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CHAPTER

1

PROPERTIES

MATERIALS

OF ENGINEERING

SYMBOLS

5,6

a

area of cross section, m e one) *

original area of cross section of test specimen, mm 2 (in 2)

Aj

AU

A0

Ar

Bhn

area of smallest cross section of test specimen under load Fj, m 2 (in 2)

minimum area of cross section of test specimen at fracture, (in 2)

m 2

original area of cross section of test specimen, m 2 (in 2) percent reduction in area that occurs in standard test specimen Brinell hardness number

  • d diameter of indentation, mm diameter of test specimen at necking, m (in)

  • D diameter of steel ball, mm modulus of elasticity or Young's modulus, GPa [Mpsi (Mlb/in2)]

E

  • L strain fringe (fri) value, gm/fri (gin/fri)

  • L stress fringe value, kN/m fri (lbf/in fri) load (also with subscripts), kN (lbf) modulus of rigidity or torsional or shear modulus, GPa (Mpsi) Brinell hardness number final length of test specimen at fracture, mm (in) gauge length of test specimen corresponding to load Fj, mm (in) original gauge length of test specimen, mm (in) figure of merit, fri/m (fri/in)

F

G

H8

/f

/j

l0

Q

Rs

Rockwell B hardness number

Rc

Rockwell C hardness number

u

~r

Poisson's ratio normal stress, MPa (psi)

* The units in parentheses are US Customary units [e.g., fps (foot-pounds-second)].

1.2

CHAPTER ONE

O"b

O"c

O"s

O"t

~s7

!

~s~

O'xc

O'su

O"u

O'uc

O'ut

O-A su

O'su c

O'su t

ay

O'y c

ay,

O'sy c

O'sy t

T

~s

%

7su

transverse bending stress, MPa (psi) compressive stress, MPa (psi) strength, MPa (psi) tensile stress, MPa (psi) endurance limit, MPa (psi) endurance limit of rotating beam specimen or R R Moore endurance limit, MPa (psi) endurance limit for reversed axial loading, MPa (psi) endurance limit for reversed bending, MPa (psi) compressive strength, MPa (psi) tensile strength, MPa (psi) ultimate stress, MPa (psi) ultimate compressive stress, MPa (psi) ultimate tensile stress, MPt (psi) ultimate strength, MPA (psi) ultimate compressive strength, MPa (psi) ultimate tensile strength, MPa (psi) yield stress, MPa (psi) yield compressive stress, MPa (psi) yield tensile stress, MPa (psi) yield compressive strength, MPa (psi) yield tensile strength, MPa (psi) torsional (shear) stress, MPa (psi) shear strength, MPa (psi) ultimate shear stress, MPa (psi) ultimate shear strength, MPa (psi)

  • 5 yield shear stress, MPa (psi) yield shear strength, MPa (psi) torsional endurance limit, MPa (psi)

r,y

~-'r

SUFFIXES

axial bending compressive endurance strength properties of material tensile ultimate yield

ABBREVIATIONS

AISI

American Iron and Steel Institute

ASA

American Standards Association

AMS

Aerospace Materials Specifications

ASM

American Society for Metals

ASME

American Society of Mechanical Engineers

ASTM

American Society for Testing Materials

BIS

Bureau of Indian Standards

BSS

British Standard Specifications

DIN

Deutsches Institut ffir Normung

ISO

International Standards Organization

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.3

SAE

Society of Automotive Engineers

UNS

Unified Numbering system

Note: a and -1- with subscript s designates strength properties of material used in the design which will be used and

observed throughout this Machine

Design

Data

Handbook.

Other factors in performance or in special aspects are

included from time to time in this chapter and, being applicable only in their immediate context, are not given at this stage.

Particular

Formula

 

For engineering stress-strain diagram for ductile steel, i.e., low carbon steel

Refer to Fig.

1-1

For engineering stress-strain diagram for brittle material such as cast steel or cast iron

Refer to Fig.

