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Machine Vibration Measurement

Presented by Joko Ismiyanto

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Joko Ismiyanto

Pendahuluan

Principles of vibration
Vibration measurement (how to measure correct data
analysis)
Time waveform
Spectrum FFT

Time waveform vs Spectrum FFT


Interpreting Pattern of spectrum and TWF

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Joko Ismiyanto

for

Vibration and Mechanical Vibration

Getaran adalah gerakan bolak-balik suatu benda disekitar satu posisi


referensi.
Getaran mekanis adalah getaran yg dapat dirasakan dan diukur pada
permukaan mesin, pondasi dll, dirambatkan melalui benda padat

Terjadi jika ada massa yang bergerak (berputar, berosilasi dan lain-lain).

Dalam batas tertentu diperbolehkan,

Tidak boleh melebihi batas yang diijinkan.

Sesuatu yang inherent (bagian yang melekat) pada sistem yang memiliki
komponen yang bergerak

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What cause vibration

Repeating forces (gaya yang berulang)


Looseness (kendor)

Resonance (resonansi)

Repeating Forces

Almost all machine vibration caused by repeating forces

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Repeating forces :
Imbalanced

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Repeating forces :
Misalignment

Worn (aus)

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Repeating forces :
Improperly driven machines

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Looseness (kendor)

Resonance (resonansi)

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Play

Joko Ismiyanto

Why monitor machine vibration

Give understanding about health condition of a machine


The information from monitoring can be used to detect the
problem that might be develop, and can be prevent before the
problem getting worst.
These problem below will appears if the monitoring program is not
implemented and the consequences cost will raise even bigger
than monitoring program:
- Severe machine damage
- High power consumption
- Machine unavailability
- Unnecessary maintenance
- Quality problem

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Joko Ismiyanto

How is machine vibration described ?

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Joko Ismiyanto

How is machine vibration described ?

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Joko Ismiyanto

How is machine vibration described ?

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Joko Ismiyanto

Waveform

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Joko Ismiyanto

Waveform

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Joko Ismiyanto

Spectrum

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Joko Ismiyanto

How is machine vibration measured ?

The keys to answer the question above are :

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform - Spectrum Frekuensi

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform - Spectrum Frekuensi

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform - Spectrum Frekuensi

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform - Spectrum Frekuensi

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform - Spectrum Frekuensi

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform - Spectrum Frekuensi

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
Lebar frekuensi pengukuran
Design of equipment (bearing type)
Nature of vibration (frekuensi dan
amplitude) frekuensi komponen dan
frekuensi operasi
Tujuan pengukuran: periodic
monitoring, fault analysis, condition
evaluation, acceptance testing,
parameter identification

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
Perpindahan (Displacement):
Jarak benda dari titik referensi, mils peak to peak atau mm
peak to peak.
Displacement menunjukkan tingkat stress.

Kecepatan (Velocity)
Menunjukkan besarnya perubahan jarak persatuan waktu.
inches per second peak atau mm per second RMS.
Velocity menunjukkan energi getaran.

Percepatan (Acceleration)
Menunjukkan perubahan kecepatan per satuan waktu.
Percepatan umumnya diukur dalam G RMS.
Percepatan sebanding dengan gaya getaran.

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Vibration Measurement

Type / jenis sensor (transducer) getaran :


Relative shaft vibration - displacement type
Absolute vibration accelerometer & velocity types

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Vibration Transducer/Pickup

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Vibration Transducer/Pickup

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Vibration Measurement

Skema Vibration Analyzer


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Vibration Measurement
Four (4) Keys Measurement Setting
(1) Fmax = Maximum Frequency

This dictates the highest frequency that can be displayed in the spectrum
It aslo effects the actual resolution
A higher fmax reduces actual resolution and shorten measurement time
(2) LOR = Line of Resolution
This effect the detail you can see in the spectrum
Example: 800, 1600, 3200 lines
A higher fmax reduces actual resolution and shorten measurement time
(3) Number of Averages

Reduces the effect of noise


Ensure that you can compares the data between measurement
(4) Unit : Displacement, velocity, acceleration

Displacement : Journal bearing machines and low speed machines


Velocity : General fault diagnosis
Acceleration : high frequency analysis, bearing, gear mesh

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
(1) Fmax = Maximum Frequency

Make sure that you know what is important about the machine :
type of the machine, speed, configuration, what is the important of
source of the vibration, when there is a fault condition.

Its often useful to take two measurement, 1st measurement is


intended on zoom in measurement to area that you know it will be
any interesting information and 2nd measurement is back to zoom out
measurement and getting more information.

Make sure to listening all important information the machine will


generate

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
FREQUENCY SPANS / FMAX (lebar frekuensi)
Component

Span

Shaft vibration

10 x RPM

Gearbox

3 x GM

Rolling element bearings

10 x BPFI

Pumps

3 x VP

Fans
Motors/Generators

3 x BP
3 x 2LF

Sleeve Bearings

10 x RPM

Engines

12 x RPM

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Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Vibration Measurement
Averages

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Vibration Measurement
How many averages to use
Do a test on your machine :

Set the analyzer to free run watch the live data


Set the averages as long as possible, but it will be
limited by the long of average time and memory, more
average more time taken.
The most important from averages are that we get
good representation of the vibration on the machine
and get a good repeatability.

