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Method. Influence of Elasticity Modulus

IOAN BOTH, MARIN IVAN, ADRIAN IVAN

Department of Steel Structures and Structural Mechanics

University Politehnica of Timisoara

Str. Ioan Curea, nr. 1, cam.14, Timisoara

ROMANIA

ioan.bot@ct.upt.ro, marin.ivan@ct.upt.ro, adrian.ivan@ct.upt.ro

Abstract: This paper presents a suspension crossing structure having 160m span, analyzed with finite element method.

The structures behavior is different from other civil steel structures which are sensitive to the seismic action, while the

suspension crossings are very much influenced by the wind load. Lately, the Low Frequency Earthquake is considered

to have an impact on long span structures including these suspension crossings. This structure involves the use of two

different materials, having different values for Youngs modulus, and also it involves the use of two types of element,

bar and cable elements.

Key-Words: cable, crossing, erection stage, pre-stress, nonlinearity, mesh.

anchors, lateral cables, cantilever (not necessary) and the

pipe.

This type of structure has the following type of

mechanism: the gravitational loadings from the selfweight and the loading given by the gas in the pipe is

transmitted by the hangers to the main cable. The

hangers have various lengths corresponding to the sag of

the main cable. The main cables transmit a part of the

vertical component of the force in the cable to the towers

and the horizontal component is transmitted to the

anchors. The horizontal actions, perpendicular to the

crossing, are taken by the lateral cables (wind guy

cable), connected to the pipeline by the wind ties.

The cable is a simple but important element. It is

characterized by high resistance, high flexibility, and a

very small damping. The design of suspension bridges

involves static and dynamic behavior problems since the

cable can undergo large amplitude oscillations.

In this paper there is conducted an analysis on a

suspension crossing having the span of 160m. The 3D

model was entered by means of members; cables were

modeled as cable elements taking into account initial

stress, 2nd order geometrical nonlinearity and beam local

nonlinearity; towers members and the pipe was

modeled as bar elements.

The particularity of such a structure is the fact that

the modulus of elasticity of the cable material cannot be

very well established.

The paper will give the results of the analysis of the

same structure with different values of the cables

material elasticity modulus and the effect of the seismic

actions on this structure.

1 Introduction

Transportation of fluid materials can be done using

different supports for the pipeline. In their way, the

pipelines intersect with different obstacles. A pipeline

may cross these obstacles under or above them. Each

type of the crossing has its particular difficulties and

particularities for a good design. The waterway crossing

is an example that choosing the solution is influenced by

several considerations. Among them, one can refer to the

environment impact. The environment disturbance has

to be minimized since both aquatic and terrestrial plant

and animal life can be affected by the waterway

crossings. Both crossings, under and above water, have

to take care at the hazardous and contaminated materials

during construction [1]. The under water crossing is

more likely to affect the environment because of the

instability of the river bed and from here there is just a

small step to a catastrophic event. The above waterway

crossings permit good site inspections and most of the

loading can be easily determined. From this point it only

remains to decide which solution of the structure is

better to use: suspension crossing, cable-stayed crossing,

self-supporting or truss structure as a support for the

pipeline. The main factor that influences this decision is

the span of the crossing. For long span there are two

reasonable solutions: suspension crossing and cablestayed crossing. The last one has the advantage of

smaller anchors and possibility of building on soft soil,

but if the span increases the towers will have to increase

too much [2]. For these long spans the solution is to use

suspension crossings.

Suspension crossings have the following main parts:

towers, main cables (suspension cable), hangers,

ISSN: 1790-2769

234

ISBN: 978-960-474-180-9

Proceedings of the 3rd WSEAS Int. Conference on FINITE DIFFERENCES - FINITE ELEMENTS - FINITE VOLUMES - BOUNDARY ELEMENTS

hot-rolled profiles HEB400 as truss chords and SHS

150/4 as diagonals and struts. The hangers have a

diameter of 40mm while the main cables have a

diameter of 60mm.

