Contractor
Reporr
3227
F. A. Woodward
CONTRACT
NASl12900
APRIL 1980
,
I
IIIIIIIHllnll1111
OOb2027
NASA
Contractor
Reporr
3227
F.
A. Woodward
Prepared
for
Langley
Research Center
under Contract
NASl12900
National Aeronautics
and Space Administration
Scientific and Technical
Information Office
1980
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
SUMMARY...........
INTRODUCTION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
LISTOFSYMBOLS
AERODYNAMIC THEORY
. . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
NonPlanar
Boundary
Conditions
.................
Planar
Boundary
Conditions
...................
..........
Solution
of the Boundary
Condition
Equations
..........
Calculation
of Pressures,
Forces
and Moments
............
Gothert's
Rule Compressibility
Correction
..........
Local
Mach Number Compressibility
Correction
COMPUTERPROGRAM
Program
Program
Program
Program
APPLICATIONS
. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
.......................
Description
Input
Data  Version
B
Input
Data  Version
C
.......................
Output
Data
. . . . .
.................
.................
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . d . . . . . . . .
WingBody
Intersections
.....
................
.....................
Coplanar
Wing Paneling
Inlet
Modeling
.........................
...................
Control
Surface
Deflections
..........................
FieldPoints
EXPERIMENTAL
Isolated
WingBody
CONCLUSIONS
REFERENCES
VERIFICATION
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11
14
15
17
20
25
25
25
43
65
67
67
68
69
69
69
70
.........................
Wings
......................
Combination
70
70
. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
76
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
77
. . .
. . . . . .
iii
SUMMARY
Versions
B and C of the unified
subsonic
analysis
program,
USSAERO, are described.
and supersonic
aerodynamic
Version
B incorporates
a new symmetrical
singularity
method to provide
improved
surface
pressure
distributions
on wings in subsonic
flow.
Version
C
extends
the range of application
of the program
to include
the analysis
of
multiple
engine
nacelles
or finned
external
stores.
In addition,
nonlinear
compressibility
effects
in high subsonic
and supersonic
flows
are approximated
using
a correction
based on the local
Mach number at panel
control
points.
other
Several
panel
examples
are presented
methods
and experimental
comparing
data.
the
results
of these
programs
with
INTRODUCTION
Version
A of the unified
subsonic
and supersonic
aerodynamic
analysis
USSAERO, was delivered
to the NASA Langley
Research
Center
in September,
program,
1972.
The final
technical
documents
(Refs.
1 and 2) were issued
in May, 1973.
The program
was evaluated
by NASA in the summer of 1973, and the results
summarized
in Reference
3.
Version
B of this
program
was initially
developed
by the Computer
Sciences
This verCorporation
under contract
to NASA, and delivered
in December,
1974.
sion added graphics
capability
to the program.
The various
options
are described
in Reference
4, and include
plots
of the geometric
input
description,
the aeroIn addition,
an imdynamic
panelling,
or the computed
pressure
distribution.
proved
iteration
procedure
developed
at Purdue University
(Ref.
5) was added to
the program
at this
time to provide
a more efficient
technique
for solving
the
boundary
condition
equations.
The development
of Version
C of the program
by Analytical
Methods,
Inc.
was initiated
in January,
1974.
The primary
objective
was to investigate
the
effect
of adding
a new compressibility
correction
based on the local
Mach number.
During
this
time,
the geometrical
capability
of the computer
code was extended
to include
the analysis
of multiple
pods, pylons
and finned
external
stores.
a simplified
aerodynamic
singularity
representation
was incorporaIn addition,
ted as part
of the nonplanar
boundary
condition
option
for the wing,
in order
to reduce
computing
time.
Version
C was delivered
to NASA in December,
1975.
Version
B was revised
and updated
by Analytical
Methods,
Inc.
in November,
This modification
incorporated
an improved
procedure
for calculating
the
1976.
strengths
of the source
and vortex
singularities
in the nonplanar
boundary
condition
option
for the wing,
based on the symmetrical
singularity
method
(Ref.
6).
Also included
was an option
to calculate
the velocities
and pressures
at arbitrary
field
points,
and a technique
to model engine
inlet
and exhaust
flows.
This report
describes
the new features
gram by Analytical
Methods,
Inc.
It includes
Versions
B and C of the program,
and several
bilities
of the program.
incorporated
revised
examples
into
the USSAERO proinput
descriptions
for
illustrating
the new capa
LIST
Aerodynamic
influence
Matrix
of
aerodynamic
Aerodynamic
influence
Reference
Aerodynamic
Mach number,
Normal
component
Normal
force
NB
Number
of
body
panels
NW
Number
of
wing
panels
NR
Number
of
panels
in
row
NC
Number
of
panels
in
column
Magnitude
of
Reference
wing
Tangential
OF SYMBOLS
coefficient
influence
coefficient
(source)
coefficients,
panel
area
(vortex)
chord
coefficient
pitching
of
moment
velocity
perturbation
velocity
vector,
prescribed
normal
velocity
area
force
Perturbation
velocity
Cartesian
components
coordinates
Greek
Angle
of
attack
PrandtlGlauert
factor
Vortex
strength,
Panel
deflection
incremental
ratio
of
specific
heat
angle
value
3
cl
Source
strength
Panel
inclination
Normal
VelOCity
angle
Subscripts
a
Analog
Body
Camber
'Drag
i,j,k
Panel
Lower,
Moment
Normal
Pressure
Tangential
Upper
Wing
XlYIZ
Refer
co
Free
indices
lift
to
Thickness
x,
stream
y,
z axes
AERODYNAMIC THEORY
An arbitrary
wingbodytail
configuration
is subdivided
into
a large
each of which contains
an aerodynamic
singularity
number of planar
panels,
a constant
source
distribution
is used
distribution.
In the USSAERO Program,
and a combination
of source
and vortex
distributions
is used
on body panels,
The derivation
of the perturbation
velocity
compoon wing and tail
panels.
nents
induced
by constant
and linearly
varying
source
and vortex
singularities
in compressible
subsonic
and supersonic
flow is described
in Reference
1.
No
new singularity
distributions
have been introduced
in Versions
B or C of the
program.
The strengths
of these
singularities
are determined
by satisfying
the condition
of tangential
flow at panel
control
points
for given
Mach number
and angleofattack.
The formulation
and solution
of the boundary
condition
equations
is reviewed
for both the planar
and nonplanar
boundary
condition
using
the notation
of Reference
1.
options
in the following
paragraphs,
NonPlanar
The normal
velocity
at
of the free
stream
velocity
singularities.
Thus
Boundary
control
and the
Conditions
point
i is the
normal velocity
+ Aw
n. =W
1
i
i
where
= sina
cos
sin
N
Au
and
The aerodynamic
of velocity
larity
of
If
the
influence
Av
ij'
singularity
a
ij
=n
ij
o+
j
b ij
coefficients,
the control
on panel
are
and Aw..
ij
17
on panel
j, then
X.1
Au
cosci
sin
(2)
induced
at
unit
strength
Au
(1)
ij
+n
= cam 6,(Aw..
Yi
cos
13
point
(3)
Yj
components
vortex
singu
j.
the
three
Av..+n
=I
ei
Z.1
components
of
velocity
induced
by
Aw..
13
 Av..
sin
17
Oil
 AU.. sin
17
'i
(4)
A similar
expression
and 6 are
given
can be written
in
terms
and u..,
v..
and w.. are
17
=J
17
The geometry
is illustrated
For
control
given
direction
by Eqns.
on the
b...
The panel
inclination
angles,
8
13
cosines,
nx, n and nz, by Eqn.
(124),
Y
(129) through
(131) of Reference
1.
following
sketch.
the boundary
n. = 0 in Eqn.
1
condition
of tangential
(1).
Thus, at control
flow
point
at
i,
body:
NB
where
the
a wingbody
combination,
point
i is satisfied
if
On the
c
j=l
of
for
NW
aBB
Bi
0
ij
=
Bj
+
c
j=l
q. + cosa
1
b
Bwij
sin
Yw.
3
=wB
rS  sina
i
i
cos
cos 6
i'
(5)
On the
wing:
cs
aWB
ij
where
cl
B'
j
wW
i
bww
9i
Y,
ij
+ coscx
sin
 sincl
ww
cos
cos 6
(6)
Here,
the body is assumed to have NB source
panel
singularities
and the wing is assumed to have NW vortex
panel
singularities
of
of strength
strength
I I
i=l
Symmetrical
distribution
of constant
sowce ringulaities
upper and lower surfaces of airhil.
on
Symmetrical
For
this
distributkn
of linearly
varying
vortex
on upper and lower surfaces of airhil.
the
section,
normal
velocity
induced
at
sihgularities
control
point
i can be
written
Au
=
i
c
j=l
a
uij
cs
uj
+
c
j=l
NR
NR
NR
NR
aL..
13
CT
L.
3
c
j=l
b
uij
Y,+
j
c
j=l
Lij
yL
if the strengths
of
However,
= CT = o.,
and y
=y,
=yjr
L.
U.
3
j
uj
3
7
Au
+ j=zl
(biij
a(J+
ij
c
j=l
c
j=NR+l
b ij
Yj
+ 'Lij)'j
(7)
model has
section.
2NR control
combination
points
having
and
2NR unknown
a wing
with
NC
2NR
NB
aBB..
=J
B.
J
NB
c
j=NR+l
BW.. Y,
17
j
(8)
WB
i
2NR
a
j=l
equated,
Applying
this
method to a wingbody
sections,
Eqns.
(5) and (6) become:
j=l
are
2NR
This symmetric
singularity
and vortex
strengths
per
singularities
NR
source
the opposing
then
WB
B.
7
"ww
u
ij
+
j
c
j=NR+l
ww..
13
(9)
i
of the program
uses a combination
of constant
Version
C.  This version
source
and vortex
distributions
similar
to the lifting
body model of Hess
For a typical
wing section,
2NR constant
sources
are located
on the
(Ref. 7).
influence
of the
However,
upper and lower surface
panels,
as for Version
B.
constant
vortex
distributions
is summed around
the section
and treated
as a
single
unknown,
and used to satisfy
the Kutta
condition
at an additional
control
point
located
just
behind
the trailing
edge on a plane
bisecting
the
upper and lower
surfaces.
In this
case,
the Kutta
condition
is satisfied
if
The combined
the resultant
velocity
is zero at the additional
control
point.
constant
vortex
distribution
is equivalent
to the linear
doublet
(or dipole)
distribution
used by Hess.
The vortex
model
is
illustrated
in
the
following
sketch.
Additional
Point Aft
Control
of Trailing
Edge
/
Constant
This
and vortex
aerodynamic
strengths
vortex
distribution
model has
per section.
on airfoil
2NR+l
control
Applying
this
method to a wingbody
sections,
Eqns.
(5) and (6) become
reface
points
combination
NB
c
j=l
10
2NR+l
having
unknown
a wing
with
source
NC
2NR
aBB
u
ij
+ 'k
NW
c
j&l
and
c
j=l
Bwij
(10)
i
2NR
aWB
ij
+
j
"ww
u
ij
+ 'k
c
j=l
=
wwij
w
W
i
(11)
The vortex
singularities
used in versions
B and C generate
concentrated
line
vortices
along
the inboard
and outboard
edges,
which continue
downstream
additional
trailing
vortex
to form the wake.
If the wing panels
are tapered,
The vortex
wake from each
sheets
are formed between
the two edge vortices.
panel
is constrained
to follow
the wing surface
contour
to the trailing
edge
The accumulated
vortex
wake then continues
downstream
in the
of the section.
plane
of the trailing
edge.
The concentrated
line
vortices
tend to cancel
along
the inboard
and outboard edges of adjacent
wing sections.
In general,
the cancellation
will
not
be complete,
and small
residual
line
vortices
will
exist
along
the section
edges.
The residual
vortices
can introduce
errors
in the tangential
velocity
at nearby
panel
control
points,
and this,
in turn,
can affect
the calculation
Numerical
of the pressure
coefficient
if the full
isentropic
formula
is used.
studies
have shown this
effect
to be small
except
near breaks
in the leadingNo mechanism
presently
exists
in the program
to ensure
edge of the planform.
that
all
edgevortices
are completely
cancelled.
Planar
Boundary
Conditions
Planar
boundary
conditions
are applied
on lifting
surfaces
only,
and have
Wing thickan identical
formulation
in either
version
B or C of the program.
ness effects
are represented
by a linearly
varying
source
distribution,
and
wing lifting
effects
are represented
by a linearly
varying
vortex
distribution.