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

Use peak hold averaging


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Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
Averaging Process
Record twf average

Do FFT process

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Windowing process

Do FFT averaging

Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

The keys is we have to listening


machine long enough to get
legitimate data by decreasing the
overlap average and increasing the
number of average

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
Amplitude Modulation
The carrier is the original sinewave. The modulating frequency is
typically a lower amplitude and frequency.
The modulating frequency is always related to the carrier frequency.
The amplitude of the sinewave is change periodically
Forming sideband on spectrum

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
Amplitude Modulation
Sideband can vary in a number of ways :
Around different carrier
Around harmonics
Different number of sideband
Different amplitude relative to the center/carrier frequency

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Vibration Measurement
Frequency Modulation
The frequency of the sinewave is change periodically.
Imagine the machine very slightly slowing down and speeding up
periodically.
As gear mesh together, and there is any eccentricity and gear teeth
mess, then there is will be any variation on the speed. When gear
teeth mess at eccentricity the speed will be slightly slowing down and
then back to the normal speed.
Variation in speed mean variation in frequency

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
Demodulation (enveloping) technique
Assume we have have ball bearing with a fault on the outer race, Every time the ball
hit the fault, its creates a ring. The timewave form of the bearing is more like below :

The process of demodulation focuses on the


frequency being
rung and the rate at which it rings louder. It
removes the frequency or sound of the ringing
itself (high
frequency) and returns the rate at which it is
getting rung.

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Vibration Measurement
Demodulation (enveloping) technique

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Vibration Measurement

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Vibration Measurement
PeakVue
PeakVue is technology unique to CSI and means Peak Value use for
detecting bearing fault at earlier stage
Such as the Peak Value of an impact generated by a bearing defect in a
timewave form (True Peak Value)
The True Peak value is obtained by focusing on Stress Wave Analysis
rather than conventional vibration data
The stress wave accompany with metal to metal impacting. These stress waves
are short term (a fraction of few millisecond) transient event which
introduce a ripple effect on machinery surface (Like the effect of the stone
being dropped in the water)
If a bearing has a early bearing wear, when a rolling element passes over the
defect it bend the race slightly and then as the rolling element passes it
restores back to its natural state.
This event causes a high frequency (1-50KHz) short duration stress wave

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Pengukuran Getaran
PeakVue How Does It Work?

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Pengukuran Getaran

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Pengukuran Getaran

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Vibration Measurement
Peak Hold (coast down run up) Resonance Meas.
Resonance is a very common cause of excessive machine vibration.
Resonance is the result of an external force vibrating at the same frequency
as the natural frequency of a system.
Its therefore important that the running speed of equipment be out of the
resonance range.

Technique used to confirm a resonance


It is very important to confirm a resonance phenomenon by at least 2 different type
of technique before trying to correct it.

Impact Test
Strike the equipment with a mass and measure the response. This type of test must
performed with equipment off. This way you can easily identify the natural
frequency of the equipment.

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
Peak Hold (coast down run up) Resonance Meas.
Impact Test Using an Instrumented Hammer
Basically the same as regular impact test, but the hammer equipped with
accelerometer at the end, and is used in tandem with the sensor used to measure
the vibration. A two channel analyzer needed to measure force induced to the
system by hammer and response at different frequencies.
When the phase shifted 90, the frequency at which is occurs is the natural
frequency.

Coast down / Run Up Peak Hold Function


Another method used is to monitor the vibration level using peak hold function,
that can only be done using smart modern machinery analyzer. The idea behind this
function is to capture peak vibration during decrement or increment of speed.
On case of coast down peak hold, peak vibration captured during down time
process. If the vibration levels start rising at any time while equipment is being shut
down, the speed at which the amplitude increase is a possible natural frequency
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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement
Peak Hold (coast down run up) Resonance Meas.
Coast down / Run Up Peak Hold Phase Function
Its same method with coast down/run up peak hold, but with addition of installing
photo tach and reflecting tape on the rotating shaft of equipment. Then you can
monitor the peak vibration and the phase. This will allow you to see the amplitude
and phase shift at all running speed. If no resonance, the vibration should drop at
steady state. If the vibration peak at a certain speed and the phase shift by 180 this
indicate natural frequency of equipment or structure. The actual natural frequency
is the frequency situated in the middle of the phase shfit (90).

