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# 1.

INTRODUCTION
1.1

## A composite wall consist of alternative layers of fir ( 5 cm thick ) , aluminum ( 1

cm thick ), lead ( 1 cm thick ), and corkboard ( 6 cm thick ). The temperature is 60
C of the outside of the fir and 10 C on the outside of the corkboard. Plot the
temperature gradient through the wall. Does the temperature profile suggest any
simplifying assumptions that might be made in subsequent analysis of the wall?

Solution:
Thermal Conductivities:
kfir = 0.12 W/m.K (Table A.2, Appendix A)
kalu = 237 W/m.K (Table A.1, Appendix A)
kld = 35 W/m.K (Table A.1, Appendix A)
kcb = 0.04 W/m.K (Table A.2, Appendix A).
Question No. 1:

## Plot the temperature gradient through the wall.

Answer:

Question No. 2:
Does the temperature profile suggest any simplifying assumptions
that might be made in subsequent analysis of the wall?
Answer:
Yes, since the thermal conductivity of aluminum and lead are very high than fir and
corkboard, they are considered isothermal. Therefore consider only fir and corkboard.

fir + Tcb = 60 C 10 C = 50 K
T
T
q = k
= k

L fir L cb

Lfir = 5 cm = 0.05 m
Lcb = 6 cm = 0.06 m
Then,
1

1. INTRODUCTION

q=

## ( 0.12 W / m K ) ( T fir ) ( 0.04 W / m K )( Tcb )

=
( 0.05 m )
( 0.06 m )

Tcb = 3.6Tfir
Then,

fir + 3.6fir = 50 K
fir = 10.87 K
10.87 K
T
q = k
= ( 0.12 W / m.K )
0.05 m
L fir

26.09 W/m2

## Tfir + Talu + Tld + Tcb = 60 C 10 C = 50 K

T
T
T
T
q = k
= k
= k
= k

L fir L alu L ld L cb

Lfir = 5 cm = 0.05 m
Lcb = 6 cm = 0.06 m
Lalu = 1 cm = 0.01 m
Lld = 1 cm = 0.01 m
k
L
fir
Talu = Tfir
k
L
alu

k
L
fir
Tld = T fir
k
L
ld
k
L
fir
Tcb = Tfir
k
L
cb

Then

1. INTRODUCTION

1
1
1

k
=
T fir 1 +
+
+
k
k
k
L fir

L
L

L cb
alu
ld

50 K

0.12 1

1
1

=
T fir 1 +
+
+

237
35
0
.
04
0
.
05

## 0.01 0.01 0.06

50

Tfir = 10.87 K

10.87 K
T
q = k
= ( 0.12 W / m.K )
0.05 m
L

fir

26.09 W/m2

1.2

Solution:
Equation (1.15)
dTbody
dt

Tbody T

Equation (1.3)
Q=

dU
dT
= mc
dt
dt

Equation (1.16)
Q Tbody T

Then
mc

dT
Tbody T
dt

dT
Tbody T
dt

Then
dTbody
dt

## Tbody T where mc is constant.

q = 5000 W/m2 in a 1 cm slab and T = 140 C on the cold side. Tabulate the
temperature drop through the slab if it is made of

1.3

Silver
Aluminum
3

1. INTRODUCTION

## Mild steel (0.5 % carbon)

Ice
Spruce
Insulation (85 % magnesia)
Silica aerogel

## Indicate which situations would be unreasonable and why.

Solution:
L = 1 cm = 0.01 m
(a) Silver Slab
T
q = k
= 5000 W/m2
L Si

## Thermal conductivity of silver at 140 C, 99.99+ % Pure, Table A.1, Appendix A

ksi = 420 W/m.K
TSi
= 5000 W/m2
q = ( 420 W / m K )
0
.
01
m

TSi = 0.12 K

T
q = k
= 5000 W/m2
L

alu

## Thermal conductivity of aluminum at 140 C, 99.99+ % Pure, Table A.1, App. A

Kalu = 237.6 W/m.K
Talu
2
q = ( 237.6 W / m K )
0.01 m
= 5000 W/m

Talu = 0.21 K

T
q = k
= 5000 W/m2
L ms

## Thermal conductivity of mild steel at 140 C, Table A.1, Appendix A

Kms = 50.4 W/m.K
Tms
2
q = ( 50.4 W / m K )
0.01 m
= 5000 W/m

Tms = 0.992 K
(d) Ice Slab

1. INTRODUCTION

T
q = k
= 5000 W/m2
L ice

## Thermal conductivity of ice at 140 C, Table A.1, Appendix A

ice at 0 C, kice = 2.215 W/m.K
Note: there is no ice at 140 C, but continue calculation at 0 C.
Tice
2
q = ( 2.215 W / m K )
0.01 m
= 5000 W/m

Tice = 22.57 K

T
q = k
= 5000 W/m2
L Si

## Thermal conductivity of spruce at 140 C, Table A.1, Appendix A

Ksp = 0.11 W/m.K @ 20 C (available)
TSp
2
q = ( 0.11 W / m K )
0.01 m
= 5000 W/m

TSp = 454.55 K

T
q = k
= 5000 W/m2
L Si

## Thermal conductivity of insulation at 140 C, Table A.1, Appendix A

Kin = 0.074 W/m.K @ 150 C (available)
Tin
2
q = ( 0.074 W / m K )
0.01 m
= 5000 W/m

TSi = 675.8 K

T
q = k
= 5000 W/m2
L Si

## Thermal conductivity of silica aerogel at 140 C, Table A.1, Appendix A

ksa = 0.022 W/m.K @ 120 C
Tsa
2
q = ( 0.022 W / m K )
0.01 m
= 5000 W/m

Tsa = 2,273 K
Tabulation:

1. INTRODUCTION
Slab
Temperature Drop, K
Silver
0.12
Aluminum
0.21
Mild Steel (0.5 % Carbon)
0.992
Ice
22.57
Spruce
454.55
Insulation (85 % Magnesia)
675.8
Silica Aerogel
2273

The situation which is unreasonable here is the use of ice as slab at 140 C, since ice
will melt at temperature of 0 C and above. Thats it.
1.4

Explain in words why the heat diffusion equation, eq. no. (1.13), shows that in
transient conduction the temperature depends on the thermal diffusitivity, , but
we can solve steady conduction problems using just k (as in Example 1.1).
Solution:
Equation (1.13)
d (T Tref )
dU
dT
Qnet =
= cA
x = cA
x
dt
dt
dt
Answer:

The application of heat diffusion equation eq. no. (1.13) depends on the

## thermal diffusivity as the value of

T
is not equal to zero as it I s under unsteady
t

state conduction. While in steady conduction depends only on k because the value of
T
dT
2T
= 0 for steady state conduction giving
= 0 , so q = k
.
2
t
dx
x
1.5

A 1-m rod of pure copper 1 cm2 in cross section connects a 200 C thermal
reservoir with a 0 C thermal reservoir. The system has already reached steady
state. What are the rates of change of entropy of (a) the first reservoir, (b) the
second reservoir, (c) the rod, and (d) the whole universe, as a result of the
process? Explain whether or not your answer satisfies the Second Law of
Thermodynamics.

