_this_.
Aplain,square,butnowpartiallyfractured,pillar,inscribed,ROMAE
AETERNAEETFORTVNAEREDVCI,isreservedtoformtheconcludingcuton
thelastpageofthisvolume.Itisastrikingmemorialatonceofthe
aspiringpretensionsandblightedprospectsoftheimperialcity.A
boar,thesymbolofthetwentiethlegion,exhibitingmorethantheusual
spirit,formsthevignetteatthecloseofthisPart;andtheslabwhich
bearstestimonytothelabourswhichthesecond,andtwentieth,legion
underwentinconstructingtheworksofthisstation,isintroducedat
thecloseofthePartdevotedtothediscussionofthequestionWho
builttheWall?ThereispreservedinthepiazzaatNetherHall,a
carvinginreliefofawarrioronhorsebacktramplingonafallenenemy;
thedrawingisnotstrictlycorrect,butisveryspirited,andthe
foreshorteningofthehorsesheadremarkablygood.Besidesthese,there
areseverallargeandinstructivealtarsandfunerealslabs,aswellas
atablethavingaGreekinscriptiontothiseffectAulusEgnatiusPastor
setupthistosculapius.
Theminorantiquitiesconsistoffragmentsoftiles,oneofwhichbears
thestampofthefirstcohortoftheSpaniards,abronzepotbearinga
markedresemblancetosomewhichareinmodernuse,severalearthenware
vesselsoflargesize,andquiteperfect,implementsofiron,and
weaponsofwar.Amongstthecoinswhichhavebeenfoundinthestation,
areagreatmanyforgeddenariiofTrajanandHadrian.Theyarechiefly
formedoflead,andarebadlymade;insomeinstancesthemetalhasnot
reachedthecentreofthemould,andinscarcelyanyhavetheedgesof
thecastingbeenproperlydressed.Genuinecoinmusthavebeen
exceedinglyscarceamongthesoldieryofthecamp,andtheircredulity
verygreat,toallowofthecirculationofsuchbaseimitations.
[Sidenote:ANCIENTBARROW.]
Alargeartificialmoundorbarrowistotheleftofthestation.The
inhabitantshadanoldtraditionrespectingit;theyconceivedittobe
thesepulchreofaking.Itwasopenedin1763;nearitscentrethe
poleandshankbonesofanoxwerefound,butneitherurns,burnt
bones,norcoins,werediscovered.
Thereisgreatuncertaintyabouttheancientnameofthisfort.Camden
pronouncedittobeOLENACUM,chieflyinfluencedbytheresemblancein
soundbetweenitandthenameoftheneighbouringvillageof
Ellenborough(Maryportisbutofrecentorigin).Thissupposition

gathersforcefromthefactthatinancientdocumentstheriverEllen,
whichgivesnametotheplace,iswrittenAlneandOlne.
_PAPCASTLE_isaboutsixmilessoutheastofMaryport.Numerousrelics
ofantiquityhavebeenfoundhere,butlittlenowremainstomarkitout
asthesiteofaRomanstationexceptitsextraordinaryfertility.The
townofCockermouth,amiletothesouthofthefort,issupposedto
haverisenfromitsruins.
Thefortswhichwehavealreadyexaminedmaybethoughtsufficientto
supportthelineoftheWall.Thepeculiarcircumstancesofitswestern
extremitywillperhapsjustifyusinreckoningMoresby,notwithstanding
itsdistancefromtheWall,amongtheoutstationsoftheBarrier.Not
onlydoestheScottishcoast,byprojectingconsiderablybeyondthe
westernterminationoftheWall,facilitatetheinvasionofthe
intramuralportionoftheislandbutIreland,thenativelandofthe
ScotoCelts,isnighathand.Itwasnecessarytoprevent,notonlythe
inhabitantsofCaledonialandingonthecoastofCumberland,butthe
Scots,also,whoatthattimepouredoutofIreland.Another
seaportstation,southofMaryport,wasthereforerequisite.
[Sidenote:CAMPATMORESBY.]
_MORESBY_,withinashortdistanceofWhitehaven,stillexhibitsthe
remainsofaRomancamp.Itoccupiesacommandingposition,enjoying
especiallyanextensivemarineprospect.Itswesternandsouthern
rampartsarestillgood.Theparishchurchandchurchyardborderupon
itseasternwall.Asculpturedstone,evidentlychiselledbyRoman
hands,liesuponthespot,undertheruinedchancelarchoftheold
church.Theimportantslab,ofwhichthewoodcutgivesa
representation,wasfoundindiggingforthefoundationsofthepresent
parishchurch.Itisanotheroftheinterestingtestimonieswhichwe
haveoftheenergyandinfluenceoftheemperorHadrianinthoseparts.
LiketheMilkinggapinscription,itgivesthenameoftheemperorin
thegenitivecase.
[Illustration:SlabtoHadrian,Moresby]
[Sidenote:FORTATMALBRAY.]
Amilitarywayranalongthecoastfromthisstation,bywayof
Maryport,totheextremityoftheWall,atBowness.Bythismeans,the
defenceofthecoastcouldbemoreeffectuallysecured.Asthedistance
betweenMaryportandBownessisconsiderable,asmallcampwasplanted
atMalbray,whichisaboutmidwaybetweenthetwoplaces.Thesiteofit
isnowaploughedfield.
Wehavenowtakenahastyreviewofthestationsonbothsidesofthe
Wall,whichhavesupportedthatstructure.Never,assuredly,wasa
dangerousfrontiermoresecurelyguarded.Solongasthestationswere
suppliedwithvigilantandwelldisciplinedtroops,nofoe,howeverwell
armed,couldsuccessfullyattemptthepassageoftheBarrierofthe
LowerIsthmus.
[Sidenote:MURALSCENES.]
Eventhecursoryviewthatwehavetakenofthesubject,entitlesusto
say,thattheboldnessofthedesignwasworthyofRomeinthezenithof
herglory;andthatthemannerinwhichtheprojectwascarriedoutwas
becominganationwithwhomtoconceivewastoexecute.
Ifweturnourattentionforamomentfromthework,totheobjectfor
whichitwasintended,regret,thatmanshouldusehisingenuityforthe

purposesofaggressionandbloodshed,willtaketheplaceofadmiration.
Miltonaptlydescribesthesceneswhichthisregionwouldoften
witness:
Helookd,andsawwideterritoryspread
Beforehim,towns,andruralworksbetween,
Citiesofmenwithloftygatesandtowers,
Concourseinarms,_fiercefaces_threateningwar,
Giantsofmightybone,andboldemprise;
Partwieldtheirarms...
...nowscatteredlies
Withcarcasesandarmsth'ensanguinedfield
Deserted....
...OthersfromTHEWALLdefend
Withdartandjavelin....
Oneachhandslaughterandgiganticdeeds.
Adamwasallintears.
_ParadiseLost_,xi.638674.
[Illustration:SymbolofLeg.xx.v.v.]

Footnote128:
AnearthenencampmentiscutintwobytheNewcastleandBerwick
railway,inthesecondfieldsouthoftheNethertonstation.Inthe
spaceofthreefields,lyingeastofthiscamp,threeothersmaybe
distinctlydiscerned,varyinginsizefromfortytoseventyyards
square.AtDovecote,whichislessthanamilewestofNetherton
station,isalargefieldcoveredwiththeruinsofstonebuildings.
Excavationsinoneportionatleastofthegroundyieldlarge
quantitiesofglazedpottery.Theremainsareapparentlymedival,but
itisremarkablethatnorecordofruinssoextensiveisknownto
exist.
Footnote129:
Hutchinsonsays(A.D.1778),thealtartoHerculesisinthe
possessionofthedukeofNorthumberland;itisnotnowamongthose
preservedatAlnwickcastle.ThealtartoAstarteisinthecollection
atNetherby.
Footnote130:
ThelasttimeIwasinthecrypt,Iwasimpressedwiththeideathat
someportionsofitwereactuallyofRomanworkmanship;ifso,St.
Wilfridhasadaptedtohisownusesthevaultswhichhefoundonthe
spot.ThecryptatRipon,towhichthisbearsamarkedresemblance,is
nowunderstoodtobeRoman.
Footnote131:
Horsley,nearthecloseofhiswork,waslessopposedtothisview
thanatthebeginning.Inanote(_p._481),hesaysIseenoreason
tochangemysentimentsconcerninganyoneofthesestations;except
thatIammoreinclinedtoyieldtothecommonopinion,that
BREMETENRACUMisatBrampton,andtothinkthatOLENACUMandVIROSIDUM
aretransposed;sothatOLENACUMmaybeEllenborough,ontheriver
Ellen,andVIROSIDUM,OldCarlisle,ontheWiza.Andifthe
militarywayneartheWall,whichgoesbyWatchcross,hasledto
Brampton,asthecountrypeoplesuppose,thismightstillmakeitmore
probable,thatBramptonisBREMETENRACUM.
Footnote132:

CaledoniaRomana,131.
Footnote133:
CaledoniaRomana,134.

[Illustration]
~TheRomanBarrierofthe
LowerIsthmus.~

PARTV.
THEQUESTIONWHOBUILTTHEWALL?DISCUSSED.
Ourcoursehithertohasbeenadetailoffacts;nowweenteruponthe
regionofspeculation.IntheformerPartsofthiswork,thehistoryof
theRomanoccupationofBritainhasbeenbrieflytoldandanattempt
madetodepictthepresentconditionoftheVallumandWall,withtheir
camps,castles,andoutworks;nowthequestionmustbeputIsthe
BarriertheWorkofonemastermind,orareitsseveralpartsthe
productionsofdifferentperiods,andofdifferentpersons?Hadthe
statementsoftheancienthistoriansuponthesubjectbeenexplicitand
consistent,theinquirywouldinvolvesimplyanappealtotheir
authority;unhappily,theinformationwhichtheyaffordisnotonlyvery
meagre,butofacharactersounsatisfactory,astocompelustosift
theirevidence,andtocompareitwiththefactswhichwegleanfroman
examinationofthefortificationsthemselves.
[Sidenote:AGRICOLASWORKS.]
Agricola,weareinformedbyTacitus,erectedfortsbothontheLower
andUpperIsthmus;wearenowheretoldthathedrewwalls,whetherof
earthorstone,acrosseitherofthem.Thenorthernrampartofthe
VallumhasbymanybeenconceivedtobetheworkofAgricola.Inthe
absenceofanydirecthistoricaltestimonybearinguponthissubject,
thecircumstancethatthelinesoftheVallumpursueacourseprecisely
paralleltoeachother,mustbeconsideredasfataltothistheory.It
isaltogetherincredible,thattwoengineersshouldatdifferentperiods
constructindependentworks,withoutcrossingeachothersramparts.In
RoysMilitaryAntiquities,severalinstancesaregivenwherethe
trenchesofoneencampmentcutarbitrarilythoseofanother,thetroops
wholastoccupiedthepost,notseemingtopaytheleastattentionto
theworksoftheirpredecessors;thelinesoftheVallumwoulddoubtless
exhibitthesameappearancehadtheybeentheworksofdifferent
periods.TheclaimsofAgricolatotheauthorshipofanypartofthe
Vallummaythereforeatoncebesetaside,andtheinquirybeconfined
totherelativeclaimsofHadrianandSeverus.
[Sidenote:HADRIANANDSEVERUS.]
IftheparallelismofthelinesoftheVallumbefataltothetheory,
thatoneofthemoundsistheworkofAgricola,andtheothersthework
ofHadrian,asimilarmodeofreasoningleadstotheconclusion,that
theVallumandtheWallcannotbeindependentstructures.IfSeverus,
findingthattheearthworksofHadrianhadfallenintodecay,orwere
nolongersufficienttowallouttheCaledonians,haddeterminedto

erectamoreformidableBarrier,wouldhenothavemappedoutitstrack
withoutanyreferencetotheformerruinousandinefficienterection?
Hadhedoneso,weshouldfindthelinestakingindependent
coursessometimescontiguous,occasionallycrossingeachother;
sometimeswidelyseparated,seldompursuingforanydistanceaparallel
course,buttheWall,asthelatestbuilt,uniformlyseizingthe
strongestpoints,whetherpreviouslyoccupiedbytheVallumornot.
This,however,isnotthecase;theWallandVallum,incrossingthe
island,pursuepreciselythesametrackfromseatosea;forthemost
parttheyareinclosecompanionship,andinnoinstancedoestheWall
cutinuponthetrenchesoftheVallum.Atthefirstviewofthe
subject,therefore,weshouldbedisposedtoquestiontheaccuracyof
theopinionwhichgivestotheseworksdistinctdates,andascribesthe
VallumtoHadrian,andthestoneWalltoSeverus.Beforefurther
prosecutingthisinquiry,itwillbewelltolaybeforethereaderall
thestatementsoftheancienthistoriansuponthematterinquestion;he
willbythismeansseethenecessityofappealingtothestructures
themselvesforasatisfactorydecisionofthequestion.
[Sidenote:TESTIMONYOFHISTORIANS.]
HerodianwascontemporarywithSeverus,andprofessestohavebeenan
eyewitnessofallthatherelates.Hegivesadetailedaccountofthe
emperorsproceedingsinBritain,butdoesnotoncementiontheWall.
DionCassiuswasalsocontemporarywithSeverus.Asbeforeobserved,
thatpartoftheoriginalworkwhichtreatsofBritainislost;wehave,
however,Xiphilinesabridgmentofit.Theonlyreferencewhichhemakes
totheWall,comportswithitsexistenceprevioustothearrivalof
SeverusinBritain,Speakingofthatemperorsexpeditionagainstthe
Caledonians,hesays
Nordidheeverreturnfromthisexpedition,butdiedthreeyears
afterhefirstsetoutfromRome.Hegotaprodigiousmassofriches
inBritain.Thetwomostconsiderablebodiesofpeopleinthatisland,
andtowhichalmostalltherestrelate,aretheCaledoniansandthe
Meat._ThelatterdwellneartheBarrierWall_(
,)_which
dividestheislandintotwoparts_.
Spartian,writingaboutA.D.280,isthefirstpersonwhogivesusany
directinformationabouttheerectionofaWall;anditisonhis
testimonychieflythatthecreditoftheworkhasbeengiventoSeverus.
SpeakingofHadrian,hesays
HewenttoBritainwherehecorrectedmanythings,andfirstdrewa
Wall(_murumqueprimusduxit_)eightymileslong,toseparatethe
Romansfromthebarbarians.
Notestimonycouldbemoreexplicitthanthisinfavouroftheviewthat
HadrianbuilttheWall.Asthiswriter,however,subsequentlyascribes
theworktoSeverus,manyareofopinionthatSpartianherespeaksof
theVallum,notofthestoneWall.Mereverbalcriticismwillnotdecide
thepoint,butitmaybeobservedinpassing,thatalthoughthewords
_murus_and_vallum_areoccasionallyinterchangedbyLatinauthors,the
term(_murus_)whichSpartianusesinthepassage,takenstrictly,means
astonewall.SpeakingofSeverus,thesamewritersays
HefortifiedBritainwithaWalldrawn(_muroducto_)acrossthe
island,andendingoneachsideatthesea,whichwasthechiefglory
ofhisreign,andforwhichhereceivedthenameofBritannicus.
Thesamewriter,inasubsequentchapter,makesasecondreferenceto
theWall,whichisofsomeimportanceindiscussingthequestion.
NarratinganincidentwhichoccurredneartheWall,hesays

