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2ND EDITION

MATHS QUEST 12
Mathematical
Methods CAS

MATHS QUEST 12
Mathematical
Methods CAS
BRIAN HODGSON | NICOLAOS KARANIKOLAS | BEVERLY LANGSFORD-WILLING
MARK DUNCAN | TRACY HERFT | LIBBY KEMPTON | JENNIFER NOLAN | GEOFF PHILLIPS
CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS
RAYMOND ROZEN | MARGARET SWALE | ROBERT CAHN | RUTH BAKOGIANIS
ANDREW MENTLIKOWSKI | MARK BARNES | KYLIE BOUCHER | JENNY WATSON | CAROLINE DENNEY
SONJA STAMBULIC | ELENA IAMPOLSKY | ROSS ALLEN | RODNEY EBBAGE

2ND EDITION

VCE M AT H EM AT I CS U N I T S 3 & 4

Second edition published 2013 by


John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd
42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064
First edition published 2010
Typeset in 10/12 pt Times LT Std
John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2010, 2013
The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.
National Library of Australia
Cataloguing-in-Publication data
Author:
Title:
Edition:
Publisher:
ISBN:
Notes:
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Dewey number:

Hodgson, Brian
Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods
CAS/Brian Hodgson et al.
2nd ed.
Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia,
2009.
978 1 118 31068 7 (student pbk)
978 1 118 31081 6 (flexisaver)
978 1 118 31070 0 (student eBook)
Includes index.
For secondary school age.
Mathematics Textbooks.
510

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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents
Introduction viii
About eBookPLUS x
Acknowledgements xi

ExAm PrACtICE 1

Based on chapters 12
Chapter 3

Chapter 1

Graphs and polynomials


1A The binomial theorem

Exponential and logarithmic equations

4
5
Exercise 1B 7
Division of polynomials 8
Exercise 1C 10
Linear graphs 11
Exercise 1D 14
Quadratic graphs 15
Exercise 1E 20
Cubic graphs 22
Exercise 1F 25
Quartic graphs 29
Exercise 1G 33
Solving systems of equations
Exercise 1H 42

Exercise 1A

1D
1E
1F
1G
1H

3B
3C
3D
3E
3F
3G
3H

34

3I

Summary 44
Chapter review 47
ICT activities 52
Answers 53

Chapter 2

Functions and transformations

57

2C
2D
2E
2F
2G
2H
2I
2J

57
Exercise 2A 62
The cubic function in power form 63
Exercise 2B 67
The power function (the hyperbola) 68
Exercise 2C 72
The power function (the truncus) 75
Exercise 2D 79
The square root function in power form 81
Exercise 2E 85
The absolute value function 86
Exercise 2F 89
Transformations with matrices 90
Exercise 2G 94
Sum, difference and product functions 95
Exercise 2H 98
Composite functions and functional equations
Exercise 2I 101
Modelling 101
Exercise 2J 106

Summary 109
Chapter review 112
ICT activities 118
Answers 119

129
Exercise 3A 132
Logarithm laws 133
Exercise 3B 136
Exponential equations 137
Exercise 3C 140
Logarithmic equations using any base 141
Exercise 3D 143
Exponential equations (base e) 144
Exercise 3E 146
Equations with natural (base e) logarithms 147
Exercise 3F 147
Inverses 148
Exercise 3G 149
Literal equations 150
Exercise 3H 151
Exponential and logarithmic modelling 152
Exercise 3I 153

Summary 156
Chapter review 157
ICT activities 160
Answers 161

Chapter 4

2A Transformations and the parabola


2B

129

3A The index laws

1B Polynomials
1C

127

Exponential and logarithmic graphs

163

4A Graphs of exponential functions with any base


4B
4C
4D
4E

4F
4G

99
4H

163
Exercise 4A 170
Logarithmic graphs to any base 171
Exercise 4B 177
Graphs of exponential functions with base e 178
Exercise 4C 182
Logarithmic graphs to base e 183
Exercise 4D 186
Finding equations for graphs of exponential and
logarithmic functions 187
Exercise 4E 189
Addition of ordinates 190
Exercise 4F 194
Exponential and logarithmic functions with absolute
values 196
Exercise 4G 198
Exponential and logarithmic modelling using
graphs 199
Exercise 4H 200

Summary 203
Chapter review 205
ICT activities 210
Answers 211

7E The derivative of e x

Chapter 5

Inverse functions

223

5A Relations and their inverses

Exercise 5A

227

5B Functions and their inverses

Exercise 5B

Exercise 5D

7H

232

235

5D Restricting functions

7G

228

231

5C Inverse functions

Exercise 5C

7F

223

7I

236

241

7J

Summary 244
Chapter review 245
ICT activities 249
Answers 250

Chapter 6

Circular (trigonometric) functions

259

6A Revision of radians and the unit circle


6B
6C
6D
6E
6F
6G
6H
6I

259
Exercise 6A 262
Symmetry and exact values 263
Exercise 6B 268
Trigonometric equations 270
Exercise 6C 275
Trigonometric graphs 276
Exercise 6D 280
Graphs of the tangent function 282
Exercise 6E 285
Finding equations of trigonometric graphs 286
Exercise 6F 288
Trigonometric modelling 289
Exercise 6G 290
Further graphs 292
Exercise 6H 297
Trigonometric functions with an increasing
trend 298
Exercise 6I 298

Summary 300
Chapter review 303
ICT activities 306
Answers 307

Applications of differentiation

365

8A Equations of tangents and normals


8B
8C

8D

8E
8F
8G

365
Exercise 8A 366
Sketching curves 367
Exercise 8B 373
Maximum and minimum problems when the
function is known 374
Exercise 8C 377
Maximum and minimum problems when the
function is unknown 378
Exercise 8D 382
Rates of change 383
Exercise 8E 385
Related rates 387
Exercise 8F 389
Linear approximation 390
Exercise 8G 391

Summary 393
Chapter review 394
ICT activities 398
Answers 399

9B

317

Exercise 7A 321
7B Limits and differentiation from first
principles 325
Exercise 7B 328
7C The derivative of xn 330
Exercise 7C 331
7D The chain rule 332
Exercise 7D 334
Contents

Chapter 8

403

9A Antidifferentiation

315

7A Review gradient and rates of change

vi

Summary 353
Chapter review 355
ICT activities 359
Answers 360

Integration

Chapter 7

Differentiation

341

Chapter 9

ExAm PrACtICE 2

Based on chapters 16

335
Exercise 7E 337
The derivative of loge (x) 338
Exercise 7F 340
The derivatives of sin (x), cos (x) and tan (x)
Exercise 7G 343
The product rule 344
Exercise 7H 345
The quotient rule 346
Exercise 7I 347
Mixed problems on differentiation 348
Exercise 7J 351

9C

317
9D
9E
9F
9G

403
Exercise 9A 409
Integration of e x, sin (x) and cos (x) 411
Exercise 9B 413
Integration by recognition 414
Exercise 9C 417
Approximating areas enclosed by functions 418
Exercise 9D 421
The fundamental theorem of integral calculus 423
Exercise 9E 426
Signed areas 427
Exercise 9F 430
Further areas 432
Exercise 9G 435

9H Areas between two curves

437
Exercise 9H 439
9I Average value of a function 441
Exercise 9I 444
9J Further applications of integration
Exercise 9J 447

11D Expected value, variance and standard deviation of

the binomial distribution


Exercise 11D 550

445

Summary 449
Chapter review 452
ICT activities 456
Answers 457

Summary 554
Chapter review 555
ICT activities 559
Answers 560

Chapter 12

Continuous distributions

Based on chapters 19

463

12B

Chapter 10

Discrete random variables


10A Probability revision

465

465

12C

477

10B Discrete random variables

479
Exercise 10B 484
10C Measures of centre of discrete random
distributions 487
Exercise 10C 492
10D Measures of variability of discrete random
distributions 494
Exercise 10D 501

563

12A Continuous random variables

ExAm PrACtICE 3

Exercise 10A

547

Summary 504
Chapter review 506
ICT activities 511
Answers 512

12D
12E
12F
12G

Chapter 11

The binomial distribution

515

11A The binomial distribution

515

Exercise 11A 523


11B Problems involving the binomial distribution for
multiple probabilities 526
Exercise 11B 529
11C Markov chains and transition matrices 532
Exercise 11C 543

563
Exercise 12A 566
Using a probability density function to
find probabilities of continuous random
variables 568
Exercise 12B 572
Measures of central tendency and
spread 575
Exercise 12C 580
Applications to problem solving 581
Exercise 12D 584
The normal distribution 586
Exercise 12E 589
The standard normal distribution 591
Exercise 12F 597
The inverse cumulative normal
distribution 599
Exercise 12G 602

Summary 605
Chapter review 608
ICT activities 612
Answers 613

ExAm PrACtICE 4

Based on chapters 112

617

Exam practice answers

619

Cumulative exam practice


Answers

Index

621

642

645

Contents

vii

Introduction
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viii

Introduction

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Acknowledgements

xi

Chapter 1

Graphs and polynomials


DiGitaL DoC
doc-9159
10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS
1a
1B
1C
1D
1e
1F
1G
1h

The binomial theorem


Polynomials
Division of polynomials
Linear graphs
Quadratic graphs
Cubic graphs
Quartic graphs
Solving systems of equations

