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Magneto-Rheological (MR)

Fluids
Harish Hirani
Associate Professor
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology DELHI
Lubrication & Bearings

http://web.iitd.ac.in/~hirani/

Used in Japan's National Museum of Emerging Science &


China's Dong Ting Lake Bridge to counteract vibrations caused
by earthquakes and gusts of wind

MagnetoRheological
Fluids

Dr. H. Hirani
Mechanical Engnieering, IIT Delhi

RHEOS (Greek word) = to FLOW (English word)


RheoLOGY= Science of material flow under external load
conditions
MAGNETOrheological FLUID= Fluid, whose apparent
viscosity increases, with application of MAGNETIC field.

Liquids that harden or change


shape when they feel a magnetic
field

Soft magnetic
particles

Carrier
liquid

Particle Sizes !!!!!


Application of magnetic
field, polarizes and
align magnetic particles.
Particle chain formation
limits particle
movement, which in
turn limits the
movement of the fluid.

MR Fluids:
Consist micron (1-10 m) sized, magnetically
polarizable (soft magnets) dispersed in a carrier
liquid such as mineral, silicone oils, kerosene,
water.
Particles > 10 m~ unstable against settling
Stoke' s settling velocity =

2( P f )gai2
9

MR Fluids:
Consist micron (1-10 m) sized, magnetically
polarizable (soft magnets) dispersed in a carrier
liquid such as mineral, silicone oils, kerosene,
water.
Particles > 10 m~ unstable against settling
Stoke' s settling velocity =

2( P f )gr 2
9

Particles < 1 m destabilizing


effect of Brownian motion
dominates

Required Particles properties


Permeability: degree of magnetization of a material that
responds linearly to an applied magnetic field.
0 (=4107 N/A2) is
known as permeability of
free space.

Required Particles properties.


Relative Permeability
Iron

2000

Nickel

100

Permalloy (78.5% nickel, 21.5% iron)

800025,000
Mu metal (75% nickel, 2% chromium, 5% copper, 20,00018% iron)
100,000

Required Particles properties.


The applied field where the data (called a magnetization curve)
crosses zero is the coercivity.
Saturation Limit: The limit of applied field at which all the
magnetic domains align with the field, and the magnetic-curve
flattens out.
Coercivities of soft and hard magnets
Material

Coercivity

Permalloy, Ni81Fe19

0.5-1

Co

20

Ni

150

Alnico, a common refrigerator


magnet

1500-2000

NdFeB

10,000

SmCo5

40,000

Approx % Composition
Material

Fe

Ni

Co

Mo

Other

Saturation
Maximum
flux density
permeability
B gauss

Iron

99.91

---

---

---

---

2,000

21,500

Purified iron

99.95

---

---

---

---

10,000

21,500

Permalloy

21.2

78.5

---

---

0.3 Mn

100,000

10,700

Mu metal

18

---

---

---

---

100,000

6,500

Particle size
Permeability
Saturation
Non-magnetic carrier fluid
How many particles ???????

MR Fluids:
20-50% by vol. Magnetic particles (higher vol.
Increase off state viscosity).

140

120

Yield Stress (kPa)


at 100 (1/s)

100

80
MRF36L
MRF36S
60

MRF36M1
MRF36M2

40

20

0
0

20

40

60

80

100

Magnetic Field, H (kA/m)

120

140

MR Fluid Properties

Newtonian fluid, = &

is plastic viscosity

non - Newtonian fluid, = o + &


In addition to plastic viscosity, elastic viscosity ( 0 / & )
Apparent viscosity = &

Fluids do not flow until


the applied shear stress
crosses a threshold value
called the yield stress.