Solution:
Equation (1.9)
q =k

T
L

## Thermal conductivity of copper at 100 C, Table A.1, Appendix A

6

1. INTRODUCTION
k = 391 W/m.K
L=1m
T = 200 C 0 C = 200 K
200 K
q = ( 391 W / m K )
1m

= 78,200 W/m2.K

Q = qA
A = 1 cm2 = 1 x 10-4 m2
Q = (78,200 W/m2.K)(1 x 10-4 m2) = 7.82 W
(a)
(b)

Qrev
7.82 W
S1 =
=
T1
( 200 + 273 K ) = - 0.01654 W/K
Q
+ 7.82 W
S 2 = rev =
T2
( 0 + 273 K ) = + 0.02864 W/K

(c)

(d)

Since

1.6

## Two thermal energy reservoirs at temperatures of 27 C and 43 C, respectively,

are separated by a slab of material 10 cm thick and 930 cm 2 in cross-sectional
area. The slab has a thermal conductivity of 0.14 W/m.K. The system is operating
at steady-state conditions. What are the rates of change of entropy of (a) the
higher temperature reservoir, (b) the lower temperature reservoir, (c) the slab, and
(d) the whole universe as a result of this process? (e) Does your answer satisfy the
Second Law of Thermodynamics?

Solution:
Equation (1.9)
q =k

T
L

## Thermal conductivity , k = 0.14 W/m.K

A = 930 cm2 = 0.093 m2
L = 10 cm = 0.10 m
T = 27 C (- 43 C) = 70 K
T1 = 27 + 273 = 300 K
T2 = -43 + 273 = 230 K
70 K
q = ( 0.14 W / m.K )
0.10 m
=

98 W/m2
7

1. INTRODUCTION
Q = qA = (98 W/m2)(0.093 m2) = 9.114 W
Qrev 9.114 W
S1 =
=
T1
( 300 K ) = - 0.03038 W/K
Q
+ 9.114 W
S 2 = rev =
T2
( 230 K ) = + 0.03963 W/K

(a)
(b)
(c)

(d)

Since

## SUn 0 , therefore it satisfied Second Law of Thermodynamics.

1.7

(a) If the thermal energy reservoirs in Problem 1.6 are suddenly replaced with
adiabatic walls, determine the final equilibrium temperature of the slab. (b) What
is the entropy change for the slab for this process? (c) Does your answer satisfy
the Second Law of Thermodynamics in this instance? Explain. The density of the
slab is 26 lb/ft3 and the specific heat 0.65 Btu/lb-F.

Solution:
16.018 kg / m 3
= 416.468 kg/m3
= ( 26 lb / ft 3 )
3
1
lb
/
ft

4186.8 J / kg .K
c = ( 0.65 Btu / lb.F )
1 Btu / lb.F

= 2721.42

k = 0.14 W/m.K
T = 27 C (-43 C) = 70 C
T1 = 27 C + 273 = 300 K
T2 = - 43 C + 273 = 230 K
A = 0.093 m2
L = 0.10 m
(a)

Q
T dQ
= T12
T
T

Q
T cVdT
= T12
T
T

cV (T2 T1 )

T
= cV ln 2
T
T1
(T2 T1 ) = ln T2
T
T
1

J/kg.K

1. INTRODUCTION

T1 ) ( 230 300)
=
T2
230 = 263.45 K
ln

ln
300

T
1
Q cV ( T2 T1 ) cAL( T2 T1 )
=
(b) S = =
T
T
T
T=

(T

S =

## ( 416.468)( 2721.42)( 0.093)( 0.10)( 230 300)

263.45

= - 2801 J/K

(c) This will not satisfy the Second Law of Thermodynamic since this is not a rate of
entropy of production of the universe.
1.8

## A copper sphere 2.5 cm in diameter has a uniform temperature of 40 C. The

sphere is suspended in a slow-moving air stream at 0 C. The air stream produces a
convection heat transfer coefficient of 15 W/m2.K. Radiation can be neglected.
Since copper is highly conductive, temperature gradients in the sphere will
smooth out rapidly, and its temperature can be taken as uniform throughout the
cooling process (i.e., Bi << 1). Write the instantaneous energy balance between
the sphere and the surrounding air. Solve this equation and plot the resulting
temperatures as a function of time between 40 C and 0 C.

Solution:
Energy Balance:
Q=

dU
dt

Q = h A(T T)

dU
d
=
cV (T Tref
dt
dt

)] = d [ cV (T T ) ]
dt

Then:
h A(T T ) =

d
[ cV (T T ) ]
dt

d (T T )
hA
=
(T T )
dt
cV

ln ( T T ) =

at T(t = 0)

t
+C
cV

hA

T,
i

C = ln (T T )

1. INTRODUCTION
t
+ ln( Ti T )
cV

hA
T T
t
t
ln
T T
= cV = T

x
i

hA
cV
Tx =

hA
ln( T T ) =

T T
= e Tx
Ti T
T
= 0 C + 273 = 273 K
Ti = 40 C + 273 = 313 K
cV

Tx =

hA
4
V = r 3
3

## r = (1/2)(2.5 cm) = 1.25 cm = 0.0125 m

A = 4r 2
4

c r 3
cV
3
= cr
Tx =
=
2
hA
h ( 4r )
3h
2
h = 15 W/m .K
Properties of copper, Table A.1, App. A
= 8954 kg/m3
cp = 384 J/kg.K
= 11.57 x 10-5 m2/s2
Tx =

## ( 8954 kg / m3)( 384 J / kg.K )( 0.0125 m )

= 955 sec
3(15 W / m.K )

Then:

T T = ( Ti T ) e
T = ( Ti T ) e

t
Tx

T = ( 313 273) e
T = 40e

955

T = 40e

t
Tx

+ T
t
955

+ 273 K

+ 273 K

955

C
10

1. INTRODUCTION
where t in seconds
Tabulation:
Time, t, seconds
0
10
20
40
60
80
100
200
300
400
600
800
1000
5000
10000
100000
1000000

Temperature, T, C
40
39.6
39.2
38.4
37.6
36.9
36.2
32.7
29.6
26.8
22
18
14.7
0.3
0.0
0.0
0.0
0.0

Plot:

11

1. INTRODUCTION

1.9

Determine the total heat transfer in Problem 1.8 as the sphere cools from 40 C to
0 C. Plot the net entropy increase resulting from the cooling process above, S vs
T(K).