1a

the binomial theorem

In Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS we learned the following binomial expansions:
(x + a)2 = x2 + 2xa + a2
(x + a)3 = x3 + 3x2a + 3xa2 + a3
These are called binomial expansions because the expressions in the brackets contain two terms,
bi meaning 2.
By continuing to multiply successively by a further (x + a), the following expansions would be
obtained:
(x + a)4 = (x3 + 3x2a + 3xa2 + a3)(x + a)
= x4 + 4x3a + 6x2a2 + 4xa3 + a3
5
(x + a) = (x4 + 4x3a + 6x2a2 + 4xa3 + a3)(x + a)
= x5 + 5x4a + 10x3a2 + 10x2a3 + 5xa4 + a5
The coefficients associated with each term can be arranged in a triangular shape as shown:
(x + a)0

(x + a)1

(x + a)2

(x + a)3

(x + a)4
(x + a)5

1
1

2
3

4
5

1
1
3
6

10

1
4

10

1
5

Notes
1. The first and last numbers of each row are 1.
2. Each other number is the sum of the two numbers immediately above it.
Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

This triangle is known as Pascals triangle. Each number can also be obtained using combinations, as
follows.
Row
0

0

1

1

1

0

2

1

2

0

3

1

3

0

3
4

0

4

1

2

2
3

2

4

2

3

3
4

3

4

4

n
n!
Note: = nCr =
( n r )! r !
r

n
Remember that nCr is another way of writing , and is called n-choose-r.
r

For example, the expansion of (x + a)6 can be written using combinations and then evaluated:
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
(x + a)6 = x6a0 + x5a1 + x4a2 + x3a3 + x2a4 + x1a5 + x0a6
0
1
2
3
4
5






6
6
5
4
2
3
3
2
4
4
6
= x + 6x a + 15x a + 20x a + 15x a + 6xa + a
Now the binomial theorem can be formally stated.
n
n
n
n
(ax + b)n = (ax)nb0 + (ax)n 1b1 + . . . +
(ax)1bn 1 + (ax)0bn
0
1
n 1
n
Notes
1. The indices in each term always sum to n, that is, the powers of (ax) and b sum to n.
2. The power of ax decreases from left to right while the power of b increases.
3. The number of terms in the expansion is always n + 1.
n
4. The (r + 1)th term is (ax)n r br.
r
The binomial theorem can also be stated using summation notation:
n

n
(ax + b)n = (ax)n rbr, where
r = 0 r

means the sum of n + 1 terms from r = 0 to r = n.

r= 0

WorkeD exampLe 1

Use the binomial theorem to expand (2x 3)4.


think
1

Complete the binomial theorem expansion


where ax is the 1st term, b is the 2nd term and
n is the index, using the appropriate row of
Pascals triangle to assist.

Write

4
4
(2x 3)4 = (2x)4(3)0 + (2x)3(3)1
0
1
4
4
+ (2x)2(3)2 + (2x)1(3)3
2
3
4
+ (2x)0(3)4
4

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Evaluate the combinations and the powers.

= 1(16x4) + 4(8x3)(3) + 6(4x2)(9)


+ 4(2x)(27) + 1(81)

Simplify.

= 16x4 96x3 + 216x2 216x + 81

WorkeD exampLe 2
5
2

Expand the binomial expression 2 + x .


x

think
1

Write

Complete the binomial expansion where


2
ax = 2 , b = x and n = 5, using row 5 of Pascals
x
triangle to assist.

5
5
4
3
2

2
2
2 2
2 + x = 2 + 5 2 x + 10 2 x
x
x
x
x
2
2
2
+10 2 x 3 + 5 2 x 4 + x 5
x
x

Evaluate the powers.

Simplify.

32
16
8
+ 5 8 x + 10 6 x 2
10

x
x
x
2
4
+10 4 x 3 + 5 2 x 4 + x 5
x
x
32 80 80 40
+
+
+
+ 10 x 2 + x 5
x10 x 7 x 4
x

WorkeD exampLe 3

State the coefficient of i x2 and

ii x4 in (3 2x)8, without the use of technology.

think

Write

i 1 The powers of the 1st term decrease and

i x0, x1, x2

the powers of the 2nd term increase 0, 1,


2, . . . Use this to find which term gives a
power of x2.
2

Find the appropriate term by using the


binomial theorem.

Evaluate the term.

State the coefficient.

ii 1 Find which term gives a power of x4.

Evaluate the term.

tUtoriaL
eles-1173
Worked example 3

The third term gives a power of x2.

8
Third term = 36 (2x)2
2
= 28 729 4x2
= 81 648x2
The coefficient of x2 is 81 648.
ii x0, x1, x2, x3, x4

The fifth term gives a power of x4.


8
Fifth term = 34 (2x)4
4
= 70 81 16x4
= 90 720x4

State the coefficient.

The coefficient of the fifth term is 90 720.

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

WorkeD exampLe 4

Find the fourth term in the expansion of (x 2y)5.


think

Write

Find the fourth term by using the binomial theorem.

Evaluate the term.

5
Fourth term = x2(2y)3
3
= 10 x2 8y3
= 80x2y3

WorkeD exampLe 5

1 5

Find and evaluate the term that is independent of x in the expansion of x 3 + 2 .

x
think
1

Write

Find how the powers of x are generated


in the expansion from left to right.

1
Powers of x are (x3)5 = x15, (x3)4 2 = x10,
x
2
3
1
1
(x 3)3 2 = x5, (x 3)2 2 = x0 . . .
x
x

Find the required term.

Evaluate.

State the solution.

that is, x15, x10, x 5, x 0, x 5, x 10


The fourth term is independent of x, as the
power of x = 0.
3
5
1
Fourth term = ( x 3 )2 2
x
3
1
6
= 10 x 6
x
= 10
The term that is independent of x is the fourth
term, 10.

WorkeD exampLe 6

Find the coefficient of y4 in the expansion of ( y + 3)3 (2 y)5.


think
1

Write

y4 terms will result when multiplying from the first and


second brackets respectively: terms 1 and 2, terms
2 and 3, terms 3 and 4 and terms 4 and 5.
Write down the sum of these 4 products, using
y4 terms = y3[5(2)4(y)] + 3y2(3)[10(2)3(y)2]
Pascals triangle to assist.
+ 3y(3)2[10(2)2(y)3] + 33[5(2)(y)4]

Evaluate.

State the solution.

exercise 1a
DiGitaL DoC
doc-9238
SkillSHEET 1.1
Binomial expansions

1 We1

= 80y4 + 720y4 1080y4 + 270y4


= 170y4
The coefficient of y4 is 170.

the binomial theorem

Use the binomial theorem to expand each of the following.


b (x + 4)5
c (x 1)8
4
e (7 x)
f (2 3x)5

a (x + 3)2
d (2x + 3)4

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 We2 Expand each of the following binomial expansions.

1 3
x

2 7
x

a x +

b 3x

5
3

2
x

x2

6
2 3
x +
x

State the coefficient of i x2 ii x3 and iii x4 in each of the following.

3 We3

a (x 7)3

2
c + 3 x

b (2x + 1)5

3 6

d x2

e 7x +

D 45

e 135

3 6

x2

5 3
x

4 mC The coefficient of x3 in 3 x 2 is:

a 135

B 45

C 75

5 mC Which of the following does not have an x5 term when expanded?

a (x + 6)8

6 mC If x 3 +
a 15

B 3x 2

1 7

C 6 x +

5 8

D (8 3x)5

1 8

2
x

x2

2 5
e
f
= ax15 + bx10 + cx 5 + d + 5 + 10 , then a + b + c + d + e + f equals:
2

x
x
x
B 31
C 63
D 243
e 127

7 mC Which one of the following expressions is not equal to (2x 3)4?


a (3

2x)4

D 16x4 24x3 + 36x2 54x + 81

B (2x 3)(2x

3)3

(2 x 3)6
(3 2 x)2

e 16x4 96x3 + 216x2 216x + 81

8 We4 Find the fourth term in the expansion (x + 3y)6.


9
10
11
12
13

x 9

Find the third term in the expansion of 3 , assuming ascending powers of x.


4
2 6

We5
Find and evaluate the term that is independent of x in the expansion of 3 x + 2 .

x
5
2 4
Find and evaluate the term independent of x in the expansion of x 3 .
x
3 4

Find and evaluate the term that is independent of x in the expansion of x 2 + 2 .

x
We6 Find the coefficient of p4 in the expansion of (p + 3)5(2p 5).

14 In the expansion of (2a 1)n, the coefficient of the second term is 192. Find the value of n.

1B

Units: 3 & 4

polynomials

A polynomial in x is an expression that consists of terms which have non-negative integer powers
of x only.
P(x) is a polynomial in x if:
P(x) = an xn + an 1 xn 1 + . . . + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0
where n is the degree (or highest power) of the polynomial and is a non-negative integer. The values of
an, an 1, . . ., a2, a1 and a0 are called the coefficients of their respective power of x terms.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

WorkeD exampLe 7

Which of the following expressions are not polynomials?


9
a x6 4x4 + 2x3 + 7x
b x 2 + x3 x2 + 6 x 5

2
d 8 + 2x 3x2 + 9x3 x4
e 3 x 2 2

x
think

c 7 3xy + 4x2 x3 +

Write

and d are polynomials because they are


expressions with non-negative integer powers
of x only.

1 a

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

is not a polynomial as it has a power of 92 ,


which is not an integer.

2 b

is not a polynomial as it has a power of


( ), which is not an integer, and it also
has one term, 3xy, which is not a power
of x only.

3 c

b, c and e are not polynomials.

1
2

2
= 2 x 2 and so
x2
has a power that is not a positive integer.

4 e

is not a polynomial because

Polynomials can be added and subtracted by collecting like terms.