1-2

c

:

l/

-

:

Al

--1/

l

:

-

Af

The nominal unit strain or engineering strain

l0

l0

l0

A0

(1-1)

The numerical value of strength of a material

where/f = final gauge length of tension test specimen, l0 -- original gauge length of tension test specimen.

ors

F

A

(1-2)

where subscript s stands for strength.

Q.

v

Elastic

Region

..

~.,

,.-"

True ~-~ Curve ~.

...

-

-

gll

jl.

. •""

.-""

Plastic Region

..

,,,,.,

.....

,,~

~ ~u~"--~

~

GSy

GSe

GSp

u)

Y ~£,

'~

~

~ "-

y',,7

;

Conventional or

Engineering c-~

Curve

-'

a

,

a

i

a

O'Sy

GSu

C".B

A

Strain, e, l.tm/m (iLtin/in)

FIGURE

1-1

Stress-strain diagram for ductile material.

* Subscript s stands for strength.

,~ R' True fracture

or

rupture strength point

R Fracture or rupture

strength point

--""-"--"-~

X

Point P is the proportionality limit. Y is the upper yield limit. E is the elastic limit, yr is the lower yield point. U is the ultimate tensile strength point. R is the fracture or rupture strength point. R' is the true fracture or rupture strength point.

1.4

CHAPTER ONE

Particular Formula F The nominal stress or engineering stress (1-3) O'~ ___ m A0 where F
Particular
Formula
F
The nominal stress or engineering stress
(1-3)
O'~
___
m
A0
where F
=
applied load.
F
The true stress
(1-4)
O'tr u
---
0 .t
A:
where
Af =
actual
area of cross section or
instantaneous area of cross-section of
specimen under load F at that instant.
O'ca l
Bridgeman's equation for actual stress (O'act) during r
O'ac t
(1+~-) 4r
In
radius necking of a tensile test specimen
(1
+
d)]
(1-5)
e'
All
A12
The true strain
--~o + lo + A I------~
Etru'--
--
AI 3
.
.
.
(1-6a)
lo +
All
+ AI2
~
dli
(1-6b)
=
T
If
Integration of Eq. (1-6) yields the expression for true
(1-7)
strain
From Eq. (1-1)
/f=l+e
(1-8)
to
The relation
between
true
strain
and
engineering
In (//--f0)= ln(1
+
e)
or
In(1
+
¢)
(1-9)
Ctr u
=
strain after taking natural logarithm of both sides of
Eq. (1-8)
Eq.
(1-9) can be written
as
(1-1o)
C
~-
e Etru
--
1

co

cd

o~

f

There is no necking at fracture for

brittle material such as cast iron or low

cast steel.

Strain, 8, tam/m (Bin/in)

rx

FIGURE 1-2

Stress-strain curve for a brittle material.

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.5

Particular

Percent elongation in a standard tension test specimen

Reduction in area that occurs in standard tension test

specimen in case of ductile materials

Percent reduction in area that occurs in standard

tension test specimen in case of ductile materials

For standard tensile test specimen subject to various

loads

Formula

CIO0

=

zl-to (100)

lo

Ar

=

Arl00

Ao

- Ao A o -

Af

AU

--

~

Ao

(100)

Refer to Fig.

1-3.

F

k

I

(1-11)

(1-12)

(1-13)

ao

i

o

7

h

F

V

The standard gauge length of tensile test specimen

The volume of material

of

tensile

test

specimen

remains constant during the plastic range which is

verified by experiments and is given by

Therefore the true strain from Eqs. (1-7) and (1-15)

The true strain at rupture, which is also known as the

true fracture strain or ductility

FIGURE 1-3

loads.

A standard tensile specimen subject to various

l0 = 6.56v/-a

Aolo=Aflf

or

/f

A0

d 2

T0=Af=~

(1-14)

(1-15)

e tru =ln

(~ff) A0

__

ln~0/f

= 21nd°dff

(1-16)

where df = minimum diameter in the gauge length

/f of specimen under load at that

eftru =

Ar -

instant,

minimum area of cross section of

In

(1) specimen under load at that instant.

1

Ar

(1-17)

where AU is the area of cross-section of specimen at

fracture.

1.6

CHAPTER ONE

 

Particular

Formula

 
 

Refer to Table aluminum.