The strength
Both distributions
are assumed to lie
in the plane
of the wing.
of the source
distribution
is set equal
to the known slope
of the wing chordand the strength
of the vortex
distribution
is
wise thickness
distribution,
determined
by satisfying
the boundary
condition
of tangential
flow at panel
control
points.
For
velocity
larities
control
points
on the
is given by Eqn. (2).
now becomes
c
j=l
c
j=l
Since
the last
term,
due to
boundary
condition
equation
the
for
aBB..
J
j=l
'j
b
ij
'j
+ 'OS a
wing sources,
control
point
>:
j=l
aBWij
is assumed to
i on the body
(~)j
(12)
be known, the
can be written
NW
NB
c
NW+NC
NW
NB
Aui
the normal
component
of the free
stream
body,
The normal
velocity
induced
by the panel
singu
aBB..
IJ
cj=l
b
ij
'j
= WB
i
(13)
11
where
= qi
+ cos U(sin
c1 cos 8
For control
points
approximated
as follows:
= cos
0.
tInL,=
Thus the
turbations
to
and the
face,
point
tan
6.
(a):
sin
(14)
the
normal
induced
component
of
the
free
stream
8.
(>)i
by all
other
is
(15)
(16)
approximated
as perto the upper sur
singularities
at
control
NW
a
WB..
I7
c
j=l
bww
Combining
Eqns.
(15) and (171, the
point
i on the wing can be written
NB
12
aBwij(2)j
a cos
local
wing thickness
the onset
flow,
with
lower
sign referring
j=l
c
j=l
wing,
NB
i
cos
on the
The normal
velocity
i may be written
AU
y
j=l
 sin
with
(Ii
ij
'j
boundary
(17)
+ 'OS cx
condition
equation
for
control
NW
"WB..
17
'j
=&.I
W
i
(18)
where
wW =qi+cos~{(%)i+[(2)iM~
i
 sin
a cos
aWW(2)j]/
(19)
'It
should
be noted that
the two terms
for coplanar
wing or tail
surfaces.
inside
the
square
brackets
cancel
exactly
13
Solution
of
The complete
set of
procedure.
The equations,
four partitions:
where
the
first
body
source
and vortex
influence
AWW, gives
trol
points.
control
Boundary
Condition
boundary
condition
when written
in
partition,
on the
the
A BB,
points;
panels
the
on the
gives
the
second,
body
equations
are solved
matrix
form,
subdivide
influence
ABW, gives
control
Equations
of
the
points;
order
of
each
of
the
four
body
source
influence
the
the
by an iterative
naturally
into
third,
points;
panels
partitions
of
panels
the
wing
gives
the
AWB'
and the fourth,
on the wing conis
600.
A rapidly
convergent
interaction
scheme for solving
large
order
systems
of
equations
is reported
in Reference
5.
In this
method,
the partitions
are
further
subdivided
into
smaller
blocks,
with
no block
exceeding
order
60.
The
matrix
elements
on each block
are carefully
chosen to represent
some well
defined
feature
of the original
configuration.
For example,
body blocks
represent
the influence
of one or more rings
of panels
around
the body,
while
a wing block
represents
the influence
of one chordwise
column of wing panels.
When the nonplanar
boundary
condition
option
is selected,
the block
size corresponds
to
the total
number of panels
on the upper and lower
surfaces
of the section.
The initial
iteration
calculates
the source
and vortex
strengths
corresponding to each block
in isolation.
For this
step,
only the diagonal
blocks
are
present
in the aerodynamic
matrix.
This first
approximation
is then used to
calculate
the interference
effect
of each block
on all
the others.
The incremental
normal
velocities
obtained
are subtracted
from those
specified
by the
boundary
conditions.
This process
is repeated
until
the residual
interference
velocities
are small
enough to satisfy
the convergence
criteria
at each control
point.
The Purdue iteration
schemes to be selected.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
The latter
method
tive
solutions
of
14
program
(Ref.
These are:
Jacobi
GaussSeidel
Over relaxation
Controlled
over
has consistently
given
the boundary
condition
5) allows
4 optional
blocked
iteration
relaxation
the most
equations.
rapid
convergence
for
itera
Calculation
the
of
of the
velocity
Pressures,
Forces
aerodynamic
at a point
and Moments
singularities
have
i can be determined
been determined,
as follows:
u. = Au + cos ct
l.
i
(21)
v. = Av
1
i
(22)
W.
= Aw
+ sina
(23)
where
where
C
'i
= 2
yM2
9i2
= u. 2 +v2
1
i
For
1 + Y+ M2 (1 _ q 2,
2
i
+w2
3.5
(24)
 1
M = 0,
C
'i
(25)
= 1  q'
The forces
and moments acting
on the configuration
The normal
force,
tangential
by numerical
integration.
moment about
the origin
of coordinates
of panel
i are
N
= A.
T. = Ai
1
C
Pi
C
'i
cos
sin
cos
(27)
15
where
Mi = N.x.
11
 Tizi
is
panel
Oil
Bi
X .I
z.
the
are
the
(28)
area
inclination
coordinates
angles,
of
the
The total
force
and moment coefficients
acting
tained
by summing the panel
forces
and moments
symmetry.
panel
defined
control
by Eqn.
(124)
in
point
on the configuration
on both sides
of
the
are obplane
of
N
CN = $
2Ni
(29)
2Ti
(30)
2M
i
(31)
i=l
N
CT = $
i=l
N
1
C =M
SF
Finally,
the
lift
and drag
c
i=l
coefficients
are:
C = CN cos a  CT sine:
L
cD
= CN sina
The computer
program
the wing and tail
surfaces,
section
forces
and moment
an optional
output.
16
(32)
+ C cos a
T
computes
the forces
and moment
and the complete
configuration.
may be calculated
for the wing
(33)
acting
on the body,
In addition,
and tail
surfaces
as
Gothert's
Rule
Compressibility
Correction
The derivation
of the three
perturbation
velocity
components,
u, v and w,
induced
by constant
and linearly
varying
source
and vortex
singularities
located
on wing and body panels
is described
in Reference
1.
The velocity
component
formulas
are initially
derived
for incompressible
flow,
and then extended
to
compressible
subsonic
and supersonic
flow by application
of Gothert's
Rule.
TWO
of
this
forms of Gothert's
rule
(Ref.
8), the
first
calculated
on
obtained
by scaling
Glauert
factor,
6.
are then obtained
by
the
transverse
rule
are
perturbation
in
common use.
In the
velocity
components,
original
ua, va,
formulation
and w,, are
an analog
body in incompressible
flow.
The analog
body is
the y and zcoordinates
of every section
by the PrandtlThe compressible
perturbation
velocities
on the actual
body
dividing
the axial
perturbation
velocity,
ua, by B2, and
perturbation
velocity
components,
va and wa,
by 6.
This
formula
tion
is designated
Gothert's
Rule 1.
It is exactly
equivalent
to the mass flow
boundary
condition
described
in Reference
9.
In the application
of the mass
flow boundary
condition,
compressible
rather
than incompressible
singularities
are used to calculate
the perturbation
velocity
components
at the control
points
which are now located
on the surface
of the actual
body.
The strengths
of the
singularities
are then determined
by satisfying
the boundary
condition
that
no
The mass flow boundary
mass flow penetrates
the surface
at the control
points.
condition
may be implemented
in the USSAERO program
by simply
multiplying
the
induced
axial
perturbation
velocity,
Au..,
by fi2 in Eqn. (4).
J3
designated
Gothert's
Rule 2, is curAn alternate
form of Gothert's
Rule,
rently
used in the USSAERO Program.
Compressible
singularities
are used to
calculate
the perturbation
velocity
components
at control
points
on the surface
of the actual
body as before.
the strengths
of these singularities
However,
are determined
by satisfying
the boundary
condition
that
the resultant
velocity
vector
is tangential
to the surface
at the control
points.
In subsonic
Neither
form of Gothert's
Rule is universally
acceptable.
Rule 1 encounters
difficulty
in calculating
pressures
accurately
on
flow,
bodies
having
steep
surface
gradients;
and, in particular,
in the vicinity
of
Extensive
semiempirical
corrections
have
blunt
noses or wing leading
edges.
been developed
by the NLR (Ref.
10) to correct
Rule 1 in these regions.
In
Rule 2 calculates
stagnation
pressure
correctly
on blunt
noses,
but
general,
Pressure
distribumay be less accurate
than Rule 1 elsewhere
on the body.
tions
calculated
for an ellipsoid
of revolution
at M = .85 are compared with
Note that
the stagnation
a finitedifference
technique
(Ref.
11) in Figure
1.
Additional
point
has moved slightly
ahead of the nose when Rule 1 is applied.
comparisons
between
Rules 1 and 2 for lifting
and nonlifting
wings up to
M = 90 are given
in Reference
12.
In supersonic
flow,
differences
For example,
the pressure
distribution
dence is presented
as a function
of
tained
by applying
each compressibility
sure coefficient
from Reference
13.
between
Rules 1 and 2 are again
apparent.
angle
cone at zero incion a 15' half
The results
obMach number in Figure
2.
rule
are compared with
the exact presthe pressure
coefficient
In this
example,
17
0 4
CP
I t I
\
\
  
\
\ \
JAMESON
(REF. 11)
(FINITE
DIFFERENCE)
I
I
\
.6
\
GOTHERT RULE 1
(MASS FLOW B.C.%)
.4
mm
B.C.%)
1
I
I
:
RULE 2
II
I
I
(VELOCITY
1I
\ I
\I
.8
II
I
la0
GOTHERT
Figure
1.
Ellipsoid
of Revolution.
d/a = 28, M = .85, CY.= 0'.
.. ~_
_... ....

I
v\\
\\\ \
\ b
.X
CP
...
EXACT
THEORY

GOTHERT
m
LOCAL
eB
GOTHERT
( REF. 13)
RULE 2 (VELOCITY
MACH
NO.
B.C.%)
CORRECTION
RULE 1 (MASS
FLOW
B.C.%)
.2(
.lC
4.0
1 .o
Figure
2.
15O Cone.
19
corresponding
to Rule 1 agrees
closely
with
the exact
solution
up to about
M = 1.6,
then drops rapidly
toward
zero.
On the other
hand,
the pressure
coefficient
corresponding
to Rule 2 appears
to follow
the correct
trend,
but is between 20  40 percent
low.
Similar
results
are obtained
for other
cone angles,
although
the errors
are smaller
for more slender
cones.
The preceding
two examples
a uniformly
valid
compressibility
or Mach number.
An attempt
to
based on the local
Mach number
Local
illustrate
the difficulty
involved
in obtaining
correction,
independent
of body bluntness
derive
an improved
compressibility
correction
is described
in the following
section.
Mach Number
Compressibility
Improved
estimates
of the surface
pressible
subsonic
or supersonic
flow
terms in the governing
PrandtlGlauert
resulting
partial
differential
equations
position
principles
fundamental
to all
order
to overcome
this
difficulty,
an
number has been developed.
The local
pressure
distribution
obtained
from a
flow equations,
as follows:
M=M
pressures
on wings
and bodies
in comcan be obtained
by including
higherorder
equation.
If this
is done, however,
the
are no longer
linear,
and the superpanel
methods
cannot
be applied.
In
approximate
method based on the local
Mach
Mach number can be calculated
using
the
preliminary
solution
of the potential
co
Correction
1c
p
1+'lM2C
2
O" P.
The aerodynamic
influence
coefficients
are then recalculated
using
the
average
of the free
stream
value,
Bo,, and the local
value,
6, of the PrandtlThe solution
of this
revised
system of linear
equations
reGlauert
factor.
from which a first
approximation
to the
sults
in new singularity
strengths,
This process
can
forces
and moments can be calculated.
nonlinear
pressures,
but
is
normally
terminated
be repeated
until
convergence
has been achieved,
An example
of this
compressibility
correction
is shown
after
one iteration.
flow.
on Figure
2 for a 15' cone in supersonic
This technique
has also been applied
successfully
to subsonic
flows.
Figures
3 and 4 show the pressure
distribution
calculated
on a lifting
and nonlifting
NACA 0012 airfoil
for slightly
subcritical
flow,
compared
to an exact
The same airfoil
in slightly
superfinitedifference
solution
(Ref.
14).
critical
flow is compared with
the finitedifference
solution
of Reference
11
Although
the local
Mach number correction
was unable
to pick
up
in Figure
5.
the weak shock wave discontinuity,
the overall
pressure
distribution
agrees
closely
with
the exact
result.
sonic
20
In general,
the local
Mach number
flow regime,
in which regions
of
correction
does not apply
to
both subsonic
and supersonic
the tranflow
..
separated
by shock waves exist.
method is inadequate
to account,
in the potential
flow equations.
time consuming
finitedifference
available
to obtain
satisfactory
For this
range of Mach numbers,
the present
even approximately,
for the nonlinear
terms
At the present
time,
the more complex
and
technique
appears
to be the only method
solutions
with
shock wave discontinuities.