WorkeD exampLe 8

Given that P(x) = 6 2x + 3x2 + x4, Q(x) = x5 2x4 + x2 5x 2 and R(x) = x2 4, find:
a P(x) + Q(x)
b P(x) R(x).
think

a 1 Add the polynomials.


2

Write

a P(x) + Q(x) =6 2x + 3x2 + x4 + x5 2x4

+ x2 5x 2

= x5 x4 + 4x2 7x + 4

Collect like terms.

b 1 Subtract the polynomials.

b P(x) R(x) = 6 2x + 3x2 + x4 (x2 4)

Remove brackets.

= 6 2x + 3x2 + x4 x2 + 4

Collect like terms.

= x4 + 2x2 2x + 10

evaluating polynomials
A value for a polynomial, P(x), can be found for a particular value of x by simply substituting the given
value of x into the polynomial expression and evaluating. That is, polynomial functions are evaluated in
the same way as any function.
WorkeD exampLe 9

For the polynomial P(x) = 2x4 x3 + 5x2 6x + 4, find:


a its degree
b P(1)
c P(2).
think

Write

a The degree of the polynomial is the highest power a The degree of P(x) is 4.

of x.
b 1 Substitute the given value of x into the

polynomial expression.
2

Evaluate.

c 1 Substitute the given value of x into the

polynomial expression.
2

Evaluate.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

b P(1) = 2(1)4 (1)3 + 5(1)2 6(1) + 4

=21+56+4=4
c P(2) = 2(2)4 (2)3 + 5(2)2 6(2) + 4

= 32 + 8 + 20 + 12 + 4 = 76

WorkeD exampLe 10

If p(x) = ax5 + x4 3x3 + bx 5, p(1) = 5 and p(2) = 65, find the values of a and b.
think

Write

Substitute a given value of x into the


polynomial and equate it to the given answer.

Simplify the equation.

Make b the subject of the equation and call this


equation [1].

Substitute a given value of x into the


polynomial and equate it to the given answer.

Simplify the equation.

b=4a

Solve this equation for a.

Substitute the value of a into equation [1].

Find the value of b.

P(2) = a(2)5 + (2)4 3(2)3 + b(2) 5


= 65

Substituting a = 2 into equation [1]:


b = 4 2
=6
Therefore, a = 2 and b = 6.

polynomials

Which of the following are not polynomial expressions?

1 We7
i

[2]

32a + 8 2a = 52
30a = 60
a = 2

State the solution.

x3

[1]

Substituting b = 4 a:
32a + 2(4 a) = 52

Substitute [1] into [2].

exercise 1B

+ 1 + 3 b 5 = 5
a + 4 b = 0

32a + 16 24 + 2b 5 = 65
32a + 2b 13 = 65
32a + 2b = 52

10

P(1) = a(1)5 + (1)4 3(1)3 + b(1) 5


= 5

2x

ii x4 + 3x2 2x +

iii x7 + 3x6 2xy + 5x

2
x
Given that P(x) = 8 3x + 2x2 + x4, Q(x) = x5 3x4 4x2 1 and R(x) = 8x3 + 7x2 4x

iv 3x8 2x5 + x2 7
2 We8

then find:
a P(x) + Q(x)

v 4x6 x3 + 2x 3

b Q(x) R(x)

vi 2 x 5 + x 4 x 3 + x 2 + 3 x

c 3P(x) 2R(x)

d 2P(x) Q(x) + 3R(x).

3 We9 For each of the following polynomials, find: i its degree ii P(0) iii P(2) and iv P(1).
a P(x) = x6 + 2x5 x3 + x2
c P(x) = 5x6 + 3x4 2x3 6x2 + 3
4 mC If P(x) =

x8

3x6

a 479

5 We10

2x4

x2

+ 3, then

B 95

If P(x) =

2x7

ax5

b P(x) = 3x7 2x6 + x5 8


d P(x) = 7 + 2x 5x2 + 2x3 3x4

P(2)
C 31

3x3

is equal to:
D 481

e 103

DiGitaL DoC
doc-9160
Spreadsheet
evaluating polynomials

+ bx 5, P(1) = 4 and P(2) = 163, find a and b.

6 Find a and b, given that f (x) = ax4 + bx3 3x2 4x + 7, f (1) = 2 and f (2) = 5.
7 For Q(x) = x5 + 2x4 + ax3 6x + b, Q(2) = 45 and Q(0) = 7. Find a and b.

DiGitaL DoC
doc-9239
SkillSHEET 1.2
Simultaneous
equations

8 Find a and b if P(x) = ax6 + bx4 + x3 6, 3P(1) = 24 and 3P(2) = 102.


9 mC

If P(x) = ax4 x3 + 3x2 5 and P(1) = 1, then a is equal to:


a 1
B 0
C 2
D 3
n
3
2
b If f (x) = x 2x + x 5x and f (2) = 10, then n is equal to:
a 4
B 6
C 7
D 5
a

e 2
e 1

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

1C
interaCtiVitY
int-0246
Division of polynomials

Division of polynomials

When sketching cubic or higher order graphs, it is necessary to factorise the polynomials in order to find
the x-intercepts. As will be shown later in this section, division of polynomials can be used to factorise
an expression.
When one polynomial, P(x), is divided by another, D(x), the result can be expressed as:
P( x )
R( x )
= Q( x ) +
D( x )
D( x )
where Q(x) is called the quotient,
R(x) is called the remainder, and
D(x) is called the divisor.
WorkeD exampLe 11

Find the quotient, Q(x), and the remainder, R(x), when x4 3x3 + 2x2 8
is divided by the linear expression x + 2.
think
1

Set out the long division with each


polynomial in descending powers of x. If one
of the powers of x is missing, include it with
0 as the coefficient.

Divide x into x4 and write the result above.

Write

x + 2 x4 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

x +2

x4

x3
3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

Multiply the result x3 by x + 2 and write the


result underneath.

x3
x + 2 x4 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8
x4 + 2x3

Subtract and bring down the remaining terms


to complete the expression.

x3
x + 2 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8
(x4 + 2x3)
5x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

Divide x into 5x3 and write the result above.

Continue this process to complete the long


division.

x3 5x2 + 12x 24
x + 2 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8
(x4 + 2x3)
5x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8
(5x3 10x2)
12x2 + 0x 8
(12x2 + 24x)
24x 8
(24x 48)
40

The polynomial x3 5x2 + 12x 24, at the top,


is the quotient.

The quotient, Q(x), is x3 5x2 + 12x 24.

The result of the final subtraction, 40, is the


remainder.

The remainder, R(x), is 40.

x4

x4

Note: P(2) = (2)4 3(2)3 + 2(2)2 8


= 16 + 24 + 8 8
= 40
The remainder when P(x) is divided by (x + 2) is P(2).
8

tUtoriaL
eles-1193
Worked example 11

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

This is an example of the remainder theorem, which states:


When P(x) is divided by (x a), the remainder is P(a)
or

b
.
a

when P(x) is divided by (ax + b), the remainder is P

Furthermore, if the remainder is zero, then (x a) is a factor of P(x).


This leads to the factor theorem, which states:
If P(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of P(x)
or
b

if (ax + b) is a factor of P(x), then P

= 0.

Note: If (x a) is a factor of P(x) and a is an integer, then a must be a factor of the term independent
of x. For example, if (x 2) is a factor of P(x), then the term independent of x must be divisible by 2.
Therefore, (x 2) could be a factor of x3 2x2 x + 2, but (x + 3) could not be a factor.

WorkeD exampLe 12

Determine whether or not D(x) = (x 3) is a factor of P(x) = 2x3 4x2 3x 8.


think

Write

Evaluate P(3).

P(3) = 2(3)3 4(3)2 3(3) 8


= 54 36 9 8
=1

If P(3) = 0 then (x 3) is a factor of P(x), but if


P(x) 0, (x 3) is not a factor of P(x).

P(3) 0 so (x 3) is not a factor of P(x).

WorkeD exampLe 13

a Factorise P(x) = 2x3 x2 13x

6.

think

a 1 Use the factor theorem to find a value for

a where P(a) = 0 and a is afactor of the


numerical term. Try a = 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3,
6, 6 until a factor is found.

Divide P(x) by the divisor (x + 2) using long


division.

b Solve 2x3 x2 13x 6 = 0.


Write

a P(1) = 2(1)3 (1)2 13(1) 6

= 18
0
P(1) = 2(1)3 (1)2 13(1) 6
=4
0
P(2) = 2(2)3 (2)2 13(2) 6
= 20
0
P(2) = 2(2)3 (2)2 13(2) 6
=0
So (x + 2) is a factor.

2x2 5x 3
x +2
x2 13x 6
3
(2x + 4x2)
5x2 13x 6
(5x2 10x)
3x 6
(3x 6)
0
2x3

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

Express P(x) as a product of linear and


quadratic factors.

Factorise the quadratic, if possible.

= (x + 2)(2x + 1)(x 3)

b 1 Rewrite the equation in factorised form,


using the answer to part a.
2

Use the Null Factor Law to state the


solutions.

exercise 1C

P(x) = (x + 2)(2x2 5x 3)

b 2x3 x2 13x 6 = 0

(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x 3) = 0
x = 2,

or 3

Division of polynomials

Find the quotient, Q(x), and the remainder, R(x), when each of the following polynomials
are divided by the given linear expression.
a x3 2x2 + 5x 2, x 4
b x5 3x3 + 4x + 3, x + 3
c 6x4 x3 + 2x2 4x, x 3
d 3x4 6x3 + 12x, 3x + 1

1 We11

2 a For each corresponding polynomial in question 1, evaluate:


i P(4)
ii P(3)
iii P(3)

iv P(

1
3)

b Compare these values to R(x) in question 1 and comment on the result.