AftertheWallorValluminBritainwascompleted,andtheemperorwas
returningtothenextstage_notasconqueroronly,butasfounderof
eternalpeace_,andwasthinkingwithinhimselfwhatomenmighthappen
tohim,anEthiopiansoldier,famousasamimic,andnotedforhis
jokes,crossedhispath,crownedwithcypress.Struckwiththecolour
oftheman,andhiscrown,hewasangrywithhim,andorderedhimto
beputoutofhissight,whenthefellowisreported,bywayofa
joke,tohavesaid'Thouhastbeeneverythingconqueredeverything:
nowconqueror,beagod!'
JuliusCapitolinus,awriterwhoflourishedaboutthesametimeas
Spartian(A.D.280)speakingoftheAntonineWall,usesanexpression
whichseemstoimply,thattheonlypreviouslyexistingBarrierwasone
ofturf.Hesays
Antoninus,byhislegateLolliusUrbicus,conqueredtheBritons,the
barbariansbeingsecludedby_another_earthenwall(_aliomuro
cespiticioducto_).
AlltheremainingclassicalhistorianssumupinfavourofSeverus;
they,however,probablyonlyreechothestatementsofSpartian,witha
slightadditionoferrorsoftheirown.EusebiusPamphiliussays,that
ClodiusAlbinusbeingslainatLyons,Severusmadewaruponthe
Britons,andinordertorenderthesubjectprovincesmoresecurefrom
barbaricinvasion,hedrewaWallfromseatosea,anhundredand
thirtytwomileslong.
AureliusVictor,whowroteaboutA.D.360,recordinghisgreatexploits,
says
Heachievedgreaterthingsthanthose,forafterrepulsingtheenemy
inBritain,hedrewaWallfromseatosea.
TheyoungerVictor,inhisepitomeoftheworkoftheelder,says
HedrewaVallumthirtytwomileslongfromseatosea.
Eutropiuswroteabouttheyear360.Hesays
SeverusslastwarwasinBritain;hedrewaWallofthirtytwomiles
fromseatosea.
PaulusOrosius,whowroteA.D.417,says,thattheconquerorSeverus
Havingfoughtmanyseverebattles,determinedtoseparatethepartof
theislandwhichhehadrecovered,fromthetribesthatremained
unsubdued,and,therefore,drewadeepfosse,andaverystrongVallum
(_magnamfossamfirmissimumquevallum_),strengthenedwithnumerous
towers,fromseatosea,overaspaceofonehundredandthirtytwo
miles.
Cassiodorus,whowroteA.D.520,givesasimilartestimony.Amongthe
eventsoftheconsulshipofAperandMaximus(A.D.207),heenumerates
thetransferenceofthewarbySeverustoBritain
Where,thathemightrenderthesubjectprovincesmoresecureagainst
theincursionsofthebarbarians,hedrewaWall(_vallum_)fromsea
tosea,onehundredandthirtytwomilesinlength.
[Sidenote:VALUEOFTHEIRTESTIMONY.]
SucharethestatementsoftheRomanhistoriansrespectingthe
authorshipoftheWall.Severalcircumstancestendtoinvalidatethe
claimwhichtheymakeinbehalfofSeverus.Thefirstauthorwho

attributestheWalltoSeverusisSpartian,aweakwriter,wholivedin
anignorantage,andnearlyacenturyafterthetimeofSeverus.Surely
hisassertionwillnotbeallowedtooutweighthenegativetestimonyof
HerodianandDionCassius,thecontemporariesofSeptimiusSeverus.Of
alltheauthorswhomentionthelengthoftheWall,theonlyonewho
approachescorrectnessisSpartian,whenspeakingoftheWall,whichhe
statesthatHadriandrewfromseatosea;eightyRomanmilesisvery
nearlythetruelength.Theotherwriterscallitthirtytwo,[Sidenote:
SPARTIANINCONSISTENT.]oronehundredandthirtytwo.Admitting,assome
havesupposed,thatthelargernumberisanerror,occasionedbysome
carelesstranscribersinsertinginthecopiesthecenturialnumber(C),
whichdidnotexistintheoriginal,thedifficultyisnotremoved.
ThirtytwoRomanmilesisthelengthoftheBarrieroftheUpper
Isthmus,notoftheLower,andthesewritersseemtohaveconfoundedthe
onewiththeother.Buchanan,Usher,andseveralwriters,whowereas
capableofweighingtheevidencefurnishedbytheancienthistoriansas
weare,haveaccordinglymaintained,thattheWallwhichextendedfrom
theForthtotheClyde,isthatwhichwasrearedbySeverus.This
opinionwenowknow,fromtheinscriptionsfounduponit,tobe
erroneous;butthefactthatitwasentertainedbysuchablescholars,
provestheincompletenessofthehistoricevidenceuponthesubject.
Miltoncorrectlyestimatesthevaguenatureofthistestimony.He
writes
Severus,onthefrontiersofwhathehadfirmlyconquered,buildsa
wallacrosstheislandfromseatosea;whichourauthorjudgesthe
mostmagnificentofallhisotherdeeds;andthathethencereceived
thestyleofBritannicus;inlengthahundredandthirtytwomiles.
Orosiusadds,itisfortifiedwithadeeptrench,andbetweencertain
spacesmanytowersorbattlements.Theplacewhereof,somewillhave
tobeinScotland,thesamewhichLolliusUrbicushadwalledbefore.
OthersaffirmitonlyHadriansworkreedified;bothplead
authorities,andtheancienttrack,yetvisible:butthisIleave,
amongthestudiousoftheseantiquities,tobediscussedmoreat
large.(_HistoryofEngland_,_bk._ii.)
Spartian,moreover,invalidateshisowntestimonywhenhesays,thatthe
erectionofthisWallwasthegreatestgloryofSeverussreign(_quod
maximumejusimperiidecusest_).TheWallisindeedamagnificentwork;
itis,asStukelycharacterizesit,thenoblestmonumentofRoman
powerinEurope;butifrearedbySeverus,itis,alastingmonument
ofhisfailure.HecametoBritainpantingforrenownheresolvedto
reducethewholeislandtohissubjectiontomaketheseagirtcliffsof
NorthernCaledoniahisbarrier.Theeffortswhichheputforthwere
worthyofhisresolveInaword,saysDionCassius,Severuslost
fiftythousandmenthere,andyetquittednothisenterprise.Werethe
abandonmentoftheWallofAntonine,andthewithdrawalofthefrontier
tothesouthernIsthmus,whereHadrian,eightyyearsbefore,had
prudentlyfixedit,thegloriousresultsofallhisaspirations?
Spartianassuredlyerrs,ifnotinsayingthatSeverusbuilttheWall,
atleastinstatingthatthiswasthegreatboastofhisreign.
[Sidenote:OCCUPATIONSOFSEVERUS.]
When,too,wemayask,didhebuildtheWall?notassuredlywhenhe
issuedforthontheexpeditionthatwastowinhimsomuchrenown,and
whichoccupiedhimthegreaterpartofthetimehewasinBritain.He
wasthenbentuponaggression,notdefence.Neitherisitprobablethat
hewoulddoitonhisreturn.AccordingtoSpartian,hehadatthattime
provedhimselfnotonlyvictorious,butthefounderofeternalpeace,
andthushadremovedallgroundforapprehensioninthedirectionof
Caledonia.Or,ontheotherhand,accordingtothemoreaccurateand
trustworthyhistorians,HerodianandDionCassius,hewasreturningworn
outwithdiseaseandtheendlessfatigueshehadsustained;chagrinedat
thehavocwhichtheislandershadmadeinhisarmy,thoughthey

uniformlyrefusedtohazardageneralengagement;andbrokenheartedat
themisconductandingratitudeofhissons,andsowould,wemay
suppose,havebeendeficientinthespiritandthemeanstoembarkinso
largeawork.Thatheshouldhaverepairedsomeofthestations,
particularlythoseuponthelineofhismarch,whenabouttoenterupon
whathehopedtobethecrowningenterpriseofhislife,andthathe
shouldhavemaintainedgarrisonsinthemtomakegoodhiscommunications
withthesouth,isnotonlyprobable,butisrenderedalmostcertainby
theinscriptionswhichseveralofthemhaveyielded;butthat,insuch
circumstances,heshouldhaveplannedandexecutedthewholelineofthe
Wall,itscastlesandturrets,andseveralofthestations,isalmost
incredible.
[Sidenote:POPULAROPINION.]
Butitmaybeasked,ifHadrianformedthewholeBarrier,howisitthat
thepopularvoiceshouldascribethemostimportantpartofitnotto
him,buttoSeverus?ThattheWallisgenerallycalledbythenameof
Severus,isatonceadmitted.SolongagoasthereignofElizabeth,
Spencerwrote
NexttherecameTyne,alongwhosestonybank
ThatRomanmonarchbuiltabrazenwall,
WhichmotethefeebledBritonsstronglyflank
AgainstthePicts,thatswarmedoverall,
Whichyetthereof_Gualsever_theydocall.
Populartestimony,apartfromtheauthenticrecordsofhistory,isof
valueforourpresentpurposeonlysofarasitisthetraditional
statementoftheknowledgeofthosewholivedwhentheeventtookplace.
Thenearertoitssourcethatwetraceatradition,theclearerandmore
unequivocalitwillbecome,ifithaveitsoriginintruth.Thepopular
opinionthatSeverusbuilttheWall,willnotstandthistest.Whatever
valuemaybeattachedtothetestimonyofGildas,thefirstBritish
historian,itisnotdeniedthatherecordscorrectlythehearsay
evidenceofhisday.HedoesnotmentionSeverus,buttellsus,that
afterthedepartureoftheRomans,theBritons,distressedbythePicts
andScots,soughttheassistanceoftheirformerconquerors,andat
theirsuggestion,andwiththeirassistance,raisedfirstawallof
turf,andafterwards,whenthatwasfoundinsufficient,awallofstone.
ThenarrativeofGildashasbeenalreadygiven.(_p._29.)
[Sidenote:BEDESTESTIMONY.]
BedereferstotheopinionthatSeverusbuiltthestoneWall,onlyto
refuteit;hesays
SeveruswasdrawnintoBritainbytherevoltofalmostallthe
confederatetribes;and,aftermanygreatanddangerousbattles,he
thoughtfittodividethatpartoftheislandwhichhehadrecovered
fromtheotherunconquerednations,notwithawall,assomeimagine,
butwitharampart.Forawallismadeofstones,butarampart,with
whichcampsarefortifiedtorepeltheassaultsofenemies,ismadeof
sods,cutoutoftheearth,andraisedabovethegroundallaround
likeawall,havinginfrontofittheditchwhencethesodswere
taken,andstrongstakesofwoodfixeduponitstop.ThusSeverusdrew
agreatditchandstrongrampart,fortifiedwithseveraltowers,from
seatosea;andwasafterwardstakensick,anddiedatYork.
HethenrepeatsGildasaccountoftheoriginoftheWall,and
addsthatitwasnotfarfromthetrenchofSeverus.
Thesequotationsaremadesimplytoprove,thatthetestimonyof
tradition,ataperiodnotlongsubsequenttothedepartureofthe
Romans,wasbynomeansdecisive;nostressought,therefore,nowtobe

laiduponit.
[Sidenote:TRADITIONINERROR.]
Thepopularreport,whichascribesthebuildingoftheWalltoSeverus,
isthelessworthyofcredit,inasmuchasitimputestohimalsothe
buildingofthenorthernBarrier,whichweknowwastheworkofLollius
Urbicus,inthereignofAntonine.Pinkertonsays,'AstotheWelshname
of_GualSever_,whichitissaidtheygivetotheWallintheNorthof
England,itisalsogiventothatbetweentheFirthsofScotland.[134]A
smallgravestone,whichwasdiscoveredinFalkirkchurchyard,inthe
immediateneighbourhoodoftheAntonineWall,abouttheyear1815,
confirmsthetestimonyofPinkertonuponthispoint.Theinscription,a
castofwhichIhaveseen,recordstheburialthere,inthereignof
FergusII.,ofaknight,Rob.Graham,whofirstthrewdowntheWallof
Severus(ILLEEVERSVSVALL.SEVER).Ifpopularopinionhaserredwith
referencetotheoneWall,itmayhaveerredwithrespecttotheother
also.[135]
Butweoughtnottoexpectminuteaccuracyinatraditiontransmitted
throughmanygenerations.Itisenoughthatthegeneralimpressofthe
truthremains.Itisnothingsurprising,that,afterthelapseevenofa
centuryortwo,thenameofSeverusshouldhavebeenconnectedwith
everymilitarystrongholdinthenorthernsectionoftheisland.As
havinginflictedthelastandheaviestblowuponit,hishatedmemory
wouldbethelongestretained.
IntheabsenceofanydecisivetestimonyfromthehistoriansofRome,
respectingtheemperorwhouprearedtheMurus,wemaynextexaminethe
inscribedstoneswhichhavebeenfounduponit.
[Sidenote:COMMEMORATIVESLABS.]
Insomeinstances,inscriptionsattachedtoRomanbuildingsgivetheir
historywithgreatparticularity.ThisisthecasewiththeAntonine
WallinScotland.Slabsinsertedatintervals,recordthenameofthe
reigningemperor,ofhislegate,ofthetroopsengageduponthework,
andalsothenumberofpacesexecutedbyeachdetachment.Unfortunately
thesecommemorativeslabsareofrareoccurrenceintheLowerBarrier,
andtheinformationgivenbysuchasdoexist,isveryscanty.Thiswill
appearthemoresurprising,ifwebearinmindthattheEnglishWallis
notonlytwiceaslongastheother,butisbuiltofstonethroughout;
theScotchWallischieflyformedofearth.Onthetheory,thatHadrian
rearedallthemembersoftheBarrier,thepaucityofinscriptions
admitsofeasyexplanation.Thecustomofraisingthesememorialsdid
notcommenceuntilhisday,andatthetimeoftheerectionoftheWall
wasprobablyinitsinfancy;thepracticewasinvogueduringthereigns
ofseveralofhissuccessors,andwasnotdiscontinueduntilafterthe
timeofCaracalla.If,ontheotherhand,SeverusbuilttheWall,itis
amostunaccountablethingthathissoldiershaveleftnorecordofthe
factuponthelineoftheWallitself,andbutveryscantytracesofhis
nameevenintheoutstations.Thisis[Sidenote:PAUCITYOF
INSCRIPTIONSTOSEVERUS.]themoreremarkable,whenwerememberthatthe
WallwasbuiltbythesamelegionsaswereemployedupontheVallumof
theUpperBarrier.TheAntonineWallwasconstructedbythetwentieth
legionandbyvexillationsofthesecond,andsixth.Onthemuralline
oftheLowerBarrierwefrequentlymeetwithstonesinscribedwiththe
namesandinsigniaofthesecond,andsixth,legion,andoccasionally
withthoseofthetwentieth.IftheEnglishWallwasbuiltinA.D.210,
asisgenerallystated,howisitthatthetroopsdisregardedacustom
sonaturalandsolaudableasthatwhichwaspractisedsoextensivelyby
theirpredecessors,inA.D.140?Extensiverepairsweremadeby
CaracallaatHABITANCUM,BREMENIUM,andsomeotherstations;ofthesewe
havedistinctrecordsintheinscriptionswhichremain.Howisit,if
themindandhandofhisfathergavebeingtothemagnificentfenceof

theEnglishisthmus,thatnotoneofthemanystoneswhichheupreared
recordsthefact?Muralslabsandcontemporaryhistoriansarealike
silentuponthesubject,and,probably,forthesimplereasonthat
Severusdidnotbuildit.
Itwillservethepurposesoftruthtocitealltheinstancesinwhich
thenameofeitheremperorhasbeenfoundupontheline;woodcutsof
alltowhichIhavehadaccess,havebeenalreadypresentedtothe
reader.
[Sidenote:INSCRIPTIONSNAMINGHADRIAN.]
ThenameofHadrianoccursinmanyinstances.AtJarrowastonewas
found,andisfiguredinBrand,whichwasinscribedOMNIVMFIL.
HADRIANI.InthefoundationsofthecastellumatMilkinggapastonewas
discovered(p.234),bearinginboldlettersthenameoftheemperor,
andofhislegateAulusPlatoriusNepos.AtChesterholmafragmentofa
preciselysimilarinscriptionwasfound(p.241).Intheneighbourhood
ofBradley,twofragmentswerediscovered,which,whenplacedtogether,
giveusanaccuratecopyofthesameinscription(p.232).Intheruins
ofthecastellumnearCawfields,wasaportionofanother,witha
preciselysimilarinscription(p.251);andneartheeasterngatewayof
SICAalargetabletwasdugup,bearingthenameofthesameemperor
(p.256).Inanouthouse,whichprobablyoccupiesthesiteofa
castellum,atChapelhouse,inCumberland,astonewasfound,which
mentionsHadrianandthetwentiethlegion(p.274).Horsleydescribesa
slabwhichhesawatBewcastle,bearingthefollowinginscription
_IMP._CAES.TRA_IANO_
_HADRIANOAVG.
L_EG.IIAVG.ETXXV.
LICINIOPR_ISCO_
LEG.AVG.PR.PR.
InGoughsCamden,astone,inscribedtoHadrianbythesecondlegion,
isstatedtohavebeenfoundatMiddleby;andatMoresbywehavethe
fineslabnowatWhitehavencastle(p.367).
Itwillperhapsbesaidthattheseinscriptionsprovenothingbeyondthe
universallyadmittedfacts,thatmanyofthestationsexistedin
Hadriansday,andthattheVallumwasraisedbyhim.Thereplytothis
is,thatseveralofthemhavebeenfoundatadistancefromanystation,
andonthelineoftheWallitself,andthattoo,inpositionswhereit
isfartherremovedthanusualfromtheVallum.Theoccurrenceofthree
orfouroftheminmilecastles,seemstoprovethattheyowedtheir
positiontheretonoaccidentalcircumstance,andnoonewilldenythat
thesemiletowerswerecontemporaneouswiththeWall.
[Sidenote:INSCRIPTIONSTOSEVERUS.]
Theforceoftheseremarkswillmoreclearlyappearafterascertaining
whatinscriptionsbearthenameofSeverus.Ifweturntotheinquiry
withtheimpressionthathebuiltthemoreimportantmemberofthe
Barrier,wemightexpecttofindtheevidencesoftheactivitywhich
prevailedinhisdaymoreabundantthaninthetimeofHadrian.Such,
however,isnotthefact.TheoneatHexham(p.340)wastheonly
inscriptiontoSeveruswhichwasknowntoGordonandHorsley.Wellmight
Gordon,whomaintainedtheSeptimiantheory,denominateitavery
preciousjewelofantiquity.Hexhamisnearlyfourmilessouthofthe
Wall.TothismustbeaddedthealtardiscoveredatOldCarlisle(p.
360),whichisabouttenmilesdistantfromtheWall;andanotherina
dilapidatedstate,foundatthesameplace;andthegatewayslabfound
atHABITANCUM(p.315),oneofthe_castraexploratorum_nearlyten
milesinadvanceoftheWall,recordingtherestorationofpartofthe
fortificationsthere.Besidesthese,Iknownotofanyinscriptionsto