21
THEORY
EXACTSELLS
.4
.2

PRESENT
(PG
RULE)
PRESENT
(LOCAL
MACH)
\\\\
\\ \
%\s
.I/
I1I
I
(REF. 14)
.2
.4
:6
II0
.2
.4
Figure
22
3.
Subcritical
Inviscid
Flow.
x/c
1.2
t
 1.0
cP*
THEORY
EXACTSELLS

.8
(REF.
PRESEt4.T (PG
PRESENT
RULE)
(LOCAL
.6
X/C
Inviscid
.6
23
14)
MACH)
THEORY
EXACTJAMESON
1.0
0
(REF a I I >
PRESENT
(PG
RULE)
PRESENT
(LOCAL
MACH)
x/c
I
24
Figure
5.
Inviscid
COMPUTER PROGRAM
Proqram
Description
The basic
USSAERO Program
is described
in detail
in References
1 and 2.
Although
numerous
changes
have been incorporated
in versions
B and C, the
overall
structure
of the original
program
has been retained,
as shown on Figure
The main additions
have been the graphics
overlay,
which is described
in
6.
Reference
4, and a routine
for paneling
pods and external
stores.
The program
input
is designed
to conform
with
the standard
NASA Langley
sufficient
difHowever,
geometry
definition
format
described
in Reference
15.
ferences
exist
between
the inputs
for versions
B and C that
the detailed
program
input
requirements
for each version
is described
separately.
Versions
B and C of
the UniversityofGeorgia,Athens,
GA.
the USSAEROprogram
areavailable
throughCOSMIC,
Program
Input
Data
 Version
The input
to this
program
consists
of two basic
parts;
namely,
the numerical description
of the configuration
geometry
and an auxiliary
data set specifyMach number and angle, of
ing the singularity
panelling
scheme, program
options,
attack.
Part
1:
Description
The configuration
is
only one side of the
fore,
used in this
program
is to
the positive
y side of the
number of components
used
tail
used to describe
each
Card
~information
1.1
l3
46
Configuration
Geometry
Card
1.1
contains
 Control
Integers.
Card 1.2 contains
Columns 7680
in a 3column
field.
1.2 contains
the following:
Variable
JO
Jl
Input
Cards
defined
to be symmetrical
about the xz plane;
thereThe convention
configuration
need be described.
present
that half
of the configuration
located
on
The number of input
cards depends on the
x plane.
to describe
the configuration,
and the amount of decomponent.
 Identification.
in columns
l80.
Card 1.2
right
justified
Card
manner.
Columns
of
Value
0
1
0
1
1
any desired
25 integers,
may be used
identifying
in
each punched
any desired
Description
No reference
area
Reference
area to
be read
No wing data
Cambered wing data to be read
Uncambered
wing data to be read
25
(1,O)
(3,O)
SOLVE
INVERT
PARTIN
DIAGIN
ITRATE
PRESS
FORMOM
GEOM
PANEL
DERIV
DERIVl
DERIV2
CUBIC2
COMCU
SCAMP4
(4,2)
PLTORT*
OTHPLT*
PLOTIT*
VISTST*
PTROT"
VECROT*
(1,l)
CONFIG
(1,2)
NEWORD
SUBVEL**
(1,4)
NEWRAD
1 !
(4,4)
SPLTSV*
SURCL*
SURCC*
i
(1,6)
NUTORO
Notes:
*
**
Version
Version
B only
C only
Figure
6.
Program
Overlay
Structure.
(4,5)
PLPRES"
PRSWNG*
AXLES*
PRESBO"
LABEL*
Columns
79
Variable
52
Value
0
1
1
1012
1315
1618
J3
J4
J5
J6
No fuselage
data
Data for arbitrarilyshaped
fuselage
to be
read
Data for circular
fuselage
to be read.
(With
With J6=1,
J6=0,
fuselage
will
be cambered.
fuselage
will
be symmetrical
with
xyplane.
With ~6=1, entire
configuration
will
be symmetrical
with
xyplane.)
0
1
No pod (nacelle)
data
Pod (nacelle)
data to
0
1
No fin
(vertical
tail)
data
Fin (vertical
tail)
data to
be read
No canard
(horizontal
Canard
(horizontal
data
to be read
1
1921
Description
0
1
'l
be read
tail)
tail)
data
A cambered
circular
or aribtrary
fuselage
if
J2 is nonzero
Complete
configuration
is symmetrical
with
respect
to xyplane,
which implies
an uncambered
circular
fuselage
if there
is a
fuselage
Uncambered
circular
fuselage
with
J2 nonzero
2224
NWAF
220
Number of
the wing
2527
NWAPOR
330
Number of ordinates
used to define
each wing
If the value
of NWAFOR is
airfoil
section.
input
with
a negative
sign,
the program
will
expect
to read lower
surface
ordinates
also
2830
NFUS
14
Number
of
airfoil
sections
fuselage
used
to
describe
segments
3133
NRADX(1)
320
Number of points
used to represent
halfsection
of first
fuselage
segment.
If
fuselage
is circular,
the program
computes
the indicated
number of y and zordinates
3436
NFORX (1)
230
Number of
segment
3739
NRADX(2)
320
Same as NRADX(l),
segment
but
for
second
fuselage
4042
NFORX(2)
230
Same as NFORX(l),
segment
but
for
second
fuselage
axial
stations
for
first
fuselage
27
Columns
Variable
Value
Description
4345
NRADx (3)
320
Same as NRADXU),
segment
but
for
third
fuselage
4648
NFORX (3)
230
Same as NFORX(l),
segment
but
for
third
fuselage
4951
NRADX(4)
320
Same as NRADX(l),
segment
but
for
fourth
fuselage
5254
NFORX (4)
230
Same as NFORX(l),
segment
but
for
fourth
fuselage
5557
NP
o9
Number
5860
NPODOR
430
Number of stations
to be specified
6163
NF
O6
Number
cribed
6466
NE'INOR
310
Number of ordinates
fin
(vertical
tail)
6769
NCAN
O6
Number of
described
7072
NCANOR
310
Number of ordinates
used to define
each
canard
(horizontal
tail)
airfoil
section
If the value
of NCANOR is input
with
a negathe program
will
expect
to read
tive
sign,
lower
surface
ordinates
also,
otherwise
the airfoil
is assumed to be symmetrical
7375
PLOT
No plot
output
desired
Plot
the singularity
panel
description
and
The singularity
the computed
pressures.
panelling
plot
cards
are required
(see Card
Set 2.9)
Plot
the geometry
definition
output
in addiThe geometry
tion
to the output
for PLOT=l.
definition
plot
cards
are required
(see Card
Set 1.9)
1
28
of
of
pods
described
fins
canards
at
which
(vertical
used
airfoil
(horizontal
pod
tails)
to
radii
are
to be des
describe
section
tails)
each
to
be
Remaining
Input
Data Cards.
The remaining
input
data cards
contain
a
detailed
description
of each component
of the configuration.
Each card contains
up to 10 values,
each value
punched
in a 7column
field
with
a decimal
point,
and may be identified
in columns
7380.
The cards
are arranged
in the following
reference
area,
wing data cards,
fuselage
data cards,
pod data cards,
order:
and canard
(horizontal
tail)
data cards.
fin
(vertical
tail)
data cards,
Card 1.3  Reference
Area Card.
The reference
area value
columns
l7,
and may be identified
as REFA in columns
7380.
tains
airfoils
chord
where
Card
the
is
punched
in
Contents
l7
xordinate
of
airfoil
leading
edge
814
yordinate
of
airfoil
leading
edge
1521
zordinate
of
airfoil
leading
edge
2228
Airfoil
7380
streamwise
chord
length
If a cambered
wing has been specified
(i.e.,
Jl=l
set of wing data cards
is the mean camber line
cards.
values
of delta
z referenced
to the zordinate
of the
each value
corresponding
to a specified
percent
chord
These cards are arranged
in the order
which hegins
with
Each card may be identified
foil
and proceeds
outboard.
Note
TZORDJ, where J denotes
the particular
airfoil.
dimensional.
the particular
airfoil
on Card 1.21,
the next
There will
be NWAFOR
airfoil
leading
edge,
location
on the airfoil.
the most inboard
airin columns
7380 as
that
the zordinates
are
Data Cards.
Card Set 1.5  Fuselage
The first
card
(or cards)
specifies
the x values
of the fuselage
stations
of the first
segment.
There will
be
NFORX(1) values,
and the cards may be identified
in columns
7380 by the symbol,
XFUSJ, where J denotes
the number of the last
fuselage
station
given
on that
card.
If
camber
ZFUSJ,
card.
the fuselage
has camber,
the next card
(or cards)
gives
the fuselage
which may be identified
in columns
7380 by the symbol,
line
ordinates,
where J denotes
the number of the last
fuselage
station
given
on that
Use only if J6=0 on Card 1.2.
If the fuselage
is circular,
the next card
(or cards)
gives
the fuselage
crosssectional
areas,
and may be identified
in columns
7380 by the symbol,
FUSARDJ, where J denotes
the number of the last
fuselage
station
given
on that
card.
If the fuselage
is of arbitrary
shape,
NRADX(1) values
of the yordinates
for a halfsection
are given
and identified
in columns
7380 as YJ, where J is
the station
number.
Following
the yordinates
are the NRADX(l)
values
of the
corresponding
zordinates
for the halfsection
identified
in columns
7380 as
ZJ, where J is the station
number.
Each station
will
have a set of y and z,
and the convention
of ordering
the ordinates
from bottom
to top is observed.
For each fuselage
The segment descriptions
the
segment,
should
must be provided.
values
of x.
pod (nacelle)
data card specifies
The card contains
the following:
Contents
l7
xordinate
of
origin
of
first
pod
814
yordinate
of
origin
of
first
pod
1521
zordinate
of
origin
of
first
pod
7380
Card
identification,
PODORGJ, where
J denotes
pod
number
Exactly
The first
three
data input
cards
fin data card contains
are used
the
Contents
columns
l7
xordinate
on inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
814
yordinate
of
inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
1521
zordinate
of
inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
2228
Chord
2935
xordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
3642
yordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
4349
zordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
5056
Chord
7380
Card
length
length
of
of
identification,
inboard
airfoil
outboard
airfoil
FINORGJ,
where
J denotes
the
fin
number
fin
input
data card contains
NFINOR values
of the fin airfoil
Since the fin airfoil
must be symexpressed
in percent
chord.
the ordinates
on the positive
y side of the fin chord plane
are
card identification,
FINORDJ, may be given
in columns
7380,
the fin number.
Only
new FINORG, XFIN, and FINORD cards must be provided.
For each fin,
but the program
assumes that
if the yordinate
is
single
fins
are described,
an exact
duplicate
is located
symmetrically
with
respect
to the xznot zero,
a yordinate
of zero implies
a single
fin
located
on the plane
of symplane,
metry.
Card Set 1.8  Canard Data Cards.
If the canard
(or horizontal
tail)
airfoil
is symmetrical,
exactly
three
cards are used to describe
a canard,
and the
input
is given
in the same manner as for a fin.
the canard
airIf,
however,
foil
is not symmetrical
(indicated
by a negative
value
of NCANOR), a fourth
canard
input
data card will
be required
to give the lower ordinates.
The information
presented
on the first
canard
input
data card is as follows:
31
Columns
Contents
17
xordinate
of
inboard
airfoil
leading
e,dge
814
yordinate
of
inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
1521
zordinate
of
inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
2228
Chord
2935
xordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
3642
yordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
4349
zordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
5056
Chord
7380
Card identification,
number
length
length
of
of
inboard
outboard
airfoil
airfoil
CANORGJ, where
J denotes
the
canard
32
each
canard,
must
be provided.
(a)
Column
OEt_hgraphic
Variable
or
Stacked
Three
View
Value
Description
HORZ
XlYlZ
Horizontal
VERT
XlYlZ
Vertical
57
TEST1
OUT
Deletes
hidden
PHI
Real
Roll
angle
or y origin
1317
THETA
Real
Pitch
angle
or y origin
1822
PSI
Real
Yaw angle
or y origin
812
Projections
axis
axis
hidden
lines)
lines.