1-1A for values

of eftru

of

steel and

   

Ao

From Eqs. (1-9) and (1-16)

 

A___o0=

Af

 

1 +e

or

Af

=

1 +e

(1-18)

Substituting Eq. (1-18) in Eq. (1-4) and using Eq. (1-3) the true stress

O',ru --

~(1

4- c)

=

ere ~'~u

(1-19)

From experimental results plotting true-stress versus

Crtr u

=

O'OCtnrup

 

(1-20)

true-strain, it was found that the equation for plastic stress-strain line, which is also called the strain-

 

where cr0 -- strength coefficient, n = strain hardening or strain

 

strengthening equation, the true stress is given by

 

e trup -

strengthening exponent, true plastic strain.

Refer to Table other materials.

1-1A for er0 and n values for steels and

The load

at

any point

along the stress-strain

curve

F

=

a~A0

 

(1-21)

(Fig 1-1) The load-strain relation from Eqs. (1-20) and (1-2)

F

i"1

= aoAoe true

--Ctr u

 

(1-22)

Differentiating Eq. (1-22) and equating the results to zero yields the true strain equals to the strain harden- ing exponent which is the instability point

eu=n

 

(1-23)

The

stress

on

the

specimen

which causes a given

Crw = a0(ew)" =

F,,

 

(1-24)

amount of cold work

W

mw

where Aw = actual cross-sectional area of the specimen,

 

Fw-

applied load.

g,~

The

approximate

yield

strength

of

the

previously

(a,.,,)w = A,---~,

(1-25)

cold-worked specimen

The approximate yield strength since A'w = Aw

By substituting Eq. (1-26) into Eq. (1-24)

The tensile strength of a cold worked material

The percent cold work associated with the deforma-

tion

of the specimen from A0 to A"

where Aw = A'w = the increased cross-sectional area of specimen because of the elastic recovery that occurs when the load is removed.

(a,.v)

It'

=

,

-7-

A

w

~

aw

(as),) w =

cr0(ew)"

(c~,.u) w =

F.

~

A',

where

Aw =

A,,

F,

= Ao(asu)O,

(1-26)

(1-27)

(1-28)

~su -- tensile strength of the original non-cold worked specimen, A0 = original area of the specimen.

W-

_

A0

-

A'w(100)

A0

where

w =

W

100

or

w=

A0

-

A'w

A0

(1-29)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.7

Particular

Formula

 

For standard tensile specimen at stages of loading A'w is given by equation

A"

=

A0(1

-

w)

 

(1-30)

Expression for (Osu)w after substituting Eq. (1-28)

 

(Cr~u)°

(1-31)

(crsu)w =

1 -

w

Eq. (1-31) can also be expressed as

(Osu)w = (Osu)Oe~'ru

 

(1-32)

Valid for Aw

<

Au

or

ew

<_ eu.

The modulus of toughness

Tm=

Io

o fle

(1-33a)

 

~

~.~

+

2

~,s~

er

(1-34b)

 

where

c r -- fracture.

C

u

--

strain associated with incipient

HARDNESS

The Vicker's hardness number (Hv)

or the diamond

Hv

2F sin (a/2)

 

1.8544F

 

=

d2

=

d~

(1-35)

pyramid hardness number (Hp)

where F

-- load applied, kgf,

a

=

 
 

face angle of the pyramid,

136 °,

d

-- diagonal of the indentation, mm,

Hv

in kgf/mm 2.

The Knoop hardness number

F HK = 0.07028d 2

 

(1-36)

where d = length of long diagonal of the projected area of the indentation, mm, F -- load applied, kgf, 0.07028 -- a constant which depends on one of angles between the intersections of the four faces of a special rhombic-based pyramid industrial diamond indenter

 

172.5 °

and

the other

angle is

130 °,

HK in kgf/mm 2.

 
 

4F

The Meyer hardness number, HM

HM

= ~rd2/4

 

(1-37)

where F

-- applied load, kgf,

 
 

d

= diameter of indentation, mm,

 

HM

in kgf/mm 2.