Solution:
T=

0 C + 273 = 273 K
4
3

3
A = 4r 2 , V = r

r = 0.0125 m
= 8954 kg/m3
cp = 384 J/kg.K
= 11.57 x 10-5 m2/s2
T = 40 C 0 C = 40 K
Total Heat Transfer:
Q = cVT = (8954 kg/m3)(384 J/kg.K)(4/3)()(0.0125 m)3(40 K)
Q = 1125 J - - - - Answer.
Plotting the net-entropy increase:

Equation (1.24)

12

1. INTRODUCTION

Tb

S =cV

Tb 0

1
1

T T
b

dTb

4
3
S =(8954 )(384 ) ( 0.0125)
3

Tb

Tb 0

1
1

T T
b

dTb

T
T

S = 28.13 b ln Tb b 0 ln Tb 0
T

T Tb 0
T
ln b
S = 28.13 b
Tb 0
T
Tb0 = 40 C = 313 K

T 313
T
S = 28.13 b
ln b
313
273
Tb, C
40
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

Tb, K
313
308
303
298
293
288
283
278
273

Plot:

13

S
0
0.0622
0.117
0.1642
0.2034
0.2344
0.2569
0.2707
0.2754

1. INTRODUCTION

1.10

## A truncated cone 30 cm high is constructed of Portland cement. The diameter at

the top is 15 cm and at the bottom is 7.5 cm. The lower surface is maintained at 6
C and the top at 40 C. The outer surface is insulated. Assume one dimensional
heat transfer and calculate the rate of heat transfer in watts from top to bottom. To
do this, note that the heat transfer, Q, must be the same at every cross section.
Write Fouriers law locally, and integrate between this unknown Q and the known
end temperatures.

Solution:
T1 = 40 C

14

1. INTRODUCTION
T2 = 6 C
Q = kA

dT
dx

D1 D2 D1 D
=
L
x
D1 = 15 cm = 0.15 m
D2 = 7.5 cm = 0.075 m
L = 30 cm = 0.30 m

0.15 m 0.075 m
0.15 m D
=
0.30 m
x

D = 0.15 m 0.25x
A=

D2

dT
Q = k D 2
4
dx

2 dT
Q = k ( 0.15 m 0.25 x )
dx
4

2
Q( 0.15 0.25 x ) dx = k dT
4
Q
(0.15 0.25 x ) dx =k dT

0.3 m

## Thermal Conductivity of Portland Cement, Table A.2, Appendix A.

k = 0.70 W/m.K

= ( 0.70 ) ( 40 6 )
4

1
1
Q( 4 ) ( 0.15 0.25( 0.3) ) ( 0.15) = ( 0.70 ) ( 34 )
4
1
1

Q( 4 )

= ( 0.70 ) ( 34 )
0.075 0.15
4
1
1
Q( 1)
( 0.15 0.25 x )

0
.
25

0.3
0

Q = -0.70 W Ans.
1.11.

## A hot water heater contains 100 kg of water at 75 C in a 20 C room. Its surface

area is 1.3 m2. Select an insulating material, and specify its thickness, to keep the
water from cooling more than 3 C / h . (Notice that this problem will be greatly
simplified if the temperature drop in the steel casing and the temperature drop in
the convective boundary layers are negligible. Can you make such assumptions?
Explain.)

15

1. INTRODUCTION
Solution:
Specific heat of water at 75 C, Table A.1 , cp = 4194 J/kg.K
Q = (100 kg)(4194 J/kg.K)(3 K/hr)(1 hr / 3600 s)
Q = 349.5 W
A = 1.3 m2
Then:
Q = kA

T
L

k
Q = 349.5 = (1.3)( 75 20 )
L
k
= 4.89 W/m2.K
L

## Select Magnesia, 85 % (insulation), Table A.2

k = 0.071 W/m.K
L = (0.071 W/m.K) / (4.89 W/m2.K) = 0.01452 m = 1.5 cm
Yes, we can make an assumption of neglecting temperature drops as above as the thermal
conductivity of steel is much higher than insulation, also negligible temperature drops for
thin film boundary.
1.12.

What is the temperature at the left-hand wall shown in Fig. 1.17. Both walls are
thin, very large in extent, highly conducting, and thermally black.

Fig. 1.17

Solution:
Left: q = hL (TL TL ) = 50 (100 TL)
Right: q = hr (Tr Tr ) = 20 (Tr 20)

16

1. INTRODUCTION
Equating:
q = 50 (100 TL) = 20 (Tr 20)
5 (100 TL) = 2 (Tr 20)
100 TL = 0.4Tr 8
TL = 108 - 0.4Tr o C
Then; by radiation.

q = TL Tr
4

[
)[( 381 0.4T )

## q = ( 5.67040 10 8 ) (108 0.4Tr + 273) ( Tr + 273) = 20( Tr 20 )

q = ( 5.67040 10 8

4

## By trial and error:

Tr = 42 C (right hand wall)
Then
TL = 108 0.4(42) = 91.2 C (left hand wall)
1.13. Develop S.I. to English conversion factors for:
The thermal diffusivity,
The heat flux, q
The density,
The Stefan-Boltzmann constant,
The view factor, F1-2
The molar entropy
The specific heat per unit mass, c
In each case, begin with basic dimension J, m, kg, s, C, and check your answer against
Appendix B if possible.
Solution:
(1.) The thermal diffusivity,
Unit of is m2/s.
The conversion factor for English units is:
1=

1 ft 2
3600 s

2
h
( 0.3048 m )

ft 2 / hr
, checked with Table B.2, o.k.
m2 / s
(2.) The heat flux, q

1 = 38,750

## Unit of q is @/m2 or J/s.m2

17

1. INTRODUCTION
The conversion factor for English units is:
0.0009478 Btu 3600 s ( 0.3048 m )

J
h
ft 2

1=

Btu / h ft 2
Btu / h ft 2
=
0
.
317
, checked with Table B.2, o.k.
J / s m2
W / m2
(3.) The density

1 = 0.317

## Unit of density is kg/m3

The conversion factor for English units is:

( 0.3048 m )
1 lb

0.45359 kg
ft 3

1=

1 = 0.06243

lb / ft 3
, checked with Table B.2, o.k.
kg / m 3

## (4.) The Stefan-Boltzmann constant,

= 5.6704 x 10-8 W/m2.K4 = 5.6704 x 10-8 J/m2.s.K4
The conversion factor for English units is:
2
0.0009478 Btu ( 0.3048 m ) 3600 s
K4
1=

J
ft 2
h
(1.8 F ) 4
Btu / hr. ft 2 .K 4
1 = 0.0302
W / m 2 .K 4
(5.) The view factor F1-2
The view factor is dimensionless, so there is no need for conversion factor.
(6.) The molar entropy
Unit of molar entropy, S = J/K
The conversion factor for English units is.
1=

0.0009478 Btu
K

J
1 .8 F

1 = 0.0005266

Btu / F
J /K

## (7.) The specific heat per unit mass, c

Unit of c is J/kg.K
The conversion factor for English units is:
1=

## 0.0009478 Btu 0.45359 kg

K

J
lb
1.8 F

18

1. INTRODUCTION
Btu / lb F
J / kg K

1 = 0.00023884

1.14.

Three infinite, parallel, black, opaque plates, transfer heat by radiation,as shown
in Fig. 1.18. Find T2.

Fig. 1.18

Solution:

q = T1 T2 = T2 T3
4

## T1 = 100 C + 273 = 373 K

T3 = 0 C + 273 = 273 K
T2 =
4

1
( 373) 4 + ( 273) 4
2

T2 = 334.1 K = 61.1 C
1.15.

Four infinite, parallel black, opaque plates transfer heat by radiation, as shown in
Fig. 1.19. Find T2 and T3.