2 Structural configuration

3.5

16.5

12.5

span of 160m and two side spans of 35m as shown in

Fig. 1. The sag of the main cable is 12.5m having the

cable sag to span ratio of 1/12.8. The distance between

hangers is 5.0m. The gas pipe is a CHS having the

diameter 700mm and the thickness 8mm. There are two

35.0

160.0

35.0

The pre-stressing of the cables has the value of 35kN.

The modulus of elasticity used for the analysis varies

from 1.5e5MPa to 2.0e5MPa.

The load cases that can affect the structure and need

to be taken into account are: self-weight, dead load

(fluid in the pipe, additional elements for access), live

load, ice on cables, transversal wind, temperature

difference (+ and -) and pre-stress.

Element

E

[N/mm2]

M cable 1.5-2e5

L cable 1.5-2e5

Hangers 1.5-2e5

Windguy 1.5-2e5

Tower

2.1e5

Pipe

2.1e5

An intermediary step in the process of erecting a

crossing is the erection stage. The considered time

involves 40% of the cables without pre-stressing and the

load cases taken into account are: self-weight, dead load,

wind and seismic action.

The first mode of vibration, shown in Fig. 2, has a

value of approximately 8 seconds so that the seismic

action has little influence on structure.

Table 1

A

T

Ix

Iy

[mm2] [mm4] [mm4] [mm4]

2827

0

0

0

2827

0

0

0

1194

0

0

0

1194

0

0

0

46.6e3 3.17e5 4.7e10 1.2e9

17.4e3 2.8e9 1.04e9 1.04e9

crossing are presented in Table 1, where: M-main, Llateral, T-torsional moment of inertia, E-modulus of

elasticity, A-area of the cross-section, Ix-moment of

inertia with respect to x axis, Iy-moment of inertia with

respect to y axis. The properties of the tower are given

for the entire truss structure.

Serviceability stage represents the final stage in erecting

the suspension crossing. In this moment all cables have

to be pre-stressed and the load cases taken into account

should be the ones mentioned at 2. Among these load

cases the most unfavorable is the wind load. The wind

load cannot be simulated very precise because, in reality,

the turbulences deform the structure in a non linear

manner. An advanced way of reproducing the wind

turbulence is to use eigenfunctions of the linearized

equations of motion. Another way of simulating wind is

to excite the structure by a non-periodic force with

varying spatial distribution [3].

3 Conceptual design

Because during the erection of the crossing, there can

appear the wind action which can influence the stability

of the structure, an analysis was performed for two

situations: an intermediary phase when not all the

elements are connected and the final phase when the

entire structure is assembled.

ISSN: 1790-2769

235

ISBN: 978-960-474-180-9

Proceedings of the 3rd WSEAS Int. Conference on FINITE DIFFERENCES - FINITE ELEMENTS - FINITE VOLUMES - BOUNDARY ELEMENTS

elasticity grater than 1.8e5MPa.

value of 4.8s. Again, it results that there is small

influence of usual seismic action.

E

[MPa]

1.5e5

1.6e5

1.7e5

1.8e5

1.9e5

2.0e5

be observed some inconveniences. Starting from

E=1.8e5MPa the period of mode 1 is given by the period

of a windguy shown in Fig. 4. The next two values also

show that the period of mode 1 is given, not by the

global behavior of the structure, but by the vibration of

certain elements in the suspension crossing.

4 Influencing factors

During several changes of considerations in the analysis,

it was observed that the modulus of elasticity influences

the behavior of the suspension crossing.

E

[MPa]

1.5e5

1.6e5

1.7e5

1.8e5

1.9e5

2.0e5

Mode 1

[s]

4.8003

4.8196

4.8209

4.9861

10.6128

11.0795

Mode 2

[s]

4.6589

4.6790

4.6798

4.8862

9.2572

9.7983

Mode 3

[s]

3.8833

4.0777

3.7529

3.8090

7.0128

9.3768

Table 2

Mode 4

[s]

2.9203

3.1632

2.9464

3.0037

5.1593

9.2662

with different value for Youngs modulus. Although the

first four results have close values, from the deformed

shape it can be seen that, for the modulus of elasticity

with the value of 1.8e5MPa, the period of the structure is

given by an element that belongs to the main cable. For

the value of 1.9e5MPa, the structure has the first eigen

value due to two elements, each element belonging to

one main cable, and both elements having another eigen

value than the structure. For the last value of E, the

structure has a greater value of mode 1. The deformed

shape, in this case, has four elements with another

period than the structure as a whole.