Severus.Ipurposelyomitallreferencetoanaltar,saidtohavebeen
discoveredatNetherby,bearingtheinscriptionSEPT.SEVEROIMP.QVI
MVRVMHVNCCONDIDIT,because,bothGordonandHorsleypronounceittobe
spurious.
[Sidenote:THEGELTQUARRY.]
MuchimportanceisattachedbythosewhoadvocatetheclaimsofSeverus
totheinscriptiononthefaceoftheancientquarry,ontheriverGelt.
Here,itmaybesaid,istheveryspotfromwhichthestonesoftheWall
weretaken,andtheprecisedateisfixedtheconsulshipofAperand
Maximus.ThatthequarrywasusedbytheRomansatthisperiod,isnota
matterofdispute,butitisveryquestionablewhethermuchofthestone
fromitwasusedinthebuildingoftheWall,because,suitable
materialscouldbeprocurednearerathand.TheyearinwhichAperand
MaximuswereconsulswasA.D.207;theyearinwhich,accordingtothe
receivedreckoning,SeveruscametoBritain,wasthatinwhichGetaand
Caracallawereconsuls,A.D.208.[136]ItisnotlikelythatSeverus
wouldorderthestonestobequarriedbeforehisarrivalinBritain.
But,allowingthatthechronologyofSeverusreignistobereceived
withsomelatitude,andgrantingthathehadlandedinBritaininA.D.
207,sometimewouldnecessarilyelapseinmakinginquiriesintothe
stateofthecountry,andnoinconsiderableperiodwouldbeoccupiedin
makingsurveys,evenaftertheconstructionoftheWallhadbeen
determinedon.Thequarryhasprobablybeenwroughtforsomeordinary
purpose,perhapsfortheerectionofsomebuildingsinthestationnear
Brampton,attheperiodinquestion.
[Sidenote:HADRIANSQUARRIES.]
Evidenceisnotwantingtoprove,ontheotherhand,thatquarriesnear
thelineoftheRomanWallwerewroughtinthetimeofHadrian.Inan
oldquarrynearthetopofBorcum,orBarcombe(ahillnearthevillage
ofThorngrafton,andoppositetothestationofBORCOVICUS),alarge
numberofRomancoinswasfound.Theyaredescribedandfiguredinthe
lastPartofthiswork.Sincenoneofthepiecesofthishoardwere
laterthanthetimeofHadrian,andthecoinsofhisreignandTrajans
werepeculiarlyfresh,itisagreedthatthetreasuremusthavebeen
depositedinHadrianstime.ThequarryonHaltwhistlefell(p.81),it
willalsoberemembered,borethenameofthesixthlegion,which,if
thereasoninginthenextparagraphbeadmitted,willappeartohave
beeninscribedbeforethearrivalofSeverusinBritain.
Ithasalreadybeenobservedthatnumerousstonesalongthelinebear,
withoutanyaddition,thenamesofthesecondlegion,thesixth,andthe
twentieth.Therecanbenodoubtthattheselegionsandtheir
vexillationsexecutedtheprincipalpartoftheWork.Themainbodiesof
theseforces,however,hadtheirheadquarters,atthetimeofthe
arrivalofSeverus,indistrictsofthecountrysouthwardoftheBarrier
line.Thesecondlegion,afterthebuildingoftheAntonineWall,
appearstohavegonetoCarleon,inSouthWales,theIscaoftheRomans.
ThesixthlegionremovedtoYorkbeforeA.D.190,whereitcontinuedas
longastheRomansremainedintheisland.Horsley,speakingofthe
inscriptionsontheWallwhichmentionthislegion,[Sidenote:MOVEMENTS
OFTHELEGIONS.]says,someofthem,fromthecharactersandother
circumstances,maybesupposedasancientasHadriansreign.'The
twentiethlegionhadtakenupitsabodeatChester,theDEVAofthe
Romans,asearlyastheyear154.ThoughitisprobablethatSeptimius
Severusmayhavetakendetachmentsoftheselegionswithhiminhis
Scottishcampaign,itisnotlikelythathewouldwithdrawthemain
bodiesfromfortsofsuchimportance;andthosewhichdidaccompanyhim
wouldfindthedischargeoftheirmilitarydutiessufficientlyonerous,
withoutengaginginaworksovastasthebuildingoftheWall.
But,afterall,theworksthemselvesfurnishuswiththebestproofthat

thewholeisonedesign,andtheproductionofoneperiod.Itis
difficulttoconceivehowanypersoncantraversethelineofthe
Barrierwithoutcomingtotheconclusion,thatalltheworksVallum,
Wallandfosse,turrets,castles,stations,andoutpostsarebutsomany
partsofonegreatdesign,essentialtoeachother,andunitedly
contributingtothesecurityofadangerousfrontier.TheMurusandthe
Vallumthroughouttheirwholecoursepursuetracksharmonizingwitheach
other;theMurus,however,selectingthoseacclivitiesfromwhichan
attackfromthenorthcanbebestrepulsedtheVallum,thosefromwhich
aggressionfromthesouthcanberepelled.Stukeleywasunabletoresist
theevidenceofhissenses.Speakingoftheworksintheneighbourhood
ofCarvoran,hesays
[Sidenote:STUKELEYSTESTIMONY.]
IsupposethisWallbuiltbySeverusisgenerallysetuponthesame
trackasHadriansWallorVallumofearthwas;for,nodoubt,they
therechosethemostproperground;butthereisaVallumandditch
allthewayaccompanyingtheWall,andonthesouthsideofit;and
likewisestudiouslychoosingthesoutherndeclivityoftherising
ground.Iobserve,too,theVallum(Wall?)isalwaystothenorth.It
issurprisingthatpeopleshouldfancythistobeHadriansVallum;it
mightpossiblybeHadrianswork,butmaybecalledthelineof
contravallation;for,inmyjudgment,thetrueintent,bothof
HadriansVallumandSeverussWall,was,ineffect,tomakeacamp
extendingacrossthekingdom;consequently,wasfortifiedbothways,
northandsouth:atpresent,theWallwasthenorthsideofit;that
calledHadrianswork,thesouthsideofit;hencewemaywellsuppose
allthegroundofthislongcamp,comprehendedbetweentheWalland
thesouthernrampire,wasthepropertyofthesoldiersthatguarded
theWall._IterBoreale_,p.59.
SpeakingoftheworkswestwardofNewcastleuponTyne,hesays
TheVallumrunsparalleltotheWall,butuponthedecliningground
south,astheothernorth;thisconfirmsmeinmysuspicion,thatboth
worksweremadeatthesametime,andbythesamepersons,andwith
intentthatthisshouldbeacounterguardtotheother,thewhole
includedspacebeingmilitaryground._IterBoreale_,66.
Thereaderneedsscarcelytoberemindedofthestrikingillustrationof
theseremarkswhichisfurnishedbytheappearanceoftheworksalittle
tothewestofCarrhill,andbythefact,thatfornearlytenmilesin
themiddleoftheircourse,theVallumiscommandedbytheheightson
whichtheWallstands.
[Sidenote:RELATIVEPOSITIONOFTHEWORKS.]
WheneverthedistancebetweentheWallandVallumvaries,itis
generallywithsomeobviousdesigninview.Thus,asHodgson,who
powerfullysupportstheviewheretaken,remarks
TheVallumandMurusalwayscontractthewidthoftheintervalbetween
themastheyapproachariver,apparentlyfornootherpurposethana
closeprotectionofthemilitaryway,andthedefenceofonebridge;
foriftheyhadpassedthebrooksandriversontheirlineatany
considerabledistancefromeachother,twobridgeswouldhavebeen
necessary,andtwosetsofguardstodefendthem:andhereitisnot
unimportanttoremark,thattheMurusalwaystakesthatbrowofthe
ridgeittraverses,whichisprecipitoustothenorth,andnever
desertsitsstraightestormostdefensiblecoursetofindaconvenient
situationforabridge,whiletheVallumalmostinvariablybends
inwardsasitapproachesabridge,anddivergesoutwardsasitleaves
it._Hist.Nor._II.iii.

HorsleysplanoftheBarrierbetweenCILURNUMandMAGNA,whichis
copiedonPlateII.,willaffordseveralexamplesofthetruthofthese
remarks.
ThepositionoftheVallumandMurus,inrelationtothestations,
furnishesadditionalevidence.TheMurususuallyformsthenorthernwall
ofthestation,orcomesuptothenortherncheekofitseasternand
westerngates,whiletheVallumprotectsitssouthernrampart,orcomes
uptothelowersideofitsdoorways.Thetwolinesgivecomplete
protectiontothecamps,andtotheroadsleadingtoandfromthem.On
thesuppositionthattheVallumisanindependentfortification,and
thatitwasconstructednearlyacenturybeforetheWallwasthoughtof,
wemustconcedethatitsplanwassuchastogivethestationstheleast
possiblesupport,toleavethem,inshort,inagreatmeasureexposedto
theenemy.Themannerinwhichthetwowallscombineingivingstrength
toastation,isverywellshewninWarburtonsplanoftheworksinthe
vicinityofCILURNUM(PlateII).Itisscarcelypossibletodenythe
justiceoftheremark,whichheappendstothetitleAPlanofCILURNUM
...withpartofthePlanofSeverusWallandHadriansVallum,shewing
howtheyareconnectedatthestations,andbytheirmutualrelationto
oneanother,_musthavebeenoneentireuniteddefenceor
fortification_.'
[Sidenote:SEVERUSREPAIREDTHEWALL.]
ItisnotimprobablethatSeverusmayhaverepairedsomeportionsofthe
Wall,andperhapsaddedsomefewsubsidiarydefences.Richardof
Cirencestergivesuscorrectinformationuponseveralpointsconnected
withRomanBritain,whichwedonotlearnfromotherauthors;itisnot
unlikelythathisviewofthesubjectofourpresentstudymaybethe
correctone.Hesays
AboutthistimetheemperorHadrian,visitingthisisland,erecteda
Wall,justlywonderful,andleftJuliusSeverushisdeputyin
Britain....ViriusLupusdidnotperformmanysplendidactions,for
hisglorywasinterceptedbytheunconquerableSeverus,who,having
rapidlyputtheenemytoflight,_repairedtheWallofHadrian_,now
becomeruinous,andrestoredittoitsformerperfection.Hadhe
lived,heintendedtoextirpatetheverynameofthebarbarians.
ThesuppositionthatHadrianbuilttheWallisconsistentwiththe
accountswhichhistoriansgiveusofhisattachmenttoarchitectural
undertakings.Onewriter,ofgreatresearch,saysofhim
[Sidenote:HADRIANAGREATBUILDER.]
Noprince,perhaps,everraisedsomanypublicandprivateedificesas
Hadrian.Ineverycityofnote,throughouttheempire,someerection
perpetuatedhismemory:bridges,aqueducts,temples,andpalaces,rose
oneveryhand.Manycities,likewise,wereeitherwhollybuiltor
repairedbyhim._Buildingseems,indeed,tohavebeenamainfeature
inhissystemofgovernment._Hewasthefirstwhoappointedthateach
cohortshouldhaveitsquotaofmasons,architects,andallkindsof
workmenneededfortheerectionandadornmentofpublic
edifices._Hist.Rome_,_TractSoc.London277_.
Itisperhapsneedlesstopursuethesubjectfurther.Moremighteasily
besaid;butIwasunwilling,onapointofsomuchimportance,tosay
less.Thereaderwillnotfailtoperceivewhatanimpressiveviewthe
worksofthemuralbarrier,consideredasonevastscheme,andnotasa
seriesofafterthoughts,giveofthemightyconceptionsandenergiesof
imperialRome.
Intakingleaveofthoserenownedmen,HadrianandSeverus,itmaybe
allowabletoadverttothetestimonywhich,beforedepartingthislife,

theyaresaidtohavegivenastothevanityofallearthlythings.
Hadrian,whousedtosay,thatanemperorshouldbelikethesun,
visitingalltheregionsoftheearth,foundhimselfthen,indarkness.
HisknowledgeoftheEleusinianmysteriesgavehimnopeace;he
addressedhissoulinthesewords:
Animula,vagula,blandula
Hospes,comesquecorporis
Qununcabibisinloca
Pallidula,rigida,nudula?
Necutsolesdabisjoca.
TheselinesarethushappilyimitatedbyPrior
Poor,little,pretty,flutteringthing,
Mustwenolongerlivetogether?
Anddostthouprunethytremblingwing,
Totakethyflightthouknowstnotwhither?
Thyhumorousvein,thypleasingfolly,
Liesallneglected,allforgot;
And,pensive,wavering,melancholy,
Thoudreadstandhopstthouknowstnotwhat.
[Sidenote:DEATHOFHADRIANANDSEVERUS.]
Severusrestlesspursuitafterhappinesswasequallyvain.Hisdying
wordsaresaidtohavebeen,'_Omniafuietnihilexpedit_'Ihavetried
everything,andfoundnothingofanyavail.Whatacontrasttothe
languageaddressedtohimbytheEthiopiansoldier'Thouhastbeen
everythingconqueredeverything:now,conqueror,beagod!'
[Illustration:Slab,Leg.II.andLeg.XX.]

Footnote134:
PinkertonsInquiryintotheHistoryofScotland,i.55.
Footnote135:
Idonot,however,findthattheAntonineWallisnowknowninthe
districtbythenameofSeverusWall.
Footnote136:
SeechronologicaltablesofRomanHistoryinSmithsDictionaryof
BiographyandMythology.

[Illustration]
~TheRomanBarrieroftheLowerIsthmus.~

PARTVI.
MISCELLANEOUSANTIQUITIESFOUNDONTHELINEOFTHEWALL.
MostappositeistheremarkofDr.Johnson,thatWhateverwithdrawsus

fromthepowerofoursenses;whatevermakesthepast,thedistant,or
thefuturepredominateoverthepresent,advancesusinthedignityof
thinkingbeings.Fewthingsaresowellcalculatedtoproducethis
effect,asthealtarsandletteredtabletsthathavebeenleftonour
soilbytheRomans.Whenwebutglanceatthem,whoisnotmovedatthe
reflection,thattheywerechiselledbyhandswhichforsomany
centurieshavemoulderednervelessinthedust!
Stillonitsmarch,unnoticedandunfelt
Movesonourbeing.Wedoliveandbreathe,
Andwearegone!Thespoilerheedsusnot;
Wehaveourspringtimeandourrottenness;
Andaswefall,anotherracesucceeds
Toperishlikewise.
_KirkeWhite._
Onproceedingtodeciphertheantiquerecords,ouremotionsaremore
variedandmoreintense.TheoldRomanseemstoarisefromthetomb,and
torevealhismodesofthoughtandprinciplesofaction.Hisbreast
heaves;hisheartislaidbare.Inlineswhichhisownfingershave
carved,thegodsbeforewhomhetrembledaredeclared.Lookingonthe
veryaltaratwhichheknelt,wealmostseemtoseethemeanmanbowing
down,andthegreatmanhumblinghimself.
[Sidenote:LETTEREDSTONES.]
TheregionoftheWallhasyieldedmoreinscribedstonesoftheRoman
periodthananyotherportionofthekingdom.Manyofthemhavealready
beenpresentedtothereader;afewotherswillherebedescribed.The
letteredstonesofthemurallinemaybedividedintothree
classesaltars,funerealslabs,andcenturialstones.
ALTARS.
[Sidenote:PARTSOFANALTAR.]
Theofferingofsuchsacrificesasweresupposedtobeacceptableto
theirdeities,formedanessentialpartofthereligionoftheGreeks
andRomans.Verynumerousarethealtarswhichhavebeendiscoveredon
thelineoftheWall.Manyofthemaresmall,somenotlargerthanthe
palmofthehand,roughintheworkmanship,andwithoutanyinscription;
othersareoflargesize,[Illustration:alt=Altar,DeoVetri]andof
ornatecharacter.Theusualformofthemisshewnintheannexedcut.
Theinscriptionisonthefaceofthealtar;thebaseandupperportion
projectalittlebeyondthesides.Asmallcavityonthetopcalledthe
_focus_,orhearth,receivedtheoffering.Thesidesofthealtarwere
frequentlyadornedwithcarvingsrepresentingthevictims,the
implementsusedinsacrifice,andinsigniaofthegod.Onthealtar[137]
beforeus,wehaverepresentedthe_prfericulum_,orpitcher,which
containedthewinefortheoffering;the_patera_,around,shallow
dish,generallywithahandle,whichwasusedinthrowingasmall
portionofthewineuponthealtar;the_securis_,oraxe,withwhich
theanimalwasslain;andthe_culter_,orknife,usedinflayingor
dividingit.IntheChesterholmaltar,figured_p._240,thesacrificial
oxisrepresented;andonthesidesofthealtartoJupiter,whichis
shewnonpage290,thethunderboltofthegod,andthewheelof
Nemesistheemblemofswiftvengeancearegiven.Thesmallsizeofthe
_focus_provesthattheofferingspresentedtothedeitiesoccupieda
verysmallbulk.Whenananimalwasslain,aportionoftheentrailswas
oftenallthatfelltothelotofthegod.
IdibusinmagnicastusJovisdesacerdos
Semimarisflammisvisceralibatovis.[138]
_OvidsFasti_,i.587.