 

The Brinell hardness number HB

/-/e

=

2F

(1-38)

 

rcD[D -

v/D 2 -

d 2]

 
 

where F

in kgf,

d

and

D

in mm,

HB

in

kgf/mm 2.

F

Ad p

(1-39)

The Meyer's strain hardening equation for a given diameter of ball

where F -- applied load on a spherical indenter, kgf, d = diameter of indentation, mm, p -- Meyer strain-hardening exponent.

1.8

CHAPTER ONE

Particular

Formula

The relation between the diameter of indentation d and the load F according to Datsko 1'2

F

=

18.8d 2"53

 

(1-40)

The relation between Meyer strain-hardening expo-

p-

2 =

n

(1-41)

nent p in Eq. (1-39) and the strain-hardening exponent n in the tensile stress-strain Eq. a
nent p in Eq. (1-39) and the strain-hardening exponent
n in
the tensile stress-strain
Eq.
a
=
a0 en
where p = 2.25 for both annealed pure aluminum
and annealed 1020 steel,
p = 2 for low work hardening materials such
as pH stainless steels and all cold rolled
metals,
p = 2.53 experimentally determined value of
70-30 brass.
The
ratio of the tensile strength (as,) of a material to
o~.
(1-42)
KB
=
HB
its Brinell hardness number (HB) as per experimental
results conducted by Datsko 1'2
For
the plot
of ratio
of (as,/HB)
=
KB
against
the
Refer
to
Fig.
1-4 for
KB
vs
n
for
various
ratios of
strain-strengthening exponent n* (1)
(d/D).
1000
-
900
80O
d
700
-
KB
600
500
400
I
I
I
o14
o;
0.0
n
FIGURE 1-4
Ratio of (<,.,/HB) = K• vs strain strengthen-
ing exponent n.
The relationship between the Brinell hardness number
lib and Rockwell C number Rc
R C =
88H O162 -
192
(1-43)
The relationship between the Brinell hardness number
lib and Rockwell B number RB
RB
=
HB --47
0.0074HB + 0.154
(1-44)

* Courtesy: Datsko, J., Materials in Design and Manufacture, J. Datsko Consultants, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1978, and Standard Handbook of Machine Design, McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, 1996.

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.9

 

Particular

Formula

The approximate relationship between ultimate tensile

Crsut=3.45He

 

MPa

SI

(1-45a)

strength and Brinell hardness number of carbon and

psi

 

USCS

(1-45b)

alloy steels which can be applied to steels with a Brinell

 

= 500He

hardness number between 200He and 350He only 1'2

 

The relationship between the minimum ultimate

Crsut =

3. l OHe

MPa

SI

(1-46a)

strength and the Brinell hardness number for steels

   

(1-46b)

 

as per ASTM

= 450He

 

psi

USCS

The relationship between the minimum ultimate

Crsut =

1.58He -

86.2

MPa

SI

(1-47a)

strength and the Brinell hardness number for cast

 

psi

(1-47b)

iron as per ASTM

 

= 230He-

12500

USCS

The relationship between the minimum ultimate

trout =

2.60He -

110

MPa

SI

(I-48a)

strength and the Brinell hardness number as per

 

psi

(1-48b)

SAE minimum strength

 

=

237.5He -

16000

USCS

In case of stochastic results the relation between He

o-,ut =

(3.45, 0.152)He

Mea

SI

(1-49a)

and Osut for steel based on Eqs. (1-45a) and (1-45b)

 

=

(500, 22)He

psi

USCS

(1-49b)

In case of stochastic results the relation between

cr~,~t =

1.58He -

62 +

(0, 10.3)

MPa

SI

(1-50a)

He

and Crsut for cast iron based on Eqs. (1-47a) and

230He

 

9000 +

(0, 1500)

psi

(1-47b)

=

-

 

uscs

(~-50b)

Relationships between hardness number and tensile

Refer to Fig.

