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You are on page 1of 23

Dr. Randa Hatamleh

Fall 2014

Pressure Measurements

1. Barometer: measures atmospheric

Pressure

= +

Pv = 2.4 x 10-6 atm at 20 0C

The Aneroid Barometer

Has some advantages over a mercury

barometer because it is smaller and

allows data recording over time.

Pressure Measurements

Bourdon-Tube Gage

Accuracy of the gage can be lower than other

instruments; and the gage can be damaged by excessive

pressure

Piezometer

It is a vertical tube in which a liquid rises

in response to a positive gage pressure.

simplicity, direct measurement, and accuracy.

Piezometer is limited to low pressures

Example

What is the maximum gauge pressure of water that can

liquid had a relative density of 0.85 what would the

maximum measurable gauge pressure?

Measurements

Manometer: is a device for measuring pressure by

use the relationship between pressure and head to

measure pressure

Pressure Measurements

The Piezometer tube Manometer

pressure (higher than atmospheric) to be measured.

This simple device is known as a Piezometer tube.

As the tube is open to the atmosphere the

pressure measured is relative to

atmosphereic so is gauge pressure

Example

gauge pressure of 50mm of mercury. What is the absolute

pressure in the pipe in Newtons per square metre is the

atmospheric pressure is 1 bar?

[93.3 kN/m2]

U-Tube enables the pressure of both liquids and gases

manometric fluid.

Important points:

1. The manometric fluid density should be greater than of

the fluid measured. man >

2. The two fluids should not be

able to mix they must

be immiscible.

horizontal level.

pressure at B = pressure at C

pB = pC

For the left hand arm

pressure at B = pressure at A + pressure of height of liquid

being measured

pB = pA + gh1

For the right hand arm

pressure at C = pressure at D + pressure of height of

manometric liquid

pC = patmospheric + man gh2

patmospheric giving

pB = pC

pA = man gh2 - gh1

What if the fluid is a gas?

Nothing changes.

The manometer work exactly the same.

BUT: As the manometric fluid is liquid (usually mercury , oil

or water) And Liquid density is much greater than gas,

man >> Ugh1 can be neglected,

and the gauge pressure given by pA = man gh2

Example

Using a u-tube manometer to measure gauge pressure of

mercury, with a relative density of 13.6. What is the gauge

pressure if:

a) h1 = 0.4m and h2 = 0.9m?

b) h1 stayed the same but h2 = -0.1m?

Pressure Measurements

Manometer

EXAMPLE 3.6

Water at 10C is the fluid in the pipe and mercury is the

cm, what is the gage pressure at the center of the

pipe?

EXAMPLE 3.6

EXAMPLE 3.7

a U-Tube Manometer.

The U-tube manometer can be connected at both ends

between these two points

pressure at C = pressure at D

pC = pD

pC = pA + g ha

pD = pB + g (hb + h) + man g h

pA + g ha = pB + g (hb + h) + man g h

Giving the pressure difference

Again if the fluid is a gas man >> , then the terms involving

can be neglected,

pA - pB = man g h

Example

In the figure below two pipes containing the same fluid of

manometer. What is the pressure between the two pipes if

the manometer contains fluid of relative density 13.6?

EXAMPLE 3.8

A differential mercury manometer is connected to two pressure taps in

through the pipe. The deflection of mercury in the manometer is 1

inch. Find the change in piezometric pressure and piezometric head

between points 1 and 2.

Example

a tank of oil with one side open to the atmosphere and the

other side sealed with air above the oil. The oil has a

specific gravity of 0.90.

Calculate the gage pressure at

points A, B, C, D, E, and F and

the air pressure in the right side

of the tank.

Example

Find the location of the surface in the manometer The

above the heavier liquid in the tank.

Example

Specific weight of fluid

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