Fig. 1.19

19

1. INTRODUCTION

Solution:

q = T1 T2 = T2 T3 = T3 T4
4

## T1 = 100 C + 273 = 373 K

T4 = 0 C + 273 = 273 K
Then:
4
4
4
2T2 = T1 + T3

2T3 = T2 + T4
4

T2 = 2T3 T4
4

and

2 2T3 T4 = T1 + T3
4

4T3 2T4 = T1 + T3
4

3T3 = T1 + 2T4
4

## 3T3 = (373)4 + 2 (273)4

4

T3 =317.45 K = 44.45 C

## T2 = 2T3 T4 = 2 (317.45)4 (273)4

T2 = 348.53 K = 75.53 C
4

1.16.

Two large, black, horizontal plates are spaced a distance L from one another. The
top is warm at a controllable temperature, Th, and the bottom one is cool at a
20

1. INTRODUCTION
specified temperature, Tc. A gas separates them. The gas is stationary because it is
warm on top and cold on the bottom. Write the equation qrad/qcond = fn (N,

Th

## Tc ), where N is dimensionless group containing , k , L, and Tc. Plot as a

function of for qrad/qcond = 1, 0.8, and 1.2 (and for other values if you wish).
Now suppose that you have a system in which L = 10 cm, Tc = 100 K, and the gas
is hydrogen with an average k of 0.1 W/m.K. Further suppose that you wish to
operate in such a way that the conduction and radiation heat fluxes are identical.
Identify the operating point on your curve and report the value of Th that you must
maintain.
Solution:

qrad = Th Tc
k ( Th Tc )
qcond =
L
4
4
qrad L Th Tc
L
2
2
=

=
( Th + Tc ) Th + Tc
qcond
k ( Th Tc )
k
4

T
qrad
L 3 Th
=
Tc + 1 h
qcond
k
Tc
Tc

+1

qrad L 3
=
Tc ( + 1) [ 2 + 1] = N ( + 1) [ 2 + 1]
qcond
k
where

N=

LTc
k

Th
Tc

N as a function of ;

N=

qrad qcond
( + 1) ( 2 + 1)

qrad
=1
qcond
1
N=
( + 1) ( 2 + 1)

(1)

21

1. INTRODUCTION
qrad
= 0.8
qcond
0.8
N=
( + 1) ( 2 + 1)
qrad
= 1. 2
(3)
qcond
1.2
N=
( + 1) ( 2 + 1)

(2)

plot of N as a function of :

## For the system:

L = 10 cm = 0.10 m
Tc = 100 K
k = 0.1 W/m.K
For qrad / qcond = 1.0
Then
1 = N ( + 1) ( 2 + 1)
Solving for N:

LTc
N=
k

22

1. INTRODUCTION
= 5.67040 x 10-8 W/m2.K4
(5.6704 108 )( 0.10)(100) 3 = 0.056704
N=
0.10
Then
1 = ( 0.056704 )( + 1) ( 2 + 1)
( + 1) ( 2 + 1) = 17.64
By trial and error:
= 2.145
Then: Th = Tc = (2.145)(100 K) = 214.5 K
1.17.

## A blackened copper sphere 2 cm in diameter and uniformly at 200 C is introduced

into an evacuated black chamber that us maintained at 20 C.
Write a differential equation that expresses T(t) for the sphere, assuming lumped
thermal capacity.
Identify a dimensionless group, analogous to the Biot number, that can be used to
tell whether or not the lumped-capacity solution is valid.
Show that the lumped-capacity solution is valid.
Integrate your differential equation and plot the temperature response for the
sphere.

Solution:
(1) Assuming lumped thermal capacity
Q=

dU
dt

A T 4 T

d
) = dr
[ cV (T T )]
ref

T =T (t )
d (T T ) A 4
4
=
T T
dt
cV
A = 4 r 2

V =

4
r3
3

d ( T T ) ( 4 r 2 ) 4
3 4
4
4
=
T T =
T T
dt
cr
4

c r 3
3

Differential Equation, T = T ( t )
d (T T ) 3 4
4
=
T T
dt
cr

## (2) Dimensionless group analogous to the Biot number

23

1. INTRODUCTION

Bi =

hL
kb

Equivalent h ,
4
T4 T
h=
T T

h V h r r T 4 T
=
=
Biot number equivalent =
kb A 3kb 3kb ( T T )
4

## (3) Showing that lumped-capacity solution is valid.

r T 4 T
Dimensionless group must be << 1 =
3kb ( T T )
4

## Ti = 200 C + 273 = 473 K

T=

20 C + 273 = 293 K
= 5.6704 x 10-8 W/m2.K4
r = (1/2)(2 cm) = 1 cm = 0.01 m
For copper:
= 8,954 kg/m3
cp= 384 J/kg.K
kb = 389 W/m/K @ 200 C, Table A-1, App. A.

r T 4 T
(5.6704 108 )( 0.01)( 4734 2934 )
=
= 0.00012 << 1 , therefore valid.
3( 389 )( 473 293)
3kb ( T T )
4

## (4) Integrating and plotting differential equation.

d (T T ) 3 4
4
=
T T
dt
cr
dT
3 4
4
(
=
T T )
dt
cr

dT
3 dt
=
4
cr
T T
4

dT
3t
=
4
4
cr
T

T
i

Note:

dx
x 4 a 4

:
24

1. INTRODUCTION

1
1
(
x2 + a2 ) ( x2 a2 )
=
=
x 4 a 4 ( x 2 a 2 )( x 2 + a 2 ) 2a 2 ( x 2 a 2 )( x 2 + a 2 )
1
1
1
= 2 2
2 2
4
2
x a
2a ( x a ) 2a ( x + a 2 )
1
1 ( x + a) ( x a)
1
= 2
2 2

4
4
x a
2a 2 a ( x a ) ( x + a ) 2a ( x + a 2 )
4

1
1
1
1
1
= 2

2 2

4
x a
2a 2a ( x a ) 2 a ( x + a ) 2a ( x + a 2 )
4

1
1
= 3
4
x a
4a
4

1
1
1
x a x + a 2a 2 ( x 2 + a 2 )

1
1 1
1
= 3

4
x a
4a x a x + a
4

1
1 1
1
= 3

4
4
x a
4a x a x + a

1
x 2
2a 4 + 1
a

1
a
2

x
2a 3 + 1
a

Then,

dx
x 4 a 4

1
x a 1
x
ln
3 Arc tan + C
3
4a
x + a 2a
a

Applying:

T T
T
T
dT
1 T T
1

ln i
=
ln
Arc tan Arc tan i
4
3
3
T T
4T T + T
T
T
Ti + T 2T
T
4

Substitute values:

dT
1
=
4
3
T T
4( 293)
T
4

dT
1
=
4
3
T T
4( 293)
T
4

T 293
2
473 293
ln T + 293 ln 473 + 293 4( 293) 3

T
473
Arc tan 293 Arc tan 293

T 293
3 t
T
ln T + 293 2 Arc tan 293 + 3.48062 = cr

T 293
3( 5.6704 10 8 )t
T
ln

2
Arc
tan
+
3
.
48062

T + 293
= ( 8954 )( 384 )( 0.01)

293

T 293

1
T

ln
2 Arc tan
+ 3.48062 = 0.0004978 t
3
4( 293) T + 293
293

1
3
4( 293)

Tabulation:

25

1. INTRODUCTION
T, C
200
182
164
146
128
110
92
74
56
38

T, K
473
455
437
419
401
383
365
347
329
311

Plot :

26

T, s
0
93.5
206.8
346.1
520.9
745.8
1046
1468.5
2119.8
3340.6

1. INTRODUCTION

1.18.

