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F

Concrete Nuclear Shelters

F.1 Introduction
This section is devoted to the analysis and design of reinforced concrete
nuclear shelters. Calculations are given for a particular study using both the
British and American codes. Details are also given in this section regarding
the Swedish Civil Defence Administration Code [6.79].
F.1.1 US Code Ultimate Strength Theory: General Formulae
Figure F.1 shows cracking, crushing and disengagement cases recommended
in successive ACI building codes.
General Equation: Ultimate Static Moment Capacity
Cross-Section Type I
(1) The ultimate unit resisting moment Mu of a rectangular section of width
b, with tension reinforcement only, is given by
Mu = (As fs /b)(d a/2),

(F.1)

where As = area of tension reinforcement within the width b, fs = static


design stress for reinforcement, d = distance from the extreme compression bre to the centroid of tension reinforcement, a = depth of
equivalent rectangular block = As fs /0.85bfc , b = width of compression
face, fc = static ultimate compressive strength of concrete.
The reinforcement ratio p is dened as
p = As /bd

(F.2)

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F Concrete Nuclear Shelters


type I

As

no crushing
or spalling

Tc

As

As = As

type II

crushing

dc

Tc

As

As = As

type III

spalling
dc

Tc

As
cracking
crushing
disengagement

Fig. F.1. Reinforced concrete cross-sections

(2) To ensure against sudden compression failures, p must not exceed 0.75 of
the ratio pb , which produces balanced conditions at ultimate strength and
is given by
(F.3)
pb = (0.85K1fc /fs )[87,000/(87,000 + fs )],
where K1 = 0.85 for fc up to 4,000 psi and is reduced by 0.05 for each
1,000 psi in excess of 4,000 psi.
(3) For a rectangular section of width b with compression reinforcement, the
ultimate unit resisting moment is
Mu = [(As As )fs /b](d a/2) + [(As fs /b)(d d )],

(F.4)

F.1 Introduction

1021

Table F.1. Reinforcement for one and two way elements


Pressure
design range

Reinforcement

Two-way
elements

One-way
elements

Intermediate
and low
High

Main
Other
Main

As = 0.0025bd
As = 0.0018bd
As = As
= 0.0025bdc
As = As
= 0.0018bdc a

As = 0.0025bd
As + As = 0.0020bTc
As = As
= 0.0025bdc
As = As
= 0.0018bdc a

Other
a

But not less than As /4 used in the main direction (see Fig. F.2 for coecients)

where As = area of compression reinforcement within the width b, d =


distance from the extreme compression bre to the centroid of compression
reinforcement, a = depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block =
(As As )fs /0.85bfc .
The minimum area of exural reinforcement is given in Table F.1.
Ultimate Static Shear Capacity
Diagonal Tension
(1) The ultimate shear stress vu , as a measure of diagonal tension, is computed
for type I sections from
vu = Vu /bd
(F.5)
and for type II and III sections from
vu = Vu /bdc ,

(F.6)

where Vu is the total shear on a width b at the section a distance d (type I)


or dc (type II and III) from the face of the support. The shear at sections
between the face of the support and the section d or dc therefrom need
not be considered critical.
(2) The shear stress permitted on an unreinforced web is limited to

(F.7)
vc = [1.9 fc + 2,500p] 2.28 fc ,
where is the capacity reduction factor and is equal to 0.85 for all sections.
(3) When the ultimate shear capacity vu > vc , shear reinforcement must be
provided. When stirrups are used, they should be provided for a distance
d beyond the point theoretically required, and between the face of the support and the cross-section at a distance d. The required area for stirrups
for type I cross-sections is calculated using
Av = [(vu vc )bs ss ]/[fs (sin + cos )],

(F.8)

12

F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

n=

n=

0.070

10

1022

0.060

0.050

Coefficient F

0.040

0.030

n = Es/Ec
Ic = Fbd3

0.020

0.010

0
0

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

0.020

Reinforcement ratio p = As/bd

Fig. F.2. Coecients for the moments of inertia of cracked sections with tension
reinforcement only (courtesy of ACI)

while for cross-sections conforming to types I, II and III, the required area
of lacing reinforcement is (see Fig. F.3):
Av = [(vu vc )b s ]/[fs (sin + cos )],

