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F.1 Introduction

This section is devoted to the analysis and design of reinforced concrete

nuclear shelters. Calculations are given for a particular study using both the

British and American codes. Details are also given in this section regarding

the Swedish Civil Defence Administration Code [6.79].

F.1.1 US Code Ultimate Strength Theory: General Formulae

Figure F.1 shows cracking, crushing and disengagement cases recommended

in successive ACI building codes.

General Equation: Ultimate Static Moment Capacity

Cross-Section Type I

(1) The ultimate unit resisting moment Mu of a rectangular section of width

b, with tension reinforcement only, is given by

Mu = (As fs /b)(d a/2),

(F.1)

design stress for reinforcement, d = distance from the extreme compression bre to the centroid of tension reinforcement, a = depth of

equivalent rectangular block = As fs /0.85bfc , b = width of compression

face, fc = static ultimate compressive strength of concrete.

The reinforcement ratio p is dened as

p = As /bd

(F.2)

1020

type I

As

no crushing

or spalling

Tc

As

As = As

type II

crushing

dc

Tc

As

As = As

type III

spalling

dc

Tc

As

cracking

crushing

disengagement

(2) To ensure against sudden compression failures, p must not exceed 0.75 of

the ratio pb , which produces balanced conditions at ultimate strength and

is given by

(F.3)

pb = (0.85K1fc /fs )[87,000/(87,000 + fs )],

where K1 = 0.85 for fc up to 4,000 psi and is reduced by 0.05 for each

1,000 psi in excess of 4,000 psi.

(3) For a rectangular section of width b with compression reinforcement, the

ultimate unit resisting moment is

Mu = [(As As )fs /b](d a/2) + [(As fs /b)(d d )],

(F.4)

F.1 Introduction

1021

Pressure

design range

Reinforcement

Two-way

elements

One-way

elements

Intermediate

and low

High

Main

Other

Main

As = 0.0025bd

As = 0.0018bd

As = As

= 0.0025bdc

As = As

= 0.0018bdc a

As = 0.0025bd

As + As = 0.0020bTc

As = As

= 0.0025bdc

As = As

= 0.0018bdc a

Other

a

But not less than As /4 used in the main direction (see Fig. F.2 for coecients)

distance from the extreme compression bre to the centroid of compression

reinforcement, a = depth of the equivalent rectangular stress block =

(As As )fs /0.85bfc .

The minimum area of exural reinforcement is given in Table F.1.

Ultimate Static Shear Capacity

Diagonal Tension

(1) The ultimate shear stress vu , as a measure of diagonal tension, is computed

for type I sections from

vu = Vu /bd

(F.5)

and for type II and III sections from

vu = Vu /bdc ,

(F.6)

or dc (type II and III) from the face of the support. The shear at sections

between the face of the support and the section d or dc therefrom need

not be considered critical.

(2) The shear stress permitted on an unreinforced web is limited to

(F.7)

vc = [1.9 fc + 2,500p] 2.28 fc ,

where is the capacity reduction factor and is equal to 0.85 for all sections.

(3) When the ultimate shear capacity vu > vc , shear reinforcement must be

provided. When stirrups are used, they should be provided for a distance

d beyond the point theoretically required, and between the face of the support and the cross-section at a distance d. The required area for stirrups

for type I cross-sections is calculated using

Av = [(vu vc )bs ss ]/[fs (sin + cos )],

(F.8)

12

n=

n=

0.070

10

1022

0.060

0.050

Coefficient F

0.040

0.030

n = Es/Ec

Ic = Fbd3

0.020

0.010

0

0

0.004

0.008

0.012

0.016

0.020

Fig. F.2. Coecients for the moments of inertia of cracked sections with tension

reinforcement only (courtesy of ACI)

while for cross-sections conforming to types I, II and III, the required area

of lacing reinforcement is (see Fig. F.3):

Av = [(vu vc )b
s
]/[fs (sin + cos )],

(F.9)

a width bs , b and distance ss or s , (vu vc ) = excess shear stress, bs =

width of concrete strip in which the diagonal tension stresses are resisted

by stirrups of area Av , b = width of concrete strip in which the diagonal

F.1 Introduction

1023

#9@10 (vert)

#9@10

(vert)

#8@11

(horiz)

sI

sI

(a)

#8@11 (horiz)

(b)

in the direction parallel to the longitudinal reinforcement, s = spacing

of lacing in the direction parallel to the longitudinal reinforcement, =

angle formed by the plane of the stirrups or lacing and the plane of the

longitudinal reinforcement.