3 We12
In each of the following determine whether or not D(x) is a factor of P(x).
a P(x) = x3 + 9x2 + 26x 30, D(x) = x 3
b P(x) = x4 x3 5x2 2x 8, D(x) = x + 2
c P(x) = 4 9x + 6x2 13x3 12x4 + 3x5, D(x) = 4 x
d P(x) = 4x6 + 2x5 8x4 4x3 + 6x2 9x 6, D(x) = 2x + 1
4 mC Examine the equation f (x) = x4 4x3 x2 + 16x 12.
a Which one of the following is a factor of f (x)?
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Spreadsheet
Finding factors
of polynomials

a x+1
D x+3

B x
e x4

C x+2

b When factorised, f (x) is equal to:


a
B
C
D
e

(x + 1)(x 3)(x + 4)
(x + 2)(x 2)(x 3)(x 1)
(x + 2)(x 4)(x + 3)(x + 1)
(x 1)(x + 1)(x 3)(x 4)
x(x 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)

5 We13a Factorise the following polynomials.


a P(x) = x3 + 4x2 3x 18
b P(x) = 3x3 13x2 32x + 12
c P(x) = x4 + 2x3 7x2 8x + 12
d P(x) = 4x4 + 12x3 24x2 32x
6 We13b Solve each of the following equations.
a 3x3 + 3x2 18x = 0
b 2x4 + 10x3 4x2 48x = 0
c 2x4 + x3 14x2 4x + 24 = 0
d x4 2x2 + 1 = 0
7 If (x 2) is a factor of x3 + ax2 6x 4, then find a.
8 If (x 1) is a factor of x3 + x2 ax + 3, then find a.
9 Find the value of a if (x + 3) is a factor of 2x4 + ax3 3x + 18.
DiGitaL DoC
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WorkSHEET 1.1

10

10 Find the value of a and b if (x + 1) and (x 2) are factors of ax3 4x2 + bx 12.
11 If (2x 3) and (x + 2) are factors of 2x3 + ax2 + bx + 30, find the values of a and b.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

1D

Linear graphs

Linear graphs are polynomials of degree 1. Graphs of linear functions are straight lines and may be
sketched by finding the intercepts.

revision of properties of straight line graphs


1. The gradient of a straight line joining two points is:
y2 y1
m=
x 2 x1

B (x2, y2)

2. The general equation of a straight line is:

y = mx + c
where m is the gradient and c is the value of the y-intercept.

A (x1, y1)

(0, c)

3. The equation of a straight line passing through the


point (x1, y1) and having a gradient of m is:
y y1 = m(x x1)

Gradient = m

A (x1, y1)
x

4. The intercept form of the equation of a straight line is:


x y
+ = 1 or
a b

y
(0, b)

bx + ay = ab

(a, 0)

5. Parallel lines have the same gradient.


6. The product of the gradients of two lines that are perpendicular equals 1.
1
That is,
m1 m2 = 1 or m1 =
m2

WorkeD exampLe 14

Sketch the graph of the linear function 3x 2y = 6 by indicating the intercepts.


think

Write/DraW

Substitute y = 0 into the equation.

When y = 0, 3x 2 0 = 6

Solve the equation for x to find the x-intercept.

Substitute x = 0 into the equation.

Therefore, the x-intercept is 2.

Solve the equation for y to find the y-intercept.

When x = 0, 3 0 2y = 6
y = 3

Draw a set of axes.

Therefore, the y-intercept is 3.

Indicate the x-intercept and y-intercept and rule


a line through these points.

x=2

y
0

3x 2y = 6
x

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

11

WorkeD exampLe 15

Find the equation, in the form ax + by + c = 0, of each straight line described below.
a The line with a gradient of 2 and passing through (3, 2)
b The line passing through (0, 8) and (2, 2)
c The line that passes through (3, 4) and is parallel to the line with equation y 2x 5 = 0
d The line that passes through (1, 3) and is perpendicular to the line with equation y + 2x 3 = 0
think

a 1 Write the rule for the pointgradient form of the

equation of a straight line, y y1 = m(x x1).

Substitute the value of the gradient, m, and


the coordinates of the point (x1,y1), into the
equation.

Expand the brackets.

Express the equation in the form required.

b 1 Write the rule for the gradient, m, of a straight

Write

y y1 = m(x x1)
y (2) = 2(x 3)

y + 2 = 2x 6
y 2x + 8 = 0
or 2x y 8 = 0
b

m=

line, given 2 points.


2

Substitute the values of (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) into


the rule and evaluate the gradient.

Substitute the values of m and (x1, y1) into the


rule for the pointgradient form of the equation
of a straight line. (Coordinates of either point
given may be used.)

Expand the brackets.

Express the equation in the form required.

c 1 State the gradient of the given line, which is the

same as the gradient of the parallel line.

28
0
6
=
2
=3

y y1 = m(x x1)
y 8 = 3(x 0)

y 8 = 3x
3x y + 8 = 0
c y 2x 5 = 0 becomes y = 2x + 5.

The gradient of the parallel lines is 2.

Write the rule for the pointgradient form of the


equation of a straight line.

y y1 = m(x x1)

Substitute the values of m and the coordinates


(x1, y1) = (3, 4).

y 4 = 2(x 3)

Simplify and write in the required form.

d 1 Find the gradient of the given line.

12

y2 y1
x 2 x1

y 4 = 2x 6
2x y 2 = 0
d y = 2x + 3

The gradient of the line is 2.

The gradient of the perpendicular line is 12 .

Find the gradient of the perpendicular line.

Write the rule for the pointgradient form of the


equation of a straight line.

y y1 = m(x x1)

Substitute the values of m and the coordinates


(x1, y1) = (1, 3).

y 3 = 1 (x 1)

Simplify and write in the required form.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2y 6 = (x 1)
x 2y + 5 = 0

the domain and range of functions


The domain of a function, y = f (x), is the set of values of x for which the function is defined (that is, all
x-values that can be substituted into f (x) and an answer found).
The range of f (x) is the set of values of y for which the function is defined.
If the rule and the domain of a function are given, then the function is completely defined.
y = 4x, x 0

For example,

f (x) = 4x, x 0
f : (, 0] R, f (x) = 4x

or

interval notation
Restricted domains or ranges can be represented by interval notation in three forms.
1. The closed interval.
2. The open interval.
3. The half-open interval.
a

[a, b] = {x : a x b}

(a, b) = {x : a < x < b}

[a, b) = {x : a x < b}

If the domain or range is unrestricted, it can be denoted as R or (, ).


R+ = (0, )
R+ {0} = [0, )
R = (, 0)
R {0} = (, 0]
WorkeD exampLe 16

Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, stating the domain and range of each.
a 4x 2y = 8, x [3, 3]
b f(x) = 1 2x, x [, 1]
think

a 1 Substitute the smallest value of x into the

equation.

Write/DraW

a When x = 3,
12

2y = 8
2y

= 20
y = 10

Solve the equation for y, to find an end point of


the straight line.

State the coordinates of the end point.

(3, 10) is a closed end of the line.

Substitute the largest value of x into the


equation.

When x = 3,
12 2y = 8

Solve the equation for y, to find the other end


point of the line.

State the coordinates of the 2nd end point.

Plot the two points on a set of axes with closed


circles (since both points are included).

2y

= 4
y=2

(3, 2) is the other closed end of the line.


y
2
3

0
4

(3, 10)

10

(3, 2)
2 3

4x 2y = 8,
x [3, 3]

Draw a straight line between the two points.

Find the intercepts and mark them on the graph.

When x = 0, y = 4
When y = 0, x = 2
The x-intercept is 2 and the y-intercept is 4.

10

State the domain, which is given with the rule.

The domain is [3, 3].

11

State the range from the graph.

The range is [10, 2].


Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

13

b 1 There is no smallest value of x, so substitute the

b When

largest value of x into the equation and find y.

x = 1,
y = f (1)
=3

State the coordinates of the upper end point.

(1, 3) is an open end of the line.

Substitute another value of x within the domain


into the equation (that is, a value of x < 1,
since x (, 1)) and find y.

When

State the coordinates of the point.

(2, 5) is another point on the line.

Plot the 2 points on a set of axes and mark the


point (1, 3) with an open circle.

Rule a straight line from (1, 3) to (2, 5) and


beyond. An arrow should be placed on the other
end to indicate that the line continues.

x = 2,
y = f (2)
=5

f(x) = 1 2x,
x (, 1)
(2, 5)
(1, 3)

y
5
3

21 0

Note that there are no intercepts.

State the domain, which is given with the rule.

The domain is (, 1).

State the range by examining the graph.

The range is (3, ).

Linear graphs

exercise 1D

1 We14
Sketch the graph of each of the following linear functions by indicating the intercepts.
a 2x + 3y = 12
b 2y 5x 10 = 0
c 2x y = 1
2 We15a Find the equation, in the form ax + by + c = 0, of each straight line described below.
a The line with a gradient of 3 and passing through (2, 1).
b The line with a gradient of 2 and passing through (4, 3).

DiGitaL DoC
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SkillSHEET 1.3
Gradient

DiGitaL DoC
doc-9241
SkillSHEET 1.4
Using gradient to
find the value of a
parameter

3 We15b Find the equation, in the form ax + by + c = 0, of each straight line described below.
a The line passing through (3, 4) and (1, 10).
b The line passing through (7, 5) and (2, 0).
4 mC Which one of the following points does not lie on the straight line with equation 2y 3x 6 = 0?
B (2, 0)
e (4, 9)

a (2, 6)
D (1, 2)

C (0, 3)

5 We15c Consider the points A(2, 5) and B(1, b).


a Find b if:
i the gradient of the straight line AB is 2
ii the equation of the straight line AB is y x = 7.
b Find the general equation of the straight line which passes through (4, 5) and is parallel to the line
c

with equation y 3x + 4 = 0.
We15d Find the equation in the form ax + by + c = 0 that passes through (2, 4) and is
perpendicular to the line with equation 2y x + 1 = 0.