## As part of space experiment, a small instrumentation packaged is released from a

space vehicle. It can be approximated as a solid aluminum sphere, 4 cm in
diameter. The sphere is initially at 30 C and it contains a pressurized hydrogen
component that will condense and malfunction at 30 K. If we take the surrounding
space to be at 0 K, how long may we expect the implementation package to
function properly? Is it legitimate to use the lumped-capacity method in solving
the problem? (Hint: See the directions for Problem 1.17).

Solution:
Properties of aluminum, Table A.1
= 2707 kg/m3
cp = 905 J/kg.K
kb = 237.2 W/m.K @ 30 C
From Prob. 1.17, using
Ti = 30 C + 273 = 303 K
T =0K
T = 30 K
= 5.6704 x 10-8 W/m2.K
r = (1/2)(4 cm) = 2 cm = 0.02 m

## Check for the legitimacy of lumped-capacity method.

r T 4 T
(5.6704 108 )( 0.02)(3034 04 )
=
= 0.000044 << 1 , therefore valid.
3( 237.2 )( 303 0 )
3kb ( T T )
Then,

T=

0K

dT
3t
=
4
4
cr
T

T
i

dT
3(5.6704 10 8 )t
=
(2707 )(905)(0.02)
T4

Ti

3( 5.6704 10 8 )t
1

=
3T 3
( 2707 )( 905)( 0.02)
T
T

1
1
3( 5.6704 10 8 ) t

=
3
3Ti 3T 3 ( 2707 )( 905)( 0.02 )
i

1
1
3( 5.6704 10 8 )t

=
3
3
( 2707 )( 905)( 0.02)
3( 303)
3( 30 )

1 min
1 hr
1 day
1 week
t = 3,552,427 seconds 60 sec s 60 min s 24 hrs 7 days = 5.88 weeks

27

1. INTRODUCTION

1.19.

Consider heat calculation through the wall as shown in Fig. 1.20. Calculate q and
the temperature of the right-hand side of the wall.

Fig. 1.20

Solution:

q=

k ( T1 T2 )
= h( T2 T )
L

T1 = 200 C

=0C
k = 2 W/m2.K
L = 0.5 m
h = 3 W/m2.K
T

q=

( 2 )( 200 T2 )
= ( 3)( T2 0 )
0.50

## 800 4T2 = 3T2

T2 = 114.286 C
q = (3)(114.286 0) = 343 W/m2.
1.20.

## Throughout Chapter 1 we have assumed that the steady temperature distribution

in a plane uniform wall is linear. To prove this, simplify the heat diffusion
equation to the form appropriate for steady flow. Then integrate it twice and
eliminate the two constant using the known outside temperatures Tleft and Tright at x
= 0 and x = wall thickness, L.
28

1. INTRODUCTION
Solution:
Eq. 1.14, one dimensional heat diffusion equation,
2T cT 1 T
=

x 2
kt
t
2T
= 0 for steady flow.
x 2

Use

dT
= C1
dx
T = C1 x + C2

at T = Tleft, x = 0
Tleft = 0 + C2
C2 = Tleft
At T = Tright, x = L
Tright = C1L + Tleft
C1 =

Tright Tleft
L

Then,

T=

(T

T Tleft
x

1.21

Tleft )

right

L
=

x + Tleft

Tright Tleft
L

, therefore linear.

The thermal conductivity in a particular plane wall depends as follows on the wall
temperature: k = A + BT, where A and B are constants. The temperatures are T1
and T2 on either side of the wall, and its thickness is L. Develop an expression for
q.

Solution:
q = k

dT
dx

q = ( A + BT )

dT
dx

qdx = ( A + BT ) dT

29

1. INTRODUCTION

T2

A+
BT )dT

dx =

T1

T2

qL = AT + BT 2
2
T

2
2
qL = A(T2 T1 ) + B T2 T1
2

2
2
A( T2 T1 ) + B T2 T1
2

q=
L

1.22

Find k for the wall shown in Fig. 1.21. Of what might it be made?

Figure 1.21.

Solution:
L = 0.08 m
(T Tright ) = h(T T )
q = k left

left
L
( 20 0) = ( 200)(100 20)
k
0.08
k = 64 W/m.K
30

1. INTRODUCTION
From Table A.1, @ 10 C, k = 64 W/m.K
This might be Steel, AISI 1010, k = 64.6 W/m.K
1.23

What are Ti, Tj, and Tr in the wall shown in Fig. 1.22?

Fig. 1.22.

Solution:
L1 = 2 cm = 0.02 m
k1 = 2 W/m.C
L2 = 6 cm = 0.06 m
k2 = 1 W/m.C
L3 = 4 cm = 0.04 m
k3 = 5 W/m.C
L4 = 4 cm = 0.04 m
k4 = 4 W/m.C

k1 (100 Ti ) k 2 ( Ti 25) k 3 ( 25 T j ) k 4 (T j Tr )
=
=
=
L1
L2
L3
L4
k1 (100 Ti ) k 2 ( Ti 25)
=
L1
L2
( 2)(100 Ti ) = (1)( Ti 25)
0.02
0.06

q=

600 6Ti = Ti 25

Ti =89.29 C

k1 (100 Ti ) k3 ( 25 T j )
=
L1
L3
( 2)(100 89.29) = ( 5) ( 25 T j )
0.02
0.04
T j = 16.43 C

31

1. INTRODUCTION

k1 (100 Ti ) k 4 (T j Tr )
=
L1
L4
( 2)(100 89.29 ) = ( 4)(16.43 Tr )
0.02
0.04
( 2)(100 89.29) = ( 4)(16.43 Tr )
0.02
0.04
Tr = 5.72 C
1.24

An aluminum can of beer or soda pop is removed from the refrigerator and set on
the table. If h is 13.5 W/m2.K, estimate when the beverage will be at 15 C.
Ignore thermal radiation. State all of your other assumptions.

Solution:
Properties of aluminum, Table A.1, App. A
= 2707 kg/m3
cp = 905 J/kg.K
k = 237 W/m.K
= 9.61 x 10-5 m2/s
Assume size of can is 50 mm diameter x 100 mm height
Ti = 0 C, and room at T = 20 C
Time constant,
D 2
c
L
4
cV

T=
=
hA
D 2

h
+ DL
2

cDL

T=

2h ( D + 2 L )

D = 0.05 m
L = 0.10 m
h = 13.5 W/m2.K
T=

## ( 2707 )( 905)( 0.05)( 0.10) =

648.1 ns
2(13.5) ( 0.5 + 2( 0.10 ) )

Eq. 1.22.
T T
t
=e T
Ti T
at T = 15 C

32

1. INTRODUCTION

15 20
t
= e 648.1
0 20

t = 898.5 s = 15 minutes
1.25. One large, black wall at 27 C faces another whose surface is 127 C. The gap
between the two walls is evacuated. If the second wall is 0.1 m thick and has a
thermal conductivity of 17.5 W.m.K, what is its temperature on the back side?
(Assume steady state).