The excess shear stress vu vc is as follows.

Limits

Excess shear

stress vu vc

vu vc

vc < vu 2vc

vu > 2vc

Stirrups

Lacing

0

vu vc

vu vc

vc

vc

vu vc

The ultimate shear stress vu must not exceed 10 fc in sections using

stirrups. In sections using lacing there is no restriction on vu because of

the continuity provided by this type of shear reinforcement.

Wherever stirrups are required (vu > vs ), the area Av should not be

less than 0.0015bss and for type III rectangular sections of width b:

Mu = As fs dc /b,

(F.10)

b, dc = distance between the centroids of the compression and the tension

reinforcement.

the reinforcement ratios p and p are given by

p = p = as /bdc .

(F.11)

p = as /bd.

(F.12)

1024

equation (F.11) is valid only when the compression steel reaches the value fs

at ultimate stress, and this condition is satised when

fc d

87,000

.

(F.13)

p p 0.85k1

fs d 87,000 fs

Cross-Section Types II and III

(1) The ultimate unit resisting moment of type II.

F.1.1.1 Modulus of Elasticity

Concrete

The modulus of elasticity of concrete, Ec , is given by

(F.14)

The value of w, the unit weight of concrete, lies between 90 and 155 lb ft2 .

Reinforcing Steel

The modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel, Es , is

Es = 30 106 psi.

(F.15)

Modular Ratio

The modular ratio, n, is given by

n = Es /Ec

(F.16)

F.1.1.2 Moment of Inertia

The average moment of inertia, Ia , to be used in calculating the deection is

Ia = (Ig + Ic )/2,

(F.17)

b about its centroid (neglecting steel areas) and is equal to

Ig = bTc3/12

(F.18)

considering the compression concrete area and steel areas transformed into

equivalent concrete areas and computed about the centroid of the transformed

section. Ic is calculated from

Ic = F bd3 .

(F.19)

The coecient F varies as the modular ratio n and the amount of reinforcement used. For sections with tension reinforcement only, F is given in

Fig. F.2.

1025

Explosion and Other Loads Based on the Home

Oce Manual

Figure F.4 shows a typical layout of a domestic nuclear shelter for a family

of six.

F.2.1 Basic Data (Home Oce Code [6.80])

For a 1 Mton ground burst at a distance of 1.6 km from ground zero:

Ductility ratio, : 5

Main reinforcement 0.25% bd

Secondary reinforcement 0.15% bd

Ultimate shear stress 0.04fcu

Dynamic shear stress (mild steel) 172 N mm2

Protective factor: 4,000

Concrete fcu (static): 30 N mm2 (grade 30)

Concrete fcu (dynamic): 1.5fcu = 37.5 N mm2

Reinforcement fy (static): 420 N mm2

Reinforcement fyd (dynamic): 1.10fy = 462 N mm2

Youngs modulus, Ec : 20 GN m2

Youngs modulus, Es : 200 GN m2

Clear span: 3 m

Slab thickness: 300 mm (with minimum cover 50)

Blast load: 0.17 N mm2 , F1 (t) = Pdo

F.2.2 Additional Data for Designs Based on US Codes

Dynamic Increase Factors (DIF)

Concrete: compression

diagonal tension

direct shear

Reinforcement: bending

shear

Dynamic stresses:

1.25

1.00

1.10

1.10

1.00

= 3,000 lb in.2 (psi)

concrete fy (static) = 60,000 lb in.2 (psi)

0

/

1

F1 (t) = 1.1F1 (t) = 0.187 N mm2.

Rm = ru =

1

1 2

3000

3000

1500

300

300

3000

1800

300

2100

2700

500

250

water proofing

material (Voclay)

1800

25 mm steel plate

hatch door

500

300

Section B B

1240

Section A A

800

hatch

door

1240

3450

30 mm steel plate

hatch door

300

Floor plan

300

800

300

Roof plan

2400

300

sump

sump

300

1026

F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

1027

ru = 0.187 + 0.014 = 0.201 N mm2 .