(F.9)

where Av = total area of stirrups or lacing reinforcement in tension within


a width bs , b and distance ss or s , (vu vc ) = excess shear stress, bs =
width of concrete strip in which the diagonal tension stresses are resisted
by stirrups of area Av , b = width of concrete strip in which the diagonal

F.1 Introduction

1023

#9@10 (vert)
#9@10
(vert)
#8@11
(horiz)

sI

sI

(a)

#8@11 (horiz)

(b)

Fig. F.3. Designs of lacings: (a) vertical and (b) horizontal

tension stresses are resisted by lacing of area Av , ss = spacing of stirrups


in the direction parallel to the longitudinal reinforcement, s = spacing
of lacing in the direction parallel to the longitudinal reinforcement, =
angle formed by the plane of the stirrups or lacing and the plane of the
longitudinal reinforcement.
The excess shear stress vu vc is as follows.
Limits

Excess shear
stress vu vc

vu vc
vc < vu 2vc
vu > 2vc

Stirrups

Lacing

0
vu vc
vu vc

vc
vc
vu vc

The ultimate shear stress vu must not exceed 10 fc in sections using
stirrups. In sections using lacing there is no restriction on vu because of
the continuity provided by this type of shear reinforcement.
Wherever stirrups are required (vu > vs ), the area Av should not be
less than 0.0015bss and for type III rectangular sections of width b:
Mu = As fs dc /b,

(F.10)

where as = area of tension or compression reinforcement within the width


b, dc = distance between the centroids of the compression and the tension
reinforcement.
the reinforcement ratios p and p are given by
p = p = as /bdc .

(F.11)

the reinforcement ratio p is given by


p = as /bd.

(F.12)

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F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

equation (F.11) is valid only when the compression steel reaches the value fs
at ultimate stress, and this condition is satised when


fc d
87,000

.
(F.13)
p p 0.85k1
fs d 87,000 fs
Cross-Section Types II and III
(1) The ultimate unit resisting moment of type II.
F.1.1.1 Modulus of Elasticity
Concrete
The modulus of elasticity of concrete, Ec , is given by

Ec = w1.5 33 fc psi.

(F.14)

The value of w, the unit weight of concrete, lies between 90 and 155 lb ft2 .
Reinforcing Steel
The modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel, Es , is
Es = 30 106 psi.

(F.15)

Modular Ratio
The modular ratio, n, is given by
n = Es /Ec

(F.16)

and may be taken as the nearest whole number.


F.1.1.2 Moment of Inertia
The average moment of inertia, Ia , to be used in calculating the deection is
Ia = (Ig + Ic )/2,

(F.17)

where Ig is the moment of inertia of the gross concrete cross-section of width


b about its centroid (neglecting steel areas) and is equal to
Ig = bTc3/12

(F.18)

and Ic is the moment of inertia of the cracked concrete section of width b


considering the compression concrete area and steel areas transformed into
equivalent concrete areas and computed about the centroid of the transformed
section. Ic is calculated from
Ic = F bd3 .

(F.19)

The coecient F varies as the modular ratio n and the amount of reinforcement used. For sections with tension reinforcement only, F is given in
Fig. F.2.

F.2 Design of a Concrete Nuclear Shelter

1025

F.2 Design of a Concrete Nuclear Shelter Against


Explosion and Other Loads Based on the Home
Oce Manual
Figure F.4 shows a typical layout of a domestic nuclear shelter for a family
of six.
F.2.1 Basic Data (Home Oce Code [6.80])
For a 1 Mton ground burst at a distance of 1.6 km from ground zero:
Ductility ratio, : 5
Main reinforcement 0.25% bd
Secondary reinforcement 0.15% bd
Ultimate shear stress 0.04fcu
Dynamic shear stress (mild steel) 172 N mm2
Protective factor: 4,000
Concrete fcu (static): 30 N mm2 (grade 30)
Concrete fcu (dynamic): 1.5fcu = 37.5 N mm2
Reinforcement fy (static): 420 N mm2
Reinforcement fyd (dynamic): 1.10fy = 462 N mm2
Youngs modulus, Ec : 20 GN m2
Youngs modulus, Es : 200 GN m2
Clear span: 3 m
Slab thickness: 300 mm (with minimum cover 50)
Blast load: 0.17 N mm2 , F1 (t) = Pdo
F.2.2 Additional Data for Designs Based on US Codes
Dynamic Increase Factors (DIF)
Concrete: compression
diagonal tension
direct shear
Reinforcement: bending
shear
Dynamic stresses:

