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Technology, Delhi

Experiment No.8

Single Phase Transformer Open and Short circuit

test

By Anuj Choudhury

2015CS10214

CS1150214@IITD.AC.IN

Rudraksh Gupta

Harman Singh

Anand Raj

Jai Moondhra

Cs1150230@IITD.AC.IN

PH1150820@IITD.AC.IN CE1150325@IITD.AC.INCe1150309@IITD.AC.IN

Abstract

The experiment deals with studying the various losses associated with the

transformer and to study the dependence of the losses on the load current and

the input voltage and to determine the efficiency of the transformer and calculate

the primary and the secondary impedance and the resistance.

INTRODUCTION:

Economical and technological feasible voltage levels at which large

chunks of electric power can be generated are typically 11-37 kV, while

most convenient utilization voltages are 230/400 V for commercial,

industrial& domestic purposes. To reduce transmission losses, it is

desirable that when transmitting power over long distances it should be

done at highest possible voltage (.625 KV /Km line to line as in modern

practice). Transmission and distribution should be done at different

voltages. It is therefore essential to step- up voltages at the sending end

and to step down at the receiving end. This transformation of voltages

can be done more efficiently in case of AC systems due to availability of

AC transformers and in this experiment we study the constructional

details of single phase transformers, B-H curve for the core material, and

wave-forms of exciting current and induced voltages.

open circuit and short circuit tests on a single phase

transformer.

Equipment required:1

2

3

4

5

6

Transformer

Rheostat

Two voltmeters one with voltage range equivalent to the full

voltage rating and the other with 10%of the voltage rating.

Two ammeters one with current range equivalent to the full

load current rating and the other with 10%of the voltage

rating.

One multi range wattmeter.

Single phase autotransformer with full load current rating.

In a transformer we generally give an AC input to one of the terminals and an output proportional to the

number of turns in the coil is obtained. This is attributed to electro-magnetic coupling. In practice, this

is accompanied by many energy losses due to leakage in magnetic flux and hysteresis losses in the

material used in the core. In order to simplify the study of energy transfer an equivalent circuit is built

with an ideal transformer.

The input source being the sole energy supply in the system compensates all the losses. The voltage

thus associated with primary flux is related to the primary input by eliminating the power losses from

the power supplied by the source. the primary Emf clearly is out of phase with the input current(I o) by

90o. A part of the input current is lost to the core losses(Ic) and the rest(Im) relates to the mutual flux

The energy losses due to leakage in the coil and the resistance of the coil are given by

Ec =I o r 1

This leakage flux does not incur hysteresis losses and thus the mutual flux is linked with the losses.

This lags the current by 90o and thus is related to an inductance.

E x =I o X 1

The relation between the primary EMF and the input voltage is

V 1=E1 + I o X l + I o r 1

A similar behavior is seen in the secondary coil and the corresponding relation is

V l=E 2+ I l X 2 + I l r c

The hysteresis losses are modeled by a resistor for the eddy currents linked with the mutual flux(Im) and

an inductance for the other losses which was attributed to Ic as it differs by a 90o phase shift.

The equivalent circuit can be modeled as

The Entire circuit looks with the transformer being ideal and the power losses in output are attributed to

the circuit elements looks like

a)Open circuit test

The open circuit does not induce any flux and thus does not affect the mutual flux. Thus the primary

current remains unaffected and the operation under high voltages increase the core losses are relatively

higher than the flux leakage. So the power measured is almost equal to the power dissipated in core loss

P=V l2 / Rc

and

= P/V l I l

cos

where

X c =R c cot

As the circuit is now shorted, a large current flows in the circuit and according to Lenz's law it opposes

the flux in the coil thus decreasing the primary current. This is also compensated by the power source

and increases the current in the primary coil of the equivalent circuit to balance the effect. Moreover,

the core losses are considerable for higher values of input voltage because of insulation of the core

which increases it's resistance. Hence the power loss in this circuit is almost equal to the power

dissipated in the coil.

Corresponding circuit can be modeled as

P=V l / R01

Z =V l /I l

X 01= Z2 R012

These parameters once determined can be used to predict the functioning of a transformer.

Procedure

Open Circuit Test

1 Mark the connections as shown in the figure

2 The secondary of transformer under test is kept open and the full voltage is applied to the

primary. Low current range ammeter and high voltage voltmeters are used.

4 Take readings by varying the applied voltage.

5 Plot no load current and power vs input voltage and calculate Rc and Xm.

1 Now use the high current rating of ammeter and low voltage rating of voltmeter.

2 Short the secondary and apply the reduced voltage to the primary so that the full load

passes through the windings.

3 Take the voltage, currentand power readings.

4 Take readings at 50% and 25% of rated current.

5 Plot total short circuit power vs input current and calculate circuit parameters.

Observations

table

Serial

no.

1

2

Serial3

no.

1

2

3

Primary

Voltage

4.4+0.1

8.10.1

Primary

15.50.1

Voltage

701

1401

2201

Short circuit

test

Primary

Input Power

current

1.350.01

01

open

circuit

2.550.01

101

test

Primary

Input

4.80.01

601 Power

current

Multiplying factor=1

0.50.1

22

1.40.1

62

2.40.1

162

Multiplying factor=2

Secondary

Current

1.350.01

2.550.01

Secondary

4.80.01

Current

691

1401

2101

Impedance

3.250.01

3.170.01

Impedance

3.220.01

1400.1

1000.1

91.60.1

6

5

4

no load current 3

2

1

0

10

12

14

16

18

input voltage

70

60

50

40

power 30

20

10

0

10

input voltage

12

14

16

18

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0.5

1.5

input current

2.5

Error Analysis

1.Proper care must be taken for considering the polarity of the source voltage to

be connected.

2.All the connections must be proper and tight.

3.The knob of the first transformer which controls the input voltage must be slowly

rotated and proper care must also be taken such that it does not exceeds a

prescribed maximum value.

4.The current in the primary must be sufficiently large to magnetize the material

properly.

5.Proper care must be taken to use the appropriate range voltmeter and ammeter

for the open circuit case when the load current is very less use the low current

ammeter for the input circuit and high current voltmeters are used. For the short

circuit use the more range ammeter.

6.Increase the voltage of the auto transformer slowly to reach the maximum load

current, reach a little bit less than the maximum load current.

Discussion

Regulation and efficiency of a transformer:

The voltage regulation is the percentage of voltage difference between no load and full

load voltages of a transformer with respect to its full load voltage.

Open circuit test gives core losses while short circuit test gives copper losses

In an open circuit test, current is very low because the circuit is incomplete on the

secondary side hence the only losses are those due to inductance of the core.

In short circuit test, voltage is low but the current is standard. So the only losses are due

to resistance of conductor.

The advantages and disadvantages open circuit and short circuit test

The efficiency of a transformer is always determined by these test because of:

- The power required to carry out these test is very small.

- The test gave core loss and copper loss separately.

Reduced voltage is required for short circuit test

in a short-circuit test the terminals are connected to each other with no resistance, so if

you apply the rated voltage to the terminals that (now ) are connected to each other not

a LOAD the resultant current will be much-much higher than the rated current. So this

high current will hurt your insulation.

The short circuit and open circuit tests are performed on single phase transformer to

determine equivalent circuit of transformer

voltage regulation of transformer

efficiency of transformer

These tests are very applicable in real life because, these help to determine the internal

characteristics of the transformers, thus making this method invaluable in power distribution

sector.

Conclusion

Thus we learnt how to calculate the characteristic circuit parameters of the

transformer in this experiment.

References

ELL Lab Manual

V.Del Toro;Principle of Electrical engineering

Wikipedia

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