For a two-way slab

Mu = ru L2 /16 = 0.201(3,000)2 /16

= 113,062.5 N mm mm1 .

300 mm Thick Slab

T16200 bars; As = 1,005 mm2 m1 ; d = 300 50 8 = 242

z = d (0.84fydAs /fcu(dyn)

N ote: Later on, based on

= 242 (0.84(462)(1,005)103/37.5) nite-element analysis, the

= 231.58 mm

T20200 bars adopted were checked

H

x = 2.7 0.3 = 2.4 or 3.4 0.3 = 3.1

At /(H x) = 1.25 and 0.97

Weight of overhead material = 1,340 kg m2

R = 0.025% (roof contribution)

PF = 100/(R + GT )

= 100/(0.025 + 0)

= 4,000 (safe),

where GT is the percentage wall contribution, ignored in the worst case.

Figure F.5 gives structural details of the reinforced concrete shelter.

Steel Blast Doors

Clear opening 800 mm 1,200 mm.

FI (t) = pdo = 2.3pso = 2.3(0.17) = 0.39 N mm2

ru = 1.1FI (t) = 0.43 N mm2

Mu (simply supported) = 0.43(800)2/8 = 34,400 N mm mm1

20 mm thick steel door

z = bd2 /4 = 1(202 )/4 = 100 mm3

Also

zp = Mu /1.1(265) = 118 mm2

Calculated thickness of steel doors = (118/100)20 = 23.6 25 mm

1028

T20 - 200

T20 - 200

T20 - 200

T20 - 200

27T25 - 200

T25 - 100

27T25 - 200

T20 - 100

T16 Ubar

T16 Ubar

T16 Ubar

T16 Ubar

T25 - 100

T25 - 100

T16 Ubar

T16 Ubar

Ubars

T16 - 300

15T20 - 200 B

15T16 - 200 B

3T16 - 300 Ubar

3T16 Ubar

T20 - 200 B

T20 - 200 T

15T20 - 200 T

3T16 Ubar

T16 Ubar

15T20 - 200 T

details of roof

Section A A

1029

The thickness of the glass door may have to be increased for protection against radiation fall-out. One possibility is a steelconcrete sandwich

construction. One possible steel door design is given in Fig. F.6.

or z = 0.95(242) = 229.9 mm 230 mm

Blast load on walls = pdo 0.5 = 0.085 N mm2

ru = 1.1FI (t) = 1.1(pdo ) = 0.0935 N mm2

Total (including soil) = 0.0935 + 0.08 = 0.1735 N mm2

F.2.2.1 Two-Way Slab

Both walls

also Mu = [(3,400)2 /(2,700)2 ](79,050.94)

(2,700 mm and

= 125,353.75 N mm mm1 (adopted)

3,400 mm)

Mu = 125,353.75 = As (230)(462)

As = 1.18 mm2 mm1 = 1,180 mm2 m1

adopted T20200 (in some critical areas T20100 and T25100)

Shaft wall bars: T12200 links T16300 U-bars

Minimum steel:

Main 0.25% 1 242 = 0.605 mm2 mm1 (605 mm2 m1 )

1,005 mm2 m1 > 605(T16200) adopted

Secondary 0.15% 1 242 = 0.363 mm2 mm1 (363 mm2 m1 )

(T16200 or 300) adopted

Shear: allowable shear = 0.04fcu = 1.2 N mm2

shear = ru [(L/2 d)/d]

= (2,700/2 242)/2,700

(safe)

= 0.41 < 1.2 N mm2

or = (3,400/2 242)/3,400

= 0.43 < 1.2 N mm2

Protective factor (PF) in the middle of the shelter and at 0.250.30 m above

the oor level.

1030

Y

1050

YY

(a)

(b)

Y

slot access

CL door panel

450

metal packs

at bolt fixing

symmetrical

grouts

1050

1050

(c)

draw bolts

(d)

Fig. F.6. Design of steel blast doors. (a) Elevation; (b) vertical section; (c) door

location; (d) horizontal section: structural details

1031

F.3.1 Introduction

Many codes in the USA have empirical equations which are based on imperial

units. The reader is given the conversions in SI units. However, the bulk of the

calculations given here are based on imperial units (conversion factors shown

below).