 

1.5.

strength of steel in SI and US Customary units [7]

 

The approximate relationship between ultimate

Tsu =

0.82Crsut

for wrought steel

 

(1-51a)

shear stress and ultimate tensile strength for various

Ysu

 

0.90Osut

 

for

malleable iron

(1-5 lb)

 

materials

--

 

T~u =

1.30~r,ut

for cast iron

 

(1-51c)

Ysu =

0.90Osut

for copper and copper alloy

(1-51d)

T~u = 0.65O~ut

 

for aluminum and aluminum alloys

 

(1-51e)

The tensile yield strength of stress-relieved (not cold-

Crsy=(O.O72o~ut-205 )

MPa

SI

(1-52a)

worked) steels according to Datsko 1'2

 

-1.05o-sut-30

kpi

USCS

(1-52b)

The equation for tensile yield strength of stress-

O~y=(3.62He-205)

MPa

SI

(1-53a)

relieved (not cold-worked) steels in terms of Brinell

 

kpi

 

(1-53b)

hardness number He according to Datsko (2)

 

=525He-30

 

USCS

The approximate relationship between shear yield

r,y

=

0.55a~y

for aluminum and aluminum alloys

strength (r,y) and yield strength (tensile) ~r,y

 

(1-54a)

r~y = 0.58Cr~y

 

for

wrought steel

 

(1-54b)

1.10

CHAPTER ONE

Particular

The approximate relationship between endurance

limit (also called fatigue limit) for reversed bending

polished specimen based on 50 percent survival rate

and ultimate strength for nonferrous and ferrous

materials Shore hardness 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 n 100 100 120 60 140
materials
Shore hardness
30
40
50
60
70
80 90
n
100
100
120
60
140
150
~)
70
160
80
180
500
90
200
200
lOO .~
22O
11o
250
240
800
12o %
260
130
280
300
140
30O
1000
1~o~
150
320
350
34O
~70 _.m
360
v
1200
180
"~
o
400
380
40O
420
450
1400
]
220
440
230
460
•, 240
500
e-
-, 250
48O
1600
-I 260
50O
-,
-, 270
~ 550
520
•, 280
540
1800
_7 290
56O
300
600
58O
60O
2000
._
~
650
620
a
640
700
660
-
2200
680
750
7OO
2400
,
720
800
740
2600
I
850
760
900
2800
J
950
(0)
(10)
20
30
40
50
60
70
Rockwell C hardness, R c
72
80
90
100
i; 1 0)
..................
Rockwell B hardness, R B
FIGURE 1-5
Conversion of hardness number to ultimate

tensile strength of steel as, t, MPa (kpsi). (Technical Editor

Speaks, courtesy of International Nickel Co., Inc., 1943.)

 

Formula

For students'

use

f

 

O'sfb

---

0. 500"su t

for wrought steel having

 

Osut < 1380 MPa (200 kpsi) (1-55)

!

asfo

= 690 MPa

for wrought steel having

 

Osut > 1380 MPa

 

(1-56a)

!

asfb

=

100 kpsi

for wrought steel having

 
 

O'su t > 200 kpsi

USCS

(1-56b)

For practicing

engineers'

use

 

a'sfo =

0.35as.t

for wrought steel having

 
 

as.t < 1380 MPa (200 kpsi)

(1-57)

!

crsfb =

550 MPa

for wrought steel having

 

O'su t > 1380 MPa

SI

(1-58a)

!

a~f6 =

80 kpsi

for wrought steel having

 

O'su t :> 200 kpsi

USCS

(1-58b)

t

 

or rib

=

0.45Crsu t

for

cast iron and

cast steel when

 

as.t

<

600 MPa

(88 kpsi)

(1-59a)

!

a,fb

=

275 MPa

for cast iron

and

cast steel when

 

asut

>

600 MPa

SI

(1-60a)

!

as~

=

40 kpsi

for cast iron

and

cast steel when

 

Crsut > 88 kpsi

USCS

(1-60b)

!

O'd b

:

0.45Crsu

t

for copper-based alloys

 

and nickel-based alloys

(1-61)

o"~:~ =

0.36Osu t

for wrought aluminum alloys up to a

 

tensile strength of 275 MPa (40 kpsi)

based on 5 x 108 cycle life

(1-62)

/

o'~

=

O. 16O'sut

for cast aluminum alloys

 
 

up to tensile strength of

300 MPa (50 kpsi) based

on 5 x 108 cycle life

 

(1-63)

/

Osfb

=

0.38Crsu t

for magnesium casting alloys

and magnesium wrought alloys

based on 106 cyclic life (1-64)

PROPERTIES OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.11

 

Particular

Formula

 

!