6 Match each of graphs af with the appropriate rule ivi.


a
b
y
y
(2, 4)

2
0
1

14

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y
2

4
2

i x + 2y + 4 = 0
iv 3y + 2x = 6

ii y = 3

iii y 2x 2 = 0

v y 2x = 0

vi x = 2

7 State the range for each function graphed below.


a

x
(5, 2)

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SkillSHEET 1.5
interval notation

(4, 2)

(6, 5)

(5, 2)

(3, 3)

(4, 3)

0
x

(5, 6)

DiGitaL DoC
doc-9243
SkillSHEET 1.6
Domain and range for
linear graphs

8 We16 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, stating i the domain and ii the range

of each.

a 4y + 3x = 24, x [12, 12]


c 4x 3y 6 = 0, x [2, 5)

b 2x 5y = 10, x < 5

Units: 3 & 4

9 Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point (2, 5) and is:
a parallel to the line with equation y = 3 2x
b perpendicular to the line with equation y = 3x 7.

Write equations in the form ax + by + c = 0.

10 Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point (3, 1) and is:
a parallel to the line with equation 4x 2y = 13
b perpendicular to the line with equation 4x 2y = 13.
11 mC If the straight lines 3x y = 2 and ax + 2y = 3 are parallel, then a is equal to:
a 6

B 2

C 2

D 3

e 6

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

See more
Watch
a video about
quadratic functions.

12 mC If the straight lines 5x + y 3 = 0 and bx y 2 = 0 are perpendicular, then b is equal to:


a 5

1e

1
5

C 5

1
5

e 3

Quadratic graphs

Quadratic functions are polynomials of degree 2. Graphs of quadratic functions are parabolas and may
be sketched by finding the turning point and intercepts.

revision of quadratic functions


1. The general form of the quadratic function is y = ax2 + bx + c, x R.
2. The graph of a quadratic function is called a parabola and:
(a) for a > 0, the graph has a minimum value
(b) for a < 0, the graph has a maximum value
(c) the y-intercept is c

b
(d) the equation of the axis of symmetry and the x-value of the turning point is x =
2a
(e) the x-intercepts are found by solving the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

15

3. The equation ax2 + bx + c = 0 can be solved by either:


(a) factorising
or
b
b 2 4 ac
.
(b) using the quadratic formula, x =
2a
4. The turning point can be found by completing the square (see next page). The turning point is
located on the axis of symmetry, which is halfway between the x-intercepts.

the discriminant
The value of (b2 4ac), which is the value inside the square root sign in the quadratic formula,
determines the number of solutions to a quadratic equation or the number of x-intercepts on a
quadratic graph.
This value is called the discriminant.
1. If b2 4ac > 0, there are two solutions to the equation and there are two x-intercepts on the graph.
2. If b2 4ac > 0 and is a perfect square, the solutions are rational; otherwise they are irrational.
3. If b2 4ac = 0, the two solutions are equal and there is one x-intercept on the graph; that is, the graph
has a turning point on the x-axis.
4. If b2 4ac < 0, there are no real solutions and there are no x-intercepts on the graph.

WorkeD exampLe 17

Use the discriminant to determine the number of x-intercepts for the


quadratic function f(x) = 2x2 + 3x 10.
think

Write

tUtoriaL
eles-1174
Worked example 17

c = 10

Find the values of the quadratic coefficients a,


b and c using the general quadratic function,
y = ax2 + bx + c.

a = 2, b = 3,

Evaluate the discriminant.

b2 4ac = 32 4(2)(10)
= 9 + 80
= 89

If the discriminant is greater than 0, there are


two x-intercepts. If it is not a perfect square,
the solutions are irrational.

b2 4ac > 0
So there are two x-intercepts, which are both
irrational.

WorkeD exampLe 18

Sketch the graph of the function f(x) = 12 5x 2x2, showing all intercepts. Give exact answers.
think

16

Write/DraW

Evaluate f (0) to find the y-intercept (or state the


value of c).

f(0) = 12 5(0) 2(0)2


= 12

State the y-intercept.

The y-intercept is 12.

Set f(x) = 0 to find the x-intercepts.

f(x) = 12 5x 2x2 = 0

Factorise the quadratic (or use the quadratic


formula).

(4 + x)(3 2x) = 0

Solve the equation using the Null Factor Law.

4 + x = 0 or 3 2x = 0
x = 4 or x = 32

State the x-intercepts.

The x-intercepts are 4 and 32 .

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Draw a set of axes and mark the intercepts or


the coordinates of the points where the graph
crosses the axes.

12 (0, 12)
f(x) = 12 5x x2

Sketch a parabola through the intercepts.


( 32 , 0)

(4, 0)

0 1 2

The x-coordinate of the turning point of a quadratic function is exactly halfway between the two

4 + 3

2 = 5 (or 1 1 ) . Substitute x = 5 into the original


x-intercepts, so for Worked example 18, x =
4
4
2
4
equation to find the y-coordinate of the turning point.
b
,
The x-coordinate of the turning point can also be found by using the formula x =
2a
where ax2 + bx + c = 0.

Units: 3 & 4

Finding turning points by completing the square


Consider the general quadratic equation:

y = ax2 + bx + c

By completing the square, this equation may be manipulated into the form
y = a(x b)2 + c
where the turning point is (b, c).
This way of writing the function is known as the power form or turning point form. The transformations
associated with this form will be discussed more fully in chapter 2.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

WorkeD exampLe 19

For the function y = 2(x + 3)2 4, find:


a the coordinates of the turning pointb the domain and range.
think

Write

Write the general formula.

y = a(x b)2 + c

Write the function.

y = 2(x + 3)2 4

a 1 Identify the values of a, b and c.


2

State the coordinates of the turning point (b, c).

b 1 Write the domain of the parabola.


2

Write the range y c (as a < 0).

a a = 2,

b = 3,

c = 4

The turning point is (3, 4).


b The domain is R.

The range is y 4.

WorkeD exampLe 20

The function graphed at right is of the form y = x2 + bx + c.


Find:
a the ruleb the domainc the range.
Write the answers to b and c in interval notation.

y
(5, 10)

0
think

a 1 Write the general rule for a quadratic in turning point form.

Write

(1, 6)

a y = a(x b)2 + c

Find the values of b and c using the given turning point.

Since the turning point is (1, 6):


b = 1, c = 6 y = a(x + 1)2 6

Find the value of a using the point (5, 10).

10 = a(5 + 1)2 6

a=1

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

17

Substitute these values in the rule.

Expand the brackets.

Simplify.

So

y = 1(x + 1)2 6
= x2 + 2x + 1 6

= x2 + 2x 5
The rule is y = x2 + 2x 5.
b x 5

b 1 Use the graph to find the domain. Look at all the

values that x can take.


2

Domain = [5, )

State the domain in interval notation.

c 1 Use the graph to find the range. Look at all the values

c y 6

that y can take.


2

Range = [6, )

State the range in interval notation.

WorkeD exampLe 21

Sketch the graph of y = 12 ( x 1) 2 + 2 , clearly showing the coordinates of the turning point and the
intercepts with the axes. State its range.
Units: 3 & 4

think

Write/DraW

AOS:

Write the general equation of the parabola.

y = a(x b)2 + c

Topic:

Identify the values of the variables.

a = 12 ,

Concept:

Write a brief statement on the transformation


of the basic parabola.

The graph of y = x2 is dilated in the y direction by the


factor of 12 (that is, it is wider than the basic curve); it
is translated 1 unit to the right and 2 units up.

State the shape of the parabola (that is, positive


or negative).

a > 0; the parabola is positive.

State the coordinates of the turning point (b, c).

The turning point is (1, 2).

As both a and c are positive, only the


y-intercept needs to be determined. Find the
y-intercept by making x = 0.

y-intercept: x = 0
y = 12 (0 1)2 + 2

Do more
Interact
with quadratic
functions in
turning point
form.

b = 1,

c=2

= 12 (1)2 + 2
= 12 + 2 = 2 12

Sketch the graph:


Draw a set of axes and label them. Plot the
turning point and the y-intercept. Sketch the
graph of the positive parabola, so that it passes
through the points previously marked.

2 2
2
0

Since y 2, that is the range.

x
1
y = 12 (x 1)2 + 2

The range is y [2, ).

WorkeD exampLe 22

Sketch the graph of y = 3 + 8x 2x2, showing the turning point and all intercepts, rounding
answers to 2 decimal places where appropriate.
think

18

Write/DraW

Find y when x = 0.

When x = 0, y = 3

State the y-intercept.

The y-intercept is 3.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Let the quadratic equal zero.

When y = 0,
3 + 8x 2x2 = 0

Solve for x using the quadratic formula.

x=

x=

b2

4 ac

2a
where a = 2
b=8
c=3

82 4( 2)(3)

2( 2)

8
88
=
4
8 2 22
=
4

22
2

=2

22
2

2+

or

22
2

State the x-intercepts, rounding to 2 decimal


places.

The x-intercepts are 0.35 and 4.35.

