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Ointment

Type

External use, oleaginous semi-solid


External application to skin or mucous membrane
Drug incorporated to oleaginous ointment

Oleaginous

Gre
asy
/

Water
Wash
X

Water
Soluble
X

Absorb/Co
ntain H2O

Uses

Examples

Petrolatum
Synthetic esters
Lanolin derivatives (Lanolin
oil & hydrated lanolin)
Vaseline

X
/

/
X

x
x

/
/(limited)

Protectant
Emollient
Vehicle for
drug prone
to
hydrolysis
Protectant
Emollient
Vehicle for
Aqueous
solution
Emollient
Vehicle for
solids &
liquids

Desirable Properties of Ointment Base


-

Chemically and physically stable


Non-reactive and compatible
Free from odor
Non-toxic, non-sensitizing, non-irritating
Appealing, easy to apply & non-greasy
Remains in the skin, easy to remove

Characteristics of Ointments
-

Free from grittiness


Becomes rancid with time
Easily spread

Use
-

Emollient -> skin pliable


Protective barrier
Vehicle for medication

Absorption
base

Emulsion
base
o/w
w/o
Water
soluble (no
lipid
content)

Packaging
-

Jar scrape from surface, do not dig


Tubes more preferred, less exposure

Preparation
A.
B.

Incorporation/Levigation
a. Mortar and pestle to reduce impalpable powder from
grittiness, form soft nucleus
Fusion method use of heat
a. Heat high melting point first (wax, spermaceti) H2O bath before
adding soft oleaginous material

Levigating Agents
-

Mineral oil w/o


Glycerin o/w

Emollient
Vehicle for
Solids &
liquids
Local
anesthetics

Hydrophilic petrolatum
Wool fat (anhydrous lanolin)
Aquaphor
Aqua base
Polysorb*
Hydrophilic ointment,
vanishing cream, dermabax,
velvachol
Hydrous lanolin, cold cream,
eucerin, nivea, rose water
ointment
Polyethylene glycol
Polybase
PEG (MW <600) clear
PEG (MW > 1000) wax-like

Creams
-

semisolid preparation containing one or more medicinal agents dissolved or


dispersed in either o/w or w/o emulsion base or in another water washable
base
by Galen
<600 cream; 1000+ waxy
easier to spread and remove than ointment
lighter, less viscous than ointment, imparts pseudo plastic flow
viscous, placed in tubes (does not need push, lotions need squeeze)

Types

1.
2.

Oil in Water vanishing cream (Shaving cream, hand cream, foundation)


Water in Oil cold cream imparts only feeling to skin (Emollient,
Cold/Galens cream)

O/W
-

O discontinuous phase / internal phase


W continuous phase / external phase

White
Ointment

Category
Ointment
base

Use
Emollient,
protective
barrier, vehicle

Synonyms
Simple ointment

Zinc
Oxide

Medicated
Ointment

Antiseptic
protectant, mild
astringent

Unguentum zinci oxide


Zinc ointment

Sulfur
Ointment

Medicated
Ointment

Paracitide, antiringworm and


scabies

Unguentum Sulfuris

Yellow semisolid
preparation

Cold
Cream

w/o emulsion
based cream

Used topically,
rectally and
vaginally
Emollient
Cleansing Cream
Ointment base

Petrolatum rose water


ointment, Galens
cerate unguentum
aquae

White semisolid
preparation

I.

I.

White Ointment Formula


Ingredients
Original Amount
White Wax
50g
White Petrolatum
950g
To make
1000 g

Zinc Oxide Formula


Ingredients
Original Amount
Zinc Oxide
200g
Mineral Oil
150g
White Ointment
650g
To make
1000g

Description
Homogenous, viscous,
semi-solid preparation with
greasy, thick oily
appearance
White semisolid
preparation

Computed Amount
20g
1.5g = 1.77 mL
6.5g
10g

Container
15g ointment
jar with
glassine
10g ointment
jar with
glassine

30g ointment
jar

II.
Computed Amount
0.75g
14.25g
15 g

Label
Red label;
Official
Preparation
(USP)
Red label;
Official
Preparation
(USP)

Remarks
Hydrous ointments and
ointments made from it should
be kept in a well-closed
container in a cool place
Mechanic Incorporation
Preserved in well closed
container
Avoid prolonged exposure to
temperature exceeding 30C
Contains NLT 9.5% & NMT
10.5% sulfur
Same procedure as Zinc Oxide
Ppt sulfur is active ingredient
Mineral oil is levigating
White ointment is hydrocarbon
base
This is water in oil emulsion
based
Preparation is fusion method
Spermaceti is viscosity modifier

Precipitated Sulfur Ointment Formula


Ingredients
Original Amount Computed Amount
Precipitated Sulfur
100g
1g
Mineral Oil
100g
1g
White Ointment
800g
8g
To make
100g
10g
I.
Cold Cream Formula
Ingredients
Original Amount Computed Amount
Spermaceti
125g
3.75g
White Wax
120g
3.6g
Mineral Oil
560g
16.8g/19.1mL
Sodium Borate
5g
1.5g
Purified water
190g
5.7mL
To make
1000g
30g