Solution:

## T3 = temperature on the back side.

q = T2 T1 =
4

k ( T3 T2 )
L

L = 0.1 m
T1 = 27 C + 273 = 300 K
T2 = 127 C + 273 = 400 K
= 5.6704 x 10-8 W/m2.K
k = 17.5 W/m.K

## q = ( 5.6704 10 8 )( 400 4 300 4 ) =

(17.5)( T

400)
0.10
3

T3 = 405.67 K = 132.67 C.
1.26. A 1-cm diameter, 1 % carbon steel sphere, initially at 200 C, is cooled by natural
convection, with air at 20 C. In this case, h is not independent of temperature.
33

1. INTRODUCTION
Instead, h =3.51(t C)1/4 W/m2.K. Plot Tsphere as a function of t. Verify the lumpedcapacity assumption.
Solution:
Properties of 1% carbon steel, Table A.1
= 7801 kg/m3
cp = 473 J/kg.K
k = 42 W/m.K
= 1.17 x 10-5 m2/s
Verify the lumped-capacity assumption:
Bi

hL
k

t = 200 C 20 C = 180 C
h =3.51(180)1/4 W/m2.K = 12.86 W/m2.K
4 3
r
V 3
r
L= =
=
2
A 4 r
3

## r = (1/2)(1 cm) = 0.005 m

L = 0.005 m / 3 = 0.001667 m
(12.86)( 0.001667 )
Bi
= 0.00051 << 1, therefore valid.
42
Use Lumped-Capacity Method
T = 20 C
Ti = 200 C

Q=

dU
dt

hA( T T ) =

d [ cV (T Tref ) ]
dt

or

d (T T ) hA(T T )
=
dt
cV

h = 3.51( T )

1/ 4

W / m 2 .K = 3.51(T T )

d (T T ) 3.51A(T T )
=
dt
cV

d ( T T )
3.51Adt
=
5/ 4
cV
(T T )

(T T )

5 / 4

d (T T ) =

1/ 4

5/ 4

3.51Adt
cV

34

W / m 2 .K

1. INTRODUCTION
1 T

( 4) ( T T ) 4 = 3.51At

T
cV
i

T
5
1
3.51At
+1
4
5 ( T T )
=
T
cV
4 + 1
i

1
1
0.8775 At

=
1/ 4
1/ 4
cV
(T T )
(Ti T )
A 3
=
V
r

Then,
1
1
0.8775 3
2.6325t

=
( t ) =
1/ 4
1/ 4
c r
cr
( T T )
( Ti T )
Substitute value,
1
1
2.6325t

=
1/ 4
1/ 4
( 7801)( 473)( 0.005)
(T 20)
( 200 20)
1
= 0.000143t + 0.273012
(T 20)1/ 4

(T 20)

1/ 4

(T 20)

1/ 4

1
0.000143t +0.273012
6993
=
t +1909
=

6993
T =
t +1909
+ 20 C

Tabulation:
t,s
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
2000

T, C
200
166.8
140.9
120.4
104.7
91
80.4
64.4
53.4
45.6
40
35.8
32.6
30.2

Plot:
35

1. INTRODUCTION

1.27. A 3-cm diameter, black spherical heater is kept at 1100 C. It radiates through an
evacuated space to a surrounding spherical shell of Nichrome V. The shell has a 9
cm inside diameter and is 0.3 cm thick. It is black on the inside and is held at 25 C
on the outside. Find (a) the temperature of the inner wall of the shell and (b) the
heat transfer, Q. (Treat the shell as a plane wall.)
Solution:
Properties of Nichrome V, Table A.1, Appendix A.
= 8,410 kg/m3
cp = 466 J/kg.K
k = 10 W/m.K
= 0.26 x 10-5 m2/s
Radiation

Qrad = A1 T1 T2
4

T1 = 1100 C = 1373 K
T3 = 25 C + 273 = 298 K
= 5.6704 x 10-8 W/m2.C
Conduction

kA2 ( T3 T2 )
L
2
A1 = 4 r1 , r1 = (1/2)(3 cm) = 1.5 cm = 0.015 m
2
A1 = 4 ( 0.015) m2

Qcond =

36

1. INTRODUCTION

## A2 = 4 r2 , r2 = (1/2)(9 cm) = 4.5 cm = 0.045 m

2
A1 = 4 ( 0.045) m2
2

L = 0.3 cm = 0.003 m
Then

Qrad = Qcond

A1 (T1 T2 ) =
4

kA2 ( T2 T3 )
L

## ( 5.6704 10 )( 4 )( 0.015) [(1373)

2

(1373)

] = (10)( 4 )( 0.045) (T
2

T2

298)

0.003

4

## By trial and error method.

(a) Inner Wall Temperature = T2 = 304.7 K = 31.7 C
(b) Heat Transfer, Q

## Q = A1 T1 T2 = ( 5.6704 10 8 ) ( 4 )( 0.015) ( 1373) ( 304.7 ) = 568.4 W

4

1.28. The sun radiates 650 W/m2 on the surface of a particular lake. At what rate (in
mm/hr) would the lake evaporate if all of this energy went to evaporating water?
Discuss as many other ways you can think of that this energy can be distributed
(hfg for water is 2,257,000 J/kg). Do you suppose much of the 650 W/m 2 goes to
evaporation?
Solution:
q = 650 W/m2 = 2,340,000 J/hr.m2
2,340,000 J / hr.m 2
Evaporation rate = 2,257,000 J / kg = 1.036774 kg/hr.m2

## Density of water = 1000 kg/m3

Evaporation rate =

1.036774 kg / hr.m 2
1000 kg / m 3

1000 mm

1m
=1.036774 mm/hr

There are other ways that this energy can be distributed such as cloud barrier,
heating up of the lake up to evaporation, haze or atmosphere.
Yes, much of the 650 W/m2 goes to evaporation especially on a clear day.