(degrees)
(inches)
(degrees)
(inches)
(degrees)
(inches)
(Leave
blank
to
plot
for orthographic
on frame of plan
plot,
view
for orthographic
on frame of side
plot,
view
for orthographic
plot,
on frame of front
view
4852
PLOTSZ
Real
The
PLOTSZ determines
the size of the plot.
scale
factor
is computed
using
PLOTSZ and the
maximum dimension
of the configuration
5355
TYPE
ORT
w3
Indicates
Indicates
72
KODE
0
1
7380
IDENT
GPLOT
Note:
Leave
columns
l7
orthographic
three
view
Continue
Last plot
reading
card
Optional
identification
blank
if
plot
plot
plot
cards
TYPE=VU3.
33
(b)
Perspective
or
Views
Description
Value
Variable
Column
Stereo
PHI
Real
xcoordinate
viewer)
of
view
point
1317
THETA
Real
ycoordinate
of
view
point
1822
PSI
Real
zcoordinate
of
view
point
2327
XF
Real
xcoordinate
direction
812
and
of focal
focus)
point
2832
YF
Real
ycoordinate
of
focal
point
3337
ZF
Real
zcoordinate
of
focal
point
3842
DIST
Real
Distance
4347
FMAG
Real
Viewing
plane
magnification
the size of the projected
4852
PLOTSZ
Real
Diameter
of viewing
and PLOTSZ determine
the field
of vision
5355
TYPE
PER
STE
Indicates
Indicates
72
KODE
0
1
GPLOT
IDENT
7380
Part
The auxiliary
2:
input
(a)
define
the
canards;
boundary
(b)
define
output
(c)
specify
the
the
Optional
identification
of
used
condition
distribution
perspective
stereo
plot
reading
card
are
eye to
Continue
Last plot
Description
cards
from
Input
of
(determines
viewing
plane
factor
image)
plane
(inches).
a cone which
(inches)
(controls
DIST
limits
plot
cards
Cards
to:
option
option;
of
Auxiliary
plot
(location
to
be imposed
on wings,
fins
and
and
singularity
panels
on the
wing
and body.
The program
is restricted
to 600 singularity
panels
on the body, pods,
and
stores;
and an additional
600 singularity
panels
on the wing,
fins
and canards.
The body may not be subdivided
into
more than 30 rows of panels
in the axial
34
2.1  Identification.
in columns
l80.
Card
2.1
contains
If any of the
segments.
in the leadingor trailcomponents.
any
desired
identifying
Nonplanar
Card 2.2  Boundary _~~_.Condition ,_ and
Control
Point
Definition.
__  .boundary
conditions
are always
applied
on a body;
however,
Card 2.2 permits
the
selection
of boundary
conditions
to apply
on a wing,
fin
(vertical
tail),
or
canard
(horizontal
tail).
This card also selects
the output
print
options.
Card 2.2 contains
the following:
columns
l3
Variable
LINBC
Value
0
46
THICK
0
1
79
0
1
2
3
4
1618
ITMETH
012
1
3
Description
Control
points
on surface
and canard
(vertical
tail),
This is referred
to as the
condition
option
Control
points
in plane
of
and canard
(horizontal
tail),
referred
to as the planar
option
of
wing,
fin
(horizontal
tail).
nonplanar
boundary
w,ing, fin
(vertical
This is
tail).
boundary
condition
Wing thickness
matrix
not calculated
if LINBC=l
Calculate
winq thickness
matrix
if LINBC=l
THICK
is set equal
to zero if LINBC=O.
Print
out the pressures
and the forces
and
moments
loads
Print
out option
0, and the spanwise
on the wing,
fins,
and canards
Print
out option
1 and the velocity
components
and source
and vortex
strengths
Print
out option
2 and the steps
in the
iterative
solution
Print
out option
3 and the axial
and normal
velocity
matrices
Blocked
GaussSiedel
iterative
solution
procedure
Blocked
Jacobi
iterative
solution
procedure
Blocked
controlled
successive
over relaxation
iterative
solution
procedure
35
columns
Variable
Value
Description
1618
ITMETH
Blocked
solution
successive
overrelaxation
1921
ITMAX
Maximum
number
of
iterations
set
INTEGER
Maximum
number
of
iterations
specified
2228
CCTEST
Convergence
Convergence
2935
DCTEST
Divergence
Divergence
criteria
criteria
3642
ALFl
Relaxation
Relaxation
factor
factor
set at .9
specified
4349
ALF2
Relaxation
Relaxation
factor
factor
set at 1.1
specified
A negative
value
indicated
for options
LINBC,
The
THICK,
of PRINT
l4.
and PRINT
adds
are
punched
Configuration
Card 2.3  Revised
contents
of Card 2.3 are punched
Columns
l3
46
Variable
KO
Kl
the
panel
criteria
criteria
qanelling
as right
printout
justified
to
the
output
integers.
Description  . Control
_  . Integers.
F I _.~
justified
integers
as follows:
No reference
lengths
Reference
length
data
0
1
No wing data
Wing data to
ing edge
Wing data to
ing edge
be read.
wing
has
a sharp
lead
be read,
wing
has
a round
lead
in
version
K2
0
1
No body data
Body data follows
1012
K3
No pod
1315
K4
0
1
No fin
(vertical
Fin (vertical
sharp leading
Fin (vertical
round leading
input
to
be read,
79
36
set at 1000
specified
0
1
50
Description
Value
at
set at 001
specified
geometry
as right
iterative
permitted
tail)
data
tail)
data to
edge
tail)
data to
edge
be read.
Fin
has
be read.
Fin
has
Columns
1618
Variable
K5
Value
0
I
1921
K6
2224
Jam?
KWAFOR
2830
mus
3133
KRADX(l)
0,
0,
330
KFORX(1)
3739
x(2)
tail)
data
tail)
data to be read.
leading
edge
tail)
data to be read.
leading
edge
used
0,
320
3436
No canard
(horizontal
Canard
(horizontal
Canard has a sharp
Canard
(horizontal
Canard has a round
Not
220
2527
Description
0,
230
segments.
The program
on Card 1.2
Number of meridian
lines
used to define
panel
edges on first
body segment.
There are three
options
for defining
the panel
edges.
If
KRADX(l)=O,
the meridian
lines
are defined
by
NRADX(1) in the geometry
input.
If KRADx(1)
is positive,
the meridian
lines
are calculated
at KRADX(1) equally
spaced PHIKs.
If
the meridian
lines
are
KRADX(1) is negative,
calculated
at values
of PHIK specified
on
Card Set 2.6
Number of axial
stations
used to define
leading
and trailing
edges of panels
on
first
body segment.
If KFORX(l)=O,
the
panel
edges are defined
by NFORX(1) in the
geometry
input,
Card 1.2
Same as KR74DX(l),
but
for
second
body
segment
0,
230
but
for
second
body
segment
0,
Same as KFWDX(l),
but
for
third
0,
320
4042
I(FOFtx(2)
4345
KRADX(3)
body
segment
320
37
Columns
4648
Variable
KFOFX (3)
Value
0,
Description
Same as KFORX(l),
but
for
third
body
segment
Same as KRADX(l),
but
for
fourth
body
segment
Same as KFORX(l),
but
for
fourth
body
segment
230
4951
KRADx (4)
0,
320
5254
KFORX(4)
0,
230
 Revised
Card 2.3(a)
K5=0 on Card 2.3.
Columns
Variable
l3
KF (1)
Fin
79
1012
1315
1618
1921
2224
2527
2830
38
KFINOR(1)
KF(2)
KFINOR(2)
KF(3)
KFINOR(3)
KF(4)
KFINOR(4)
KF (5)
KFINOR(5)
Control
Value
0,
220
46
and Canard
Integers.
Omit
if
K4=0
or
Description
Number of fin
sections
used to define
the
inboard
and outboard
panel
edges on the first
If KF(l)=O,
the root
and tip
chords
fin.
define
the panel
edges
0,
330
Number of
and trailing
fin panels
the panel
ordinates
used to define
the leading
edges of the fin panels
of the
on the first
fin.
If J.WINOR(l)=O,
edges are defined
by NFINOR
0,
220
Same as for
KF(l),
0,
330
Same as for
0,
220
but
for
second
KFINOR(l),
but
for
second
Same as for
KF(l),
for
third
fin
0,
330
Same as for
KFINOR(l),
but
for
0,
220
Same as for
W(l),
for
fourth
0,
330
Same as for
KFINOR(l),
but
for
fourth
0,
220
Same as for
KF(l),
for
fifth
fin
0,
330
Same as for
KFINOR(l),
but
for
but
but
but
fin
third
fin
fin
fin
fifth
fin
fin
c01ulnns
Variable
3133
KF (6)
Description
Value
0,
Same as for
KF(l),
but
Same as for
KFINOR(l),
for
sixth
but
for
fin
220
3436
KFINOR(6)
3739
KCAN (1)
0,
330
0,
220
4042
KCANOR(1)
4345
KCAN(2)
sixth
fin
Number of canard
sections
used to define
the
inboard
and outboard
panel
edges on the first
canard.
If KCAN(l)=O,
the root
tip
chords
If KCAN(N) negative,
define
the panel
edges.
no vortex
sheets
carry
through
the body and
concentrated
vortices
are shed from the inboard edge of the canard
or tail
surface
0,
Number of ordinates
used to define
the leading
and trailing
edges of the first
canard.
If
KCANOR(l)=O,
the panel
edges are defined
by
NCANOR
0,
Same as for
KCAN(l),
Same as for
KCANOR(l),
Same as for
KCAN(l),
Same as for
KCANOR(l),
Same as for
KCAN(l),
Same as for
KCANOR(l),
Same as for
KCAN(l),
Same as for
KCANOR(l),
Same as for
KCAN(l),
Same as for
KCANOR(l),
but
for
second
canard
220
4648
KCANOR(2)
0,
but
for
second
canard
330
4951
KCAN(3)
0,
but
for
third
canard
220
5254
KCANOR(3)
0,
but
for
third
canard
330
5557
KCAN(4)
0,
but
for
fourth
canard
220
5660
KCANOR(4)
0,
but
for
fourth
canard
330
6163
KCAN(5)
0,
but
for
fifth
canard
220
6466
KCANOR(5)
0,
but
for
fifth
canard
330
6769
KCAN(6)
0,
but
for
sixth
canard
220
7072
KCANOR(6)
0,
but
for
sixth
canard
330
39
Card
Columns
2.4
 Configuration
Reference
Area
Variable
and Lengths
Card.
Description
l7
REFA
Wing reference
defined
by the
814
REFB
Wing semispan.
the reference
1521
REFC
Wing
used
reference
for the
2228
REFD
Body
value
(fuselage)
of 1.0 is
2935
REFL
Body (fuselage)
of 10 is used
3642
REFX
xcoordinate
of
moment
center
4349
REFZ
zcoordinate
of
moment
center
7380
REFL
Optional
card
area.
value
If REFA=O, the
of REFA specified
If REFB=O,
semispan
chord.
reference
reference
used for
a value
If REFC=O,
chord
identifier
of
1.0
a value
diameter.
the reference
reference
length.
for the reference
reference
on Card
If
area
1.3
is
used
of
1.0
REFD=O,
diameter
If REFL=O,
length
is
for
is
a value
code
The first
wing data card is the leadingCard 2.5  Wing Panelling
Input.
and is required
only when K1=3.
This card contains
NWAF
edge radius
card,
It may be identified
values
of leadingedge
radius
expressed
in percent
chord.
the number of the last
radius
given
in columns
7380 as RHOJ, where J denotes
on that
card.
The second wing data card is the panel
leadingedge
location.
This card
contains
KWAFOR values
of wing panel
leadingedge
locations
expressed
in percent chord.
This card may be identified
in columns
7380 as XAFKJ, where J
denotes
the last
leadingedge
location
given
on that
card.
Omit if KWAFOR=O
on Card 2.3.
The third
wing data card is the side edge location.
This card contains
KWAF values
of the yordinate
of the panel
inboard
edges.
This card may
be identified
in columns
7380 as YKJ, where J denotes
the last
yordinate
on
that
card.
The ordinates
are arranged
in the order
which begins
with
the most
inboard
panel
edge and proceeds
outboard.
Omit if KWAF=O on Card 2.3.
40
 Vertical
The first
vertical
fin
Omit unless
K4=3.
The card
expressed
in percent
chord.
The
locations.
locations
tions.
edges,
Fin
Input
Data.
This
card
set
the
the
fin
fin
The third
vertical
fin data card set defines
the fin
This card contains
KF(1) values
of the zordinate
beginning
with
the most inboard
edge and proceeding
Fin
Data.
 Input
defines
the fin
NCAN values
of
The
locations.
locations
data card
KCANOR(1)
chrod.
second horizontal
fin
This card contains
expressed
in percent
is
omitted
the fin
leadingedge
of fin leadingedge
second vertical
fin data card set defines
This card contians
KFINOR(l)
values
of
expressed
in percent
chord.