Solution liquid preparation containing on or more several substances


dissolved in suitable solvent or mixture of mutual miscible liquid

2 Components
o Solute dissolved
o Solvent dissolver
Methods
o Simple Solution

Dissolving solute in solvent

NaCl solution, Strong Iodine


o Chemical Reaction

Reacting 2+ solute in solvent

Aluminum subacetate, magnesium citrate,


sulfurated lime solution
o Solution by distillation

Used when solute is volatile oil

Cinnamon oil
o Solution by Extraction

Used with drugs of pharmaceutical necessities


of vegetable or animal origin

Called extractives

Cinnamon
Water

Category
Pharmaceutic:
Solution
Pharmacological:
Aromatic Water

Peppermint
Water

Solution

Camphor
Water

Pharmaceutical:
Liquid Dosage
Form Solution
Pharmacological:
Aromatic Water

Use
Used in passive
haemorrhage
from lungs,
stomach, kidneys
or uterus in
chronic diarrhea
and dysentery and
flatulency
Carminative, to
mask
unpleasant taste

WAYS

Maceration soaking 38-48 hours


Percolation
Digestion gentle heat
Infusion blanching/bleaching
Decoction pinakukuluan

Mucilage
-

thick viscid, adhesive liquids made by dispersing gum in water or


extracting the mucilaginous principle from vegetable substance with
water
Has sugar carbohydrate components.
Soluble in water
Precipitates in alcohol
Gum dispersed in water
Prone to decomposition = never made large quantities unless added
preservative

Caking forming hard to remove suspension at the bottom

Synonyms
Description
Aqua cinnamomi,
Clear colorless solution with
aqua cimamomi
cinnamon odor
fortis, aqua
cinnamomi
spirituosa, spiritus
cinnamomi

Label
White label;
Unofficial
Preparation

Container
30mL amber
bottle

Remarks
Aromatic water is not very stable. They
deteriorate easily due to evaporation and mold
growth
Used to mask unpleasant taste
Precaution: should not be used when fever or
inflammation is present

Aqua Menthos,
Pepperitas
Concentrata

White label;
Unofficial
Preparation

30mL amber
bottle

Aromatic water is very volatile and is prone to


decomposition. It deteriorates with time.

Drug vehicle. Used in typhoid stage of


febrile diseases to produce sleep and
quietness, and to relieve severe afterpains, colic, mild neuralgic pains and
dysmenorrhea.

A clear saturated solution of


peppermint oil in purified water
prepared by alternate solution
method of aromatic substance
with dispersion
Aqua
Camphorae

A clear saturated solution of camphor crystal in


purified water. Prepared by alternate solution
method and aromatic substance with dispersion

Red label;
Unofficial
Preparation

30mL amber
bottle

Storage: Preserve in
an air tight
container

Calcium
Hydroxide

Strong
Iodine

Pharmaceutical:
Solution
Pharmacological:
Topical Astringent
Pharmaceutical:
Solution
Pharmacological:
Astringent

Acacia
Mucilage

Pharmaceutical:
Mucilage
Pharmacological:
Emulsifying Agent

Magnesium
Citrate

Pharmaceutical:
Solution
Pharmacological:
Saline Laxative

Simple
Syrup

Chocolate
Syrup

Dakins
Solution

Protectant
Emulsifying
Agent
Employed with
others
Antigoiter
Germicidal
Fungicidal
Antiseptic
Keratolytic
Thyrotoxicosis
Pill binder,
suspending
agent,
emulsifying
agent,
demulcent
Saline cathartic,
Purgative,
Laxative

Lime water,
calcium
hydroxide

Lugols solution,
Liquor Iodo
Fortis, Iodo
aquasa, liquor
iodi
Mucilage Acacia,
Mucilage of Gum
Arabic

Citrate of
Magnesia, Liquor
Magnesi Citratis,
Lemonada
Purgante
Syrup

Clear colorless solution


with alkaline taste. No
bubbles in container to
prevent formation of
CaCO3 (white ppt)
Transparent liquid with
deep brown color and
has odor of iodine

Red label;
Official
Preparation
(USP)

30mL Flint Bottle

Bottle filled up to brim


Solved portion is not suitable for additional quantity
Special Technique: Slaking (Solution of limited amount
of water with liberation of heat) producing fixed
powders.
Simple Solution
In weighing iodine crystals, use porcelain cause I
reacts with metal
KI is solubilizing agent of I

Red label

30mL narrow mouth


Amber Bottle

A thick viscid, adhesive


liquid prepared by
dispersing gum in water
or extracting
mucilaginous particles
from plants with water
Clear odourless
effervescent liquid
having sweet acidous
taste and lemon flavor

White label;
Unofficial
Preparation

15mL narrow mouth


amber bottle

Caution: Acacia mucilage must be free from molds or


any indication of decomposition
Storage: Preserve in tight container

White label;
Official
Preparation
(USP)