Use the formula for the x-value of the turning

b
point, x = .
2a

x=

2( 2)
x=2

To calculate the y-coordinate of the turning


point, substitute x = 2 into the function.

y = 2(2)2 + 8(2) + 3
y = 11

State the turning point.

The turning point is (2, 11).

Draw a set of axes and mark the coordinates


of the turning point and the points where the
graph crosses the axes.

10

Sketch a parabola through these points.

y
12

(2, 11)

9
f(x) = 3 + 8x

2x2

3 (0, 3)
(0.35, 0)
(4.35, 0)
x
0
1
4 5

Note: Function notation includes the rule, the domain and the co-domain. For example, f (x): [2, 1] R,
where f (x) = x2 3, is a parabola with rule f (x) = x2 3 and domain [2, 1]. The range is a subset of the
co-domain, R.
WorkeD exampLe 23

The weight of a person t months after a


gymnasium program is started is given by the
t2
function: W ( t ) = 3 t + 80 , where t [0, 8]
2
and W is in kilograms. Find:
a the minimum weight of the person
b the maximum weight of the person.

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

19

Write/DraW

think
1

Complete the square to find the turning point.

t2
3t + 80
2
1
= 2 [t 2 6t + 160]

W=

= 2 [t 2 6t + 9 + 160 9]
1

= 2 [(t 3)2 + 151]


1

= 2 (t 3)2 + 75.5
2

State the minimum turning point.

The turning point is (3, 75.5).

Find the end point value for W when t = 0.

When t = 0,
W = 80

State its coordinates.

Find the end point value of W when t = 8.

When t = 8,
W = 88

State its coordinates.

The other end point is (8, 88).

On a set of axes, mark the end points and


turning point.

Sketch a parabola between the end points.

Locate the maximum and minimum values


of W on the graph.

One end point is (0, 80).

W (kg)
Maximum (8, 88)

90
80 (0, 80)

Minimum (3, 75.5)

70

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (months)
a State the minimum weight from the graph.

a The minimum weight is 75.5 kg.

b State the maximum weight from the graph.

b The maximum weight is 88 kg.

exercise 1e
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Discriminant

Quadratic graphs

Use the discriminant to determine the number of x-intercepts for each of the following
quadratic functions.
a f (x) = x2 3x + 4
b f (x) = x2 + 5x 8
2
c f (x) = 3x 5x + 9
d f (x) = 2x2 + 7x 11
2
e f (x) = 1 6x x
f f (x) = 3 + 6x + 3x2

1 We17

Sketch the graphs of each of the following functions, showing all intercepts. Give
exact answers.
a f (x) = x2 6x + 8
b f (x) = x2 5x + 4
2
c f (x) = 10 + 3x x
d f (x) = 6x2 x 12

2 We18
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Quadratic graphs

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Domain
and range for
quadratic graphs

20

3 Find the turning point for each of the functions in question 2.

Give exact answers.


4 We19 For each of the following functions find:
i the coordinates of the turning point
ii the domain
iii the ra nge.
a y = 2 x2
c y = (x + 2)2

b y = (x 6)2
d y = 2(x + 3)2 6

Each of the functions graphed on the following page is of the form y = ax2 + bx + c,
ii the domain
iii the range.
where a = 1 or 1. For each function, give: i the rule

5 We20

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Write the answers to b and c in interval notation.


a

(1, 6)
0

(1, 9)

(1, 2)

(2, 3)

x
(4, 16)

Sketch the graphs of the following, clearly showing the coordinates of the turning point and
the intercepts with the axes.
a y = 2x2 + 3
b y = (2x 5)(2x 3)
c y = (2x 3)2 8

6 We21

7 mC
Consider the function with the rule y = x2 2x 3.
a It has x-intercepts:
a (1, 0) and (3, 0)
D (2, 0) and (1, 0)

B (1, 0) and (3, 0)


e (0, 1) and (0, 3)

C (1, 0) and (3, 0)

b It has a turning point with coordinates:


a (1, 0)

B (2, 3)

C (1, 4)

8 mC The function f (x) = (x + 3)2 + 4 has a range given by:


a (3, )

B (, 3]

C [4, )

9 mC The range of the function y = (x 4)2, x [0, 6] is:


a [0, 16]

B [4, 16]

C [0, 4]

D (1, 4)

e (1, 0)

D (, 4]

e R

D (4, 12]

e [0, 16)

10 We22 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing the turning point and all

intercepts. Round answers to 2 decimal places where appropriate.


a f (x) = (x 2)2 4
b f (x) = (x + 4)2 + 9
2
c y = x + 4x + 3
d y = 2x2 4x 6

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Quadratic graphs
turning point form

11 Sketch the graph of each of the functions below and state i the domain and ii the range of each

function.

a y = x2 2x + 2, x [2, 2]
c f (x) = x2 3x 2, x [10, 6]

b y = x2 + x 1, x R+
d f (x) = 5 + 6x 3x2, x [5, 3)

12 We23 The volume of water in a tank, V m3, over a 10 month period is given by the function

V(t ) = 2t 2 16 t + 40, where t is in months and t [0, 10].


Find:
a the minimum volume of water in the tank
b the maximum volume of water in the tank.

Maximum height
Tower

Ball

13 A ball thrown upwards from a tower attains a

height above the ground given by the function


h(t) = 12t 3t2 + 36, where t is the time in seconds
and h is in metres.
Find:
a the maximum height above the ground that the ball
reaches
b the time taken for the ball to reach the ground
c the domain and range of the function.

h(t) = 12t 3t2 + 36

Ground

14 A section of a roller-coaster at an amusement park follows the path of a

parabola. The function h(t) = t2 12t + 48, t [0, 11], models the height
above the ground of the front of one of the carriages, where t is the time in
seconds and h is the height in metres.
a Find the lowest point of this section of the ride.
b Find the time taken for the carriage to reach the lowest point.
c Find the highest point above the ground.
d Find the domain and the range of the function.
e Sketch the function.

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Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

21

1F
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with sketching
cubic functions.

Cubic graphs

Cubic functions are polynomials of degree 3. In this section, we will look at how graphs of cubic
functions may be sketched by finding intercepts and recognising basic shapes.

Forms of cubic functions


Cubic functions may take several forms. The three main forms are described below.

General form
The general form of a cubic function is:
y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d
If a is positive (that is, a > 0), the function is called a positive cubic. Several positive cubics appear
below.
y

If a is negative (that is, a < 0), the function is called a negative cubic. Several negative cubics appear
below.
y

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

x
x

Basic form
Some (but certainly not all) cubic functions are transformations of the form y = x3, which has a
stationary point, a point of inflection at the origin. These may be expressed in the power form:
y = a(x b)3 + c
where (b, c) is the point of inflection.
For example, y = 2(x 3)3 + 5 is the graph of y = x3 translated +3 from the y-axis, +5 in the y direction
and dilated by a factor of 2 from the x-axis.
This form, called basic form or power form, works in the same way as a quadratic equation expressed
in turning point form or power form:
y = a(x b)2 + c
where (b, c) is the turning point and a is the dilation factor.
The power form and its transformations will be discussed in more detail in chapter 2.
y

y = x3

y = a(x b)3 + c

(b, c)
x

22

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Factor form
Cubic functions of the type:
y = a(x b)(x c)(x d)
are said to be in factor form, where b, c and d are the x-intercepts. Often a cubic function in general form
may be factorised to express it in factor form.
y

y = (x + 2)(x 1)(x 3)
y

y = a(x b)(x c)(x d)


where a > 0

2
b

c d

3 x

repeated factors

A twice only repeated factor in a factorised cubic function


indicates a turning point that just touches the x-axis.

y = (x a)2 (x b)

WorkeD exampLe 24

For each of the following graphs, find the rule and express it in factorised
form. Assume that a = 1 or a = 1.
a

f(x)

f(x)

tUtoriaL
eles-1194
Worked example 24

x
2 0

think

a 1 Find a by deciding whether the graph is a positive

or negative cubic.

Write

a The graph is a positive cubic, so a = 1.

Use the x-intercepts 4, 0 and 3 to find the factors.

The factors are (x + 4), x and (x 3).

Express f(x) as a product of a and its factors.

f(x) = 1(x + 4) x(x 3)

Simplify.

f(x) = x(x + 4)(x 3)

b 1 Find a by deciding whether the graph is a positive

or negative cubic.

b The graph is a negative cubic, so a = 1.

Use the x-intercept 2, which is also a turning


point, to find the repeated factor.

(x + 2)2 is a factor.

Use the other x-intercept, 3, to find the other factor.

(x 3) is also a factor.

Express f(x) as a product of a and its factors.

f(x) = 1(x + 2)2(x 3)

Simplify.

f(x) = (3 x)(x + 2)2

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

23

WorkeD exampLe 25

Sketch the graph of y = x3 x2 10x 8, showing all intercepts.


think

Write/DraW

x = 0, y = 8

Find y when x = 0.

When

State the y-intercept.

The y-intercept is 8.

Let P(x) = y.

Let

Use the factor theorem to find a factor of the


cubic P(x) = x3 x2 10x 8.

P(1) = 13 12 10(1) 8
= 18
0
P(1) = (1)3 (1)2 10(1) 8
=0
so (x + 1) is a factor.

Use long division, or otherwise, to find the


quadratic factor.

By long division:
x2 2x 8
3
x + 1 x x2 10x 8
(x3 + x2)
2x2 10x 8
(2x2 2x)
8x 8
(8x 8)
0
y = (x + 1)(x2 2x 8)

Factorise the quadratic, if possible.

Express the cubic in factorised form and let it


equal 0 to find the x-intercepts.