This card
stations,
and
the body segment
body segment.
panel
panel
unless
radius.
radius
leadingedge
leadingedge
panel
side edge locaof the panel
inboard
outboard.
set defines
the fin panel
leadingedge
values
of the fin panel
leadingedge
The third
horizontal
fin data card set defines
the fin panel
side edge
locations.
This card contains
KCAN(l)
values
of the yordinate
of the panel
inboard
edges beginning
with
the most inboard
edge and proceeding
outboard.
41
3.0
Panelling
Plot
Cards.
 Singularity
A single
card
for one plot.
See Card Set 1.9 for input
options
as SPLOT in columns
7380.
 Aerodynamic
Variable
MACH
Input
1
814
1521
ALPHA
NORVEL
Card.
Value
Real
Real
1.0
2228
IMACH
2935
FLDPTS
Real
contains
and
Description
The free
stream
ing MACH=O.) or
which aerodynamic
subsonic
supersonic
output
Mach number
(includMach number at
is desired
Indicates
the termination
of the aerodynamic
calculation
for the given
configuration.
Geometry
cards
for a new configuration
can
follow
such a terminal
card
The angle of attack
in degrees
dynamic
output
is desired
at
which
aero
The boundary
condition
of zero
is applied
at body panel
control
normal
velocity
points
Modified
boundary
condition
applied
at body
panel
control
points
(nonzero
normal
velocities
are read on Card Set 3.1)
Perform
one pass through
the
tain
the solution
corresponding
stream Mach number
program
to obto the free
Velocities
and pressures
calculated
at field
points
read in on Card Set 3.2.
The number
field
points
equals
FLDPTS
No field
point
of
calculations
Input
Cards.
These cards
contain
the values
Card Set 3.1  Normal Velocity
of the normal
velocities
specified
at the control
point
of each body panel.
One value
of normal
velocity
is input
for
The data is input
in lOF7.0
format.
in order
of the body panel
numbers assigned
by the program.
each body panel,
42
Card
field.point
columns
Cards.
Variable
One card
XPT
xcoordinate
of
the
field
point
814
YPT
ycoordinate
of
the
field
point
1521
ZPT
zcoordinate
of
the
field
point
A series
tion
geometry
values.
number
Only
if
of
required
for
each
Description
l7
A maximum
is
600 field
points
may be read.
one card
multiple
set,
3.1 or 3.2,
01's are requested.
Program
Input
is
required
Data
for
 Version
each
free
stream
Mach
Version
C of the USSAERO Program has been extended
to include
the analysis
forces
and moments acting
on
The pressure
distribution,
of external
stores.
a missile
or external
store
may be calculated
in isolation,
in the presence
The interference
or in the presence
of the carrier
aircraft.
of other
stores,
effect
of the store
on other
stores
and the aircraft
is also obtained
as part
The program
will
admit up to eight
pairs
of external
stores
of the solution.
In addition,
located
on each side of the plane
of symmetry
of the aircraft.
the aircraft
and each store
can have up to six horizontal
and six vertical
fins
Pylons
on the aircraft
may be simulated
by additional
horizontal
or
attached.
vertical
fins.
The program
input
is designed
to conform
with
the standard
NASA Langley
In this
way, any pregeometry
definition
format
described
in Reference
15.
viously
defined
aircraft
or store
configuration
geometries
may be accepted
by
while
allowing
more complex
external
store
the program
with minimum change,
Additional
input
required
to define
configurations
to be added as required.
complex
aircraft/store
configurations
also conforms
as closely
as possible
to
the standard
format.
The input
to this
program
consists
of two
cal description
of the configuration
geometry,
fying
the singularity
panelling
scheme, program
of attack.
basic
parts;
namely,
the numeriand an auxiliary
data set specioptions,
Mach number,
and angle
43
Part
1:
Description
of
Configuration
Geometry
Input
Cards
The aircraft
or missile
configuration
is defined
to be symmetrical
about
only one side of the configuration
need be described.
the xz plane;
therefore,
The convention
used in this
program
is to present
that
half
of the configuration
The number of input
cards
delocated
on the positive
y side of the x plane.
pends on the number of components
used to describe
the configuration,'
and the
amount of detail
used to describe
each component.
Card
information
Card 1.2
right
justified
Card
manner.
Columns
13
Card
1.1  Identification.
in columns
l80.
contains
any
Variable
JO
Value
0
1
46
Jl
0
1
1
79
J2
0
1
1
desired
identifying
24 integers,
may be used
in
each punched
any desired
Descriwtion
No reference
data
Reference
area to
be read
No wing data
Cambered wing data to be read
Uncambered
wing data to be read
No fuselage
data
Data for aribtrarilyshaped
fuselage
to be
read
Data for circular
fuselage
to be read.
(With J6=0,
fuselage
will
be cambered.
With J6=1,
fuselage
will
be symmetrical
with
xy plane.
With J6=1,
entire
configuration
will
be symmetrical
with
xy plane.)
1012
J3
0
1
pod
No external
store,
External
store,
pod or
read.
Note:
set J3=1
missile
has horizontal
canards
or pylons,
even
stores,
pods or nacelles
or nacelle
data
nacelle
data to be
if the aircraft
or
or vertical
tails,
if no external
are to be input
1315
J4
0
1
No fin
(vertical
Fin
(vertical
data
to be read
0
1
No canard
(horizontal
Canard
(horizontal
A cambered
circular
J2 is nonzero
1618
1921
44
1.1
J5
J6
tail)
tail)
data
tail)
data
to be read
tail)
data
or
arbitrary
fuselage
if
Columns
1921
Variable
J6
Value
1
1
Description
Complete
configuration
is symmetrical
with
respect
to xy plane,
which
implies
an uncambered
circular
fuselage
if there
is a
fuselage
Uncambered
circular
fuselage
with J2 nonzero
2224
NWAF
220
Number of
the wing
2527
NWAFOR
330
Number of ordinates
used to define
each wing
airfoil
section.
If the value
of NWAFOR is
input
with
a negative
sign,
the program
will
expect
to read lower
surface
ordinates
also
2830
NFUS
l6
Number
3133
NRADX (1)
320
Number of circumferential
points
used to represent
halfsection
of first
fuselage
segment.
If fuselage
is circular,
the program
computes
the indicated
number of y and zordinates
3436
NFORX(1)
230
Number of
segment
3739
NRADX(2)
320
Same as NRADX(l),
segment
but
for
second
fuselage
4042
NFORX(2)
230
Same as NFORX(l),
segment
but
for
second
fuselage
4345
NRADX(3)
320
Same as NRADX(l),
segment
but
for
third
fuselage
4648
NFORX(3)
230
Same as NFORX(l),
segment
but
for
third
fuselage
4951
NRADX(4)
320
Same as NRADX(l),
segment
but
for
fourth
fuselage
5254
NFORX(4)
230
Same as NFORX(l),
segment
but
for
fourth
fuselage
5557
NP
o9
Number of pods or
tions
to be input
external
store
combina
5860
NPODOR
430
Number of
radii
are
of
airfoil
sections
fuselage
axial
used
to
describe
segments
stations
axial
stations
to be specified
for
first
at which
fuselage
pod/store
45
Columns
NPODOR
5860
Value
1
Description
Pod/store
origin
card only
to be read,
pod/
store
geometry
definition
specified
on auxiSet NPODOR=1 if
liary
data Card Set 2.7.
NP=O,, or if multiple
pods or stores
having
different
number of axial
stations
to be input
(see input
for Card Set 1.6)
Number of fins
(vertical
cribed
on wing/fuselage
pod/store/fin
combination
tails)
to
combination
be desor first
6163
W(l)
6466
NFINOR(1)
6769
NCAN(1)
O6
Number of canards
(horizontal
tails)
described
on wing/fuselage
combination
first
pod/store/fin
combination
70 72
NCANOR(1)
310
Number of ordinates
used to define
each
canard
(horizontal
tail)
airfoil
section
on
wing/fuselage
combination
or first
pod/store/
If the value
of NCANOR is
fin
combination.
input
with
a negative
sign,
the program
will
expect
to read lower
surface
ordinates
also,
otherwise
the airfoil
is assumed to be symmetrical
set
if
O6
Number of ordinates
used to describe
each fin
(vertical
tail)
airfoil
section
on wing/fuselage combination
or first
pod/store/fin
combination
Columns
46
Variable
Variable
Value
Body
Segment
Input.
Note:
omit
this
to
be
or
card
Description
l3
NRADX (5)
320
Same as NRADX(l),
segment
but
for
fifth
fuselage
46
NFORx(5)
230
Same as NFORX(l),
segment
but
for
fifth
fuselage
79
NRADX(6)
320
Same as NRADX(l),
segment
but
for
sixth
fuselage
1012
NFORX (6)
230
Same as NFOR.X(l),
segment
but
for
sixth
fuselage
set
columns
 Additional
1.2.
Variable
Vertical
Pin
Input.
NF (2)
O6
Number
second
of vertical
pod/store/fin
46
NFINOR(2)
310
Number
vertical
tion
of
79
NF(3)
O6
Same as NF(21,
combination
1012
NFINOR(3)
310
Same as NFINOR(2),
fin combination
4345
W(9)
O6
Same as NP(21,
combination
4648
NPINOR(9)
310
Same as NFINOR(2),
fin combination
if
c01umrls
 Additional
1.2.
Variable
omit
this
card
Description
Value
13
set
Note:
Horizontal
fins
to be described
combination
ordinates
used to describe
fin on second pod/store/fin
Fin
but
but
for
third
but
for
for
ninth
but
for
each
combina
pod/store/fin
third
pod/store/
pod/store/fin
ninth
pod/store/
omit
Note:
Input.
on
this
card
Description
Value
l3
NCAN(2)
O6
Number
second
of horizontal
pod/store/fin
46
NCANOR(2)
310
Number of
horizontal
bination
79
NCAN(3)
O6
Same as NCAN(2),
fin combination
1012
NCANOR(3)
310
Same as NCANOR(2),
fin combination
fins
to be described
combination
ordinates
used
fin on second
but
to describe
pod/store/fin
for
but
third
for
third
on
each
com
pod/store/
pod/store/
47
Variable
columns
Value
Description
4345
NCAN (9)
O6
Same as NCAN(2),
combination
4648
NCANOR(g)
310
Same as NCANOR(2),
fin combination
but
but
for
ninth
for
ninth
pod/store/fin
pod/store/
Remaining
Input
Data Cards  The remaining
input
data cards
contain
a
detailed
description
of each component
of the configuration.
Each card contains
each value
punched
in a 7column
field
with
a decimal
point,
up to 10 values,
and may be identified
in columns
7380.
The cards
are arranged
in the following
order:
reference
area,
wing data cards,
fuselage
data cards,
pod or external
store
data cards,
fin
(vertical
tail)
data cards
and canard
(horizontal
tail)
data cards.
Card 1.3
configuration
umns 7380.
tains
foils
chord
where
 Reference
is punched
Area Card.
The reference
area value
in columns
17, and may be identified
The first
wing data card
(or cards)
conCard Set 1.4  Wing Data Cards.
the locations
in percent
chord at which
the ordinates
of all
the wing airThere will
be exactly
NWAE'OR locations
in percent
are to be specified.
Each card may be identified
in columns
7380 by the symbol,
XAFJ,
given.
J denotes
the last
location
in percent
chord given
on that
card.
Columns
17
xordinate
of
airfoil
leading
edge
814
yordinate
of
airfoil
leading
edge
1521
zordinate
of
airfoil
leading
edge
2228
Airfoil
7380
Card identification,
particular
airfoil;
inboard
airfoil
streamwise
chord
length
If a cambered
wing has been specified
(i.e.,
Jl=l
set of wing data cards
is the mean camber line
cards.
values
of delta
z referenced
to the zordinate
of the
each value
corresponding
to a specified
percent
chord
48
the
most
on Card 1.2),
the next
There will
be NWAFOR
airfoil
leading
edge,
location
on the airfoil.
These cards
are arranged
in the order
which begins
Each card may be identified
and proceeds
outboard.
where J denotes
the particular
airfoil.
Note that
sional.
with
the most inboard
airfoil
in columns
7380 as TZORDJ,
the zordinates
are dimen
fies
the
each fuselage
segment,
The segment descriptions
as described
must be proa new set of cards
should
be given
in order
of increasing
values
The first
Cards.
the first
pod or
pod/store
data card speciThe card contains
store.