As an overview, one can say that the deformed shape

of this suspension bridge has a point where the pre-stress

of the cables, is reduced very much, permitting some

elements to vibrate with a self period, self period that

can influence the global behavior of the entire structure.

There was conducted another analysis for the same

values of elasticity modulus but this time the prestressing of the cables had the value of 50kN.

The values in Table 3 show that the eigen periods of

the suspension crossing do not differ very much,

ISSN: 1790-2769

Table 3

Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Mode 4

[s]

[s]

[s]

[s]

4.6567 4.5497 4.3230 3.5710

4.6567 4.5499 4.3209 3.5790

4.6717 4.5562 3.6910 3.0071

5.1747 5.0377 4.1368 3.4555

5.6080 5.5663 4.5213 3.7245

4.9204 4.8444 3.8222 3.1688

5 Conclusion

As can be seen above the finite element most used in

designing of these suspension crossings is the cable

element.

In choosing the properties of cable element, the

material characteristic, elasticity modulus shows a

certain influence on the behavior of the structure.

Although the maximum stress that appears in the

elements of the crossing, are not because of the usual

seismic action, it could rise the question whether the low

frequency earthquakes have a decisive effect on the

structure. (This isolated seismic action was studied

mostly in nearby Japan and the control period can range,

from 3 to 10s).

The pre-stress of cables, in the analysis, will affect

the behavior of the crossing. This is important for the

analysis since the temperature is also influencing the

stress in the cables. For a cold season the change of

236

ISBN: 978-960-474-180-9

Proceedings of the 3rd WSEAS Int. Conference on FINITE DIFFERENCES - FINITE ELEMENTS - FINITE VOLUMES - BOUNDARY ELEMENTS

compared to the analysis in the paper, will give

inaccurate results.

For this, a way to simulate the effect of decreased

temperature is to run a separate step and from this step

to start the design of the suspension crossing.

Although it has been used the finite element method

the results for the analysis should be compared to a

refined FEM which can bring out the main features of a

cable response to wind, turbulent wind and vortex. The

last one is a characteristic of the wind load in the area

where the crossing has to be erected. From this it results

the necessity of aerodynamic tunnel tests for a better

observation of the suspension crossing behavior in wind

conditions.

Perotti, Fabrizio Vestroni, Dynamics of Suspended

Cables under Turbulence Loading: Reduced Models

of Wind Field and Mechanical System, Journal of

Wind Engineering and Wind Aerodynamics, No. 95,

2007, pp. 183-207.

[4]X4. Mateescu Dan, Ivan Marin, Conducte metalice

circulare cu diametru mare, Editura Politehnica,

1985

[5]X5. Ivan Marin, Lupescu T., Ivan Adrian, The nonlinear analysis of cable supported gas pipe,

Proceedings of the 9th International Conference of

Metal Structures, Orizonturi Universitare, 2000, pp.

217-228.

[6]X6. Peter A. Irwin, Bluff Body Aerodynamics in

Wind Engineering, Journal of Wind Engineering and

Wind Aerodynamics, No. 96, 2008, pp. 701-712.

[7]X7. Burton D., Cao D.Q., Tucker R.W., Wang C., On

the stability of stay cables under light wind and rain

conditions, Journal of Sound and Vibration, No.279,

2005, pp. 89-117

References:

[1]X1. ASCE Manuals and Reports on Engineering

Practice, Pipeline Crossings, No.89, 1996.

[2]X2. Zhang Xin-jun, Sun Bing-nan, Aerodynamic

stability of cable-stayed-suspension hybrid bridges,

Journal of Zhejiang University Science, No. 6A(8),

2005, pp. 869-874

ISSN: 1790-2769

237

ISBN: 978-960-474-180-9

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