!

The relationship between the endurance limit for reversed axial loading of a polished, unnotched speci- men and the reversed bending for steel specimens

Osfa = 0.85Crsfb = 0.43Crsu t

 

(1-65)

The relationship between the torsional endurance

7-stf =

!

(1-66a)

limit and the reversed bending for reversed torsional

!

tested polished unnotched specimens for various materials

"rsf

~

t

0.58Jsfb -- 0.29Crsu t for steel 0.Scrsfb ~ 0.32Crsu t for cast iron

l

0.22Osu t for copper

(1-66b)

(1-66c)

For additional information or data on properties of engineering materials

"rsf '~ 0.48crsfb ~ Refer to Tables

1-1 to

1-48

WOOD

Specific gravity, Gm,

of wood

at

a given moisture

G m

--

(1-67)

condition, m, is given by

 

Wm

 

where W0 = weight of the ovendry wood, N (lbf), Wm = weight of water displaced by the sample at the given moisture condition, N (lbf).

The weight density of wood, given moisture content

D

(unit weight) at any

W = weight of ovendry wood and the contained water volume of the piece at the same moisture content

Equation for converting of weight density D~ from one moisture condition to another moisture condition

D2

For typical properties of wood of clear material as per ASTM D 143

(1-68)

  • l OO + M2

D 2 -- D~ 100+

M1 + 0.0i35Dl(M2

-

M1)

where D1 = known weight density for same moisture condition M1, kN/m 2

 

(lbf/ft2),

(1-69)

D2 -

desired weight density at a moisture condition M2, kN/m 2 (lbf/ft2). M1 and M2 are expressed in percent.

Refer to Table 1-47.

1.12

CHAPTER

ONE

TABLE

1-1

Hardness conversion (approximate)

Brinell 29.42 kN (3000 kgf) load

 

Rockwell hardness number

 

10 mm ball

Vickers

A scale

B scale

C scale

15-N scale

Shore

Tensile strength, ~sut

or Firth

0.588 kN

0.98 kN

1.47 kN

0.147 kN

scleroscope

approximate

Diameter

Hardness

hardness

(60 kgf)

(100 kgf)

(150

kgf)

(15 kgf)

hardness

(mm)