37

1. INTRODUCTION
1.29. It is proposed to make picnic cups, 0.005 m thick, of a new plastic for which k =
ko(1 + aT2), where T is expressed in C, ko = 15 W/m.K, and a = 10-4 C-2. We are
concerned with thermal behavior in the extreme case in which T = 100 C in the
cup and 0 C outside. Plot T against position in the cup wall and find the heat loss,
q.
Solution:
q = k

dT
dx

qdx = ko (1+ aT 2 ) dT

(
T2

q
x =

ko

1+
aT

)dT

q x = ko [T + 13 aT 3 ] T
T1

T2

[(

) (

q x = ko T2 + 13 aT2 T1 + 13 aT1

) (

qx
3
3
= T2 + 13 aT2 T1 + 13 aT1
ko
qx
3
3
T2 + 13 aT2 = T1 + 13 aT1
ko

) (

)]

## Solving for q if,

T1 = 100 C
T2 = 0 C
x = 0.005 m

) (

qx
3
3
= T1 + 13 aT1 T2 + 13 aT2
ko

q ( 0.005)
3
3
= (100 ) + 13 (10 4 )(100 ) ( 0) + 13 (10 4 )( 0 )
0.15
q = 4000 W

] [

Plotting:
Use T1 = 100 C, a = 10-4 C-2, q = 4000 W, ko = 0.15 W/m.K

(T

+ 13 aT2

[(

) = (T +
1

1
3

aT1
3

) (

qx
ko

ko T1 + 13 aT1 T2 + 13 aT2
x =
q
3

x =
4

1
3

4000

## 20 0.15 T2 + (10 4 )T2

x =
4000
1
3

)]

) (T +
2

1
3

aT2

]
38

)]

1. INTRODUCTION

Tabulation:

x, m
0
0.00136
0.00248
0.00342
0.00424
0.00500

T2, C
100
80
60
40
20
0
Heat loss , q = 4000 W

1.30. A disc-shaped wafer of diamond 1 lb is the target of a very high intensity laser.
The disc is 5 mm in diameter and 1 mm deep. The flat side is pulsed intermittently
with 1010 W/m2 of energy for one microsecond. It is then cooled by natural
convection from that same side until the next pulse. If h = 10 W/m2.K and T
=30 C, plot Tdisc as a function of time for pulses that are 50 s apart and 100 s apart.
(Note that you must determine the temperature the disc reaches before it is pulsed
each time.)

Solution:
Properties of Diamond, Table A.2
= 3250 kg/m3
cp = 510 J/kg.K
kb = 1350 W/m.K
= 8.1 x 10-4 m2/s
39

1. INTRODUCTION

L = 1 mm = 0.001 m
Bi =

hL
kb

= 10 W/m2.K
T =30 C
h

Bi =

(10 )( 0.001)

= 0.0000074 << 1
1350
Therefore lumped capacity solution is valid.
t

T T
T
=e
Ti T

For 50 s apart,
On the first pulse, q = 1010 W/m2

Q = q A(time)
A = r 2 , r = (1/2)(5 mm) = 2.5 mm = 0.0025 m

time = 1 s = 1 x 10-6 s
Q = (1010 W/m2)()(0.0025)2(1 x 10-6) = 1.9635 W
Q = cV ( Ti 30 C )
V =r 2L

## Q = ( 3250 )( 510 )( )( 0.0025) ( 0.001)(Ti 30 C )

Ti = 90.33 this is the initial temperature on the first pulse.
T = 90.33 C 30 C = 60.33 C
2

Then:
t

T T
=e T
Ti T
Time constant,
cV
cL ( 3250 )( 510 )( 0.001)
T=
=
=
= 165.75 s
hA
h
10
T =30 C

## For 50 s pulse apart

First 50 s, Ti = 90.33 C
t = 25 s
25

T 30
165.75
=e
90.33 30
T = 81.88 C
40

1. INTRODUCTION

t = 50 s
50

T 30
165.75
=e
90.33 30
T = 74.62 C
Second 50 s, Ti = 60.33 C + 74.62 C = 134.95 C
t = 25 s
25

T 30
= e 165.75
134.95 30
T = 120.26 C
t = 50 s
50

T 30
= e 165.75
134.95 30
T = 107.62 C
Third 50 s, Ti = 60.33 C + 107.62 C = 167.95 C
t = 25 s
25

T 30
= e 165.75
167.95 30
T = 148.64 C
t = 50 s
50

T 30
= e 165.75
167.95 30
T = 132.03 C
And so on.
Tabulation:
1st 50 s
2nd 50 s
3rd 50 s

t, s
0
25
50
50
75
100
100
125
150

Tdisc, C
90.33
81.88
74.62
134.95
120.26
107.62
167.95
148.64
132.03
41

1. INTRODUCTION

Plot:

## For 100 s pulse apart

First 100 s, Ti = 90.33 C
t = 50 s
50

T 30
= e 165.75
90.33 30
T = 74.62 C
t = 100 s
42

1. INTRODUCTION
100

T 30
165.75
=e
90.33 30

T = 63.00 C
Second 100 s, Ti = 60.33 C + 63.00 C = 123.33 C
t = 50 s
50

T 30
= e 165.75
123.33 30
T = 99.03 C
t = 100 s
100

T 30
= e 165.75
123.33 30
T = 81.05 C
Third 100 s, Ti = 60.33 C + 81.05 C = 141.38 C
t = 50 s
50

T 30
= e 165.75
141.38 30
T = 148.64 C
t = 100 s
100

T 30
= e 165.75
141.38 30
T = 112.38 C
And so on.
Tabulation:
st

1 100 s
2nd 100 s
3rd 100 s

t, s
0
50
100
100
150
200
200
250
300

Tdisc, C
90.3.3
74.62
63.00
123.33
99.03
81.05
141.38
112.38
90.93

43

1. INTRODUCTION

Plot:

1.31

A 150 W light bulb is roughly a 0.006 m diameter sphere. Its steady surface
temperature in room air is 90 C, and h on the outside is 7 W/m2.K. What fraction
of the heat transfer from the bulb is by radiation directly from the filament
through the glass? (Stae any additional assumptions.)

Solution:
Assume black body radiation.

Q = h A( Tb Ta ) + A Tb Ta

Q
4
4
= h (Tb Ta ) + Tb Ta
A

)
44

1. INTRODUCTION
Tb = 90 + 273 = 363 K

= 7 W/m2.K.
= 5.6704 x 10-8 W/m2.K4.
Q = 150 W but change to 0.150 W as light bulb is very small. It may be a typographical
error.
h

A = D 2 = 4 r 2

D = 0.006 m
Then:

0.150
4
= ( 7 )( 363 Ta ) + ( 5.6704 10 8 ) 3634 Ta
2
( 0.006 )

## By Trial and Error Method:

Ta = 270.5 K = -2.5 C

Fraction =

Q
Tb Ta
=
4
4
A h ( Tb Ta ) + Tb Ta
4

)=

## ( 5.6704 10 )( 363 270.5 )

( 7 )( 363 270.5) + ( 5.6704 10 )( 363 270.5 )
8

Fraction = 0.5126
1.32

How much entropy does the light bulb in Problem 1.31 produce?

Solution:
1
1
1
1
S Un = Q

= 0.0001413 W/K
T T
= ( 0.15)
270.5 363
b
a

1.33

Air at 20 C flows over one side of a thin metal sheet ( h = 10.6 W/m2.K).
Methanol at 87 C flows over the other side ( h = 141 W/m2.K). The metal
functions as an electrical resistance heater, releasing 1000 W/m 2. Calculate (a) the
heater temperature, (b) the heat transfer from the methanol to the heater, and (c)
the heat transfer from the heat of the air.