[Sidenote:NATUREOFTHEOFFERINGS.]
Frequentlytheofferingconsistedofalittlebarleymeal,somefruit,
somefrankincense,orchipsoffragrantwood,withwineormilk.
Occasionsofsacrificewereoftentimesofmerrymaking.Theslain
victimandthededicatedwineformedthereadymaterialsofafeast.
Ovidsarcasticallyrepresentsanoldwomanperformingtheritesdueto
thegoddessofSilence;uponheroffering(threegrainsofincense)she
allowsafewdropsofwinetofall,andassistedbyhercompanions,
thoughneedinglittlehelp,shedrinksuptheremainder,departingfrom
herdevotionstipsy,andanythingbuttaciturn.
Ecceanus...annosa,
Etdigitistriathuratribussublimineponit
Vinaquoqueinstillat.Vini,quodcumquerelictumest,
Autipsa,autcomites,plustamenipsa,bibit.
...ebriaqueexitanus.
_Fasti_,ii.571.
[Sidenote:ALTARTOJUPITER.]
Asmightbeexpected,manyaltarsarededicatedtoJupiter,thekingand
father,ashewasstyled,ofgodsandmen.Thewoodcutrepresentsa
veryfineone,whichwasfoundinthestationatChesterholm,andisnow
preservedunderthepiazzaoftheHouse.
[Illustration:LargeAltartoJupiter]
I[OVI]O[PTIMO]M[AXIMO]
CETERISQUE
DIISIMMORT[ALIBVS]
ETGEN[IO]PRAETOR[II]
Q[VINTVS]PETRONIVS
Q[VINTI]F[ILIVS]FAB[IA]VRBICVS
PRAEF[ECTVS]COH[ORTIS]IIII
GALLORUM
EXITALIA
DOMOBRIXIA
VOTVMSOLVIT
PROSE
ACSVIS
ToJupiter,best_and_greatest,
Andtotherestofthe
Immortalgods,
Andthegeniusofthepretorium,
QuintusPetronius
SonofQuintus,oftheFabianfamily,_surnamed_Urbicus.
PrefectoftheFourthcohort
OftheGauls,
FromItaly,_and_
OfahouseofBrixia,
Performedavow
Forhimself
Andfamily.
Twolineshavebeenpurposelyerased,perhapsinconsequenceofsome
errorcommittedbythesculptor.ThetownofBrixia,themodernBrescia,
issituatedonafeederofthePo.Petronius,itwouldappear,still
remembered,anddoubtlesswithaffection,hisformerhomeinsunny
Italy.Storksadornbothsidesofthealtar;theobjectoftheir
introductionisratherdoubtful.IntheRisinghamslab,nowat
Cambridge,towhichreferencehasalreadybeenmade(_p._332),acock
isassociatedwiththefigureofMars,andastorkwiththatofVictory.
Canthestorkhavebeentheemblemofvictory,asthecockwasofthe

godofwar?Thepowerfulwingandstatelymotionsofthisbirdrenderit
afittingemblemofthegoddesswhosefavoursPetroniusmustoftenhave
sought.Theinscriptionisdistinct,andstrikinglydisplaysthe
polytheismoftheRomans.PetroniusassociateswithJupiter,notonly
alltheimmortalgods,butthegeniusofthepretoriumalso.
[Sidenote:POLYTHEISMOFROME.]
Notonlywerethesuperiordeitiesandinvisiblegeniiblendedinone
invocation,butmortalmenwerenotunfrequentlyassociatedwiththe
greatestofthegodsonthesamealtar.Thisisthecaseinonealready
described(_p._63).QuintusVerius,onanaltarfoundatHousesteads,
callsuponJupiter,thebestandgreatest,togetherwiththedeitiesof
Augustus.Theemperorhimselfisprobablyintendedbythisphrase,not
thegodswhomtheemperorworshipped.Theuseofthenounintheplural
number,_numina_,isnotopposedtothisview.Horsleyremarksthat
_numina_isfrequently,inclassicalwriters,appliedtoaparticular
deity;thuswehave_numinaDian_inHorace,and_numinaPh[oe]bi_in
Virgil.Theemperors,weknow,werefrequentlyworshippedasgods.The
Mantuanbard,addressingAugustus,hasnodoubtofhisdivinity,though
heknowsnotwhatregiontoassigntohisespecialcare;
...urbesneinvisere,Csar,
Terrarumqueveliscuram;...
Andeusimmensiveniasmaris,actuanaut
Numinasolacolant....
_Georg._I.25.
[Illustration:Altar,GenioLoci,etc.]
[Sidenote:MARYPORTALTAR.]
Analtar,whichisnotlessremarkablefortheornatecharacterofits
decorations,thanforthestrikingdisplaywhichitaffordsofthe
polytheismoftheRomans,wasfoundinthecampatMaryport,andisnow
inthepossessionoftheearlofLonsdale,atWhitehavenCastle.An
accuraterepresentationisgivenofitintheprecedingengraving.
GENIOLOCI
FORTVNREDVCI
ROMAETERN
ETFATOBONO
G[AIVS]CORNELIVS
PEREGRINVS
TRIB[VNVS]COHOR[TIS]
EXPROVINCIA
MAVR[ITANI]CSA[RIENSIS]
DOMOSE...
.....
TotheGeniusoftheplace,
ToreturningFortune,
ToeternalRome,
Andtopropitiousfate,
GaiusCornelius
Peregrinus,
Tribuneofacohort,
Fromtheprovinceof
MauritaniaCsariensis,
..........
........
Thelowerlinesoftheinscriptionofthisaltararemuchinjured;they
probablyrefertotherestorationofsomebuildings.Theupperportion
issufficientlyplain.Peregrinusaddressesfirstthedeityoftheplace

overwhichhisarmshadtriumphed;lestthelocalgodshouldnotsmile
benignantly,heresortstoFortune,whohadconductedhimsafelytothe
landofhisadoption;ifthisdeityshouldfailhim,hethinkstofinda
refugeinthegeniusoftheeternalcity;butdrivenfromthisresource,
thereisnothingforit,buttotrusttofateorchance.
Onthebackofthisaltar(whichasitisatpresentplacedat
WhitehavenCastle,cannotbeseen),areinscribedthewords,VOLANTI
VIVAS.Thiswasprobablytheexpressionofthegoodwishesofsomeparty
forhisfriend,inscribedforgreaterefficacyonthesacredstone;and
maybetranslated,Volantius,longmayyoulive!
[Sidenote:ALTARSTOMARS.]
Marsisoccasionallyaddressed,thoughnotsofrequentlyaswemight
expectinachainofmuralgarrisons.Twosmallaltarsdedicatedtohim
havealreadybeenintroduced.Onseveralaltars,chieflyfoundin
Cumberland,heisaddressedbythename[Illustration:Altar,Deo
Cocidio]ofCocidius.OnewhichwasfoundatBankshead,andisnow
preservedatLanercostPriory,ishereintroduced.Analtarfoundat
Lancasterbearingtheinscription,DEOSANCTOMARTICOCIDIO,isthe
authorityforsupposingthatCocidiuswasanameofMars.Thealtar
beforeushasbeendedicatedbythesoldiersofthetwentiethlegion,
surnamedtheValiantandVictorious;theboar,thebadgeofthelegion,
isatthebottomofthealtar.ItappearsalsothatMarswassometimes
styledBelatucadrus,theexpressionDEOMARTIBELATUCADRObeingfound
uponsomealtars;thealtarstoBelatucadrusare,however,confinedto
Cumberland.Oneofthemishere[Illustration:Altar,DeoBelatucadro]
given.ItwasfoundatWaltonCastlesteads,whereitstillremains.The
lettersarerudelycarved,andthelasttwolinesnotveryintelligible.
ThenameBelatucadrusorBelatucaderisderivedfromthewordsBaaland
Cadir;andprobablymeansTheinvincibleoromnipotentBaal.Thefact
thatBaal,thegreatidoloftheeast,foundvotariesinBritainshews
howeasyitistopropagateerror.
ItwasthepracticeoftheRomanstoadoptthedeitiesofthecountries
whichtheysubdued,andtheymaybesupposedtohavesoughtto
amalgamatewiththeirowngodofwar,thecorrespondingdivinity
worshippedinthatpartofBritainwherethesealtarswerereared.
[Illustration:AltartoMinerva]
[Sidenote:MINERVA.]
TheworshipofMinervawasnotneglectedbythesoldiersoftheWall.
Thewoodcutexhibitsanaltartothevirgingoddess,whichwasfoundin
thestationatRochester;itisnowatAlnwickCastle.Severalothers
exist.Scienceisrequiredintheartsofwaraswellaspeace.The
victorywhichmeredaringachieved,wasbytheGreeksandRomans
ascribedtotheinterventionofMars;thatwhichwastheresultof
skilfulstrategytotheinfluenceofMinerva.Thisaltarwasconsecrated
byJuliusCarantus.
[Sidenote:FORTUNA.]
FortunewasoneofthefavouritedeitiesofRome.Thegreatconfidence
whichtheRomansplacedinherisexpressedinthestoryrelatedby
Plutarch,thatonenteringRomesheputoffherwingsandshoes,and
threwawayherglobe,assheintendedtotakeupherpermanentabode
amongtheRomans.SeveralaltarsaddressedtoFortunehavebeenfoundon
thelineoftheWall.Oneofthemostremarkableisshewnintheannexed
cut.Itwasfoundinabuildinginthesoutheastcornerofthestation
atRisingham,andisnowintheMuseumof
Antiquities,NewcastleuponTyne.Thegreatpeculiarityofitis,that

theprojectingbaseofthealtarisprovidedwithafocus,andthaton
theprojectiontheinscriptionisrepeated.Itreads
FORTVNAE
SACRVM
VALERIVS
LONGINVS
TRIB[VNVS]
ToFortune
Sacred
Valerius
Longinus
Tribune.
[Illustration:AltartoFortune]
Thealtar,wheninitsoriginalposition,wasraisedbymeansoftwo
coursesofmasonryconsiderablyabovetheleveloftheground.The
objectofthesecondfocusisamatterofconjecture.Accordingtothe
grammarians,_altare_(_altaara_,highaltar)wasdedicatedonlytothe
godsabove,whilstthe_ara_wasbothlower,andemployedinsacrificing
tothegodsbelowaswellasthoseabove.CanFortunehavebeenviewed
inthedoublecapacityofasuperiorandinferiordivinity,andcanthe
tribune,ValeriusLonginus,havesoughttosecurethefavourofthe
powerfuldeitybothinthislifeandtheonetocome!
[Illustration:AltartoMithras]
[Sidenote:MITHRAS.]
SeveralofthealtarsfoundonthelineoftheWallarededicatedtothe
godMithras._Mitra_,itappears,isoneofthenamesforthesunin
Sanscrit;andthat
Mithraswas,bytheRomans,identifiedwiththesun,isclearly
provedbymanyoftheinscriptionsonthealtarsofthatdeity.One,
foundintheMithraiccaveatHousesteads,andwhichisnowat
NewcastleuponTyne,isfiguredontheformerpage.Theinscription
uponitmaybereadthus;
DEO
SOLIINVI
CTOMYTR
SAECVLARI
LITORIVS
PACATIANVS
B[ENE]F[ICIARIVS]COS.PRO
SEETSVISV[OTVM]S[OLVIT]
L[IBENS]M[ERITO]
Tothegod
TheSunthein
vincibleMithras
TheLordofages
Litorius
Pacatianus
Aconsularbeneficiary;for
himselfandfamilydischargesavow
Willinglyanddeservedly.
[Sidenote:WORSHIPOFTHESUN.]
[Illustration]

Anothersmallandroughlycutaltarprocuredfromthesameplace,and
alsonowatNewcastleuponTyne,hasafigureofthesunonitscapital:
HodgsonreadstheinscriptioninthismannerHieronymus,performinga
vow,freelyanddulydedicatesthistothesun.
Whenwecontemplatethepowerfulandbeneficialinfluenceofthesun,we
cannotbesurprisedthattheworshipofthisluminary,especiallyinthe
east,constitutedthefirstformofidolatry
Tosolemnizethisday,theglorioussun
Staysinhiscourse,andplaysthealchemist;
Turning,withsplendourofhispreciouseye,
Themeagrecloddyearthtoglitteringgold.
[Sidenote:WORSHIPOFMITHRAS.]
ThevariousceremonieswhichwereobservedintheworshipofMithras,
aresupposedtohavebeenemblematicofthedifferentinfluences
exercisedbythesunuponvegetableandanimallife.Thenoticeswhich
wehaveofthemeaningoftheseemblemsare,however,amassof
mysticismandabsurdity.Thegodiscommonlyrepresentedasayouth
wearingthePhrygiancapandattire,and[Illustration:Attendantof
Mithras]kneelingonabullthrownontheground,thethroatofwhichhe
iscutting.Heisusuallyaccompaniedbytwoattendants,theonebearing
anupliftedtorch,representingthesuninthevernalequinox,ascending
tothezenithofhispower,theother,anextinguishedtorch,restingon
theground,emblematicoftheorbofday,whenhasteningtothewinter
solstice.Thewoodcuthereintroducedexhibitsoneofthesefigures
(nowatNewcastleuponTyne),whichwasfoundinthecaveat
Housesteads.
TheMithraicworshipwasintroducedintothewesternworld,fromPersia,
aboutthetimeofJuliusCsar,andspeedilyspreadoverallpartsof
theempire.Itappearstohaveoutlivedotherformsofidolatryin
Europe.Itsfavourersseemtohaveabandonedpolytheism;onthelineof
theWallatleast,thenameofMithrasisnotcombinedwiththatofany
otherdeity.Thiscircumstance,togetherwiththelaborious,though
vain,researchesofitsphilosophicalsupporters,recommendeditto
thosewhorejectedthepureandsimpletruthsofChristianity.
[Sidenote:MITHRAICCAVE.]
AnotheroftheHousesteadsaltarstoMithrasisherefigured.Itis
inscribed
[Illustration]
D[EO]O[PTIMO]M[AXIMO]
INVICTOMYT
RSAECVLARI
PVBL[IVS]PROCVLI
NYSC[ENTVRIO]PROSE
ETPROCVLOFIL[IO]
SVOV.S.L.M.

D.D.(_dominis_)N.N.(_nostris_)GALLOET
VOLVSINOCO[N]S[VLIBVS]
CC
Tothegodbestandgreatest
TheinvincibleMith
ras,lordofages,

PubliusProculinus,
Centurion,forhimself
AndProculushisson,
hisvowfreelyanddeservedlypays.

OurlordsGallusand
Volusinusbeingconsuls.
ThetemplesofMithrasgenerallyconsistedofacave,orasmall
buildingfromwhichthelightwasexcluded.Acavewasadopted,
because,saysPorphyry,acaveistheimageandsymboloftheworld,
anditwasdark,becausetheessenceofthevirtuesisobscure.All
whosoughtthefavourofthisgodweresubjectedtoalongcourseof
painfulinitiatorydiscipline.Nonnius,aGreekpoet,says
[Sidenote:MITHRAICRITES.]
Noonecanbeadmittedintohismysteries,unlesshehaspreviously
undergoneallthepunishments,thenumberofwhichtheysayiseighty,
someofthemofthegentlersort,othersmoresevere.Themilderare
undergonefirst,thentheseverer;andafterthewholecourseisgone
through,theyareinitiated.Fireandwaterarethesortsof
punishmentwhichtheyendure.Thesetormentsaresaidtobeinflicted
toproduceexamplesofpietyandgreatnessofmindundersufferings.
Aftertheyhavebeenmanydaysinwater,theycastthemselvesinto
fire;thenliveindesertplaces,andtheresubduethecravingsof
hunger;andthus,aswehavesaid,theaspirantgoesthroughthewhole
courseofeightytorments;whichifhesurvive,thenheisinitiated
intothemysteriesofMithras.
HumansacrificesseemtohavebeenusedintheworshipofMithras.
Photius,inhislifeofAthanasius,assertsthattherewasaGreek
templeinAlexandria,inwhich,inancienttimes,theGreeksperformed
sacredritestoMithras,sacrificingmen,women,andchildren,and
auguringfromtheirentrails.PlinytellsusthatintheyearofRome
657,adecreeofthesenatewaspassed,forbiddingtheimmolationof
man;fortillthattimemonstroussolemnitieswereopenly
celebrated.[139]TheemperorHeliogabalus,anativeofSyria,styled
himselfhighpriestofMithras.Hisassassinationispartlyascribedto
thehorrorwithwhichthepeoplelistenedtothetalesofmagicritesin
whichhewasconcerned,andofhumanvictimssecretlyslaughtered.[140]
[Sidenote:MITHRAICCAVE.]
ThecaveatHousesteadsinwhichtheMithraicsculptureswerefound,was
situatedinthevalleytothesouthofthestation.Itwasdiscoveredin
1822bythetenantofthefarminwhichitstood,whofixeduponthe
spotasonelikelytoyieldhimthematerialwhichherequiredfor
buildingastonefencehardby.Thebuildingwassquare;itssidesfaced
thecardinalpoints.Ithadbeenoriginally,aswasusually
[Illustration:ZodiacalTablet,Borcovicus]thecaseinaMithraic
temple,permeatedbyasmallstream.Hodgson,whosawitassoonasit
waslaidbare,says,Thecaveitselfseemstohavebeenalow
contemptiblehovel,dugoutofahillside,linedwithdrywalls,and
coveredwithearthorstraw.Thoughthebuildinghasbeenentirely
removed,asmallhollowisleftwhichmarksthespotwhereitstood.All
thesculpturedstoneshavehappilybeenplacedinthecustodyofthe
SocietyofAntiquaries,NewcastleuponTyne.Amongstthem,besidesthe
altarsalreadygiven,andsomewhichithasnotbeenthoughtnecessary
heretoengrave,isthecuriousstoneshewninthewoodcut.It
representsMithras,surroundedbythezodiac.Thesignsofcancerand
libraareomitted.Thezodiacaltabletassumesanegglikeform,
probablytosymbolizetheprincipleofgeneration.Thegodholdsasword
inhisrighthand,andapeculiarspiralobjectinhisleft.Itmore
nearlyresemblesanearofcornthantheflameofatorch.Weare

reminded[Illustration:PineappleOrnament,etc.,Cilurnum]byitof
theornamentsresemblingpineapples,whicharefrequentlyfoundonthe
lineoftheWall;andwereprobablyconnectedwiththeworshipofthis
deity.Theexampleherefigured,aswellasthesmallaltarwhich
accompaniesit,wasfoundatHousesteads;botharenowpreservedat
Chesters.
[Illustration:PresumedMithraicSculpture,Cilurnum]
[Sidenote:MITHRAICSYMBOLS.]
Theaccompanyingwoodcutrepresentsasubjectwhichissupposedtobe
connectedwiththemysteriesofMithraicworship.Theslabwasfoundat
CILURNUM,andisnowatAlnwickCastle.Thoughnotsatisfiedwith
Hodgsonsdescriptionofit,Iamunabletosupplyabetter.Hesays;
Thesculptureisintwocompartments:thatontheleftseemsto
containalion,statant,raisingtheheadofanakedanddeadman:
thatontheright,afigureofMithrasseatedonabench,andhavinga
flaginonehand,awandintheother,andonitsheadthePersian
tiara.(?)Iwouldhazardaconjecturethatthewholerelatestothe
MithraicritescalledLeontica;forthelion,inthezodiacofthe
ancientheathens,stoodforMithras,orthesun,whichthrewits
greatestheatupontheearthduringitscoursethroughthe
constellationLeo.
[Illustration:AltartoApollo,Cawfieldmilecastle]
[Sidenote:ALTARTOAPOLLO.]
NumerousasarethealtarsonthelineoftheWalltothePersiangod,
onlyonehasbeenfounddedicatedtoApollo,theGrecianrepresentative
oftheluminaryofday.Itwasdiscoveredinthesummerof1850,lying
nearaspringinthevicinityoftheCawfieldmilecastle,aboutmidway
betweentheWallandtheVallum,andisnowpreservedinthecollection
ofantiquitiesatChesters.Thefollowingreadingmustberegardedas,
inagreatmeasure,conjectural;nodoubt,however,canexistastothe
deitytowhichitisdedicated.
DEOAPOL
INIETO[MNIBVS]N[VMINIBV]S
SINIS[TRA]EXPL[ORATORVM]
CVIPR[AEEST]SVLP[ICIVS]
_VOTVM_S[OLVIT]
L.L.(_libentissime_)M[ERITO]
TotheGodApol
loandtheotherdeities,
Theleft_wing_ofguides
CommandedbySulpicius,
Indischargeofavow
Mostwillinglyanddeservedly.
ItisbelievedthatthisistheonlyinscriptiontoApolloyet
discoveredinEngland,thoughoneatleasthasbeenfoundinScotland.
TheRomansoldiersinBritainwereprobablynotmuchgiventothestudy
ofthe_belleslettres_,whichwereunderthepeculiarpatronageofthe
godofthesilverbow.
Thenextisaninscriptionofunusualimportance.
UltimaCumaeivenitjamcarminisaetas;
Magnusabintegrosaeclorumnasciturordo.
JamreditetVIRGO.