90
10% by Volume Iron particle

Off-state viscosity of MR fluids (Pas)

80
70

36% by Volume Iron particle


60
50
40
30
20
10
0
0

250

500
Shear Rate (1/s)

750

Special consideration for


high shear rate application

1000

Apparent viscosity = &

MR-FLUID..
Make device smart by changing systems
properties( stiffness, damping, viscosity, shear
modulus) in a desirable manner. Sy ~ 0-100 kpa
Useful in active control of vibration & motion, i.e.
engine mount, shock absorbers, seat dampers,
variable resistance equipment, etc.

Motion damping is perhaps the most practical use


for MR technology today

MR Fluids:
20-50 times stronger than ER fluids, lower
sensitivity to impurities.
Property

MR fluids

ER fluids

Max. yield stress 0

50-100 kpa

2-5 kpa

Maximum field

~250 kA/m

~4 kV/mm

Apparent plastic viscosity

0.1-10 pa-s

0.1-10 pa-s

Operable temp. range

-40-150 oC

+10-90 oC

Stability

Unaffected by
most impurities

Cannot tolerate
impurities

Density

3-4 g/cm3

1-2 g/cm3

Maximum energy density

0.1 Joules/cm3

0.001 Joules/cm3

Power supply (typical)

2-50 V, 1-2 A

2000-5000 V, 1-10 mA

Properties of three different types of MR fluids


MR fluid

MRF-132LD

MRF240BS

MRF-336AG

Fluid base

Synthetic oil

Water

Silicone oil

Operable temp. range oC

-40-150

0-70

-40-150

Density (g/cc)

3.055

3.818

3.446

Weight percent solids

80.74%

83.54%

82.02%

Coefficient of thermal expansion

0.55-0.6710-3

0.22310-3

0.5810-3

Specific heat @ 25oC


(J/g oC)

0.80

0.98

0.68

Thermal conductivity (w/w oC)

0.25-1.06

0.83-3.68

0.20-1.88

Flash point (oC)

> 150

>93

> 200

Viscosity @ 10s-1/50s-1
(Pa-sec)

0.94/0.33

13.6/5.0

8.5

Geometries for MR Fluid


Most devices that use MR fluids can be
classified as having:
Fixed poles (Pressure driven flow mode)
Servo-valves, dampers and shock absorbers

Relatively moveable poles (Direct-shear/sliding mode).


Clutches, brakes, chucking and locking devices.
Both of these configurations can be described by assuming MR fluid
is dispersed between two parallel plates. In the sliding plate (or
shear) mode the MRF is stationary and the walls/electrodes move. In
the fixed plate (or flow) mode the walls/electrodes are stationary and
the fluid moves.
Squeeze-film mode Low motion and high force applications

Small element of
Fluid with sides
dx, dy, and dz

Force balance : pdy.dz + +


dy dx.dz = p + dx dy.dz + dx.dz
y
x

Shear flow mode


Pressure flow mode

=0
y
P
=
y x

Application of MR Fluid in Brakes?


In friction brakes, two surfaces are pressed
together with a normal force to create a
friction torque.
Disk brake: Flat surface to axis of rotation, and
normal force is axial.
Drum brake: Cylindrical surface with normal force in
radial direction

At least one the friction surface is metal (cast iron or


steel) and other is usually a high friction material,
referred to as lining. Sacrificial.
Maximum contact pressure,
pmax
Coefficient of
Friction material
friction,
psi
Molded
0.25-.045
150-300
Woven
0.25-0.45
50-100
Sintered Metal
0.15-0.45
150-300
Cork
0.30-0.50
8-14
Wood
0.20-0.30
50-90
Cast iron; hard steel
0.15-0.25
100-250
a
When rubbing against smooth cast iron or steel.
b
Use of lower value will give longer life.
a

kPa
1030-2070
345-690
1030-2070
55-95
345-620
390-1720

Maximum bulk temperature,


t m, max
F
400-500
400-500
400-1250
180
200
500

C
204-260
204-260
232-677
82
93
260

Properties of Braking materials


Operating in Oil
Friction materiala
Coefficient of friction,
0.06-0.09
Molded
0.08-0.10
Woven
0.05-0.08
Sintered Metal
0.10-0.14
Paper
0.12 (avg)
Graphitic
0.11 (avg)
Polymeric
0.15-0.25
Cork
0.12-0.16
Wood
0.03-0.16
Cast iron; hard steels
a
When rubbing against smooth steel or cast iron.