1.25
1.00
1.10
1.10
1.00

concrete fc (cylindrical strength) = 0.87fcu


= 3,000 lb in.2 (psi)
concrete fy (static) = 60,000 lb in.2 (psi)
0
/
1
F1 (t) = 1.1F1 (t) = 0.187 N mm2.
Rm = ru =
1
1 2

3000

3000

1500

300

300

3000

1800

300

2100

2700

500

250

water proofing
material (Voclay)

1800

25 mm steel plate
hatch door

500
300

Section B B

1240

Section A A

800

hatch
door
1240

3450

30 mm steel plate
hatch door

300

600 300 1200 300 600

Fig. F.4. Domestic nuclear shelter: general arrangement

Floor plan

300

800

300

Roof plan

2400

300

sump

sump

300

1026
F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

F.2 Design of a Concrete Nuclear Shelter

1027

Deadload of concrete plus soil = 0.014 N mm2


ru = 0.187 + 0.014 = 0.201 N mm2 .
For a two-way slab
Mu = ru L2 /16 = 0.201(3,000)2 /16
= 113,062.5 N mm mm1 .
300 mm Thick Slab
T16200 bars; As = 1,005 mm2 m1 ; d = 300 50 8 = 242

z = d (0.84fydAs /fcu(dyn)
N ote: Later on, based on
= 242 (0.84(462)(1,005)103/37.5) nite-element analysis, the
= 231.58 mm
T20200 bars adopted were checked

Area of the roof = 9 m2 = At ; At = 3 m


H
x = 2.7 0.3 = 2.4 or 3.4 0.3 = 3.1
At /(H x) = 1.25 and 0.97
Weight of overhead material = 1,340 kg m2
R = 0.025% (roof contribution)
PF = 100/(R + GT )
= 100/(0.025 + 0)
= 4,000 (safe),
where GT is the percentage wall contribution, ignored in the worst case.
Figure F.5 gives structural details of the reinforced concrete shelter.
Steel Blast Doors
Clear opening 800 mm 1,200 mm.
FI (t) = pdo = 2.3pso = 2.3(0.17) = 0.39 N mm2
ru = 1.1FI (t) = 0.43 N mm2
Mu (simply supported) = 0.43(800)2/8 = 34,400 N mm mm1
20 mm thick steel door
z = bd2 /4 = 1(202 )/4 = 100 mm3
Also
zp = Mu /1.1(265) = 118 mm2
Calculated thickness of steel doors = (118/100)20 = 23.6 25 mm

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F Concrete Nuclear Shelters


T20 - 200

T20 - 200
T20 - 200
T20 - 200

27T25 - 200

T25 - 100

27T25 - 200
T20 - 100
T16 Ubar
T16 Ubar
T16 Ubar
T16 Ubar

T25 - 100
T25 - 100

20T25 - 100 T,B

T16 Ubar

T16 Ubar

Ubars
T16 - 300

15T20 - 200 B

15T16 - 200 B
3T16 - 300 Ubar

3T16 Ubar
T20 - 200 B

T20 - 200 T

15T20 - 200 T

3T16 Ubar
T16 Ubar

15T20 - 200 T
details of roof
Section A A

Fig. F.5. Domestic nuclear shelter (reinforced concrete): detail

F.2 Design of a Concrete Nuclear Shelter

1029

A 25 mm thick door was adopted.