Conversion Factors

1 ft = 0.3048 m; 1 lb ft2 = 47.88 N m2;

1 lbf = 4.448 N; 1 lb ft2 = 16.02 kg m2 ;

1 lb in = 0.113 N m; 1 kg = 9.806 N;

1 lb in2 = 6,895 N m2 ; 1 in = 25.4 mm

Dynamic Stresses

Concrete:

Comp 1.25(3,000) = 3,750 psi

Diagonal tension 1.00(3,000) = 3,000 psi

Direct shear 1.10(0.18)(3,000) = 600 psi

Reinforcement:

Bending 1.10(60,000) = 66,000 psi

Shear 1.10(60,000) = 60,000 psi

since fc = 3,000 psi and fy (static) = 60,000 psi.

F.3.2 Wall Design

Figure F.4 shows a one-way slab fully restrained at the supports. Wall thickness (Tc ) = 300 mm (12 in.) (see Fig. F.7). The US recommended covers are

0.75 and 1.5 in. (37 mm) rather than 50 mm (adopted by the Home Oce).

For a negative moment, d = 121.50.3125 = 10.1875 in. (assuming

#5 bars). For a positive moment, d = 120.750.3125 = 10.935 in.

As = 0.0025 12 10.935 = 0.328 in2 ft1

#5 bars at 11 in (275 mm), As = 0.34 > 0.328 in.2 . The wall blast load =

0.085 N mm2 = 12.33 lb in.2 . The ultimate moment is given by

Mu = (As fyd /b)(d a/2),

where a = As fyd /0.85bfc (dyn) = 0.586 in.

b = 12 in

Tc

28 ms

H = 3.66 m

H = 12

1032

Time, t

blast load

section

internal surface

3

(19 mm)

4

(38 mm)

positive reinforcement

negative reinforcement

Tc

Mu (negative) = MN = 18,500 in lb in1

= (150 lb in3 )1.5 33(3,000)2

= 3.32 106 psi

= D = density of concrete = 150 lb in3 (23.6 kN m3 )

Es for steel = 30 106 psi (200 GN m2 )

n = Es /Ec = 9.03

Average moment of inertia for a 1 in. strip.

Ig (gross) = bTc3 /12 = 144 in.4

d (average) = 10.5625 in.

p (average) = As /bd = 0.00268 = s

I (cracked section)

F = 0.0175; Icracked = Ic = F bd3 = 20.6 in.4

Ia = average moment of inertia = (Ig + Ic )/2 = 82.3 in.4

F.3.2.1 Elastic (ke ) and Elasto-Plastic (kep ) Stiness

ke = (384EcIa )/bL4 = 244 lb in.3 ; b = 1

kep = (384EcIa )/5bL4 = 48.8 lb in.3

F.3.2.2 Elastic and Elasto-Plastic Deection

e = Xe = re /ke = 10.71/244 = 0.0439 in.

ep = Xp Xe = (ru re )/kep = 0.084 in.

Xp = 0.1279 in.

Equivalent Elastic Deection and Stiness

XE = Xe + Xp (1 re /ru )

= 0.0793 in.

KE = ru /XE = 186.8 lb in.3

Figure F.8 gives:

KLM

0.77

0.78

0.66

Range

elastic

elasto-plastic

plastic

KLM (elastic and plastic) = 0.72 (average)

M = Tc /g = 150 1 106 /32.3(1728)

= 2,700 lb ms2 in.3 ,

Meective = KLM M = 1,944 lb ms2 in.3 ,

where g = 32.2 ft s2 ; KE = 186.8.

1033

0.4

0.7

30

25

2

T/TN

0.60

0.80

10

0.70

5

0.9

ru

system

KE

F1(t)

20

0.90

0.85

40

XE

resistance-deflection

tm/T = 0.1

pressure-time load pressure load

T

pressure-time

r(x)

Fig. F.8. Maximum response of simple spring-mass system (with compliments of US Corp of Engineers, Washington, D.C.)

0.2

1.0

1

0.1

0.

10

0.4

0.

0.

2.0

1.

0.5

2.5

0.

0.

0.

1.

75

1.

2.

10

35

1.

1.