[Illustration:InscriptiontotheSyrianGoddess,Magna]
[Sidenote:INSCRIPTIONTOTHESYRIANGODDESS.]
AslabwasfoundatCarvoranin1816,andisnowinthecastleof
NewcastleuponTyne,whichcontainsanexpositioniniambicverseofthe
creedofaRomantribunerespectingthemotherofthegods.Faber
remarks,thatCeres,Cybele,Venus,theSyriangoddessDerceto,the
Ph[oe]nicianAstarte,andtheEgyptianIsis,werealloneandthesame
deity.Theinscription,whichisanunusuallylongone,isherearranged
inlinesofthelengthwhichthescansionrequires
IMMINETLEONIVIRGOCLESTISITU
SPICIFERA,JUSTIINVENTRIX,URBIUMCONDITRIX,
EXQUISMUNERIBUSNOSSECONTIGITDEOS
ERGOEADEMMATERDIVUM,PAX,VIRTUS,CERES,
DEASYRIA;LANCEVITAMETJURAPENSITANS.
INCLOVISUMSYRIASIDUSEDIDIT,
LYBICOLENDUMINDECUNCTIDIDICIMUS,
ITAINTELLEXIT,NUMINEINDUCTUSTUO
MARCUSCCILIUSDONATINUS,MILITANS
TRIBUNUSINPRFECTODONOPRINCIPIS.
TheVirgininhercelestialseatoverhangstheLion,
Producerofcorn,Inventressofright,Foundressofcities,
Bywhichfunctionsithasbeenourgoodfortunetoknowthedeities;
Thereforethesame_Virginis_theMotherofthegods,_is_Peace,_is_
Virtue,_is_Ceres,
_Is_theSyrianGoddesspoisinglifeandlawsinabalance,
TheconstellationbeheldintheskyhathSyriasentforth
ToLybiatobeworshipped,thencehaveallofuslearntit,
Thushathunderstood,overspreadbythyprotectinginfluence,
MarcusCciliusDonatinus,awarfaring
Tribunein_theofficeof_prefect,bythebountyoftheemperor.
Cciliusprobablypreparedthisexpositionofhisfaithonbeing
admittedintothemysteriesofCeres.Howeverunintelligible,wecannot
butadmirethehumilityandteachabledispositionofthetribune.
Theirjudgewasconscience,andherruletheirlaw,
Thatrule,pursuedwithreverence,andwithawe,
Ledthem,howeverfaltering,faintandslow,
Fromwhattheyknew,towhattheywishedtoknow.
Butletnothimthatsharesabrighterday,
Traducethesplendourofanoontideray,
Preferthetwilightofadarkertime,
Anddeemhisbasestupiditynocrime!
[Sidenote:MINORDEITIES.]
Aglanceatsomeoftheminor,andlocaldeitiesmustconcludeour
reviewofthegodsoftheBarrier.
ThedeitiesofGreeceandRomewerewithoutnumber.Everyfountainand
river,everyhillandforest,haditstutelarydeity;everyproductof
earth,air,orsea,itsguardian;everyplaceitsgenius;every
householdits_penates_.TheantiquitiesfoundontheWallfurnishus
withnumerousillustrationsofthisfact.Theengravingrepresentsan
altarwhichwasfoundatBirdoswald,andisnowatLanercost.
[Illustration:AltartoSilvanus,Amboglanna]
DEOSANCTO
SILVANOVE
NATORES

BANNES.S.(_sacraverunt_)
Totheholygod
Silvanus,
Thehuntersof
Banna
Haveconsecrated_this_.
[Sidenote:THENYMPHS.]
Silvanusseemstohavepresidedoverwoodsandboundaries.Several
altarshavebeenerectedtohimalongtheline.Forestsmustatthat
timehavecoveredagreatportionofthecountry,andgivenshelterto
beastsofchaseworthyofthemartialprowessoftheoccupantsofthe
Isthmus.
Ahostoffemaleforms,denominatednymphs,hauntedmountain,valley,
andstream.
WhenintheIliad,thefatherofthegodscallstogetherhiscouncil,
NoroftheFloodswasanyabsentthence
Oceanusexcept,oroftheNYMPHS
Whohauntthepleasantgroves,ordwellbeside
Streamfeedingfountains,orinmeadowsgreen.
Aninterestingaltar,dedicatedtothesedeities,wasfoundbytheside
ofaspringoverlookingthestationofHABITANCUM.Itisnowinthe
gardenofSpencerTrevelyan,esq.,ofLongWitton.
[Illustration:AltartotheNymphs,Habitancum]
SOMNIOPRAE
MONITVS
MILESHANC
PONEREIVS
SIT
ARAMQVAE
FABIONVP
TAESTNYM
PHISVENE
RANDIS.
Theinscriptionisroughlycut,butquitelegible,nocontractionis
usedinit,andnoligatureisadmitted,eveninthecaseofdiphthongs.
Theconstructionofthesentenceispeculiar,andadmitsoftwo
renderings.Taking_nuptaest_tosignifydedicated,apeculiaruseof
theword,suggestedperhapsbyitsetymologicalrelationshipwiththe
onewhichitgoverns,_nymphis_,theinscriptionwillread
Asoldier,warnedinadream,directedtheerectionofthisaltar,
whichisdedicatedbyFabiustothenymphstowhomworshipisdue.
Theothermethodofrenderingitisthefollowing,
Asoldier,warnedinadream,directedher(_eam_supplied)whois
marriedtoFabiustoerectthisaltartothenymphstowhomworshipis
due.
[Sidenote:THEGODSOFTHEMOUNTAINS.]
Accordingtoeitherinterpretationthealtarwaserectedtothesylphs
ofthefountain,inconsequenceofadream.Thelivelyimaginationof
theRomanhasinvestedthehumblespringwhereitoriginallystoodwith
suchanairofromance,astorenderitamatterofregretthatthe

altardoesnotstillgracethespot.
[Illustration:AltartotheGodsoftheMountains,Vindobala]
TheadjoiningwoodcutrepresentsasmallaltarfoundatRutchester,
VINDOBALA,andnowintheCastleofNewcastleuponTyne.Theinscription
readsTothegodsofthemountains,JuliusFirminus,thedecurion,[141]
erectedthis.Epona,towhomthenext[Illustration:AltartoEpona,
Magna]altarisdedicated,wastheprotectressofhorses;imagesofher
weretobeseeninmoststables.Juvenalsdandyjockeysworebyher
alone.ThisaltarwasfoundatCarvoran,andisnowintheHighSchool
ofEdinburgh.Theaccompanyingexample[Illustration:Altar,sculptured
withaToad,Cilurnum]isnottheonlyinstanceofatoadbeing
representedonanaltar.ThiswasfoundatChesters,CILURNUM,whereit
isstillpreserved.DidtheRomansstoopsolowastoworshipreptiles?
Ifso,thesuperstitiouspracticehasprobablybeenderivedfromthe
east.Dr.Kittoremarks,Theimportanceattachedtothefrog,insome
partsofEgypt,isshewnbyitsbeingembalmed,andhonouredwith
sepultureinthetombsofThebes.IntheEgyptianmythology,thefrog
wasanemblemofmaninembryo.
[Illustration]
[Sidenote:VITERES.]
Manyaltarshavebeenfoundonthelinededicatedtogodsunknownto
RomesPantheon,andsupposedtohaveapurelylocalcelebrity.The
engravingexhibitsoneofanumerousclass.[142]Itwasdiscoverednear
ThirlwallCastleabout1757,inthecourseoftheformationofthe
militaryroad,andshortlyafterpresentedtotheSocietyof
Antiquaries.Vitres,orViteres,orVeteres,isagodwhosenameis
confinedtothenorthofBritain.Hodgsonremarks,thatVithriswasa
nameofOdin,aswefindinthedeathsongofLodbroc'Iwillapproach
thecourtsofVithris,withthefalteringvoiceoffear.'IfViteresand
theScandinavianOdinbeidentical,wearethusfurnishedwithevidence
oftheearlysettlementoftheTeutonictribesinEngland.Thealtar
givenonpage395is[Illustration:AltartoViteres,Condercum]also
dedicatedtoViteres.Theoccurrenceofthenameofthisgodinaplural
form,asintheannexedexample,whichwasfoundatCONDERCUM,andis
nowatSomersethouse,hassuggestedtheidea,thatViteresisnotthe
propernameofagod,butthat_diisveteribus_theancientgodsisthe
inscriptionintended.Mostprobably,however,Vitereswasthenameofa
localdeity.
[Illustration:AltartotheDeaHamia,Thirlwallcastle]
[Sidenote:LOCALDEITIES.]
Thenextaltarisalsodedicatedtoalocalgoddess;atleastitisnot
easytogiveanymoresatisfactoryaccountofthe_DeaHamia_.Thealtar
wasfoundnearThirlwallcastle,andbelongstotheSocietyof
Antiquaries,London.
[Sidenote:DEMATRES.]
Wenowproceedtoanimportantgroupofaltarsandsculptures,which,
ifnotstrictlylocal,areyetchieflyfoundinthoseregionsof
EuropewhichweresweptbytheTeutonicwaveinitsprogresswestward.
TheyhavebeenmetwithinEngland,theNetherlands,alongthebanks
oftheRhineandotherpartsofGermany,andinFrance.Thesedeities,
whensculptured,arerepresentedastriple,generallyseated,clothed
inlongflowingdrapery,andbearingintheirlapsbasketsoffruit.A
slab,ofwhichadrawinghasalreadybeengiven(p.140),isinscribed
MATRIBUSCAMPESTRIBUS,tothemothersoftheplains;itprobably
referstothedeitiesinquestion.Analtarfoundinthesame

[Illustration:AltartotheThreeLami,Condercum]station,
CONDERCUM,andnowinthevaultsofSomersethouse,isinscribed
LAMIISTRIBUS,tothethreeLami.Thewoodcutaccuratelyrepresents
it.InRichscompaniontotheLatinDictionary,theLamiare
representedasVampires;believedtobemalignantspiritsofthe
femalesex,whowanderedaboutatnightintheguiseofoldhags,
suckingblood,anddevouringthefleshofhumanbeings.This
superstition,continuesthewriter,originatedinEgypt.In
corroborationoftheEgyptianoriginofthisclassofdemons,itmay
bestatedthatsmallimages,arrangedintriplets,areofcommon
occurrenceamong[Illustration:EgyptianIdols][Illustration:
EgyptianIdols]theantiquitiesofEgypt.Thecutshereintroduced
exhibittwogroupsofthisclassofidols,selectedfromalarge
numberofsimilarsets,inthepossessionofhisGracethedukeof
Northumberland,atAlnwickCastle.Theirresemblancetosomeofthose
founduponthelineoftheWallisstriking.Theforeignoriginof
thesemotherdeitiesisfurtherprovedbytheirbeingdenominatedin
inscriptionsMATRESTRAMARIN,TransmarineMothers.Thealtarhere
figuredisanexampleofthiskind;itwasfoundatHABITANCUM,andis
nowpreserved[Illustration:AltartotheTransmarineMothers,
Habitancum]atAlnwickCastle.Theinscriptionrecords,thatJulius
Victordedicateditindischargeofavowfreelyanddeservedlytothe
TransmarineMothers.ThisVictor,itappearsbyanotherinscription,
wasatribuneofthefirstcohortoftheVangiones,aGermanictribe.
Onnoneofthesealtarsarethedeitiesdistinguishedbyaproper
name.Thiswouldseemtobeinconformitywiththesuperstitious
feelingsofthemiddleagesinEnglandandGermany,whereitwas
thoughtunluckytocallthefairiesandelvesbyanyother
denominationsthantherespectfultitlesoftheladies,orthegood
people.Severalsculpturesrepresenting,asissupposed,the
mothergoddesses,havebeenfoundonthelineoftheWall.Onegroup,
foundatHousesteads,andnowinthecastleofNewcastleuponTyne,is
drawn(fig.4)onPlateXI.WhenseenbyHorsley,thisslabhadinthe
upperpartofittwofishesandaseagoatinrelief.Twoothersets
gotatthesameplace,arefiguredintheBritanniaRomana.Inoneof
them,thecentralorchieffigureisrepresentedasboundbythelegs.
Theancients,inordertopreventadeity,whosefavourtheycoveted,
takinghisdepartureagainsttheirwill,notunfrequentlyused
[Illustration:SculpturetotheDeMatres,atNetherby]the
unwarrantablelibertyofsecuringhimbychains.AtNetherby,there
arethreesculpturesbelongingtothisclass.Oneofthem,shewnin
thewoodcut,isinaperfectcondition.Thefiguresarestanding,an
amplecoveringenvelopestheirheads,andashorttunicscantily
[Illustration:SculpturetotheDeMatres,atNetherby]investstheir
bodies.Anothergroup,hereengraved,hasmetwiththeusualfateof
RomansculpturesinthenorthofEnglandtheyhavesuffered
decapitation;theamplefoldsofthegarmentsbywhichtheyare
[Illustration:SculpturetotheDeMatres,atNetherby]clothedhave
happilynotbeendisturbed,andthecentralorchiefpersonageholdsa
basketoffruit.Thethirdsculptureisoflargersizeandhas
sufferedmoreextensiveinjury;thelefthandfigureofthegrouponly
remains;sheisseated,andholdsfruitinherlap.TheByzantine
characterofthedraperywillbenoticed.AtNetherhallanother
fragmentofa[Illustration:SculpturetotheDeMatres,at
Netherhall]group,procuredfromtheneighbouringstation,is
preservedthelefthandfigurehasbeenbrokenoff;thetworemaining
ladieswearthesamecowllikeheaddressastheNetherbymothers;
shewnontheformerpage.Mr.ThomasWright,speakingofthesemythic
personages,says
TheancientmythologyoftheGermanicracewasnotentirelyeradicated
byChristianity;anditisinterestingtotraceitasreflectedinthe
popularsuperstitionsofthepresentday.Thereverenceforthethree
goddesseswhopresidedoverthewoodsandfields,prearrangedthe
fatesofindividuals,anddispensedtheblessingsofProvidenceto

mankind,maythusbetraceddowntoacomparativelylateperiod,both
inGermanyandinEngland.Theyaresometimesregardedasthethree
Fatesthe_Norni_ofthenorth,thewlcyrianoftheAngloSaxons(the
weirdsisters,transformedinShakespeareintothreewitches),
disposingofthefatesofindividuals,anddealingoutdeathandlife.
Buttheyarealsofounddistributingrewardsandpunishments,giving
wealthandprosperity,andconferringfruitfulness.Theyarethethree
fairieswhoareoftenintroducedinthefairylegendsofalater
period,withthesesamecharacteristics.[143]
[Sidenote:INTRODUCTIONOFCHRISTIANITY.]
Aftersolongacompanionshipwiththeheathenrelicsfoundontheline
oftheWall,thereaderwillnaturallyaskHavenoChristianremains
beenfound?DoesnomemorialrecordthenameofJEHOVAH,thelivingGod?
Anegativereplymustbegiventotheinquiry.Thereis,however,
abundantevidencetoprove,thatChristianitywasextensivelydiffused
throughtheworldlongbeforetheRomansdepartedfromBritain.Tacitus
tellsus,thatinhisdaytherewasagreatmultitudeofChristiansat
Romeitself.TheyoungerPliny,inthesecondcentury,addressingthe
emperor,complainsthattheheathentempleswerealmostdeserted.Justin
Martyrsays,thereisnotanationinwhichprayersandthanksgivings
arenotofferedupinthenameofthecrucifiedJesus;andTertullian,
themostancientoftheLatinfathers,appealingtothemagistrates,
says,Wearebutofyesterday,yetwehavefilledeveryplace,your
cities,garrisons,andfreetowns,yourcamps,senate,andforum;we
haveleftnothingemptybutyourtemples.Britainearlyreceivedthe
gladtidings.Theconcurrentvoiceofantiquity,saysMr.Thackeray,
althoughithasnotdesignatedtheindividualswhoweretheimmediate
instrumentsofProvidenceinenlighteningBritain,assignstheyear60
asabouttheperiodwhentheChristianreligionwasintroducedintothis
island.Atthistimetherewerenotfewerthan48,000Romansoldiers,
includingtheirauxiliaries,inthiscountry,someofwhommusthave
beenwellacquaintedwiththenameofChrist.Inthearmytherewouldbe
somecenturionslikeCornelius,somedeputieslikeSergiusPaulus,who,
notcontentwithknowingthetruththemselves,endeavouredto
communicateittoothers,andyettheseChristiansoldiershave,along
thelineoftheWall,leftnomemorialoftheirfaith.TheGodwhomthey
servedrequirednottheerectionofanaltarofstone,oranofferingof
frankincense.Theirinscriptionwas,aholylife,seenandreadof
allmen.Notwithstandingtheexampleandteachingofsuchmen,itisa
lamentablefact,thatheathenismcontinuedtorearitsheadinBritain
untilnearthecloseoftheperiodofRomanoccupation,asseveralof
thealtarsfoundonthelineoftheWallclearlytestify.
[Sidenote:CHRISTIANSYMBOL.]
BrandconceivedthatanaltardiscoveredatRutchester,andnowinthe
museumatNewcastleuponTyne,exhibitedtheChristiansymbol.Itmay
wellbedoubtedwhethertherudecarvingtowhichherefers,isany
thingmorethanapartiallyobliteratedletter.Thereareotherletters,
evidentlyofmodernfabrication,carvedonthisaltar.
_Fasestabhostedoceri._AnobviousremarkclothedinHorsleysown
language,andextractedfromaworkthatisnowscarce,willforma
suitableconclusiontothissection.Speakingofvowsinsicknesshe
says
Thereisonethinginthesepaganvotivealtarsthatmaybeashame
andreproachtoagreatmanywhocallthemselvesChristians;andthat
is,thewillingnessandcheerfulnesswithwhichtheypaid,or
pretendedtopay,thevowstheyhadmade.Suchashaveany
acquaintancewiththosethings,knowhowcommonlytheselettersV.S.
L.M.orV.S.L.L.M.,areaddedattheendofinscriptionsthatare
onsuchaltars,wherebytheysignifiedhow_willingly_and