The thickness of the glass door may have to be increased for protection against radiation fall-out. One possibility is a steelconcrete sandwich
construction. One possible steel door design is given in Fig. F.6.
or z = 0.95(242) = 229.9 mm 230 mm

Walls: 300 mm Thick


Blast load on walls = pdo 0.5 = 0.085 N mm2
ru = 1.1FI (t) = 1.1(pdo ) = 0.0935 N mm2
Total (including soil) = 0.0935 + 0.08 = 0.1735 N mm2
F.2.2.1 Two-Way Slab

Mu = ru L2 /16 = 0.1735(2,700)2 /16 = 79,050.941

Both walls
also Mu = [(3,400)2 /(2,700)2 ](79,050.94)
(2,700 mm and
= 125,353.75 N mm mm1 (adopted)

3,400 mm)
Mu = 125,353.75 = As (230)(462)
As = 1.18 mm2 mm1 = 1,180 mm2 m1
adopted T20200 (in some critical areas T20100 and T25100)
Shaft wall bars: T12200 links T16300 U-bars
Minimum steel:
Main 0.25% 1 242 = 0.605 mm2 mm1 (605 mm2 m1 )
1,005 mm2 m1 > 605(T16200) adopted
Secondary 0.15% 1 242 = 0.363 mm2 mm1 (363 mm2 m1 )
(T16200 or 300) adopted
Shear: allowable shear = 0.04fcu = 1.2 N mm2
shear = ru [(L/2 d)/d]
= (2,700/2 242)/2,700
(safe)
= 0.41 < 1.2 N mm2
or = (3,400/2 242)/3,400
= 0.43 < 1.2 N mm2
Protective factor (PF) in the middle of the shelter and at 0.250.30 m above
the oor level.

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F Concrete Nuclear Shelters


Y

1050

YY

(a)

(b)
Y

slot access

CL door panel

450

metal packs
at bolt fixing

symmetrical
grouts
1050
1050

(c)

draw bolts

(d)

Fig. F.6. Design of steel blast doors. (a) Elevation; (b) vertical section; (c) door
location; (d) horizontal section: structural details

F.3 Design of a Nuclear Shelter Based on the US Codes

1031

F.3 Design of a Nuclear Shelter Based on the US Codes


F.3.1 Introduction
Many codes in the USA have empirical equations which are based on imperial
units. The reader is given the conversions in SI units. However, the bulk of the
calculations given here are based on imperial units (conversion factors shown
below).
Conversion Factors
1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 lb ft2 = 47.88 N m2;
1 lbf = 4.448 N; 1 lb ft2 = 16.02 kg m2 ;
1 lb in = 0.113 N m; 1 kg = 9.806 N;
1 lb in2 = 6,895 N m2 ; 1 in = 25.4 mm
Dynamic Stresses
Concrete:
Comp 1.25(3,000) = 3,750 psi
Diagonal tension 1.00(3,000) = 3,000 psi
Direct shear 1.10(0.18)(3,000) = 600 psi
Reinforcement:
Bending 1.10(60,000) = 66,000 psi
Shear 1.10(60,000) = 60,000 psi
since fc = 3,000 psi and fy (static) = 60,000 psi.
F.3.2 Wall Design
Figure F.4 shows a one-way slab fully restrained at the supports. Wall thickness (Tc ) = 300 mm (12 in.) (see Fig. F.7). The US recommended covers are
0.75 and 1.5 in. (37 mm) rather than 50 mm (adopted by the Home Oce).
For a negative moment, d = 121.50.3125 = 10.1875 in. (assuming
#5 bars). For a positive moment, d = 120.750.3125 = 10.935 in.
As = 0.0025 12 10.935 = 0.328 in2 ft1
#5 bars at 11 in (275 mm), As = 0.34 > 0.328 in.2 . The wall blast load =
0.085 N mm2 = 12.33 lb in.2 . The ultimate moment is given by
Mu = (As fyd /b)(d a/2),
where a = As fyd /0.85bfc (dyn) = 0.586 in.
b = 12 in

Tc

28 ms

H = 3.66 m

H = 12

F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

pressure 12.33 psi (85 kN/m2)

1032

Time, t

blast load

section

internal surface

3
(19 mm)
4

(38 mm)

positive reinforcement
negative reinforcement

Tc

Fig. F.7. Wall analysis and design

Mu (positive) = MP = 19,900 in lb in1


Mu (negative) = MN = 18,500 in lb in1

Ec for concrete = D1.5 33 fc


= (150 lb in3 )1.5 33(3,000)2
= 3.32 106 psi
= D = density of concrete = 150 lb in3 (23.6 kN m3 )
Es for steel = 30 106 psi (200 GN m2 )
n = Es /Ec = 9.03
Average moment of inertia for a 1 in. strip.
Ig (gross) = bTc3 /12 = 144 in.4