If (x + 1)(x 4)(x + 2) = 0

Solve for x using the Null Factor Law.

x = 1, 4 or 2

State the x-intercepts.

The x-intercepts are 2, 1, and 4.

10

Sketch the graph of the cubic.

P(x) = x3 x2 10x 8

= (x + 1)(x 4)(x + 2)

y = x3 x2 10x 8

2 1 0

restricting the domain of cubic functions


1. If the domain is R then the range is also R.
2. To find the range if the domain is restricted, it is necessary to look
at the end points and turning points, then find the highest and
lowest y-values.
For example:
The range can not be stated for the diagram at right because the
y-coordinate of the local minimum is not known.
Recall that cubic functions that do not have any turning points can
have only one x-intercept.
24

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

(6, 8)

(4, 3)
Coordinate of local
minimum required

WorkeD exampLe 26

Sketch the graph of y = x3 5x, where x (2, 1), using the unrestricted function as a guide.
State the domain and range, without the use of technology.
think

Write/DraW

Decide whether it is a positive or negative


cubic by looking at the coefficient of x3.

Negative cubic

Find the x-intercept/s.

When
y = 0,
x3 5x = 0
x(x2 + 5) = 0
x = 0 (x2 + 5 0)
The x-intercept is 0.

Find the y-intercept.

When

Find y when x has the value of the lower end


point of the domain.

When

State the coordinates of this end point and


decide whether it is open or closed.

The open end point is (2, 18).

Find y when x has the value of the upper end


point.

When x = 1, y = (1)3 5(1)


=6

State the coordinates of this end point and


decide whether it is open or closed.

The closed end point is (1, 6).

Mark these points on a set of axes.

Sketch the part of the cubic between the end


points.

10

Verify this graph using a graphics calculator.

x = 0,
y = (0)3 5(0)
=0
The y-intercept is 0.
x = 2,
= 18

(2, 18)

y = (2)3 5(2)

(1, 6)
x

0
11

State the domain, which is given with the rule.

The domain is (2, 1].

12

From the graph, state the range. Note that the


intercept is not included in the domain.

The range is [6, 18).

Cubic graphs

exercise 1F

For each of the following graphs, find the rule and express it in factorised form.
Assume that a = 1 or a = 1.

1 We24
a

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Cubic graphs factor
form

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

25

Match each of the following graphs to the most appropriate rule below.

2
a

0 1

2 0

ii y = (x + 3)(1 x)(x 4)

iii y = (x + 4)(x + 2)(1 x)

iv y = (x + 2)2(5 x)

v y = (x + 3)(x 1)(x 4)

vi y = (x + 4)(x + 2)(x 1)

vii y = (3

i y = (x 3)3

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Cubic graphs

4
0

y
2

viii y = (x + 2)2(x 5)

x)3

3 We25 Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing all intercepts.
a y = x3 + x2 4x 4
b y = 2x3 8x2 + 2x + 12
c y = 24 + 26x 2x3
d y = 18 21x + 8x2 x3

Verify your answers by using a calculator.


4 mC
a Fully factorised, x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8 is equal to:
a (x + 3)3
D (x 3)3

B (x + 2)3
e (x + 2)(x 2)2

C (x 2)3

b The graph of y = x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8 is:


a

2
2

26

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

5 mC The function graphed in the figure could have the following rule:
a
B
C
D
e

y = (x 2)3 + 2
y = (x + 2)3 + 2
y = (2 x)3 + 2
y = (x + 2)3 2
y = (x 2)3

10
(2, 2)
x

0
6 mC The graph of f (x) = 5(x + 1)3 3 is best represented by:
a
B
y
y

(1, 3)

(1, 3)

x
(1, 3)

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Cubic graphs
3
y = a( x b) + c
form

y
(1, 3)

(1, 3)
x

7 mC

The graph of f (x) = 2(x 1)2 (x + 3) is best represented by:

(0, 6)

(1, 0) 0
C

(0, 6)

(3, 0)

(3, 0)
D

(1, 0)
y

(1, 0)
x

(3, 0) 0

(1, 0)

(0, 6)

(0, 6)
e

(3, 0) 0

y
(3, 0)
(1, 0)

(0, 6)

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

27

The graph shown is best represented by the equation:


y = (x a)3 + b
y = (x a)3 + b
y = (a x)3 + b
y = (x + a)3 + b
y = (x + a)3 + b

8 mC
a
B
C
D
e

(a, b)
(0, c)
x

If a < 0 and b, c > 0 then the graph shown is best represented by the equation:
b
y
y = 2 ( x + a ) 2 ( x c)
a c

b
y = 2 ( x + a)2 (c x )
b
a c
b
y = 2 ( x a ) 2 ( x + c)
a c

b
a
0
y = 2 ( x + a)2 ( x b)(c x )
a c

b
y = 2 ( x a ) 2 ( x c)
a c

9 mC
a
B
C
D
e

10 We26 Sketch the graph of each of the following restricted functions, using the unrestricted function as
a guide. State i the domain and ii the range in each case.
a f (x) = x3 + x2 10x + 8, x [2, )
b f (x) = 3x3 5x2 4x + 4, x [2, 1]
c f (x) = 3x3 + 4x2 + 27x 36, x (0, 1]
d f (x) = 3x x3, x [1, 2)
e f (x) = x3 + 2x, x [2, 1) (0, 3]
f f (x) = 2x3 x, x (1, 1) [2, 3)
11 The function f (x) = x3 + ax2 + bx 64 has x-intercepts (2, 0) and (4, 0). Find the values of a and b.
12 The functions y = x3 2x2 + ax + 10 and y = 6 + (a + b)x 4x2 x3 both have (1, 0) as an x-intercept.

Find the values of a and b.


13 The cross-section of a glass vessel that is 6 cm high can be modelled by the cubic function f (x) and its

reflection through the y-axis, g(x), as shown below.


a Find the values of a, b and c, and hence state the rule of f (x).
b Find the rule for g(x) and state its domain and range.
c What is the width of the vessel when the height is 3.375 cm?
y
g(x)

f(x) = a(x + b)3 + c


(4, 6)
(3, 3)

(2, 0)

14 The distance of a group of hikers, d km, from their starting point t hours after setting off on a hike can

be modelled by the function with the rule:

d(t) = at2(b t)
The hikers are 3 km from the start after 2 hours and return to the starting point after 5hours.
a Find the values of a and b.
b Hence, give the rule for d(t) stating its domain and range.
c Sketch the graph of d(t).
d Find to the nearest 100 metres the maximum distance of the hikers from their starting point and
the time, to the nearest minute, that it occurs.
28

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Quartic graphs

1G

Quartic functions are polynomials of degree 4. The general form of a quartic is:
Units: 3 & 4

y = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e


When sketching the graphs of quartic functions, all axes intercepts can be found by factorisation and
a sign diagram used to check the shape. If a sign diagram is not sufficient and the basic shape is not
recognised, then a graphics calculator could be used to establish the shape of the graph.

positive quartics (a > 0)


2. y = ax4 + cx2, c 0
y

3. y = ax2(x b)(x c)

5. y = a(x b)(x c)3

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Do more
Interact
with sketching
quartic functions.

x
b

The repeated factors


(x b)2 and (x c)2 indicate
the graph touches the x-axis
at x = b and x = c.

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

6. y = a(x b)(x c)(x d )(x e)

Units: 3 & 4

The repeated factor x2


means there is a turning
point at the origin. The
factors (x b) (x c)
indicate x-intercepts at
x = b and x = c.
4. y = a(x b)2(x c)2

Topic:

b
0

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Basic shapes of quartic graphs


1. y = ax4

AOS:

The cubed factor (x c)3


means the graph has a
point of inflection at x = c.

ex

The factors indicate


intercepts at
x = b, c, d and e.
y

negative quartics (a < 0)


If a < 0, that is, each of the above rules is multiplied by 1, then the
graphs are reflected through the x-axis.
For example, the graph of y = x4 (at right) is a reflection, through the
x-axis, of the graph of y = x4.
Similarly, the graph of y = x4 + x2 = (x4 x2) is a reflection through the
x-axis of the graph of y = x4 x2.
Note: The above graphs can be translated horizontally or vertically but
this is considered in Chapter 2.
To find the x-intercepts of a quartic function, let y = 0 and solve the
equation for x.
Repeated factors touch the x-axis as they do for cubic and quadratic
functions.

y = x 4
y

y = x 4 + x2

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

29

WorkeD exampLe 27

Sketch the graph of y = x4 x3 7x2 + 5x + 10, showing all intercepts.


think

Write/DraW

tUtoriaL
eles-1195
Worked example 27

Find the y-intercept.

When x = 0, y = 10
The y-intercept is 10.

Let y = P(x).

Let P(x) = x4 x3 7x2 + 5x + 10

Find two linear factors of the quartic


expression, if possible, using the factor
theorem.

P(1) = (1)4 (1)3 7(1)2 + 5(1) + 10


=8
0
P(1) = (1)4 (1)3 7(1)2 + 5(1) + 10
=0
(x + 1) is a factor.
P(2) = (2)4 (2)3 7(2)2 + 5(2) + 10
=0
(x 2) is a factor.

Find the product of the two linear factors.

(x + 1)(x 2) = x2 x 2

Use long division to divide the quartic by the


quadratic factor x2 x 2 (or use another
method).

x2

Express the quartic in factorised form.

y = (x + 1)(x 2)(x2 5)

Factorise the quadratic factor, x2 5, using


difference of perfect squares.

y = (x + 1)(x 2)(x + 5)(x 5)

To find the x-intercepts, set y equal to zero.