Contents
Columns
17
xordinate
of
origin
of
first
pod or
store
814
yordinate
of
origin
of
first
pod
or
store
1521
zordinate
of
origin
of
first
pod
or
store
7380
Card identification,
pod or store
PODORGJ, where
J denotes
number
of
49
In
If
this
NPODOR=l on Card
case,
the pod or
1.2,
store
the remaining
geometry
is
pod/store
data cards
defined
by the auxiliary
are
omitted.
data cards.
Exactly
The first
three
fin
data input
cards
data card contains
are used
the
Contents
Columns
17
xordinate
on inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
814
yordinate
on inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
1521
zordinate
of
airfoil
leading
edge
2228
Chord
2935
xordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
3642
yordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
4349
zordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
5056
Chord
7380
Card identification,
number
length
length
inboard
of
of
inboard
airfoil
outboard
airfoil
FINORGJ,
where
J denotes
the
fin
50
fin input
data card contains
NFINOR values
of the fin airfoil
Since the fin
airfoil
must be symexpressed
in percent
chord.
the ordinates
on the positive
y side of the fin
chord plane
are
FINORDJ, may be given
in columns
7380,
card identification,
the fin number.
Contents
l7
xordinate
of
inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
814
yordinate
of
inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
1521
zordinate
of
inboard
airfoil
leading
edge
2228
Chord
2935
xordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
3642
yordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
4349
zordinate
of
outboard
airfoil
leading
edge
5056
Chord
7380
Card identification,
or horizontal
tail
length
length
of
of
inboard
outboard
airfoil
airfoil
CANORGJ, where
number
J denotes
the
canard
the
given
pod
or
store,
51
If NP=O or 1, this
completes
the configuration
geometry
input
cards.
Otherwise
repeat
pod/store/fin
and canard/horizontal
tail
sets NP times.
Note
that
the origin
card,
1.6,
is required
for each pod/store
combination
if J3=1,
even if horizontal
or vertical
fins
alone
are specified
in any given
store
combination.
In addition,
the origin
of the nose of the aircraft
or missile
must
be input
as a fictitious
store
origin
if horizontal
or vertical
tails,
canards
or pylons
are attached.
This fictitious
Store
is eliminated
later
by setting
K3=0 on Card 2.3.
Part
The auxiliary
2:
Description
input
cards
(a)
define
the
boundary
(b)
define
the
output
(c)
specify
the
configuraton.
of
are
Auxiliary
used
condition
print
distribution
Cards
to:
option
option;
of
Input
to
be imposed
on lifting
surfaces;
and
singularity
panels
everywhere
on the
The program
is restricted
to 600 singularity
panels
on the fusiform
components
(i.e.,
fuselage,
body, pods,
nacelles
or stores)
and 600 singularity
panels
on lifting
surface
components
(i.e.,
wings,
fins
canards,
horizontal
and vertical
tails,
or pylons).
In addition,
any given
fusiform
component
may
not be subdivided
into
more than 30 circumferential
rings
of panels,
and no
ring
may have more than 20 panels
around
the circumference.
The lifting
surfaces
are first
subdivided
into
segments
comprised
of up to 20 chordwise
strips
of panels
located
between
the leading
and trailing
edges of a given
component.
Each chordwise
strip
may have no more than 30 panels
in the chordwise
direction.
Each lifting
surface
segment must have a straight
leading
edge and a straight
trailing
,edge.
A maximum of 95 segments
are permitted.
The program
automatically
subdivides
the wing into
the correct
number of segments.
All
single
along
jacent
52
fins,
canards,
horizontal
and vertical
tails,
or pylons
segments.
If any of the above components
have nonuniform
the leading
they must be input
as two
or trailing
edges,
components.
Card
information
2.1
 Identification.
in columns
l80.
Card
boundary
Card 2.2
surfaces.
2.2  Boundary
Condition
and Control
Point
conditions
are always
applied
on a fusiform
permits
the selection
of boundary
conditions
This card also specifies
the output
print
Card
2.1
contains
any
desired
Definition.
component.
to apply
options.
are input
as
sweepback
or more ad
identifying
Nonplanar
However,
on lifting
Card
2.2
contains
Columns
Variable
13
LINBC
46
79
1618
1921
THICK
ITMBTH
ITMAX
the
following
data:
Value
Description
Control
points
on upper and
lower
surfaces
of all
lifting
surfaces.
This is referred
to as the nonplanar
boundary
condition
option
Control
points
ing surfaces.
planar
boundary
Displacement
surfaces
not
Displacement
thickness
effect
of lifting
surfaces
to be calculated.
Note : set
THICK=0 if LINBC=O,
since
displacement
effects
are automatically
included
in the
nonplanar
boundary
condition
option
Print
out
moments
Print
out option
0, and the
on all
lifting
surfaces
Print
out option
1 and the velocity
components
and source
and vortex
strengths
Print
out
iterative
Print
out option
velocity
matrices
0,2
the
effect
pressures
option
solution
and the
lifting
forces
and
spanwise
loads
2 and the
steps
in
3 and the
axial
and normal
Blocked
GaussSiedel
procedure
iterative
solution
Blocked
Blocked
controlled
successive
over
tion
iterative
solution
procedure
relaxa
Blocked
successive
procedure
Maximum
number
of
iterations
set
Maximum
number
of
iterations
specified
2228
CCTEST
0.
Real
Convergence
Convergence
2935
DCTEST
0.
Real
Divergence
Divergence
iterative
the
Integer
Jacobi
of
of liftas the
criteria
criteria
criteria
criteria
solution
over
procedure
relaxation
at
50
set at 001
specified
set at 1000
specified
53
Columns
Variable
Description
Value
3642
ALFl
0
Real
Relaxation
Lower limit
factor
Set at
of relaxation
.g
factor
4349
ALF2
0
Real
Relaxation
Upper limit
factor
set at
of relaxation
1.1
factor
A negative
indicated
for
LINRC,
THICK,
Card 2.3
The contents
Columns
13
value
options
of PRINT
14.
and PRINT
are
Variable
KO
Kl
the
punched
 Revised
Configuration
of Card 2.3 are punched
panel
0
1
3
geometry
as right
Panelling
as right
Value
1
46
adds
printdut
justified
Description
justified
to
the
output
integers.
Control
Integers.
integers
as follows.
Description
No revised
quired
Reference
reference
length
length;
data
No wing data
Wing data to be read,
leading
edge
Wing data to be read,
leading
edge
to
Card
2.4
be read
wing
has
a sharp
wing
has
a round
79
K2
0
1
No fuselage
Fuselage
or
1012
K3
No pod or store
input
for aircraft
or
pod/store/fin
combination
Pod or store
input
follows
for aircraft
first
pod/store/fin
combination
1315
or body data
body data follows
No fin
(vertical
first
pod/store/fin
K4
re
tail)
data for
combination
first
aircraft
Fin (vertical
tail)
data to be read for
craft
or first
pod/store/fin
combination.
Fin has a sharp leading
edge
1618
54
X5
or
or
air
Fin (vertical
tail)
data to be read for
aircraft
or first
pod/store/fin
combination.
Fin has a round leading
edge
No canard
(horizontal
tail)
craft
or first
pod/store/fin
Columns
1618
Variable
K5
1921
K6
2224
KWAF
Value
1
Canard
(horizontal
tail)
data to be read
for aircraft
or first
pod/store/fin
combination.
Canard or tail
surface
has a sharp
leading
edge
Canard
(horizontal
tail)
data to be read
for aircraft
or first
pod/store/fin
combination.
Canard or tail
surface
has a round
leading
edge
Not
0,
220
2527
KWAFOR
2830
KFUS
Description
0,
330
used
3133
KRADX(1)
0,
320
Number of meridian
lines
used to define
panel
edges around
the circumference
of the
There are three
options
first
body segment.
If KRADX(l)=O,
for defining
the panel
edges.
the meridian
lines
are defined
by NRADX(1)
If KR&DX(l)
is posiin the geometry
input.
the meridian
lines
are calculated
at
tive,
KRADX(1) equally
spaced angles.
If
KRADX(l)
is negative,
the meridian
lines
are calculated
at angular
locations,
PHIK,
specified
on Card Set 2.6
3436
KFORX(1)
0,
230
Number of axial
stations
used to define
leading
and trailing
edges of panels
on
If KFORX(l)=O,
the
first
body segment.
panel
edges are defined
by NFORX(1) in the
geometry
input
on Card 1.2
3739
KRADX(2)
4042
KFORX(2)
Same as KRADX(l),
ment
but
for
second
body
seg
320
0,
230
Same as KFORX(l),
ment
but
for
second
body
seg
0,
55
Columns
4345
Variable
Description
KRADX(3)
0,
320
Same as KRADX(l),
ment
but
for
third
body
seg
4648
KFOFtx(3)
0,
230
Same as KFORX(l),
but
for
third
body
segment
4951
WX(4)
0,
320
Same as KRADX(l),
but
for
fourth
body
segment
5254
KFORx(4)
0,
230
Same as KFORX(l),
but
for
fourth
body
segment
card
if
Card 2.3(a)
KFUSz4 on Card
 Additional
2.3.
Variable
Columns
Body
Segment
Input.
Note:
omit
this
Description
Value
l3
KFORX(5)
0,
230
Same as KFORX(l),
but
for
fifth
body
segment
46
KRADX(5)
0,
320
Same as KRADX(l),
but
for
fifth
body
segment
79
KEORX(6)
0,
230
Same as KFORX(l),
but
for
sixth
body
segment
1012
KRADX(6)
0,
320
Same as KRADX(l),
but
for
sixth
body
segment
Card
columns
56
Value
2.4
 Revised
ConfigurationRefer.ence
Area
Variable
and Lengths
Card.
Description
17
REFA
814
REFB
Wing semispan.
the reference
1521
REFC
Wing
used
reference
for the
2228
REFD
Body
value
(fuselage)
of 1.0 is
2935
REFL
Body (fuselage)
of 1.0 is used
If REFB=O,
semispan
chord.
reference
reference
used for
a value
If REFC=O,
chord
of
a value
diameter.
the reference
reference
length.
for the reference
1.0
If
is
used
of
1.0
REFD=O,
diameter
If REFL=O,
length
for
iS
a value
Columns
Variable
Description
3642
REFX
xcoordinate
of
moment
center
4349
REFZ
zcoordinate
of
moment
center
7380
REFL
Optional
card
identifier
code
number of segments
and panels
The contents
of this
card are
57
Columns
13
Variable
NS
46
NRS(1)
79
NTS(1)
Value
12
Number of
pod/store
330
Number of axial
stations
used to define
panel
leading
and trailing
edges on first
segment.
If NRS(l)=O,
the panel
edges are
defined
by NPODOR on the Geometry
Input
Card 1.2
0,
321
1012
58
Description
longitudinal
combination
segments
on current
Number of meridian
lines
used to define
panel
edges around
the circumference
of the
first
segment.
There are four
options
for
defining
the panel
edges.
If NTS(l)
is
positive,
the meridian
lines
are calculated
at equally
spaced angular
intervals.
If
NTS(1) is negative,
and NPODOR is positive,
arbitrary
values
of the y and zcoordinates
of the crosssection
are read on the sixth
and seventh
pod/store
data card set.
If
NTS(1) is negative,
and NPODOR is also negative,
arbitrary
values
of the meridian
angles
are read on the third
pod/store
data
card set,
the xcoordinate
of the axial
stations
of the panel
edges on the fourth
pod/store
data set,
and the corresponding
radii
on the fifth
pod/store
data card set.
Note that
pods located
away from the plane
of symmetry
must be panelled
through
360
degrees
Number of circumferential
panel
segments
making up the first
longitudinal
segment.
The circumferential
segments
are used to
provide
breaks
in the panelling
for horizontal
or vertical
fin
intersections
if the
nonplanar
boundary
condition
option
is
selected.
If ITS(l)=O,
ITS(l)
is given
unit
value.
If ITS(l)>l,
NTS(l)
defines
the number of meridian
lines
on each circumferential
segment
ITS(l)
0,
l4
1315
NRS(2)
330
Same as NRS(1)
for
second
segment
1618
NTS(2)
0,
321
Same as NTS(l)
for
second
segment
1921
ITS (2)
0,
14
Same as ITS(l)
for
second
segment
The third
pod/store
is negative
8, if NTS(l)
dian angle
is defined
to
tions
tive,
The fourth
pod/store
used to define
the
and NPODOR negative.
body
The fifth
radius,
pod/store
NTS(1)
if
of
The sixth
the pod/store
of
The seventh
the pod/store
I.e.,
The sixth
for each
The data
is
pod/store
section,
pod/store
section
on the
third
values
of the axial
staedges if NTS(1) is nega
data card
negative,
set gives
NRS(l)
values
and NPODOR negative.
data card
if NTS(l)
set
is
if
and seventh
circumferential
of
the
pod/store
gives
NTS(1) values
of the ycoordinate
negative,
and NPODOR positive.