F.3 Design of a Nuclear Shelter Based on the US Codes

Tc (thickness of the wall) = d


d (average) = 10.5625 in.
p (average) = As /bd = 0.00268 = s
I (cracked section)
F  = 0.0175; Icracked = Ic = F  bd3 = 20.6 in.4
Ia = average moment of inertia = (Ig + Ic )/2 = 82.3 in.4
F.3.2.1 Elastic (ke ) and Elasto-Plastic (kep ) Stiness
ke = (384EcIa )/bL4 = 244 lb in.3 ; b = 1
kep = (384EcIa )/5bL4 = 48.8 lb in.3
F.3.2.2 Elastic and Elasto-Plastic Deection
e = Xe = re /ke = 10.71/244 = 0.0439 in.
ep = Xp Xe = (ru re )/kep = 0.084 in.
Xp = 0.1279 in.
Equivalent Elastic Deection and Stiness
XE = Xe + Xp (1 re /ru )
= 0.0793 in.
KE = ru /XE = 186.8 lb in.3

LoadMass Factors and Eective Mass


Figure F.8 gives:
KLM
0.77
0.78
0.66

Range
elastic
elasto-plastic
plastic

KLM (elastic and elasto-plastic) = 0.78 (average)


KLM (elastic and plastic) = 0.72 (average)
M = Tc /g = 150 1 106 /32.3(1728)
= 2,700 lb ms2 in.3 ,
Meective = KLM M = 1,944 lb ms2 in.3 ,

natural period = TN = 2 (Me /KE ) = 20.3 ms,


where g = 32.2 ft s2 ; KE = 186.8.

1033

0.4

0.7

30

25

2
T/TN

0.60

0.80

10

0.70

5
0.9

ru

system

KE

F1(t)

20

0.90
0.85

40

XE
resistance-deflection
tm/T = 0.1
pressure-time load pressure load

T
pressure-time

r(x)

Fig. F.8. Maximum response of simple spring-mass system (with compliments of US Corp of Engineers, Washington, D.C.)

0.2

1.0

1
0.1

0.

10

0.4

0.

0.

2.0

1.

0.5

2.5

0.

0.

0.

1.

75

1.

2.

10

35

1.

1.

impulse load/pressure-time load

2.2

Xm
XE

20

40

20

18

14

B/r

80

tm/T = 3

/T N
tm

1.8

1.6

2.

1.4

3.

1.3

3.

1.2

4.

1.1

4.

1.
05

1034
F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

F.4 Lacing Bars

1035

Response Chart Parameters


Reference is made to Fig. F.8.
Peak pressure B = 12.33 psi
Peak resistance ru = 14.81 psi
The chart B/ru = 0.8325 T /TN = 28/20.3 = 1.38
Xm /XE = 1.50, as this is <3 the section is safe
The corresponding tm /TN = 0.50 tm /to = tm /T
= (tm /TN )/(T /TN ) = 0.50/1.38
= 0.3623
This lies within the range 3.0 > tm /to > 0.1, hence the response is satisfactory.
Diagonal Tension at a Distance d from the Support
vu = ru [(L/2) de ]/dc = 14.81(72 10.1875)/10.1875
= 89.9 psi
The allowable shear stress, vc , is given by

vc = [1.9 fc + 2,500p] 2.28 fc ,


where = 0.85
= 94.4 psi, as this is >89.9 psi, OK with no stirrups
Ultimate Shear
Vs = ru L/2.0 = 14.81 144/2.0 = 1,066 lb in.1
Allowable shear
Vd = 0.18fc (dyn) bd = 6,050 lb in1 > 1,066 lb in.1
Hence the 300 mm (12 in.) wall designed against the same blast load in both
codes (British and US) is safe. The roof slab can be checked in the same way
as for the gas explosion, described earlier in the text.

F.4 Lacing Bars


When a ring forced concrete element is subject to a blast load, the element
deects far beyond the stage of well dened cracking until:
(1) The strain energy of the element is developed suciently to balance the
kinetic energy created by the applied load when it comes to rest.
(2) Fragmentation of the concrete element results in either its partial or total
collapse.