60mL vial with cork

Method used was chemical reaction


Side effect: stomach pain, nausea, production of gas,
diarrhea

Pharmaceutical:
Flavoring,
Clear, saturated viscous
White label;
60mL flint bottle
Special Handling: preserve in a tight container
Syrup
sweetening
solution with sweet taste Official
preferably at temperature not exceeding 25 degrees
Pharmacological:
agent
Preparation
Celsius
Flavoring Agent
(NF)
Technique: Percolation
Pharmaceutical:
Flavoring vehicle Cocoa, Cocoa
Non medicated, dark
White label;
15mL narrow mouth Na Benzoate and Glycerin are preservatives
Syrup
Syrup
brown, viscous saturated Official
amber bottle
Pharmacological:
aqueous solution
Preparation
Flavoring Agent
(NF)
Solution
Disinfectant
Sodium
Clear light yellow solution
Red Label
Sterile narrow mouth
Expiry date of solution is 30 days after compounding
and
hypochlorite
with characteristic odor of
amber bottle covered
Beyond use is for extemporaneous non commercial
antiseptic
solution, Clorox
chlorine
in aluminium foil
products
Solution must be discarded 48 hours after opening
It must be stored at room temperature
Water = 14 days beyond use date
Solid = 30 days beyond use date, 5 mos. commercial

Strong Iodine
Calcium Hydroxide Solution
Ingredients
Calcium Hydroxide
Purified water qs ad

OA
3g
1000mL

CA
0.09g
30mL

Ingredients
KI
Iodine
Purified water qs ad

OA
100g
50g
1000mL

CA
1.5g
.75g
15mL

Magnesium Citrate
Ingredients

OA

CA

Magnesium Carbonate

15g

2.14g

Anhydrous Citric Acid

27.4g

3.91g

Syrup

60mL

8.57mL

Talc

5g

0.71g

Lemon Oil

.1mL

0.01mL

Potassium Bicarbonate

2.5g

0.36g

Purified water qs ad

350mL

50mL

Sucrose
Glucose
Glycerine
NaCl
Vanilla
Sodium benzoate
Purified water qs ad

600g
180g
50mL
2g
0.2g
1g
1000mL

4g
2.7g
0.75mL
0.03g
0.003g
0.015g
15mL

Peppermint Water
Ingredients
Peppermint Oil
90% Ethanol
Purified Talc
Purified water

Original Amount
30mL
600mL
50g
1000mL

Computed Amount
0.6mL
18mL
1.5g
30mL

Simple Syrup
Ingredients
Sucrose (d= 1.313)
Purified water qs ad

OA
850g
1000mL

CA
51g
60mL

Cinnamon Water

OA
350g
2g
1000mL

CA
5.25g
0.03g
15mL

Dakins

Ingredients
Cinnamon Oil
Purified water

Original Amount
2Ml
1000mL

Computed Amount
0.06mL
30mL

Acacia Mucilage
Ingredients
Acacia
Benzoic Acid
Purified water qs ad

Camphor Water
Ingredients
Camphor Crystals
95% Ethyl Alcohol
Purified Talc
Purified water qs ad

OA
2g
40mL
15g
1000mL

CA
0.06mL
1.2mL
.45g
30mL

Chocolate Syrup
Ingredients
Cocoa

OA
180g

CA
2.7g

Ingredients
Clorox 5.5%
Sodium Bicarbonate
Citric Acid
Clear tap water
To make

Original Amount
95mL
27.4g
30g
946mL
1000mL

OFFICIAL - Syrups, Mg, Ca, I


RED - Camphor, Ca, I, Dakins
Flint - Ca, Simple syrup
Vial - Mg
Wrapped in aluminum - Dakins

Computed Amount
2.85mL
0.91g
0.03g
0.03mL
30mL

Computation 1: Ratio & Proportion


Computation 2: Concentration (C1V1 = C2V2)
Calcium Hydroxide

CaO + H2O Ca(OH)2 [slaking]


3g: 1000mL = x: 30mL
X = 0.09g
X: 56 g/mol CaO = 0.09g : 74g/mol Ca(OH)2
X = 0.07g CaO to make 0.09g Ca(OH)2
SYRUPS
-

concentrated solutions of sugar


85% w/v or an approximately 65% w/w
Syrup USP is a self-preserved solution with a minimum chance of
crystallization.

o Additives:
Polyols, such as glycerin or sorbitol, may be added to retard crystallization
of sucrose or to increase the solubility of added ingredients.
Alcohol often is included as a preservative and also as a solvent for
flavors.
Further resistance to microbial attack can be enhanced by incorporating
antimicrobial agents.
When heat is used in the preparation of syrups, inversion of a slight portion
of the sucrose may take place, forming dextrose(Glucose & Fructose
darker and sweeter)
If a sugar solution is excessively heated, the sweet taste is destroyed and a
dark brown liquid is formed. This process is known as caramelization.
Methods of preparation:
1- Solution with heat
2- Agitation without heat
3- Addition of a medicating liquid to syrup
4- Percolation

5- Reconstitution
Preserved at 60-85% w/v
Lower than 60 microbial growth
Greater than 80 crystallization