NTS(l)
values
of the
and NPODOR positive.
pod/store
panel
sets
are
seventh
card
sets
1.2,
K3=0 on Card
through
data card
segment.
the
repeated
is
zcoordinate
ITS(l)
punched
times,
in
lOF7.0
format.
Omit
Card
Set
2.7
if
NP=O on Card
contains
Columns
Variable
13
W(l)
46
79
1012
KFINOR(1)
KF(2)
KFINOR(2)
the
following
or
Data.
defines
2.3.
omitted
if
parameters
K4=0
on
data:
Value
Description
0,
220
Number of sections
used to define
the inboard and outboard
panel
edges on the first
vertical
fin of the current
pod/store/fin
combination.
If KP(l)=O,
the root
and tip
chords
define
the panel
edges
0,
330
Number of ordinates
used to define
the leading and trailing
edges of the panels
on the
first
vertical
fin of the current
pod/store/
fin combination.
If KPINOR(l)=O,
the panel
edges are defined
by NFINOR
but
Same as for
fin
KF(l),
220
0,
330
Same as for
cal fin
KFINOR(l),
0,
for
second
but
for
vertical
second
verti59
Columns
Variable
1315
KF(3)
1618
Value
KFINOR(3)
Description
but
0,
220
Same as for
fin
KF(l),
0,
330
Same as for
cal fin
KFINOR(l),
but
1921
KF(4)
0,
220
Same as for
fin
KF(l),
2224
KFINOR(4)
0,
330
Same as for
cal fin
KFINOR(l),
2527
KF(5)
0,
220
Same as for
fin
KF(l),
2830
KFINOR(5)
0,
330
Same as for
fin
KFINOR(l),
but
for
third
but
for
vertical
third
for
fourth
but
for
for
fifth
but
for
verti
vertical
fourth
verti
vertical
fifth
vertical
3133
KF (6)
0,
220
Same as for
KF(l),
but
for
sixth
vertical
fin
3436
KFINOR(6)
0,
330
Same as KFINOR(l),
but
for
sixth
vertical
fin
the fin
leadingedge
radius.
NF values
of fin
leadingedge
each vertical
fin
in the cur
The third
vertical
fin data card set defines
the fin panel
leadingedge
locations.
This card contains
KFINOR(1)
values
of the fin panel
leadingedge
Repeat
this
card
set
for
each
vertical
locations
expressed
in percent
chord.
Omit if KFINOR=O on Card 2.8.
fin
in the current
pod/store/fin
combination.
The fourth
vertical
fin data card set defines
the fin panel
sideedge
locations.
This card contains
KF(1) values
of the zordinate
of the panel
inboard
Repeat
edges,
beginning
with
the most inboard
edge and proceeding
outboard.
this
card set for each vertical
fin
in the current
pod/store/fin
combination.
Note that
the values
of K4, NF, KF and KFINOR
Omit if KF=O on Card 2.8.
referred
to above must correspond
with
the values
specified
for the current
pod/store/fin
combination.
Card
on the
60
Set
current
2.9
 Horizontal
pod/store/fin
Fin
Input
combination.
Data.
The card
Columns
contains
the
Variable
following
data:
Value
Description
l3
KCAN (1)
0,
220
Number of sections
used to define
the inboard
and outboard
panel
edges on the first'horizontal
fin of the current
pod/store/fin
combination.
If KCAN(l)=O,
the root
and tip
chords
define
the panel
edges
46
KCANOR(1)
0,
330
Number of ordinates
used to define
the leading and trailing
edges of the panels
on the
first
horizontal
fin of the current
pod/store/
fin combination.
If KCANOR(l)=O,
the panel
edges are defined
by NCANOR
79
KCAN(2)
0,
220
Same as for
zontal
fin
KCAN(l),
1012
KCANOR(2)
0,
330
Same as for
zontal
fin
KCANOR(~),
3033
KCAN(6)
0,
220
Same as for
fin
KCAN(l),
3436
KCANOR(6)
0,
330
Same as for
zontal
fin
KCANOR(l),
but
for
but
second
for
hori
second
hori
.
.
.
that
the values
with
the values
for
but
sixth
for
horizontal
sixth
hori
the fin
leadingedge
radius.
NCAN values
of fin
leadingedge
each horizontal
fin
in the cur
The fourth
horizontal
fin data card set
This card contains
KCAN(l)
values
locations.
inboard
edges beginning
with
the most inboard
Repeat this
card set for each horizontal
fin
bination.
Omit if KCAN=O on Card 2.9.
Note
correspond
but
defines
the fin panel
side edge
of the yordinate
of the panel
edge and proceeding
outboard.
in the current
pod/store/fin
com
to
above must
combination.
61
Variable
K3
l3
Value
0
46
K4
79
K5
for
No vertical
fin
input
for
combination
Vertical
fin
input
follows
1
0
next
next
No horizontal
fin
input
for
fin
combination
Horizontal
fin
input
follows
card
combina
Description
No pod/store
body input
fin
combination
Pod body input
follows
this
pod/store/
pod/store/fin
next
pod/store/
814
1521
3.0
 Aerodynamic
Variable
MACH
ALPHA
NORVHL
Input
Value
62
LMACH
Description
Real
The free
stream
subsonic
Mach number
(including
MACH=O.) or supersonic
Mach number
at which aerodynamic
output
is desired
1
Indicates
the termination
of the aerodynamic
calculation
for the given
configuration.
Geometry
cards
for a new configuraton
can
follow
such a terminal
card
Real
The angle
aerodynamic
1.0
2228
Card.
of
attack
output
The usual
boundary
velocity
is applied
points
in degrees
is desired
condition
at body
at
which
of zero normal
panel
control
Modified
boundary
condition
applied
at body
panel
control
points
(nonzero
normal
velocities
are read on Card Set 3.31
Perform
one pass through
the
tain
the solution
corresponding
stream
Mach number
program
to obto the free
columns
2228
2935
Variable
LMACH
FLDPTS
Value
1.
DUMSET
4349
DDELT
Perform
two passes
through
the aerodynamic
calculations.
On the first
pass,
the solution
corresponding
to the free
stream
Mach
number is obtained,
and the local
Mach number
calculated
at panel
control
points.
On the
second pass,
the solution
corresponding
to'
the local
Mach number is calculated
1.
Perform
one pass through
the program
to obtain
the solution
corresponding
to the local
Mach number distribution
specified
on Card
Set 3.2
Real
Velocities
and pressures
points
read in on Card
of field
points
equals
0
3642
Description
O8
No field
point
calculated
at field
The number
Set 3.4.
FLDPTS
calculations
Number of panel
number arrays
on aircraft
body or pod/store
bodies
on which
force
and
moment calculations
are to be deleted.
The
.first
and last
panel
numbers of each array
are read on Card 3.5
0.
No panel
1.
Panel
deflections
deflections
input
read
in
on Card
Set
3.1
contain
the
the control
One
format.
in order
of
These cards
contain
the
Card Set 3.2  Local
Mach Number Input
Cards.
The
values
of the local
Mach number at the wing and body panel
centroids.
The first
card set
data is input
in lOF7.0
format
in two distinct
card sets.
gives
the array
of local
Mach numbers
specified
for the wing panels,
in the
The second card set
order
the wing panel
numbers are assigned
by the program.
gives
the array
of local
Mach numbers specified
for the body panels,
in the
order
of the body panel
numbers assigned
by the program.
These cards
contain
the
Input
Cards.
Card Set 3.3  Normal Velocity
values
of the normal
velocities
specified
at the control
point
of each body
One value
of normal
velocity
is
The data is input
in lOF7.0
format.
panel.
in order
of the body panel
numbers assigned
by the
input
for each body panel,
program.
63
Point
Input
Card Set 3.4  Field
point
containing
the following.
field
columns
Variable
Cards.
One card
is
XPT
xcoordinate
of
the
field
point
814
YPT
ycoordinate
of
the
field
point
1521
ZPT
zcoordinate
of
the
field
point
of
for
each
Description
l7
A maximum
required
600 field
points
may be read.
first
bodies
Description
columns
Variable
l5
Nl(l)
First
610
N2 (1)
Last
1115
m(2)
First
1620
N.2 (2)
Second
panel
panel
panel
of
of
first
first
of
panel
array
array
second
of
of
of
array
second
array
panels
panels
of
of
panels
panels
Etc.
A series
tion
geometry
values.
stream
64
Set,
3.1,
if multiple
3.2,
3.3,
a's are
Card
3.4 or 3.5
requested.
values
for the same configuraSet 3.0 with
the desired
is
required
for
each
free
Program
Output
Data
All output
is processed
by a standard
132 charactersperline
printer.
The output
from each run is always
preceded
by a complete
list
of the input
data cards.
The amount and type of the remaining
output
depends on the PRINT
option
selected,
the number of panels
used, and whether
the configuraton
being
analyzed
is an isolated
wing,
an isolated
body,
or a complete
wingbodytail
combination.
The program
output
options
are described
below:
PRINT0
The program
prints
the case description,
Mach number and angle of
attack,
followed
by a table
listing
the panel
number,
control
point
coordinates
(both dimensional
and nondimensional),
pressure
coefficient,
Separate
normal
force,
axial
force,
and pitching
moment.
tables
are printed
for the body and wing panels,
noting
that
any
tail,
fin or canard
panels
are included
with
the wing output.
If
the planar
boundary
condition
option
has been selected,
the results
for the wing upper surface
are given
in one table,
followed
by a
separate
table
giving
the results
for the wing lower
surface.
Additional
tables
giving
the total
coefficients
on the body,
the wing and
the complete
configuration
follow
the pressure
coefficient
tables.
reference
span and reference
These include
the reference
area,
chord,
the normal
force,
axial
force,
pitching
moment,
lift
and
drag coefficients,
and the center
of pressure
of the component.
PRINT=1
In addition
to the output
described
out additional
tables
giving
the
moment,
lift
and drag coefficients,
each column of panels
on the wing
the indices
of the first
and last
together
with
the span,
chord and
PRINT=2
In addition
to the output
described
for PRINTl,
the program
prints
the source
or vortex
strength
out tables
listing
the panel
number,
of that
panel,
and the axial
velocity,
u, lateral
velocity,
v, and
The normal
velocontrol
point.
vertical
velocity,
w, at the panel
Separate
tables
are printed
city
is also calculated
for body panels.
for the body and wing panels,
noting
again
that
any tail,
fin or
If the planar
canard
panels
are included
with
the wing output.
boundary
condition
option
has been selected,
separate
tables
are
given
for the wing upper and lower
surfaces.
PRINT=3
In addition
to the output
out the iteration
number,
obtained
at each step of
PRINT=4
In addition
to the output
described
for PRINT=3,
the program
prints
out tables
of the axial
and normal
velocity
components
which make
The program
prints
up the elements
of the aerodynamic
matrices.
out the matrix
row number,
and gives
the number of elements
in that
row.
A maximum of four matrix
partitions
will
be printed
if this
described
for PRINT=2,
the program
and the source
and vortex
strength
the iterative
solution
procedure.
prints
arrays
65
option
is
influence
tables.
If
mation
panel
cards.
points,
zontal
mation
body,
angles
66
selected,
description
each of
prior
which is identified
by number and
to printing
the velocity
component
its
a negative
value
of PRINT is selected,
the program
prints
all
the infordescribed
above for the positive
values,
together
with
the complete
geometry
description
of the configuration
following
the list
of input
This consists
of tables
giving
the wing panel
corner
points,
control
If the configuration
has a horiinclination
angles,
areas,
and chords.
tail,
fin or canard,
additional
tables
are printed
giving
the same inforif the configuration
includes
a
as listed
above for the wing.
Finally,
the body panel
corner
points,
control
points,
areas,
and inclination
are listed.
APPLICATIONS
Techniques
useful
in modelling
complex
wingbodytail
configurations
These techniques
are designed
to illustrate
be described
in this
section.
and to overcome
certain
limitations
of the special
features
of the program,
sociated
with
the geometry
definition.
WingBody
will
some
as
Intersections
67
Coplanar
Wing
Paneling
For cpnfigurations
having
coplanar
wings,
tails,
or canards,
the spanwise
locations
of the panel
edges on all
surfaces
must be aligned
to avoid
undue
influence
from the concentrated
vortices
trailing
in the wakes of upstream
surfaces.