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F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

For the development of the available energy of the concrete elements, it


is necessary to make changes in the reinforcement layouts and details. Each
element is reinforced symmetrically. They and the intervening concrete are
laced together, as shown in Figs. F.9 and F.10, with continuous bent diagonal
bars. This system oers forces which will contribute to the integrity of the
protective element. Where structural elements are located outside the immediate high blast intensity, they should be designed without lacing. All other
types are given in Figs. F.11F.15.
Design of Lacing Bars
Where lacing bars are needed, the following calculations will help in the design
of nuclear shelters. The lacings can be in both the vertical and horizontal
directions.
Vertical Lacing Bars
The wall thickness is kept the same. Data: d = 10 in.; S = 22 in.; no of bars =
6; D0 = 0.75 in.
d = 21 + 1.13 + 2 + 0.75 = 24.88 in.
R min = 3D0
for S /d = 0.884
(2R + D0 )/d = 7D0 /d = 0.211

Lc is measured along the centre line of the lacing bar


between points a and b.
a
Lc =
Rl

cos a =

a
(F4.1)
180
-2B(1 - B) {[2B (1 - B)]2- 4 [(1 - B)2 + A2] (B2 - A2)}

Sl - (2Rl + D0) sin a


+ p(2Rl + D0)
cos a

2[(1 - B)2 + A2]


2R + D0
A = Sl/dl and B =
dl
D0

Sl
a

Rl
b

dl

Fig. F.9. Length of lacing bar

F.4 Lacing Bars


lacing

main reinforcement
against bending

Fig. F.10. Lacing reinforcement

horizontal
lacing
main
reinforcement
against
bending

barrier

vertical
reinforcement

diagonal shear bars


floor slab
haunch

pad

Fig. F.11. Typical laced wall

1037

1038

F Concrete Nuclear Shelters


of splice pattern
1

2
type A

b1

type B
type C
type D
type A
type B

(a)

(b)

B or D

A or C

Fig. F.12. Typical details for splicing of lacing bars: (a) splice pattern; (b) lacing
splice

20 f

T20

flexural reinforcement

lacing
spaces

diagonal corner reinforcement

Fig. F.13. Typical detail at intersection of two continuous walls

12 in (200 mm) full anchorage

20 f

space

space

T20

interior load

12 in (300 mm) full anchorage


typical corner details

lacing

spaces

Fig. F.14. Flextural reinforcement in lacings

internal face

T20

20 f

12 in (300 mm) full anchorage


spaces

20 f
T20

external surface

exterior load

T32
internal surface

30 f or T20

20 f

external surface
12 in (300 mm) full anchorage

F.4 Lacing Bars


1039

1040

F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

typical bar type


lacing
20 f or T20

diagonal corner bar

flexual or bending reinforcement


typical

20 f or T20

12 in (300 mm) or other diameters


with full anchorage

typical

Fig. F.15. Typical detail at intersection of continuous and discontinuous walls

= 51.5
Av = (vuv vc )b S /fs (sin + cos ) = 0.378 in.2
Avmin = 0.0015 b S = 0.330 in.2 ; no of bars = 6; As = 0.44 in.2 , OK
Horizontal Lacing Bars
No of bars = 6; D0 = 0.75 in.
d = 21.0 + 1.13 + 0.75 = 22.8 in.
R min = 3D0

(F.1)

F.5 Finite-Element Analysis

1041

T20200

T25200
spacer bars

T20 200

T20200

860

T25 200

T20200
T20 200
150 high construction joint

section AA

Fig. F.16. Reinforcement through section

for S d = 20/22.88 = 0.874


(2R + D0 )/d = 7D0 /d = 0.229
Av = 0.339 in.2
Avmin = 0.0015 b S = 0.0015 11 20 = 0.330 in.2 ; no of bars = 6;
As = 0.44 in.2 , still OK.
Additional reinforcement details from the British code are given in
Figs. F.16 and F.17.

F.5 Finite-Element Analysis


A three-dimensional isoparametric, nite-element analysis has been carried
out by Bangash [1.149]. Figure F.18 shows the nite-element mesh scheme
for a dynamic model for a nuclear shelter. Figure F.19 gives the relationships
between pressure and time. The results are given in Fig. F.20.
F.5.1 The Swedish Design and Details
The Swedish code TB78E provides novel details of the nuclear shelter. They
are presented here by courtesy of the Civil Defence Administration of Sweden.
Figures F.21 and F.22 show structural details of a roof slab and sectional
details illustrating various reinforcements.