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Pengukuran Getaran

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Pengukuran Getaran

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Joko Ismiyanto

Pengukuran Getaran

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Joko Ismiyanto

Pengukuran Getaran

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Joko Ismiyanto

Pengukuran Getaran

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Joko Ismiyanto

Pengukuran Getaran

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Joko Ismiyanto

Pengukuran Getaran

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Joko Ismiyanto

Vibration Measurement

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Terminology

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Terminology
FTF - Fundamental Train Frequency
Frekuensi dimana cage/retainer berputar bersama dengan
rolling element
BSF - Ball Spin Frequency
Frekuensi putaran rolling element.
BPFO - Ball Pass Frequency of Outer Race
Frekuensi dimana rolling element melewati suatu titik
pada outer race.
BPFI - Ball Pass Frequency of Inner Race
Frekuensi dimana rolling element melewati suatu titik
pada outer race.
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Terminology
Ball pass frequency inner race
BPFI

Nb
1
2

Bd
cos
Pd

Asumsi umum Bd/Pd cos

xRPM
=2

sehingga:
BPFI = 0.6 x Nb x RPM
Dimana:
Pd = Diameter Pitch
Bd = Diameter bola
Nd = jumlah bola
= sudut kontak
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Terminology

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Terminology
CRITICAL SPEED
Putaran operasional suatu mesin yang pas sama atau
dekat dengan frekuensi natural dari mesin tersebut.
Mesin yang beroperasi pada kondisi critical speednya akan bergetar berlebihan karena resonansi.
Untuk menghindari mesin rusak, jangan
mengoperasikan mesin pada kondisi critical speednya
terlalu lama. Ketika melewati kondisi tersebut, putaran
mesin harus secepatnya dinaikkan atau diturunkan.

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Terminology
First Order Vibration atau 1X Vibration
Getaran mesin yang berputar yang disebabkan oleh
unbalance shaft. Frekuensi dalam Hz dihitung dengan cara
RPM/60

Resolution
(FMAX FMIN)/Number of Lines of Resolution
FMAX = Limit frekuensi maximum dari spectrum yg dievaluasi
FMIN = Limit frekuensi minimum dari spectrum yg dievaluasi

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Terminology
Gear Mesh Frequency (GMF)
Frekuensi getaran dari setiap mesin yang mempunyai gear,
sama dengan jumlah gigi gear x frekuensi putar gear

Gear Mesh = jumlah gigi gear x putaran shaft

2625 rpm
8 teeth

GMF= 21k CPM


1500 rpm
14 teeth

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Terminology
High-Pass Filter
Peralatan penyaring yang memisahkan komponenkomponen dari suatu sinyal dan hanya mengijinkan
sinyal dengan frekuensi diatas frekuensi yang dipilih

Natural Frequency
Frekuensi dari getaran bebas suatu benda/system
saat dieksitasi dengan impact force. (Frekuensi alami
benda/system tersebut)

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Terminology
Harmonics
Frekuensi dari komponen yang merupakan hasil kali
bilangan bulat (integer) dari fundamental frequency

Orders
Unit dari frekuensi yang unik pada rotating machine
dimana first order (1X) sama dengan rotational speed.
Berbeda dengan harmonics yang merupakan
perkalian bilangan bulat dari fundamental frequency,
order tidak selalu bil. bulat (bisa) pecahan, contoh :
1.2X, 6.3X dsb.
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Terminology
Orbit
Pola pergerakan centerline shaft selama berputar. Bisa dilihat menggunakan
oscilloscope yang dihubungkan dengan tranducer yang dipasang secara X
dan Y berbeda 90. Beberapa vibration analyzer memiliki kapabilitas untuk
menyajikan orbit.

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Terminology
Overall Level
Nilai pengukuran dari total amplitudo getaran pada range
frekuensi yang telah ditentukan. Nilai ini dapat diukur
menggunakan meter analog getaran atau dihitung dari
spectrum getaran dengan cara menjumlah semua nilai
amplitudo yang berada dalam range frekuensi yang telah
ditentukan

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Terminology
Phase
Perbedaan waktu relatif antara dua sinyal diukur dalam
unit sudut (angle). Dan hanya berarti jika dua sinyal yang
diukur mempunyai frekuensi sama. Diukur dengan cara
two channel measurement.

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Terminology
Sidebands
Komponen spektrum yang dihasilkan dari modulasi amplitudo
atau modulasi frekuensi. Jarak frekuensi dari sideband sama
dengan besarnya modulasi frekuensi, digunakan untuk
mendiagnosa mesin. Sebagai contoh, gear yang rusak akan
muncul sideband pada frekuensi putaran gear.

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Terminology
Synchronous
Komponen spektrum yang berasal dari perkalian bilangan bulat
atau harmonics dari frekuensi fundamental.

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Terminology
Sub-Synchronous
Komponen dari sinyal getaran yang mempunyai
frekuensi kurang dari frekuensi putaran shaft (1X RPM)

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Terminology

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Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Time Waveform (TWF) vs FFT

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

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Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

PT. NUSANTARA TURBIN & PROPULSI

Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

PT. NUSANTARA TURBIN & PROPULSI

Joko Ismiyanto

Interpreting spectrum & TWF pattern

PT. NUSANTARA TURBIN & PROPULSI

Joko Ismiyanto