Brake wiping mechanism !!!!!

MRF Bearing cum Brake

91
81
200 RPM

Amplification factor

71

1200 RPM

61
51

AF =

41
31
21

T i=I
T i =0

11
1
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Current, A

3/14/2014

27

= yd +

T = 2 2 rh yd +
dr +
h

r1
r2

T = 2h yd

r
h

r 2rw yd + h
2
r3

dr

4
2
w 3 3
3
3
2
2
r r + r2 r1 + w yd r3 r2 + r3 r2
3
3
h
2
2

2
1

MR Brake
Title: Magnetorheological brake operating under
shear, squeezing and valve mode.
Inventor: H. Hirani and C. Sarkar
Application number: 2530/Del/2013

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29

Application of MR Fluid in Dampers?


The practical necessities often
require attenuation of the vibrations.
Passive Damper
Active Damper
Semi-active Damper

Application of MR Fluid in Engine Mount?


Basic Function: To connect the
Engine firmly to Chassis / Frame.
Vibration isolation, to reduce
vibrations transmitted from the
engine to the frame.

Damper
Attacks the source of vibration
and reduces the movement of
vibration source.

Isolator
Prevents the transmission of
vibration from the vibration
source to another part.

Mount

Advantages

Disadvantages

Passive

Easy to design, availability,


shows better performance at
tuned frequency

Cant change response


as per change in input

Ability to adapt to varying


operating conditions
Optimizing the mount
effectiveness under all
conditions.

Costs.Failure of any
component brings
system to stand still
condition.

Even though the actuation or


feed back system fails it
functions as a passive mount
serving the purpose.

Cost higher than the


passive type of mount.

Active:Electromecha
nical actuators,
piezoelectric elements
along with closed loop
feed back system.

Semi-active:
combination of the
active and passive
isolator

frequency.

Dynamic Stiffness

Frequency

Dynamic Stiffness of an ideal engine mount

Application of MR Fluid in Engine Valves


Ex: In most of engines, the valve timings and lift are
optimized for one set of operating conditions.
engine operates in various load and speed
conditions. Consequently, to optimize the engine
performance in any condition and any circumstance,
a need exists for a device that permits variable
valve actuation.
Variable lift/timing (VVA) to exploit benefits:
Fuel economy
Elimination of throttling
Reduction in emission.
Reference: SAE 1999-01-0329, SAE 2003-01-0029, SAE
2003-01-0036, SAE 2003-01-0052, SAE 2004-01-1386, ..

Natural frequency .
9000 rpm
Tribo-Pairs:
Cam-pushrod
pushrod-rocker arm
rocker arm-rocker
shaft
rocker arm-valve
valve-valve-guide
valve-seat
push rod guide

Variable Lift Valve Mechanism

Valve lift vs crank rotation

Valve lift, mm

11
10
9

1.7 Amp current

8
7

1 Amp current
0 amp

6
5
0

3/14/2014

120 240 360 480 600 720 840 960 108


0
Crank rotation, degrees

Total slides = 27

38

Computer

Optical Displacement
sensor

AC Motor

Dc
Power
supply

Valve
4 Stroke
Diesel
engine

Maximum valve lift Vs Product of speed and Current

Electro Magnet

Maximum Valve lift(mm)

Delta
converte
r

9
8.5
8
7.5
7
6.5
6
5.5

Experimental values
Least square fit

200

400

600

800

Product of Cam speed(Rpm) and


Current(Amps)

Valve_Lift =
0.0021(N.I) + 6.6646

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Thank U
Variable spring stiffness .