Solution:
(a) q = 1000 W/m2
q = h1 ( Th 20 C ) + h2 (Th 87 C )

(10.6)( T

20 ) + (141)( Th 87 ) = 1000
Th = 88.9 C
h

45

1. INTRODUCTION
(b) qm = h2 (Th 87 ) = (141)( 88.9 87 )
qm = 267.9 W
(c) qa = h1 (Th 20 ) = (10.6 )( 88.9 20)
qa = 730.3 W

1.34

## A planar black heater is simultaneously cooled by 20 C air ( h =14.6 W/m2.K) and

by radiation to a parallel black wall at 80 C. What is the temperature of the heater
if it delivers 9000 W/m2 ?

Solution:

4

4

T = 294.3 C
1.35

## An 8-oz. can of beer is taken from a 3 C refrigerator and placed in a 25 C room.

The 6.3 cm diameter by 9 cm high can is placed on an insulated surface ( h =7.3
W/m2.K). How long will it take to reach 12 C? Ignore thermal radiation and
discuss your other assumption.

Solution:
t

T T
=e T
Ti T

## Assume aluminum material for the can of beer,

Properties of aluminum, Table A.1, Appendix A
= 2707 kg/m3
cp = 905 J/kg.K
k = 237 W/m.K
Then,
T=

25 C
Ti = 3 C
T = 12 C
46

1. INTRODUCTION
Time constant:
cV
T =

hA

V = D 2 L
4

D = 6.3 cm = 0.063 m

2

## V = ( 0.063) ( 0.09 ) = 2.8055 x 10-4 m3

4

2
A = D 2 ( 2 ) + DL = ( 0.063) ( 2 ) + ( 0.063)( 0.09 ) = 0.02405 m2
4
4

T=

= 3915 s
( 7.3)( 0.02405)
4

12 25
= e 3915
3 25

## t = 2314 sec = 38.6 min

1.36

A resistance heater in the form a thin sheet runs parallel with 3 cm slabs of cast
iron on either side of an evacuated cavity. The heater, which releases 8000 W/m 2,
and the cast iron are very nearly black. The outside surfaces of the cast iron slabs
are kept at 10 C. Determine the heater temperature and the inside slab
temperatures.

Solution:

q = 8000 W/m2

47

1. INTRODUCTION
Properties of cast iron, Table A.1, Appendix A
= 7272 kg/m3
cp = 420 J/kg.K
kb = 52 W/m.K
L = 3 cm = 0.03 m
Inside slab temperature,
(10C T )
q = k
= 8000 W/m2
L
(10 T )
q = ( 52 )
0.03
T = 14.62 C
Heater temperature,

q = Th T 4 = 8000 W/m2
4

## q = ( 5.6704 10 8 ) ( Th + 273) (14.62 + 273) = 8000 W/m2

Th = 347.2 C
1.37

A black wall at 1200 C radiated to the left side of a parallel slab of type 316
stainless steel, 5 mm thick. The right side of the slab is to be cooled convectively
and is not to exceed 0 C. Suggest a convective proceed that will achieve this.

Solution:

1.38

A cooler keeps one side of a 2 cm layer of ice at 10 C. The other side is exposed
to air at 15 C. What is h just on the edge of melting? Must h be raised or
lowered if melting is to progress?
48

1. INTRODUCTION

Solution:
Melting point of ice = 0 C
Thermal Conductivity of ice at 0 C = 2.215 W/m.K

k ( T2 T1 )
= h ( T2 T3 )
L
k ( T2 T1 )
= h ( T3 T2 )
L
k ( T2 T1 )
= h ( T3 T2 )
L

q=

T1 = -10 C
T2 = 0 C
T3 = 15 C
L = 2 cm = 0.02 m
Then,
( 2.215) ( 0 ( 10) ) = h (15 0)
0.02
h = 73.83 W/m2.K
If the melting is to progress the thickness will reduce and h must be raised.
1.39

## At what minimum temperature does a black heater deliver its maximum

monochromatic emissive power in the visible range? Compare your result with
Fig. 10.2.

Solution:
Figure 1.15 or Wiens Law, Eq. (1.29)
( T ) e =max = 2898 m.K
Minimum visible range, = 0.4545 m
Then:
(0.4545 m)(Tmin) = 2898 m.K
Tmin = 6376 K
From Fig. 10.2 , T = 5900 K
1.40

The local heat transfer coefficient during the laminar flow of fluid over a flat plate
of length L is equal to F / x1/2, where F is a function of fluid properties and the
flow velocity. How does h compares with h (x = L). (x is the distance from the
leading edge of the plate.)
49

1. INTRODUCTION

1.41

## An object is initially at a temperature above that of its surroundings. We have

seen that many kinds of convection processes will bring the object into
equilibrium with its surroundings. Describe the characteristics of a process that
will do so with the least net increase of the entropy of the universe.

Solution:
1
Tb 1

S = cV Tbo
T T
dTb
b

Determine Tb for least net increase of the entropy of the universe.

1 1
=0
T Tb
Tb =T

T Tbo
T
S = cV
ln
Tbo
T
T T
Tbo
S = cV bo
ln
T

T
The characteristic of the process is unsteady state conduction having Biot number
increasing from less than one to more than one when reaching equilibrium at Tb =T .

1.42 A 250 C cylindrical copper billet, 4 cm in diameter and 8 cm long is cooled in air
at 25 C. The heat transfer coefficient is 5 W/m 2.K Can this be treated as lump-capacity
cooling? What is the temperature of the billet after 10 minutes?
Solution:
Check Biot Number
Properties of copper, Table A.1, App. A
= 8954 kg/m3
cp = 384 J/kg.K
kb = 398 W/m.K
Time constant:
cV
T =

hA

V = D 2 L
4

D = 4 cm = 0.04 m, L = 8 cm = 0.08 m

2
V = ( 0.04 ) ( 0.08) = 1.0053 x 10-4 m3
4

50

1. INTRODUCTION

2
A = D 2 ( 2 ) + DL = ( 0.04) ( 2 ) + ( 0.04 )( 0.08) = 0.012566 m2
4
4

T=

## ( 8954)( 384) (1.0053 10 )

= 5501 s
( 5)( 0.012566)
4

Biot Number
Bi =

hL
kb

L =0.02 m

Bi =

( 5)( 0.02)

= 0.00025 << 1
398
Therefore lumped capacity cooling is valid.
t

T T
=e T
Ti T

t = 10 min = 600 s
600

T 25
5501
=e
250 25
T = 226.75 C

1.43

## The suns diameter is 1,392,000 km, and it emerges as if it were a blackbody at

5777 K. Determine the rate at which it emits energy. Compare with a value from
the literature. What is the suns energy output in a year?

Solution:
q = AT 4

A =r2

## r = (1/2)(1,392,000 km) = 696,000 km = 6.96 x 108 m

q = ( 5.6704 10 8 W / m 2 .K )( 4 ) ( 6.96 108 m ) ( 5777 K )
2

## q = 3.8446 x 1026 Watts

From http://www.uwmc.uwc.edu/geography/100/rad-temp.htm
q = 3.865 x 1026 Watts
q = (3.8446 x 1026 W)(8760 hr/yr)(3600 s/hr) = 1.212434 x 1034 J/year
-

End 51