number

number

load

load

load

load

number

MPa

kpsi

  • 2.25 745

840

65

  • 84 92

91

  • 2570 373

  • 2.30 712

783

83 92

64

87

  • 2455 356

  • 2.35 682

737

82 91

62

84

  • 2350 341

  • 2.40 653

697

81 90

60

81

  • 2275 330

  • 2.45 627

667

59

  • 81 90

79

  • 2227 323

  • 2.50 8O

601

640

58

89

77

  • 2192 318

  • 2.55 578

615

57

  • 79 88

75

  • 2124 309

  • 2.60 555

591

55

  • 78 88

73

  • 2020 293

  • 2.65 534

569

54

  • 78 87

71

  • 1924 279

  • 2.70 514

547

52

  • 77 87

70

  • 1834 266

  • 2.75 495

528

51

  • 76 86

68

  • 1750 254

  • 2.80 477

5O8

  • 76 85

50

66

  • 1675 243

  • 2.85 461

491

75 85

49

65

  • 1620 235

  • 2.90 444

472

74 84

47

63

  • 1532 222

  • 2.95 429

455

73 83

46

61

  • 1482 215

  • 3.00 415

440

45

  • 73 83

59

  • 1434 208

  • 3.05 401

425

72 82

43

58

  • 1380 200

  • 3.10 388

410

71 81

42

56

  • 1338 194

  • 3.15 375

396

71 81

40

54

1296-

188

  • 3.20 363

383

70 80

39

52

  • 1255 182

  • 3.25 352

372

69 ll0

38

79

51

  • 1214 176

  • 3.30 341

  • 3.35 331

  • 3.40 321

  • 3.45 311

  • 3.50 302

3 55

  • 3.60 285

  • 3.65 277

  • 3.70 269

  • 3.75 262

  • 3.80 255

  • 3.85 248

  • 3.90 241

  • 3.95 235

293

360

35O

339

328

319

309

301

292

284

276

269

261

253

247

69 79

109 50

37

  • 68 78

36

  • 109 48

  • 68 77

34

  • 108 47

  • 67 77

    • 108 46

33

  • 66 76

    • 107 45

32

  • 66 76

    • 106 43

31

  • 65 75

30

  • 106 42

  • 65 74

29

  • 105 41

  • 64 74

28

  • 104 40

  • 64 73

27

  • 103 39

  • 63 73

    • 102 38

25

  • 63 72

24

  • 101 37

  • 62 71

23

  • 100 36

  • 61 70

99

22

35

  • 1172 170

  • 1145 166

  • 1103 160

  • 1069 155

  • 1042 151

  • 1010 146

  • 983 142

  • 955 138

  • 928 134

  • 904 131

  • 875 127

  • 855 124

  • 832 120

  • 810 117

  • 4.00 229

241

61 70

98

21

34

  • 790 114

  • 4.05 223

234

97

19

  • 770 111

  • 4.10 217

228

96

18

33

  • 748 108

  • 4.15 212

222

96

16

32

  • 730 106

  • 4.20 207

218

95

15

31

  • 714 103

  • 4.25 201

212

94

14

  • 690 100

  • 4.30 197

207

93

13

30

680

98

  • 4.35 192

202

92

12

29

  • 662 96

  • 4.40 187

196

91

10

  • 645 93

,,

PROPERTIES

OF ENGINEERING MATERIALS

1.13

TABLE

1-1

Hardness

conversion (approximate)

(Cont.)

Brinell 29.42 kN (3000 kgf) load

 

Rockwell hardness number

 

10 mm ball

Vickers

A scale

B scale

C scale

15-N scale

Shore

Tensile strength, tYsu t

or Firth

0.588 kN

0.98

kN

1.47 kN

0.147 kN

scleroscope

approximate

Diameter

Hardness

hardness

(60 kgf)

(100 kgf)

(150 kgf)

(15 kgf)

hardness

(mm)

number

number

load

load

load

load

number

MPa

kpsi

4.45

183

192

90

28

  • 631 91

4.5O

179

188

89

27

  • 617 89

4.55

174

182

88

  • 600 87

4.60

170

178

87

26

  • 585 85

4.65

167

175

86

  • 576 83

470

163

171

85

25

  • 562 81

4.80

156

163

83

24

  • 538 78

4.90

149

156

81

23

  • 514 74

5.00

143

150

79

22

  • 493 71

5.10

137

143

76

21

  • 472 68

5.20

131

137

74

  • 451 65

5.30

126

132

72

20

  • 435 63

5.40

121

127

70

19

417

60

5.50

116

122

68

18

400

58

5.60

111

117

65

17

383

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1.16

CHAPTER

ONE

TABLE

1-2

Poisson's ratio (v)

 

Material

Material

Aluminium, cast

0.330

Molybdenum

0.293

Aluminium, drawn

0.348

Monel metal

0.320-0.370

Beryllium copper

0.285

Nickel, soft

0.239

Brass

0.340

Nickel, hard

0.306

Brass, 30 Zn

0.350

Rubber

0.450-0.490

Cast steel

0.265

Silver

0.367

Chromium

0.210

Steel, mild

0.303

Copper

0.343

Steel, high carbon

0.295

Douglas fir

0.330

Steel, tool

0.287

Ductile iron

0.340-0.370

Steel, stainless (18-8)

0.305

Glass

0.245

Tin

0.342

Gray cast iron

0.210-0.270

Titanium

0.357

Iron, soft

0.293

Tungsten

0.280

Iron, cast

0.270

Vanadium

0.365

Inconel x

0.410

Wrought iron

0.278

Lead

0.431

Zinc

0.331

Magnesium

0.291

Malleable cast iron

0.230

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