_cheerfully_,aswellas_deservedly_,theyperformedthevowsthey
hadmade,viz.,_votumsolvitlibensmerito_,or_votumsolvitlibens,
lubens_(or_ltus_)_merito_.Muchmore_deservedly_,andtherefore
more_willingly_and_cheerfully_,shouldthevowsmadetotheMost
High,tothetrueandlivingGod,bepaidorperformedtohim,and
particularlythevowsmadeintrouble.[144]
SEPULCHRALINSCRIPTIONS.
[Sidenote:MONUMENTALSLABS.]
ExtremeimportancewasattachedbybothGreeksandRomanstothedue
dischargeoftheritesofsepulture.Untilearthhadbeenthreetimes
sprinkledoverthebodyofthedeparted,hisspiritwasconceivedtobe
deniedadmissionintotheElysianfields.Thepracticeofburningthe
deadbecamecommonatRomeaboutthelatterperiodoftherepublic.The
inconvenienceandexpenseoftheprocesswouldnecessarilyrestrictit
topersonsofsomewealth.Afterthepilewasconsumed,theashesofthe
deceasedweregatheredupbythenearestrelative,anddepositedinan
urn.TherearenumerousinstancesinBritainoftheRomanshavingburied
theirdeadentire.SkeletonshavebeenfoundinLondon,whichMr.
CharlesRoachSmithconsidersmusthavebeendepositedinthehigher
empire.AsChristianitygainedground,thecustomofburningthedead
fellintodisuse;theearlyChristianswereunwillingtodoneedless
violencetothedustofafellowdisciple,andresolvedtodiscontinue
thesuperstitiousceremonieswhichusuallyattendedcremation.
Whetherthebodywaspreviouslyreducedtoashes,ordepositedinthe
groundunburnt,itwasusualtoraiseamoundoverthespot.
ErgoinstauramusPolydorofunus:etingens
Aggeriturtumulotellus.
_n._III.62.
[Sidenote:FUNERALURN.]
Sometimes,insteadofamoundofearth,amonumentofstonecoveredthe
placewherethesepulchralurnwasdeposited.Thiswasthecaseat
BREMENIUM,asalreadydescribed(_p._326).Withtheashesorbodyof
thedeceased,itwasusualtodepositasmallbrasscointoanswerthe
demandsofCharon.'Thiscustomofburyingvaluablesandcoinswiththe
deadisbynomeansextinct;thehumblerIrishwillpawntheirclothes
toprovidefreshpiecesofmoneytothrowintothecoffinsoftheir
departedfriends.'[145]TheRomans,asformerlyobserved,didnot
usuallydepositeithertheunburntbodiesofthedead,ortheirashes,
withinthewallsoftownsorstations.Acuriousexceptiontothis
practicehaslatelybeennoticed.InthemonthofOctoberlast(1850),a
funerealurnwasdiscoveredwithinthestationofBORCOVICUS,nearthe
northwestcorner.Itwassunkintheearth,andwascoveredbyan
oblongflatstone,withoutinscription.Thevase,whichwasof
earthenware,andaltogetherdevoidofornament,wasglobularinits
form,andoflargedimensions.Itmeasuredtwofeetindiameter,andtwo
feetinheight.Itcontainedashes,amongstwhichwasfoundasolitary
silvercoinofHadrian.ThisurnispreservedatChesters.Ontheslab
coveringtheremainsofthedeceasedperson,thenameandagewerenot
unfrequentlyinscribed.Thecarving,whichsometimesincludesaneffigy
oftheindividual,isoftenveryrude;thebackofthestoneis,forthe
mostpart,undressed.Theinscriptionsonthesefrailmemorialswhich
inthemuralregionhavecomedowntoourtimes,andimplorethe
passingtributeofasigh,almostuniformlycommence[Sidenote:DII
MANES.]withthelettersD.M._diismanibus_.Theshadesordeparted
spiritsare,probably,themselvesintendedinthisaddress,thoughmuch
confusionexistsuponthesubjectintheworksoftheancientwriters.
Inthefollowinglines,Ovidrepresentsthemanesasbeingobjectsof
worship:

Esthonorettumulis:animasplacatepaternas;
Parvaqueinextinctasmunerafertepyras.
ParvapetuntMANES:pietasprodivitegrataest
Munere:nonavidosStyxhabetimaDeos.
Tegulaprojectissatisestvelatacoronis;
Etsparsfruges,parcaquemicasalis.
[Illustration:SepulchralAltartotheManesofFabiaHonorata,Cilurnum]
SomeoftheceremoniesherereferredtobytheLatinpoet,arestillin
use,asallknowwhohavevisitedthecemeteryofPrelaChaise,in
Paris.Onthesepulchralslab,deathisrarelymentioned;butthenumber
ofyears,months,anddays,thatthedeceasedlived,isrecordedwith
greatparticularity.Thealtar,ofwhichanengravingishere
introduced,wasfoundatCILURNUM,andisnowintheLibraryoftheDean
andChapteratDurham.Itbearsthefollowinginscription
D[IIS]M[ANIBVS]S[ACRVM]
FABIHONOR
ATFABIVSHON
ORATIVSTRIBVN[VS]
COH[ORTIS]I.VANGION[VM]
ETAVRELIAEGLIC
IANEFECER
VNTFILIDVLCISSIM
SacredtothedivineManesof
FabiaHonorata.
FabiusHon
oratiusthetribuneofthe
FirstcohortofVangiones,[146]
AndAureliaEglic
ianeerected_this_
Totheirmostsweetdaughter.
[Sidenote:MORTALITYOFTHEGARRISON.]
Tendersouls!exclaimsHodgson,yourlastactofpietytoabeloved
daughterhasnotbeenforgotten:thealtarthatbearsthememorialof
youraffectionstillexists,thoughithasbeenbanishedfromthe
custodyoftheasheswhichwerecommittedtoitscare.Thoughpainful,
itisyetpleasanttonoticetheheavingsofnaturalaffectioninthe
martialbosomofaRomansoldier.Thisstonediffersfrommostofthe
sepulchralmonuments,inbeinganaltarinsteadofaslab,andinnot
mentioningtheageofthedeceased.Ithasbeenremarkedthatthelarger
proportionofthetombstonesofthemuralregionrecordthedeathsof
youngpersons.TheclimateofthenorthofEngland,particularlyofthe
exposeddistrictoftheBarrier,musthavetoldwithfearfulseverity
upontheconstitutionsofthosewhohadbeenrearedunderthesunny
skiesofItalyandSpain.
[Illustration:SepulchralSlabtotheManesofAureliaFaia,Magna]
[Sidenote:SEPULCHRALSLAB.]
Thelargeslabwhichisherefigured,wasfoundatCarvoran,andisnow
inthecastleofNewcastleuponTyne.Itreads
D[IIS]M[ANIBVS]
AVRE[LIAE]FAIAE
D[OMO]SALONAS
AVRE[LIVS]MARCVS
(_centurio_)OBSEQ[IO]CON
IVG[IS]SANCTIS

SIMAEQVAEVI
XITANNISXXXIII.
SINEVLLAMACVLA
TothedivineManesof
AureliaFaia,
OfahouseofSalona,
AureliusMarcus
Acenturion,outofaffection
Forhismostholywife
Wholived
Thirtythreeyears,
Withoutanystain,_erectedthis_.
[Sidenote:MONUMENTALINSCRIPTIONS.]
Itisnotunnaturalthatasoldierwhilebemoaningthelossofabeloved
wifeinalandofstrangers,shouldsodwelluponhervirtuesasto
conceivethatherswasafaultlesscharacter.Grutergivesan
inscriptionwhichnearlyresemblesthis.ItwaserectedbyMarcus
AureliusPaullus
CONIVGIINCOMPARABILI
CVMQVAVIXITANNISXXVII
SINEVLLAQVERELA
Tohisincomparablewife,withwhomhehadlivedtwentysevenyears
withouthavinghadasinglesquabble.
Thiscouple,saysMr.Akerman,mustforeverthrowintotheshadeall
thecandidatesfortheDunmowflitch.
[Illustration:SepulchralSlabtotheMemoryofCorneliusVictor]
AtChesterholmisaslabwhich,thoughsufferingfromexposuretothe
weather,isstilldistinct:
DIISMANIBVS
CORN[ELIVS]VICTORS.C.(_SibiConstitvit_)
MIL[ES]ANN[OS]XXVICIV[IS]
PANN[ONIAE]FIL[IVS]SATVRNI
NIP.PVIX[IT]ANN[OS]LV.D[IES]XI
CONIVXPROCVRAVI
TothedivineManes;CorneliusVictororderedthistobeerectedover
himself.Hewasasoldiertwentysixyears,acitizenofPannonia,and
theverydutiful(P.P._pientissime_)sonofSaturninus.Helived
fiftyfiveyearsandelevendays.I,hiswife,sawhisorderexecuted.
Thetombstonetoayoungphysicianhasalreadybeengiven,page227.
CENTURIALSTONES.
[Sidenote:CENTURIALSTONES.]
Theonlyotherclassofinscribedstonestowhichreferencewillnowbe
made,isthatofcenturialstones.Thecenturionsseemtohavebeenin
thehabitofplacingacommonstone,inscribedwiththenameoftheir
_century_companyortroop,inthatsectionoftheWallwhichtheyhad
built.Thelettersareusuallyveryrudelycut;sometimestheyare
enclosedinaborder,asintheannexedexample,which,probablyfound
inthevicinityofCILURNUM,isnowatAlnwickCastle.
[Illustration:CenturialStone,Coh.V.CciliiProculi,Cilurnum]

COH[ORS]V
>(_centuria_)CAECILI[I]
PROCVLI
Thefifthcohort.
ThecenturyofCcilius
Proculus.
Morefrequently,however,thestoneisentirelyunadorned,asinthis
example,which,alongwith[Illustration:CenturialStone,Cilurnum]the
former,wasremovedfromWalwickChesterstoAlnwickCastle.Theletter
C,reversedthus,ormorefrequentlyanangularmarkresemblingthe
letterV,laiduponitssidethus>,isthesignusuallyadoptedfor
_centuria_,century.Twocenturialstonesareshewninthewoodcut
introducedinpage190.Theupperone,thatofValeriusMaximus,was
described,acenturyago,byHorsley,whofounditnear
Haltwhistleburn.AfterwardsitwasbuiltupinagableoftheCawfield
farmhouse,againstwhichacoalshedwasformed.Here,thoughsadly
begrimed,itwasprotectedfromfurtherinjury,untilrescuedbythe
presentownerofthefarm,andsafelydepositedinthemuseumof
antiquitiesatChesters.
COINS.
[Sidenote:NUMISMATICREMAINS.]
Nextinimportancetotheinscribedstonesfoundonthelineofthe
Wall,thestudentofhistorywillreckonthecoinswhichthespadeand
ploughofthehusbandmanturnupinconsiderablenumbersinthemural
region.Inarudestateofsocietythecommercialtransactionsofthe
residentsofadistrictarealmostentirelyconfinedtoaninterchange
ofthecommoditiesproducedbyeach.Abodyofsoldiery,however,liable
toberemovedfromplacetoplace,andcompelledtoexpendtheir
energiesinunproductiveindustry,arenecessarilyobligedtoresortto
theuseofmoney.ItischieflyinthestationswheretheRomanlegions
lodged,orontheroadswhichtheytraversed,thattheimperialcoinis
found.Thesemetallicpieces,bearingtheinsigniaofRome,thusbecome
exceedinglyimportantintrackingthemarchofRomanarmies.Asworksof
art,thedesignandexecutionofmanyofthemaretrulyadmirable.The
coppercoinsofHadrianareespeciallyworthyofstudy.Thecustomwhich
prevailedduringthebestperiodsoftheempire,ofrenderingthe
circulatingmediumofthemarketplacethemeansofcommemoratingthe
leadingeventsoftheday,givesthemincreasedvalue.Wereallthe
otherrecordsofRomanstorydestroyed,itsmoststirringincidents
mightberecoveredbyacarefulexaminationofthecoinswhichthe
cabinetsoftheantiquarycontain.
[Sidenote:COINS.]
Ampleusehasalreadybeenmadeofthissourceofinformationinthe
firstPartofthiswork.WhyisitthatBritainneglectsthismeansof
rousingthespiritofherpeople,ofcommunicatinginformation,andof
securinganalmostimperishablememorialofhermightyacts?Hadshe
recordeduponhercoinagetheeventsofthelasthalfcentury,shewould
havetransmittedtoposteritythememoryofaseriesofwarlike
achievementsandpeacefultriumphsunparalleledinextentandunequalled
inglory.Asitis,ourmetalliccurrencyhaslittlevaluebeyondits
commercialworth,andgenerationaftergenerationiscompelledto
contemplate,withwhatcomplacencytheymay,thesameladysitting
immoveablyuponthesameenduringrock,andthesamemountedknight
makinghisinterminableattempttoslaythesamedeathlessdragon.The
immensenumberofthecoinsfounduponthelineoftheWall,andthe
extensionoftheseriesfromtheearliestperiodsdowntothetimeof
Honorius,proveincontestiblythelengthoftimethattheRomans
maintainedtheirholdofthisisthmus.Theaccidentallossofpiecesof

moneywillnot,alone,accountforthelargequantitywhichhasbeen
found.Intimesofdangerthepossessorsoftreasureseemtohavebeen
inthehabitofconcealingitintheearth;thesecretoftheirhaving
donesomustoftenhaveperishedwiththem.Inexcavatingthatportion
ofthestationofCILURNUMwhichwasopenedin1843,notfewerthan
seventyRomancoinswerefound.In1833,nearthewestgatewayof
VINDOLANA,threehundredsmallbrasscoins,mostlyofConstantiusand
Mangentius,werefound,notinaheaporvessel,butdispersedamongthe
soil.TheRev.JohnWalton,who,aboutacenturyagowasvicarof
Corbridge,madeaconsiderablecollectionofRomancoins,bypurchasing
suchaswereturnedupintheneighbouringstationofCorchester.The
followingcircumstanceisrelatedconcerninghim.ApartyofJewshaving
establishedintheneighbourhoodaprussianbluemanufactory,felt
disposedtoenterthemarketwiththevicar.Mr.Walton,unwillingto
competewiththembyofferingalargerprice,hadthefieldswherethe
coinswerefound,strewedwithimitationsofthegenuinepieces.These,
onbeingpickedup,werefreelyboughtbytheJews,who,soonfinding
thetradealosingone,abandoneditaltogether.
Thestation,notwithstandingsuchsystematicgleaning,isnotyet
deprivedofitstreasures.Notlongago,arusticekedoutalivelihood
bysearchingforitscoins,anddisposingofthemtooccasional
customers.Theotherdayaploughboybeingaskedifhehadfoundany
lately,producedstraightwayfromhispocketnotlessthanthirty,most
ofthem,indeed,highlycorroded.
ThecoinageofRomeseemstohavecontinuedincirculationinthenorth
ofEnglandforaveryshorttimeafterthedepartureoftheRomanforces
fromBritain.SaxonmoneyisfoundinNorthumberlandofadatecoeval
withthearrivalofthatpeople,butisnevermingledwiththeRoman
coinage.ThecoinsoftheRomans,ontheotherhand,arenever
accompaniedbythoseoftheirsuccessors.Withinaboutfortyyearsafter
thedepartureoftheRomans,thecirculationoftheimperialcoinage
seemstohaveceased.Thiscircumstanceprovesincontestiblythata
mightypoliticalrevolutionhadtakenplaceintheinterval.Thepresent
appearanceofthestationscorroboratestheidea.Thewallshavebeen
forciblythrowndown,thestatuesandotherobjectswithinthem
purposelymutilated,andthewholeinclosurerendered,asfaras
possibleunfitforhumanhabitation.
[Sidenote:THORNGRAFTONCOINS.]
Toattemptadescriptionofeventheprincipalcoinsthatcanstillbe
ascertainedtohavebeenprocuredfromthedistrictoftheWall,would
betocomposeatreatiseuponnumismatics.Itwillperhapsbesufficient
tolaybeforethereaderabrief[Illustration:Vessel,inwhichthe
ThorngraftonCoinswerefound]accountofthehoardwhichwasdiscovered
in1837,inanancientquarrynearThorngrafton.Thecoins,sixtyfive
innumber,werecontainedinasmallskiffshapedreceptaclewitha
circularhandle.Thevesselrepresentedintheadjoiningwoodcutis
aboutsixincheslong;thelidhasahingeatoneend,andfastenswith
aspringattheother.Thecoinsareatpresentinthepossessionofthe
brotherofthequarrymanwhodiscoveredthem,andheholdsthemwith
suchtenacity,thatmyartistwasrefusedpermissiontoseeeventhe
casewhichcontainedthem,thoughhehadtakenajourneyofthirtymiles
forthepurposeofdrawingthem.Mr.Fairless,ofHexham,wasmore
fortunate,andobtainedleavetotakesealingwaximpressionsofthe
coins,fromwhichthewoodcutshavebeenprepared.IamindebtedtoMr.
Fairlessforthedescriptionofthecoins,whichhetookfromthepieces
themselves.
GOLD.
[Illustration]