2.2

Xm

XE

20

40

20

18

14

B/r

80

tm/T = 3

/T N

tm

1.8

1.6

2.

1.4

3.

1.3

3.

1.2

4.

1.1

4.

1.

05

1034

F Concrete Nuclear Shelters

1035

Reference is made to Fig. F.8.

Peak pressure B = 12.33 psi

Peak resistance ru = 14.81 psi

The chart B/ru = 0.8325 T /TN = 28/20.3 = 1.38

Xm /XE = 1.50, as this is <3 the section is safe

The corresponding tm /TN = 0.50 tm /to = tm /T

= (tm /TN )/(T /TN ) = 0.50/1.38

= 0.3623

This lies within the range 3.0 > tm /to > 0.1, hence the response is satisfactory.

Diagonal Tension at a Distance d from the Support

vu = ru [(L/2) de ]/dc = 14.81(72 10.1875)/10.1875

= 89.9 psi

The allowable shear stress, vc , is given by

where = 0.85

= 94.4 psi, as this is >89.9 psi, OK with no stirrups

Ultimate Shear

Vs = ru L/2.0 = 14.81 144/2.0 = 1,066 lb in.1

Allowable shear

Vd = 0.18fc (dyn) bd = 6,050 lb in1 > 1,066 lb in.1

Hence the 300 mm (12 in.) wall designed against the same blast load in both

codes (British and US) is safe. The roof slab can be checked in the same way

as for the gas explosion, described earlier in the text.

When a ring forced concrete element is subject to a blast load, the element

deects far beyond the stage of well dened cracking until:

(1) The strain energy of the element is developed suciently to balance the

kinetic energy created by the applied load when it comes to rest.

(2) Fragmentation of the concrete element results in either its partial or total

collapse.

1036

is necessary to make changes in the reinforcement layouts and details. Each

element is reinforced symmetrically. They and the intervening concrete are

laced together, as shown in Figs. F.9 and F.10, with continuous bent diagonal

bars. This system oers forces which will contribute to the integrity of the

protective element. Where structural elements are located outside the immediate high blast intensity, they should be designed without lacing. All other

types are given in Figs. F.11F.15.

Design of Lacing Bars

Where lacing bars are needed, the following calculations will help in the design

of nuclear shelters. The lacings can be in both the vertical and horizontal

directions.

Vertical Lacing Bars

The wall thickness is kept the same. Data: d = 10 in.; S = 22 in.; no of bars =

6; D0 = 0.75 in.

d = 21 + 1.13 + 2 + 0.75 = 24.88 in.

R min = 3D0

for S /d = 0.884

(2R + D0 )/d = 7D0 /d = 0.211

between points a and b.

a

Lc =

Rl

cos a =

a

(F4.1)

180

-2B(1 - B) {[2B (1 - B)]2- 4 [(1 - B)2 + A2] (B2 - A2)}

+ p(2Rl + D0)

cos a

2R + D0

A = Sl/dl and B =

dl

D0

Sl

a

Rl

b

dl

lacing

main reinforcement

against bending

horizontal

lacing

main

reinforcement

against

bending

barrier

vertical

reinforcement

floor slab

haunch

pad

1037

1038

of splice pattern

1

2

type A

b1

type B

type C

type D

type A

type B

(a)

(b)

B or D

A or C

Fig. F.12. Typical details for splicing of lacing bars: (a) splice pattern; (b) lacing

splice

20 f

T20

flexural reinforcement

lacing

spaces

20 f

space

space

T20

interior load

typical corner details

lacing

spaces

internal face

T20

20 f

spaces

20 f

T20

external surface

exterior load

T32

internal surface

30 f or T20

20 f

external surface

12 in (300 mm) full anchorage

1039

1040

lacing

20 f or T20

typical

20 f or T20

with full anchorage

typical

= 51.5

Av = (vuv vc )b
S
/fs (sin + cos ) = 0.378 in.2

Avmin = 0.0015 b
S
= 0.330 in.2 ; no of bars = 6; As = 0.44 in.2 , OK

Horizontal Lacing Bars

No of bars = 6; D0 = 0.75 in.

d
= 21.0 + 1.13 + 0.75 = 22.8 in.