Failure
to observe
this
rule
can result
in poor solution
convergence
and erroneous
interference
pressures
on downstream
surfaces.
The spanwise
panel
edges on noncoplanar
surfaces
should
also be aligned
if the vertical
distance
from the surface
to the wake of an upstream
lifting
surface
is less than the
spanwise
vortex
spacing
in that
wake.
Errors
can occur
in the
on coplanar
wings at positive
in the analysis
of a coplanar
calculation
of the surface
pressure
and lift
acting
angles
of attack.
This error
was first
observed
wingbodycanard
configuration
of Reference
16.
Pressures
on the canard were
attack,
but pressures
on the wing
coefficient
formula)
were correct
symmetrical
for equal
and opposite
(calculated
by the full
isentropic
only for negative
angles
of attack.
angles
of
pressure
68
Inlet
Modeling
Control
control
planar
only).
Surface
Deflections
Small symmetric
surface
deflections
can be simulated
at selected
points
using
the DDELT option.
This option
is effective
only
boundary
condition
option
has also been selected
(available
in
Field
The three
components
of velocity
culated
at arbitrary
field
points,
if
of 600 field
points
is permitted.
panel
if the
version
Points
and the pressure
the FLDPT option
coefficient
is selected.
69
EXPERIMENTALVERIFICATION
Examples
of pressure
distributions
calculated
program
are presented
and compared
with
experimental
calculated
by version
A are presented
in Reference
Isolated
by versions
B and C of the
data.
Additional
examples
1.
Wings
Uncambered
Swept Wing in Subsonic
Flow.
The pressure
distribution
calculated on a swept wing having
an aspect
ratio
of 3 and taper
ratio
of .5 is compared with
experimental
data from Reference
17 for M = .80 and cx = 4' in Figure
7.
The wing has 45" sweepback
along
the quarter
chord,
and a NACA 64AOlO airfoil
on sections
normal
to the quarter
chord.
The chordwise
pressure
distributions
have been calculated
using
the nonplanar
boundary
condition
option
in both versions
B and C.
Version
B, which
uses linearly
varying
sources
and vortices,
and the symmetrical
singularity
conagrees
most
closely
with
the
experimental
data,
particularly
near
the
tip.
cept ,
This method is clearly
preferable
to the combination
of constant
sources
and
vortices
used in version
C, even though
the computing
time is considerably
greater.
Uncambered
Arrow Wing in Supersonic
Flow.
The pressure
distributions
calculated
on an uncambered
arrow wing having
a 3 percent
circular
arc section
and
70' sweepback
are compared with
experimental
data from Reference
18 at M = 2.01
and a = 4' on Figure
8.
The planar
boundary
condition
option
has been selected.
Both versions
B and C give the same results
for this
option.
In this
example,
the theory
agrees
reasonably
well
with
experiment
over the inboard
half
of the
wing,
except
in the immediate
vicinity
of the leading
edge.
This result
should
be compared with
Figure
9 of Reference
1 , which
compares
theory
and experiment
for a cambered
arrow wing having
the same planform,
Mach number and incidence.
WingBody
Combination
Uncambered
Swept Wing on Circular
Body in Subsonic
Flow.
The planform
of
this
wingbody
combination
and the paneling
scheme used are shown on Figure
9.
The wing has a NACA 65A006 section,
is centrally
mounted
on the body,
and the
quarter
chord line
is swept back 45".
The wing aspect
ratio
is .4, and the
taper
ratio
is 6.
The pressure
distribution
on the wing is compared
with
experimental
data
from Reference
19 for M = 60 and CX= 4" on Figure
10.
The chordwise
pressure
distributions
have been calculated
using
the planar
boundary
condition
option.
Both versions
B and C give the same results
for this
option.
The agreement
between
theory
and experiment
is good over most of the wing,
except
in the
trailingedge
region,
where the experimental
data indicates
a small
flow separation.
The pressure
experimental
data
is apparent.
70
distribution
on Figure
11.
along
four body
Good agreement
meridians
between
FIGURE
7,
UNCAMBERED
SWEPT
WING
a = 40
M= 880
45' SWEEP
ALONGC/4
AR = 3.0
A =
,5
NACA64AOlOSECTION
(NORMAL
TO C/4)
USSAERO/B
SYMMETRICAL
USSAERO/C
NONPLANAR
SINGULAR ITlES
B,C,
EXPERIMENT
NACARMA51G31
FIGURE
8,
UNCAMEIERED
ARROW
WING
M = 2,Ol
a= 40
70 LEADINGEDGE
SWEEP
AR = 2,24
??i RlfltNVFX
CFfTlflN
Y/B
USSAERO/B
PLANAR B,C,
0
EXPERIMENT
NACATN D1264
FIGURE
9,
TRANSONIC
WINGBODY
COMBINATION
CENTRALLY
MOUNTED,
UNCAMBERED
SWEPT
WING
45O SWEEP
ALONGC/4
AR = 480
A = 86
NACA
.. 65A006
 . SECTION
_. ___
FIGURE
10. WINGPRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION
M =
a60
2Y/B
,8
CP
,4
.8
CP
.4
USSAERO
PLANAR B,Ca
EXPERIMENT
FIGURE
11,
BODYPRESSURE
DISTRIBUTION
M= ,60
u = 40
,2.
CP
0.
62,
ABOVE
WING
CP
,2
BELOW
WING
CONCLUSIONS
The aerodynamic
improvements
incorporated
in versions
B and C of the USSAERO
and examples
presented
comparing
the theoretical
Program
have been described,
results'
with
experimental
data.
the nonplanar
The symmetrical
singularity
method of version
B, used with
gives
significant
improvement
in the calculation
of
boundary
condition
option,
However,
some problems
still
wing pressure
distributions
in subsonic
flow.
or other
planform
discontinuities
due to residual
exist
near wing roots,
tips,
discrete
vortices
lying
along panel
streamwise
edges,
which can introduce
small
Techniques
to elimerrors
in the tangential
velocity
at nearby
control
points.
and should
be incorporated
into
the program.
inate
these
edge vortices
now exist,
The local
Mach number compressibility
correction
of version
C gives
significant improvement
in the calculation
of pressure
distributions
on twodimensional
No conclusive
and on bodies
in supersonic
flow.
wings
in subcritical
flow,
pattern
of improvement
has been obtained
for threedimensional
wings
in subsonic
flow,
however.
The extended
geometrical
capability
of version
C has proved
useful
in the
and aircraft
in combination
with
analysis
of complex
aircraft
configurations,
The
existing
geometry
definition
and
finned
external
stores
or engine
nacelles.
but
would
benefit
from
a
useroriented
paneling
routines
are presently
adequate,
study
of overall
geometry
input
requirements.
76
REFERENCES
1.
Woodward,
FA.,
"An Improved
Method for the Aerodynamic
Analysis
BodyTail
Configurations
in Subsonic
and Supersonic
Flow,
Part
and Application",
NASA CR2228,
Part I, May 1973.
2. Woodward,
BodyTail
Description",
FA.,
"An Improved
Configurations
in
NASA CR2228,
Method
Subsonic
Part II,
3.
Breedlove,
W.J.,
'An Evaluation
of
dynamic
Analysis
of WingBodyTail
Flow",
ODU Technical
Report
74MI,
4.
Winter,
OA.,
"The Incorporation
of
sonic
Supersonic
Aerodynamic
Analysis
5.
Bratkovich,
A. and Marshall,
F.J.,
Large Linear
Systems
in Computational
No. 2, February
1975.
6.
Maskew,
Potential
7.
Hess,
Lifting
8.
Gothert,
B., 'Plane
NACA TM 1105, 1946.
9.
Ehlers,
F.E.,
for Linearized
B. and Woodward,
Flow Analysis",
J.L.,
'Calculation
Bodies,
McDonnell
of Wing Computer
II
into
the Unified
B", NASA CR3228,
"Iterative
Techniques
Aerodynamics",
J.
FA.,
"Symmetrical
J.
Aircraft,
Vol.

of WingI  Theory
Singularity
13, No. 9,
for the
Aircraft,
Sub1980.
Solution
of
Vol.
12,
of Potential
Flow about Arbitrary
ThreeDimensional
Douglas
Report,
MDC J567901,
October1972.
and ThreeDimensional
Flow
at
High
Subsonic
'A HigherOrder
Johnson,
F.T.
and Rubbert,
P.E.,
Supersonic
Flow",
AIAA Paper No. 76381,
July
10.
Labrujere,
Calculation
critical
11.
Jameson,
A., "Transonic
tion",
Grumman Aerospace
12.
Kraus,
W.,
Displacement
13.
Ames Research
Staff,
"Equations,
NACA Report
1135, 1953.
Tables,
14.
Sells,
C.C.L.,
"Plane
Subcritical
Technical
Report
67146,
1967.
Flow
15.
Craidon,
figuration
Speeds',
Panel
1976.
TE.,
Loeve,
W. and Sloof,
J.W.,
"An approximate
Method
of the Pressure
Distribution
on WingBody
Combinations
Speeds",
AGARDCP7171,
1971.
Flow Calculations
Corp.,
Report
for Airfoils
390711,
1971.
and Bodies
Method
for the
at Sub
of
Revolu
The LiftConnected
"The MBBUFE Subsonic
Panel Method,
Part
2:
Problem
in Compressible
Flow",
NASA
TTF14,117,
March 1972.
and Charts
Past
a Lifting
CB.,
'Description
of a Digital
Computer
Plots",
NASA TMX2074,
September
1970.
for
Compressible
Aerofoil",
Program
for
Flow",
R.A.E.
Airplane
Con77
and Harris,
T.M.,
Missile
Preliminary
"Aerodynamic
Design",
Load Calculations
AFFDLTM78107FBR,
16.
Sotomayer,
W.A.
Tactical
Cruise
ber 1978.
17.
Kolbe,
C.D. and Boltz,
F.W.,
"The Forces
and Pressure
Distribution
Subsonic
Speeds on a Plane Wing Having
45' of Sweepback,
Aspect
NASA RM A51G31, October
1951.
3 and a Taper Ratio
of .2",
Mach number
Degrees
of
2.05
Twist
at
Ratio
of
18.
"Pressure
Distributions
Carlson,
H.W.,
Highly
Swept Arrow Wings Employing
NASA TN D1264,
May 1962.

19.
Loving,
D.L. and Estabrooks,
B.B.,
"Transonic
Wing Investigation
in the
Langley
8Foot
High Speed Tunnel
at High Subsonic
Mach Numbers and at a
Mach Number of 1.2Analysis
of Pressure
Distribution
of WingFuselage
Configuration
Having
a Wing of 45" Sweepback,
Aspect
Ratio
4, Taper Ratio
Section",
. 6, and NACA 65A006 Airfoil
NACA
RM
L51F07,
September
1951.

78
at
Various
on a
Novem
on a Series
of
and Camber",
NASA CR3227
4.
Title
and
__
Subtitle
5.
Report
Date
6.
Performing
Organization
Code
8.
Performing
Organization
Report
Work
No.
April
7. Author(s)
1980
No.
F. A. Woodward
10.
9.
Performing
Organization
Name
and
Analytical
Methods, Inc.
100  116th Avenue, S. E.
Bellevue,
Washington
98004
11.
ncy
Name
and
Addre
or
Grant
Type
of
Report
Cont'%w71?
National
Gronautlcs
and Space Administration
Washington,
DC 20546
15. Supplementary
Contract
No.
NASl12900
13.
12. Sponsorin
Unit
Address
14.
Sponsoring
and
Period
Covered
eport
Agency
Code
Notes
Langley Technical
Final Report
Monitor:
Charles
H. Fox,
Jr.
16. Abstract
Versions
B and C of the unified
program, USSAERO, are described.
subsonic
and supersonic
aerodynamic
analysis
Version B incorporates
a new symmetrical
singularity
method to provide
improved
Version C extends the
surface
pressure
distributions
on wings in subsonic
flow.
range of application
of the program to include
the analysis
of multiple
evgine
In addition,
nonlinear
compressibility
effects
nacelles
or finned external
stores.
in high subsonic and supersonic
flows are approximated
using a correction
based On
the local Mach number at panel control
points.
other
7.
Key
Words
(Sug
ted
by Author(s))
Potential
Row
Panel Methods
Lifting
Surface Theory
Subsonic Aerodynamics
Supersonic
Aerodynamics
9. Security
Classif.
Unclassified
comparing
data.
18.
Source
ities
singular
Vortex
singular
the results
Distribution
of these
programs
with
Statement
Unclassified
 Unlimited
ities
Subject
20.
Security
Classif.
Unclassified
(of
this
Category
page)
80
$6.00
02