_Obv._TI.CLAVD.CAESAR.AVG.GERM.P.M.TRIB.POT.P.P.
_Rev._NEROCLAVD.CAES.DRVSVS.GERM.PRINC.IVVENT.
[Illustration]
_Obv._NEROCAESARAVGVSTVS.
_Rev._SALVS.
[Illustration]
_Obv._IMP.CAESARVESPASIANVSAVG.
_Rev._AVictoryholdingagarlandovertheheadofaRomansoldier,and
intheexergue,COS.VIII.
SILVER.
1._Obv._IMP.NEROCAESARAVGVSTVS.
_Rev._SALVS.Devicesameasingoldabove.
[Illustration]
2._Obv._IMP.SER.GALBACAESARAVG.
_Rev._DIVAAVGVSTA.
[Illustration]
3._Obv._IMP.SER.GALBACAESARAVG.
_Rev._S.P.Q.R.OB.C.S.(Withinawreath.)
4._Obv._SER.GALBAAVG._Rev._Sameaslast.
[Illustration]
5._Obv._OTHOCAESARAVG.
_Rev._PONT.MAX.
[Illustration]
6._Obv._IMP.CAESARVESPASIANVSAVG.
_Rev._IMP.XIX.Abasketfilledwithcornorbread.
[Illustration]
7._Obv._CAES.VESP.AVG.P.M.COS.III.
_Rev._CONCORDIAAVGVSTI.
[Illustration]
8.9.10._Obv._IMP.CAESARVESPASIANVSAVG.
_Rev._PON.MAX.TR.P.COS.VI.
[Illustration]
11._Obv._IMP.CAES.VESP.AVG.CENS.

_Rev._PONTIF.MAXIM.
[Illustration]
12._Obv._DIVV.AVGVSTVSVESPASIANVS.
_Rev._Noinscription.Afigurestanding.
[Illustration]
13._Obv._IMP.VESP.AVG.P.M.COS.VIII.
_Rev._VES(figure)TA.
[Illustration]
14._Obv._IMP.CAES.VESPASIANVSAVG.
_Rev._COS.ITER.(figure)TR.POT.
[Illustration]
15._Obv._Sameaslast.
_Rev._COS.(aneaglestandingoncippus)VII.
[Illustration]
16._Obv._Inscriptionsameaslast.
_Rev._Reversedgoatsheads,bearingashield.
[Illustration]
17._Obv._Inscriptionsameaslast.
_Rev._COS.ITER.TR.POT.
[Illustration]
18._Obv._Inscriptionsameaslast.
_Rev._GENIVM(figure)P.R.
[Illustration]
19._Obv._IMP.CAES.DOMITIANVSAVG.P.M.
_Rev._TR.POT.II.COS.VIIII.DES.X.P.P.
[Illustration]
20.21._Obv._Sameaslast.
_Rev._IMP.XXI.COS.XVI.CENS.P.P.P.
[Illustration]
22.23._Obv._CAESARAVG.DOMITIANVS.
_Rev._COS.IIII.Pegasus.
[Illustration]
24._Obv._CAES.DOMIT.AVG.GERM.P.M.T.R.P.

_Rev._IMP.XIIII.COS.XIII.CENS.P.P.P.
[Illustration]
25._Rev._IMP.XXII.COS.XVI.CENS.P.P.P.
[Illustration]
26._Obv._IMP.CAES.DOMITIANVSAVG.P.M
_Rev._TR.POT.II.COS.VIIII.DES.XII.
[Illustration]
27._Obv._CAES.AVG.DOMIT.COS.III.
_Rev._PRINCEPSIVVENTVT.
[Illustration]
28._Obv._IMP.NERVA.CAES.AVG.P.M.TR.P.COS.III.P.R.
_Rev._FORTVNAP.R.
[Illustration]
29._Obv._IMP.CAES.NERVA.TRAIAN.AVG.GERM.
_Rev._PONT.MAX.TR.POT.COS.II.
[Illustration]
30.31._Obv._IMP.CAES.NERVATRAIAN.AVG.
_Rev._P.M.TR.P.COS.VI.P.P.S.P.Q.R.
[Illustration]
32._Obv._IMP.TRAIANOAVG.GER.DAC.P.M.TR.P.
_Rev._COS.V.P.P.S.P.Q.R.OPTIMOPRINC.
[Illustration]
33.34.35._Rev._COS.V.P.P.S.P.Q.R.OPTIMOPRINC.
[Illustration]
36._Obv._IMP.TRAIANOAVG.GER.DAC.P.M.TR.P.COS.V.P.P.
_Rev._S.P.Q.R.OPTIMOPRINCIPI.
[Illustration]
37._Obv._Sameaslast.
_Rev._S.P.Q.R.OPTIMOPRINCIPI.
_Exergue._FORT.RED.
[Illustration]
38.Sameasbefore.

_Exergue._PAX.
[Illustration]
39._Obv._IMP.TRAIANOOPTIMOAVG.GER.DAC.P.M.TR.P.
_Rev._COS.VI.P.P.S.P.Q.R.
[Illustration]
40._Obv._IMP.CAES.NERVATRAIANOOPTIMOAVG.GER.DAC.
_Rev._P.M.TR.P.COS.VI.P.P.S.P.Q.R.
41._Obv._IMP.CAES.NERVATRAIAN.AVG.GERM.
[Illustration]
42.43._Obv._IMP.CAES.NERVATRAIAN.AVG.GERM.
_Rev._P.M.TR.P.COS.II.P.P.
[Illustration]
44.Sameas40.with_Exergue_.TROVIO.
[Illustration]
45._Obv._IMP.TRAIANOAVG.GER.DAC.P.M.TR.P.
_Rev._COS.V.P.P.S.P.Q.R.OPTIMOPRINC.
[Illustration]
46.Thesameaslast.
[Illustration]
47.Sameaslast.Seatedfigure,therighthandextended,holdinga
Victory.
[Illustration]
48._Obv._IMP.CAESARTRAIAN.HADRIANVSAVG.
_Rev._P.M.TR.P.COS.III.
[Illustration]
49._Obv._Sameaslast.
_Exergue._FEL.P.R.(doubtful.)
_Rev._P.M.TR.P.COS.III.
[Illustration]
50._Obv._IMP.CAESARTRAIAN.HADRIANVSAVG.
_Rev._P.M.TR.P.COS.III.
PIETAS,inthefield.
51._Obv._Sameaslast.

_Rev._P.M.TR.P.COS.III.
CONSULARANDOTHERS.
[Illustration]
[Illustration]
[Illustration]
ThiscoinsymbolizesthepeaceconcludedbetweentheRomangeneral
ScaurusandtheArabianmonarchAretas.
[Illustration]
[Illustration]
[Illustration]
[Illustration]
[Illustration]
MINERALSANDMETALS.
Innearlyallthestationsoftheline,theashesofmineralfuelhave
beenfound;insome,astoreofunconsumedcoalhasbeenmetwith,
which,thoughintendedtogivewarmthtotheprimevaloccupantsofthe
isthmus,hasbeenburntinthegratesofthemodernEnglish.Inseveral
placesthesourcewhencethemineralwasprocuredcanbepointedout;
butthemostextensiveworkingsthatIhaveheardof,areinthe
neighbourhoodofGrindonLough,nearSewingshields.Notlongago,a
shaftwassunk,withtheviewofprocuringthecoalwhichwassupposed
tobebelowthesurface;theprojectorsoonfound,thatthoughcoalhad
beenthere,itwasallremoved.Theancientworkingsstretchedbeneath
thebedofthelake.
[Sidenote:MININGOPERATIONS.]
InAllendaleandAlstonMoor,numerousmassesofancientscorihave
beenfound,whichmusthaveresultedfromthereductionofleadfromits
ore.InthestationofCorchester,portionsofleadpipehavebeen
found;itisaninchandahalfindiameter,andhasbeenformedby
bendingroundaflatstripofthemetal,andsolderingthejoint.
Ironhasbeenproducedinlargequantities.Intheneighbourhoodof
HABITANCUMmassesofironslaghavebeenfound.Itisheavierthanwhat
proceedsfrommodernfurnaces,inconsequence,probably,ofthe
imperfectreductionoftheore.IntheneighbourhoodofLanchester,the
processseemstohavebeencarriedonveryextensively.Onthedivision
ofthecommon,twolargeheapswereremoved,theonecontainingabout
fourhundredcartloadsofdross,theothersixhundred.Itwasusedin
theconstructionofsomenewroadswhichwerethenformed,apurposefor
whichitwasadmirablyadapted.Intheneighbourhoodofoneofthese
heapsofscori,theirontongsrepresentedinPlateXVII.fig.8,so
muchresemblingthoseatpresentusedbyblacksmiths,wereploughedup.
Duringtheoperationofbringingthiscommonintocultivation,the
methodadoptedbytheRomansofproducing[Sidenote:BLASTFURNACE.]the
blastnecessarytosmeltthemetalwasmadeapparent.Twotunnelshad
beenformedinthesideofahill;theywerewideatoneextremity,but
taperedofftoanarrowboreattheother,wheretheymetinapoint.
Themouthsofthechannelsopenedtowardsthewest,fromwhichquartera
prevalentwindblowsinthisvalley,andsometimeswithgreatviolence.
Theblastreceivedbythemwould,whenthewindwashigh,bepouredwith

considerableforceandeffectuponthesmeltingfurnacesatthe
extremityofthetunnels.
METALLICIMPLEMENTS.
Notwithstandingthetendencyofirontooxidize,severalweaponsmadeof
thismaterial,andusedbytheRomans,havecomedowntoourday.Their
generalcharacterandformcanbebetterlearntfromaninspectionof
thedrawingswhichdepictthemthanbyverbaldescription.OnPlateX.
areshewntwospearorjavelinheads,andonPlateXVII.theironpoints
ofsomearrows.
Vesselsofcastmetal,fittedfordomesticuse,areoccasionallymet
with.OnPlateXVII.fig.2,isaspecimenofapotorboiler,closely
resemblingthoseinmodernuse;itwasfoundincuttingtheNewcastle
andCarlisleRailway,nearHaydonBridge.
[Sidenote:METALLICIMPLEMENTS.]
Bronzevesselsareoccasionallyfound.TheutensilsdepictedonPlate
XVI.areofthismetal.Fig.1,isapan,evidentlyintendedfor
culinarypurposes.Theuseoftheothervessel,fig.2,sonearly
resemblingamoderncoffeepot,isnotsoapparent,thoughseveralof
thisformhavebeenfoundintheRomanstationsinthenorthofEngland.
Isitadecanterasortofwineflagon?Bothofthesevesselswerefound
onthelineoftheWall,butatwhatpointIhavebeenunabletolearn.
NeartoWhitfield,wererecentlyfoundthreecampkettles,ofpeculiar
make,whicharenowintheMuseumofAntiquitiesatNewcastleuponTyne.
Theyareformedofbronze,butofexceedinglythinmetal;theyhave
evidentlyseenmuchservice,andarepatchedinseveralplaces.Owingto
thethinnessofthemetaltheywouldveryreadilyfeelthefire.In
Italy,whereduringagreatpartoftheyearafireisonlylightedwhen
indispensable,similarvesselsarestillinuse.Thesethreevessels
varyinsize,soastoallowoftheirbeingplacedonewithintheother.
ThesmallestofthemisshewnonPlateXVII.fig.3.Thestrainer,fig.
1,alsoofbronze,andveryfinelyandtastefullyperforated,wasfound
withthem.
Thebossofashield,havingsomethingoftheappearanceoftheheadof
asnake,PlateVII.fig.2,isalsoofbronze.Itispreservedat
Chesters.
Fibulorclasps,forfasteningthelooserobeswornbytheRomans,are,
asmaybesupposed,ofordinaryoccurrence.Theonerepresented,ofthe
fullsize,PlateXIV.fig.2,wasfoundatCarvoran.Itisofbronze,
andisofaformofwhichtherearemanyexamples.Thetongueis
wanting,butthespiralspringtowhichitwasattached,andthegroove
whichcaughtit,aredistinctlyobserved.Thesmallpairofbronze
shearsorscissors,whichareshewnoftheirfullsize,PlateXIV.fig.
1,werealsofoundatCarvoran.
_PLATEXV._
[Illustration:
J.STOREYDELETLITH.PRINTEDBYA.REID.
SamianWare,fromWallsendandLanchester
]
_PLATEXVI_
[Illustration:
JSTOREYDELETLITHPRINTEDBYAND^wREID.

BronzeVessels
]
_PLATEXVII._
[Illustration:
JSTOREYDELETLITHPRINTEDBYAND^wREID.
IronPot,BronzeVessel,Tongs,etc.
]
_PLATEXVIII_
[Illustration:
JSTOREYDELETLITHPRINTEDBYAND^wREID.
SolesofSandals,etc.
]
EARTHENWAREANDMISCELLANEOUSARTICLES.
[Sidenote:ROMANPOTTERY.]
FewsubjectspossessmoreinterestthanthepotteryoftheRomans.
Whetherweregardtheshapeofthevessels,thebeautyoftheir
ornaments,ortheexcellenceofthematerialofwhichtheyarecomposed,
theyareworthyofouradmiration.Fortunatelyforthepresentwriter,
somuchhasrecentlybeenpublisheduponthesubject,astojustifyhim
indismissingitwithabriefnotice.
Amongtheearthenwarevesselsfoundinthemuralregionaresomeof
coarsestructure,suchas_amphor_,_mortaria_,pansforcommon
domesticpurposes,andsomewhichhaveprobablybeenintendedfor
exposuretothefire.Theamphorarelargenarrowneckedvessels,
capableofcontainingseveralgallons,andformedofredclay.In
general,theyhavebeenfurnishedwithtwohandles,ononeofwhichthe
makersnameisnotunfrequentlystamped.Theywereusedforholding
wine.IamnotawareofanyhavingbeenfoundonthelineoftheWall,
inastateatallapproachingtocompleteness.
Themortarsarestrongshallowvessels,providedwithalipforthe
convenienceofpouring.Theyareformedofclay,resemblingfirebrick
incolour.Ontheirinnersurface,arefrequentlyimbeddedangular
fragmentsofquartz,chert,orironscori.Bythiscontrivance,the
bruisingofparchedcornorotherarticlesoffoodwouldbemoreeasily
effected.
Variousvesselsofcommonearthenware,suchaswouldberequiredin
everyhouseholdforholdingwater,grain,andkindredsubstances,are
discovered,occasionallynearlyperfect.AtNetherHallsomeveryfine
onesarepreserved,whichwerefoundintheneighbouringstation;oneis
twelveinchesindiameter,andnearlysixdeep.Another,ofglobular
form,isteninchesindiameter,andnineindepth.
Besidesthese,fragmentsofthickvesselsarefrequentlymetwith,which
areofaporousnature,andhencewelladaptedtowithstandthesudden
applicationofheat.Inthese,whenplaceduponthefire,wemayreadily
conceivethatfoodwasbakedorstewed.
Othervessels,forthemostpartofsmallersize,moreelegantshape,
andcomposedoffinermaterials,areofcommonoccurrence.Someare
nearlyblack,othersgreyorslatecoloured:thesearequiteplainand
unembossed.Aspeciesofyellowearthenwareisfound,tintedwitha
brownpigment,bythepartialremovalofwhich,asortofpatternis
giventoit.AlltheseareofBritishmanufacture.Manyofthepotteries