1042

F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

T20 200
T20 200

(alternate bars reversed)


T25 100

reinforcement
repeats as
opposite wall

T25100

860

T25100

T20 200

section B B

Fig. F.17. Section BB through shelter

y
2
1

1
1

1
1

dashpots

rotating
springs
1

1
1 1 1
1
1

1
2
2
2

soil/rock
Fig. F.18. Dynamic model for a nuclear shelter

springs and
dashpots
2

Peak pressure (kN/m2)

0.7
3.0

1.4

2.8

7.0
4.8

14

28

70
49

140

280

700
490

1400

6.0

30

120
300

600 102m

Peak reflected pressure for normal incidence (kN/m2)


7

14

21

49

70

0.07

0.70

30

7.0

70

300

3000

14 28 49 70 140 280 490700


Peak overpressure (kN/m2)

Fig. F.19. Relationships between pressures and time

Ground zero distance

12

Pdo

Pso

700

y
velocit
shock

p
a
rti
ref
cle
lec
v
t
e
e
d
loc
p
res
ity
sur
dy
e
sure

2800

pres

nam
ic

7000

Velocity (m/s)

Dynamic pressure,
Pdo (kN/m2)

7000
4900

F.5 Finite-Element Analysis


1043

Peak dynamic pressure

1044

F Concrete Nuclear Shelters


cracked/crushed
scabbing with cracking
perforated

stress trajectories/cracking

cracking and scabbing


crushing and yielding
of reinforcement
crushing-cum-spalling

Fig. F.20. Typical results from the nite-element analysis

f10c 600

f8c 160

H = 300

f10c 250
f10c 160
f10c 165
f10c 215

f10c 250

f8c 160

f10c 190

f10c 250

f8c 160

f10c 600

f10c 250

f10c250

f10 c 215

f10c 600

Pl 203

f8c 160
COLUMN
REINF
4f 16
STIRRUPS f 8c200

f10 c 160

fBc 160

f8c 160

f10c 150

Pl 201

f10c 215

F.5 Finite-Element Analysis

f8c 160
f10c 600
H = 300

f10c 500

f10c 190

f10c 250

f8c 160

f8c 130

f10c 120

Pl 204

f10c 185

Pl 202

f10c 160

f10c 150

f10c135
f10c115

f10c 200
f8c 130
f10c 215

f10c 215

f10c 165

f10c 215

f8c 130

f8c 130
f8c 130

f10c 200

H = 350

f8c 130

f10c 215

f10c 215

f10c 215

parts of roof slab reinforcement

Fig. F.21. Structural details I Swedish code TB78E

1045

F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

INSULATION

2f 12
f8c 130

f10vc 200
f10c 200
f 8c 130
f 8c 130

350

1046

f10c 200
f10c 200
f8c 130
f8c 130

f 8c 130
2 f 12
f10c 215

f10c 215
f10c 215
f10c 165

f 10c 215
f 10c 215
f 10c 215

f10c 215
ISOLERING
350

f10c 215

f 10c 390
f 10c 390
300

f10c 215
f10c 215

500

f10c 215

f10 c 390
f10 c 390
200

f10c 215
f10c 215

350

2
900

f10c 250
f10c 250
f8c 160
f8c 160
f8c 160
300

350

1
REINF. ACC.
TO SECT. 1.

900

f10c 200
f10c 200
f8c 130
f8c 130

f10c 215
f10c 215
2f12

f10c 185
f8c130
f10c 120

16

150
CLIMBING BRACKETS f20 at 300c
WIDTH 400
f10c 215
REINF. ACC. TO SECT. 2
f10c 215
350 REINF. ACC. TO SECT. 1

f10c 150
f10c 160

f10c 185

400

f10c 185

f10c 185
f10c 215
f10c 390
f10c 390

300

OPENING FOR CLOSURE WITH


PRECAST CONCRETE UNIT
16
2f12

900
3

4
detail sections

Fig. F.22. Structural details II Swedish code TB78E

300