R
min = 3D0

(F.1)

1041

T20200

T25200

spacer bars

T20 200

T20200

860

T25 200

T20200

T20 200

150 high construction joint

section AA

(2R + D0 )/d = 7D0 /d = 0.229

Av = 0.339 in.2

Avmin = 0.0015 b S = 0.0015 11 20 = 0.330 in.2 ; no of bars = 6;

As = 0.44 in.2 , still OK.

Additional reinforcement details from the British code are given in

Figs. F.16 and F.17.

A three-dimensional isoparametric, nite-element analysis has been carried

out by Bangash [1.149]. Figure F.18 shows the nite-element mesh scheme

for a dynamic model for a nuclear shelter. Figure F.19 gives the relationships

between pressure and time. The results are given in Fig. F.20.

F.5.1 The Swedish Design and Details

The Swedish code TB78E provides novel details of the nuclear shelter. They

are presented here by courtesy of the Civil Defence Administration of Sweden.

Figures F.21 and F.22 show structural details of a roof slab and sectional

details illustrating various reinforcements.

1042

T20 200

T20 200

T25 100

reinforcement

repeats as

opposite wall

T25100

860

T25100

T20 200

section B B

y

2

1

1

1

1

1

dashpots

rotating

springs

1

1

1 1 1

1

1

1

2

2

2

soil/rock

Fig. F.18. Dynamic model for a nuclear shelter

springs and

dashpots

2

0.7

3.0

1.4

2.8

7.0

4.8

14

28

70

49

140

280

700

490

1400

6.0

30

120

300

600 102m

7

14

21

49

70

0.07

0.70

30

7.0

70

300

3000

Peak overpressure (kN/m2)

12

Pdo

Pso

700

y

velocit

shock

p

a

rti

ref

cle

lec

v

t

e

e

d

loc

p

res

ity

sur

dy

e

sure

2800

pres

nam

ic

7000

Velocity (m/s)

Dynamic pressure,

Pdo (kN/m2)

7000

4900

1043

1044

cracked/crushed

scabbing with cracking

perforated

stress trajectories/cracking

crushing and yielding

of reinforcement

crushing-cum-spalling

f10c 600

f8c 160

H = 300

f10c 250

f10c 160

f10c 165

f10c 215

f10c 250

f8c 160

f10c 190

f10c 250

f8c 160

f10c 600

f10c 250

f10c250

f10 c 215

f10c 600

Pl 203

f8c 160

COLUMN

REINF

4f 16

STIRRUPS f 8c200

f10 c 160

fBc 160

f8c 160

f10c 150

Pl 201

f10c 215

f8c 160

f10c 600

H = 300

f10c 500

f10c 190

f10c 250

f8c 160

f8c 130

f10c 120

Pl 204

f10c 185

Pl 202

f10c 160

f10c 150

f10c135

f10c115

f10c 200

f8c 130

f10c 215

f10c 215

f10c 165

f10c 215

f8c 130

f8c 130

f8c 130

f10c 200

H = 350

f8c 130

f10c 215

f10c 215

f10c 215

1045

INSULATION

2f 12

f8c 130

f10vc 200

f10c 200

f 8c 130

f 8c 130

350

1046

f10c 200

f10c 200

f8c 130

f8c 130

f 8c 130

2 f 12

f10c 215

f10c 215

f10c 215

f10c 165

f 10c 215

f 10c 215

f 10c 215

f10c 215

ISOLERING

350

f10c 215

f 10c 390

f 10c 390

300

f10c 215

f10c 215

500

f10c 215

f10 c 390

f10 c 390

200

f10c 215

f10c 215

350

2

900

f10c 250

f10c 250

f8c 160

f8c 160

f8c 160

300

350

1

REINF. ACC.

TO SECT. 1.

900

f10c 200

f10c 200

f8c 130

f8c 130

f10c 215

f10c 215

2f12

f10c 185

f8c130

f10c 120

16

150

CLIMBING BRACKETS f20 at 300c

WIDTH 400

f10c 215

REINF. ACC. TO SECT. 2

f10c 215

350 REINF. ACC. TO SECT. 1

f10c 150

f10c 160

f10c 185

400

f10c 185

f10c 185

f10c 215

f10c 390

f10c 390

300

PRECAST CONCRETE UNIT

16

2f12

900

3

4

detail sections

300

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