inwhichtheywerefabricated,havebeenclearlyascertained.The
slatecolouredandgreykindsowetheirpeculiarhuetotheactionof
whathasbeencalled,thesmotherkiln.Duringtheprocessofbakingthe
vessels,theventofthefurnacehasbeenclosed,soastofillthekiln
withsmoke.Theunconsumedcarbonnotonlycommunicateditsownhueto
theobjectsexposedtoit,butpreventedtheiron,whichusuallyforms
thecolouringmatterofclay,frombeingconvertedintotheperoxide,
whichisofabrickredcolour.[147]
[Sidenote:SAMIANWARE.]
ThefinestspeciesofearthenwarefoundinRomancamps,isthatcalled
Samian.Itisofabrightcoralredcolour.Itcanatoncebedetected
byitsglaze,whichhasnotyet,inmoderntimes,beensuccessfully
imitated.Somevesselsarequiteplain,butothersareverytastefully
embossed.PlatesIX.andXV.furnishspecimensofthemoreornamental
kind.Thelargefragment,engravedPlateXV.fig.1,wasfoundin
sinkingtheshaftofthefamousWallsendpit.Nopotteriesforthe
manufactureofthisspeciesofware,havebeenfoundinBritain;andas
themakersmarks,andthepatternsoftheembossedvarietiescorrespond
withthosefoundonthecontinent,itisconceivedtobeofforeign
origin.GaulandSpainhavebeenpointedoutasthecountriesfromwhich
thespecimensexhumedinBritainwereprobablyprocured.Thevast
quantityoffragmentsofSamianwaremingledwiththerubbishofsomeof
thestationsistrulyremarkable;andnotlessworthyofobservationis
thefact,thatnotonlyhastheclayofwhichthebrokenvesselsare
composed,undergonenodeteriorationbybeingburiedforcenturiesin
thedampearth,buteventheglazeis,toallappearance,uninjured.
ThateventheplainerkindsofSamianwarehavebeenaccountedvaluable
bytheirowners,isevidentfromthecircumstance,thatmarksandnames,
bywhichtheymightbeidentified,haveinnumerousinstancesbeen
scratcheduponthem.InPlateVII.figs.9and11,aretwoexamplesof
thiskind,foundatCILURNUM,andstillpreservedthere.Insomecases
whereavesselhasbeenfractured,ithasbeenjoinedbyclaspsoflead.
Fig.1,PlateVII.,isanexampleofthis,alsofoundatCILURNUM.The
processofboringtheholestoreceivetheleadmusthavebeenoneof
somelabour,andwouldnothavebeenundertakenunlessthevesselhad
beenaccountedvaluable.
AnimitationoftheSamianwareseemstohavebeenmadeinBritain
duringthecontinuanceoftheRomanperiod.Itisnotequaltothe
originalincolour,texture,ordesign.Fig.2,PlateIX.differsin
appearancefromtrueSamianitmaybeanimitation.
ThelampshewnonPlateXIV.fig.4,isofredearthenware,coveredwith
ablackpigment;itprovesthevastamountofskillandtastewhichthe
Romanslavishedevenuponarticlesofminorimportance.
[Sidenote:MINORANTIQUITIES.]
Millstonesareamongthemostfrequentofthediscoveriesmadeinour
Romanstations.Some,foundatCILURNUM,areshewninPlateXIII.fig.
4.TheycloselyresemblethequernswhichwereusedinScotlandandthe
ruraldistrictsofNorthumberland,withinarecentperiod.Manyofthe
stonesconsistofthemillstonegrit,basalt,orgraniteofthe
district;othersareformedofaspeciesoflavawhichisnotprocured
inanylocalitynearerthanRhinePrussia.Theadvantageofthese
foreignstonesis,that,thoughhard,theyareporous,and,astheywear
away,stillpresentacontinuityofsharpedgestotheactionofthe
grain.
Theprocessofgrindingthecornbyhandmillsmusthavebeenamost
tediousone.Probablyalargeproportionofthegrainconsumedbythe
soldiersoftheBarrierwassimplyboiled,afterbeingslightlybruised
inmortars.

[Sidenote:CONCLUSION.]
HereaperiodmustbeputtothisaccountoftheRomanWallandits
antiquities.Manytopicsworthyoffullerdiscussionhavebeenbut
cursorilytreated,andsomeomittedaltogether;butitisimpossible,in
aworkofthisextent,todofulljusticetoasubjectofsuch
magnitude;wecontentourselveswithimitatingthemoderationof
Hadrian,who,insteadofgraspingatuniversalempire,soughtonlya
dominionwhichhemightreasonablyhopetomaintain.
Still,wemayreckononsomeadvantagefromthebriefcommunionwehave
heldwiththeMightyamongtheAncients.Wecanhardlytarry,evenfor
anhour,inassociationwiththepalmydaysoftheGreatEmpire,without
learning,ontheonehand,toemulatethevirtuesthatadornedher
prosperity,andontheother,toshunthevicesthatwerepunishedby
herdownfall.ThesceptrewhichRomerelinquished,wehavetakenup.
GreatisourHonourgreatourResponsibility
...Heavenlywisdomonthisball
Creates,givesbirthto,guides,consummatesall.
Statesthriveorwither(asmoonswaxandwane)
E'enasHiswillandHisdecreesordain;
WhileHonour,Virtue,Piety,bearsway,
Theyflourish;andasthosedecline,decay.
[Illustration:TailpieceRomternFortunReduci]

Footnote137:
ThissmallaltarwasfoundatBenwell,andisnowinthepossessionof
theSocietyofAntiquaries,Londonitisdrawntotwicetheusual
scale.
Footnote138:
OntheidestheundefiledpriestinthetempleofthegreatJove
offersintheflamestheentrailsofawether.
Footnote139:
Archologialiana,i.306.
Footnote140:
SmithsDictionaryofBiographyandMythology.
Footnote141:
Decurion,acommanderofatroopoftenmen.
Footnote142:
Thisandthetwosubsequentcutsaredrawntotwicetheusualscale.
Footnote143:
Forfurtherinformationonthisinterestingsubjectthereaderis
referredtotwoadmirablepapersbyMr.C.RoachSmith,andMr.Thomas
Wright,inthesecondvolumeoftheJournaloftheBritish
ArchologicalAssociation.

Footnote144:
VowsinTrouble,byJohnHorsley,A.M.London:PrintedforRichard
Ford,attheAngel,inthePoultry,nearStocksmarket.AndsoldbyR.
Akenhead,Bookseller,atNewcastleuponTyne,1729.Atthetime
Horsleypublishedthisbook,hewasengagedinthepreparationofthe
_BritanniaRomana_.
Footnote145:
SmithsCollectaneaAntiquai.21.
Footnote146:
ThefirstcohortoftheVangioneswereinBritaininthetimeof
Hadrian,fromwhomsomeofthem,in132,hadadischargefromthe
army,withtheprivilegetomarry.TheywerefromBelgicGaul,and
werealongtimequarteredatRisingham,atwhichstationeightof
theirtribuneshavelefttheirnamesoninscriptions.
_Hist.Nor._II.iii.183.
Footnote147:
SeeRemainsofRomanArtinCirencester,78.

INDEX.
ABALLABA,297.
SICA,GreatChesters,254.
AgricolalandsinBritain,7.
ALIONIS,347.
Altars,formof,395.
AMBOGLANNA,Birdoswald,278.
Amphor,445.
AncientBritons,descriptionof,16.
Apollo,altarto,411.
AqueductatGreatChesters,257.
Arthur,King,traditionsrespecting,205.
ArthursWell,264.
Astures,apeoplefromSpain,141.
BattleofHeavenfield,167.
Bede,onthebuildingoftheWall,379.
Belatucadrus,altarto,401.
BeltedWill,285.
Benwell,CONDERCUM,137.
Bewcastle,344.
Binchester,344.
Birdoswald,AMBOGLANNA,278.
Blackcartsfarm,Wallon,196.
Blackdike,211.
Blakechesters,321.
Blastfurnace,443.
Bleatarn,297.
Bloodygap,244.
Boglehole,traditionsof,245.
BORCOVICUS,Housesteads,214.
BORCOVICUS,etymologyof,228.
BorcumorBarcombe,quarryon,231.

Borderstrife,296.
Borders,stateof,inmiddleages,209.
Bradley,232.
Brampton,349.
BridgeatNewcastleuponTyne,130.
BridgeoverNorthTyne,170.
Britain,firstnoticeof,2.
BREMENIUM,HighRochester,325.
BREMETENRACUM,350.
Broachingofthestones,85.
Brunton,theWallat,169.
Buethscastle,345.
BurghuponSands,304.
Burnswark,356.
Busygap,207.
Bykerhill,118.
CsarslandinginBritain,3.
Carrawburgh,PROCOLITIA,197.
Cambeckfort,PETRIANA,288.
Campkettles,444.
Carausius,21.
Carlisle,LUGUVALLIUM,301.
Carvoran,MAGNA,267.
Castella,67.
CASTRAEXPLORATORUM,353.
Cawgap,246.
Cemeteries,183,262.
CenturialStones,429.
Chapelhill,224.
Chapelhouse,274.
Chapelhouses,147.
Chesters,CILURNUM,171.
Chesterholm,VINDOLANA,236.
Chewgreen,325.
ChivesonWalltowncrags,264.
Christianremains,noneontheWall,421.
Christianity,earlyintroductionofintoBritain,422.
CILURNUM,Chesters,171.
_Cippi_,326.
CoalwroughtbytheRomans,442.
Cocidius,altarto,401.
CoinsfoundonBorcum,231,434.
CoinsfoundinCambeckfort,289.
CoinsfoundinNewcastlebridge,131.
Coins,numberofRoman,relatingtoBritain,37.
Coins,generalremarksupon,431.
Coins,numberfoundontheWall,432.
Coins,RomanandSaxon,notcommingled,433.
Coins,spurious,365.
Concrete,hydraulicpropertiesofRoman,182.
Constantineproclaimedemperor,23.
CONDERCUM,Benwell,137.
Corchester,CORSTOPITUM,332.
CORSTOPITUM,Corchester,332.
CostoftheWall,94.
Cousinshouse,113.
Crags,whytheWallbuiltupon,201.
Cummingscross,206.
_DeaHamia_,417.
_DeMatres_,417.
DentonHall,146.

DevilsWallinGermany,96.
Downhill,156.
Drumburgh,309.
Dykesfield,307.
Earthenware,445.
Ebchester,341.
EdwardI.atBradley,233.
Egyptiantriplegoddesses,418.
Ellenborough,361.
Emperorsworshipped,398.
EPEIACUM,342.
Epona,altarto,415.
Fibul,444.
Fisherscross,311.
Forest,primeval,310.
Fortune,altarto,403.
FosseoftheWall,51.
Geltquarry,385.
Genius,local,altarto,399.
GeniusoftheWall,353.
GildasaccountofthemiseriesoftheBritons,27.
Glassforwindows,222.
Goddessmothers,417.
Grahamsdike,97.
GreatChesters,SICA,254.
Groovesinthresholdsofgates,220.
HABITANCUM,Risingham,329.
HadrianarrivesinBritain,11.
Hadrian,deathof,391.
Hadrianslabs,383.
Harlowhill,155.
Haltonchesters,HUNNUM,159.
Haltwhistle,252.
Haltwhistleburnhead,254.
Harehill,284.
HeddonontheWall,149.
Hedley,Rev.Anthony,105.
Hexham,194,339.
HistoricaltestimoniesrespectingthebuildingoftheWall,372.
Hodgson,Rev.John,106.
Horsley,biographicalnoticeof,103.
HorsleyonChristianvows,423.
Hospital,camp,362.
Housesteads,BORCOVICUS,214.
HUNNUM,Haltonchesters,159.
HypocaustsatHUNNUM,162.
Hypocausts,theirprobableuse,180.
HypocaustsatChesters,174.
Inscriptions,valueof,187.
IronwroughtbytheRomans,442.
Irthington,295.
ItineraryofAntonine,328.
Jarrow,323.

Jupiter,altarto,397.
KeepofCastleofNewcastleuponTyne,135.
Kilnfordryingcorn,223.
KirkAndrews,302.
LakesofNorthumberland,229.
_Lami_,418.
Langleycastle,231.
Lanchester,342.
Lanercostpriory,284.
Lanx,theCorbridge,334.
LeadwroughtbytheRomans,442.
LegioXX.engagedupontheWall,247.
Limekiln,327.
Limestonebank,195.
_Lingones_atTynemouth,108.
LUGUVALLIUM,Carlisle,301.
MAGNA,Carvoran,267.
Maidenway,269.
MalcolmCanmore,321.
Mars,altarsto,401.
Maryport,361.
MasonryoftheStations,84.
MasonryoftheWall,78.
Maximus,319.
Middleby,354.
Milecastles,67.
MilecastleatCawfield,248.
Milestone,239.
Millstones,448.
Militaryway,69.
Milkinggap,234.
Minerva,altarto,402.
Mithras,altarto,404.
MonumenttoEdwardI.,306.
Moresby,366.
Mortar,Roman,86.
_Mortaria_,445.
Mountaingod,415.
Mumpshall,275.
MurusandVallum,onedesign,387.
MythologyofGothictribes,421.
Namesofstationsascertained,61.
Naworthcastle,284.
Netherby,352.
Netherhall,362.
NewcastleuponTyne,121.
NinenicksofThirlwall,265.
NorthShields,321.
Nymphs,414.
OldCarlisle,360.
OldTown,349.
Ouseburnmilecastle,119.
Papcastle,366.

PassageoftheEden,300.
PassageoftheIrthing,277.
Peelcrag,243.
Peelhouses,253.
PETRIANA,Cambeckfort,288.
PolytheismoftheRomans,398.
Plumpton,358.
PONSLII,NewcastleuponTyne,121.
PROCOLITIA,Carrawburgh,197.
QuarryonFallowfieldfell,80.
QuarryonHaltwhistlefell,80.
Quarry,Roman,292.
Rapishawgap,230.
RichardofCirencesteronthebuildingoftheWall,390.
Risingham,HABITANCUM,329.
Rochester,High,BREMENIUM,325.
Romanemperors,numberwhovisitedBritain,36.
RutsingatewayofBirdoswald,280.
Rutchester,VINDOBALA,150.
Sacrifices,Roman,396.
Samianware,447.
Sandals,Roman,348.
Secondaryforts,315.
SEGEDUNUM,Wallsend,105.
Sepulchralinscriptions,424.
SeveruslandsinBritain,15.
Severus,deathof,392.
Sewingshieldsfarmhouse,200.
Shieldslawe,322.
Silvanus,altarto,413.
SpeakingpipesintheWall,76.
Stagshorns,269.
Stanwix,299.
Stations,descriptionof,56.
_Stationesperlineamvalli_,60.
Steelrig,243.
Stoteshouses,117.
Streets,narrownessof,221.
Syriangoddess,412.
Teppermoor,196.
Terracedgardens,224.
Thirlwallcastle,270.
TimeoccupiedinbuildingtheWall,94.
Toadsrepresentedonaltars,416.
TowerofRepentance,307.
Towertay,195.
TraditionsregardingCILURNUM,192.
Traditions,Sewingshields,203.
TransmarineMothers,419.
Troughsofstone,158.
_Tumuli_,351,365.
Turrets,68.
Twicebrewedale(inn),233.
Tynemouth,318.
Vallum,descriptionof,52.

Vallum,additionalrampartof,283.
Vangiones,427.
VegetationinimicaltotheWall,93.
VespasianandTitusinBritain,5.
Viteres,altarsto,395,416,417.
Victory,figureof,300.
VINDOBALA,Rutchester,150.
VINDOLANA,Chesterholm,236.
VINDOMORA,342.
Wallend,273.
Wall,inrelationtotherivers,100.
Wallis,349.
Wallmill,262.
Wall,probableheightof,47.
Wallsend,SEGEDUNUM,105.
Walltowncrags,263.
Walton,287.
Wardenhill,194.
Wardley,324.
Watercourse,ancient,161,257.
Watchcross,298.
Whitleycastle,346.
Wreckendike,322.
WrittenrockontheGelt,81.
Zodiacaltablet,#409.#

TranscribersNote
Onp.178,footnote86appearswithnoanchorinthetext.Judgingfrom
thecontext,theanchorhasbeenplacedattheendofthesentence
beginningThestonepillarsare...,whichmentionsthebalusters
referredtointhenote.
Onp.317,basedonthecontext,thewordstonesinthephraseall
thetrifling[stones]puttogether,ismostlikelyamisprintingof
stories.
Lapsesandinconsistenciesinpunctuationandformatintabularmatter,
orintheIndexhavebeensilentlycorrected.
Theindexentry'FosseoftheWall'isoutoforder,anditsposition
hasbeenadjusted.
Errorsdeemedmostlikelytobetheprintershavebeencorrected,and
arenotedhere.
p.x.BritishArch[o]logicalAssociationAdded.
p.xx.16.SectionofWorks,neareighteenthTransposed.
milestone[25/52]
p.xxiii.164.Sc[lu]/ul]pturetotheDeMatresTransposed.
p.8f[ri/ir]thsTransposed.
p.16thatascendfromthesemarshes.[]Removed.
p.50T[ih/hi]sportionTransposed.

p.62wh[i]chisthusinscribedAdded.
p.65n.34andintheneig[h]bourhoodAdded.
p.103n.54anativeofNo[r]thumberlandAdded.
Themi[l]liarywhichtoldtoHadriansAdded.
soldiers
p.134suc[c]essorAdded.
p.150sothata[a]greaterportionLinebreak
repetition.
p.204havebee[e]nwidelydiffusedRemoved.
p.258artific[i]almoundAdded.
Wher[e]everlinebreak
hyphenation
error.
p.310circu[cu]larRemoved.
p.362Thebodyof[of]theroadRemoved.
p.380n.135isnowknowninthe[p/d]istrictCorrected.
p.407dis[c]iplineAdded.
p.423_deserve[r]dly_Removed.
p.430vi[n]cinityRemoved.
p.447f[n/u]rnaceCorrected.

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