Let y = (x + 1)(x 2)(x + 5)(x 5) = 0

Solve for x using the Null Factor Law.

10

State the x-intercepts.

11

Sketch the graph of the quartic.

x2
5
x 1 7x2 + 5x + 10
(x4 x3 2x2)
0 5x2 + 5x + 10
(5x2 + 5x + 10)
0
x4

x3

x = 1, 2, 5
The x-intercepts are 1, 2, 5 and 5.
y
(0, 10)
(1, 0)
( 5, 0)
3 2 1 0

(2, 0)
1

( 5, 0)
x
3

WorkeD exampLe 28

Sketch the graphs of each of the following equations, showing the coordinates
of all intercepts. Use a CAS calculator to find the coordinates of the turning
points, rounding to 2 decimal places as appropriate.
a y = x2 (x 1)(x + 2)
b y = (x + 3)2(x 1)2
30

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

tUtoriaL
eles-1196
Worked example 28

think

a 1 State the function.

Write/DraW

a y = x2(x 1)(x + 2)

Find the y-intercept.

When x = 0, y = 0
The y-intercept is 0.

Find the x-intercepts.

When y = 0,
0 = x2(x 1)(x + 2)
x = 2, 0, 1

State the x-intercepts, noting where the graph


touches and where it cuts the x-axis.

The graph touches the x-axis at x = 0.


The other x-intercepts are 2 and 1.

State the coordinates of the turning points,


using a CAS calculator to assist.

The minimum turning points are (1.44, 2.83)


and (0.69, 0.40).
The maximum turning point is (0, 0).

Sketch the graph of the quartic, using a


CAS calculator to assist.

(2, 0)

(0, 0)
0

(1, 0)
(0.69, 0.40)

(1.44, 2.83)
b 1 State the function.

b y = (x + 3)2(x 1)2

Find the y-intercept.

When x = 0,
y = (3)2(1)2
= 9
The y-intercept is 9.

Find the x-intercepts.

When y = 0,
0 = (x + 3)2(x 1)2
x = 3, 1

State the points where the graph touches the


x-axis from the repeated factors.

The graph touches the x-axis at x = 3 and x = 1.

State the coordinates of the turning points,


using a CAS calculator to assist.

The maximum turning points are (3, 0) and


(1, 0), and the minimum turning point is (1, 16).

Sketch the graph of the quartic, using a


graphics calculator to assist.

y
(3, 0)

(1, 0)
0

(0, 9)

(1, 16)

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

31

WorkeD exampLe 29

Determine the equation of the graph shown.


y
3
3

1 0

1 2

think

Write

State the x-intercepts.

The x-intercepts are 3, 1, 1, 2.

Write the equation using factor form with a


dilation factor of a.

y = a(x + 3)(x + 1)(x 1)(x 2)

State the y-intercept.

The y-intercept is 3.

Substitute the coordinates of the y-intercept


into the equation.

(0, 3) 3 = a(0 + 3)(0 + 1)(0 1)(0 2)

Solve the equation to find a.

Write the equation.

3=a6
a = 12
y = 12 ( x 1)( x 2)( x + 3)( x + 1)

WorkeD exampLe 30

Sketch the graph of y = x4 2x2, x (1, 1], using the unrestricted function as a guide. State the
domain and the range in each case.
think

32

Write/DraW

State the function.

y = x4 2x2, x (1, 1]

Find the y-intercept.

When

State the y-intercept.

The y-intercept is 0.

Find the x-intercepts.

When

x = 0,
y = (0)4 2(0)2
=0

x4

y=0
2x4 = 0

x2(x2

+ 2) = 0

Factorise the quartic expression.

Solve for x.

x = 0 is the only solution


(as x2 + 2 0).

State the x-intercepts.

The only x-intercept is 0.

Find y when x is one end point of the domain.

When

State the coordinates and whether it is an open


or closed point.

(1, 3) is an open end point.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

x = 1,
y = (1)4 2(1)2
= 3

x = 1,
y = (1)4 2(1)2
= 3

10

Find y when x is the other end point of the


domain.

When

11

State the coordinates and whether it is an open


or closed point.

(1, 3) is a closed end point.

12

Sketch the graph of the quartic, using


knowledge of basic shapes over the domain.

y
(0, 0)

0
(1, 3)

(1, 3)
y = x 4 2x2

13

State the domain, which is given with


the rule.

The domain is (1, 1].

14

From the graph, state the range.

The range is [3, 0].

Quartic graphs

exercise 1G

1 We27 Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing all intercepts.
a y = (x 2)(x + 3)(x 4)(x + 1)
b y = 2x4 + 6x3 16x2 24x + 32
4
2
c y = x 4x + 4
d y = 30x 37x2 + 15x3 2x4
4
3
2
e y = 6x + 11x 37x 36x + 36
2 We28 Sketch the graph of each of the following equations, showing the coordinates of all intercepts.

Use a calculator to find the coordinates of the turning points, rounding to 2 decimal places as
appropriate.
a y = x2 (x 2)(x 3)
b y = (x + 1)2 (x 1)2
2
c y = (x 1) (x + 1)(x + 3)
d y = (x + 2)3 (1 x)

DiGitaL DoC
doc-9245
SkillSHEET 1.8
Solving quartic
equations

3 mC Consider the function f (x) = x4 8x2 + 16.


a When factorised, f (x) is equal to:
a (x + 2)(x 2)(x 1)(x + 4)
C (x + 3)(x 2)(x 1)(x + 1)
e (x 2)2 (x + 2)2

B (x 1)(x 4)(x + 4)
D (x 2)3 (x + 2)

b The graph of f (x) is best represented by:


a

y
2

16
D

2
e

y
16

y
16

DiGitaL DoC
doc-9171
Quartic graphs
factor form

y
16

y
4

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

33

c If the domain of f (x) is restricted to [2, 2], then the range is:
a [0, 16]

C [2, 12]

B [0, 10]

D R+

e [0, )

d If the range of f (x) is restricted to (0, 25) then the maximal domain is:
a [2, 3)

B (2, 3)

e If the domain of f (x) is restricted to

(1,

C (3, 2)

D (3, 3)

e (3, 4)

0), then the range is:


D (9, 16)
C (1, 9)
f If the domain of f (x) is restricted to [0, ), then the range is:
a R
D [0, 16)
B R+
C [0, )
a (0, 16)

e [9, )

B (0, 4)

e [2, )

4 We29 Determine the equation of each of the following graphs.


a

2 1 0

1 0

5 We30 Sketch the graph of each of the following restricted functions, using the unrestricted function as
a guide. State i the domain and ii the range in each case.
a y = (2 x)(x2 4)(x + 3), x [2, 3]
b y = 9x4 30x3 + 13x2 + 20x + 4, x (2,1]
c y = (x 2)2(x + 1)2, x (, 2]
d y = 4x2 x4, x [3, 2]
6 The function f (x) = x4 + ax3 4x2 + bx + 6 has x-intercepts (2, 0) and (3, 0). Find the values

of a and b.
DiGitaL DoC
doc-9172
Investigation
Quartics and
beyond

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

7 The function f (x) = x4 + ax3 + bx2 x + 6 has x-intercepts (1, 0) and (3, 0). Find the values

of a and b.
8 The functions y = (a 2b)x4 3x 2 and y = x4 x3 + (a + 5b)x2 5x + 7 both have an x-intercept of 1.

Find the value of a and b.

1h Solving systems of equations


Simultaneous linear equations
Previously we learned that simultaneous equations are two or more independent equations containing
two or more variables.

Simultaneous equations with two variables


Three possible scenarios exist when we are dealing with two linear simultaneous equations. They are
represented graphically below.
One unique solution
y

No solutions
y

Intersecting lines

34

Infinitely many solutions

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Parallel lines

Co-incident (overlapping)

WorkeD exampLe 31

Consider a set of simultaneous equations that have one unique solution.


ax 7y = 0
2x + (a 9)y = 0
Find the value(s) of a, where a is a real constant.
think
1

For a unique solution, the lines can neither


be co-incident nor parallel. Parallel and
co-incident lines have gradients that are
the same.

Write

ax 7y = 0
2x + (a 9)y = 0

[1]
[2]

Consider the circumstances that are necessary


for either infinitely many solutions or no
solutions.
Begin by writing the equations.
2

Rearrange both equations so that they are in


the form y = mx + c.

ax 7y = 0
7y = ax
a
y= x
7
2x + (a 9)y = 0
(a 9)y = 2x
2
y=
x
a9

[1]
[3]
[2]
[4]

2
a
=
7 a9
a(a 9) = 14
a2 9a + 14 = 0
(a 2)(a 7) = 0
a = 2 or a = 7

Equate the gradients and solve for a.

Check the possibilities by substituting the


values of a into equations [1] and [2].

When a = 2,
ax 7y = 0
2x 7y = 0

First substitute the value a = 2 and interpret


the result.

2x + (a 9)y = 0
[2]
2x + (2 9)y = 0
2x 7y = 0
When a = 2 the lines are co-incident.

Then substitute the value a = 7 and interpret


the result.

When a = 7,
ax 7y = 0
7x 7y = 0
xy=0

[1]

[1]

2x + (a 9)y = 0
[2]
2x + (7 9)y = 0
2x 2y = 0
xy=0
When a = 7 the lines are co-incident.
5

State the solution.

When a = 2 and a = 7, the lines are co-incident.


So, for a unique solution a R\{2, 7}.

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

35

WorkeD exampLe 32

For the linear simultaneous equations given below:


a determine the values of t for which there are i infinitely many solutions and ii no solutions
b determine the unique solution for the equations in terms of t, specifying the restrictions on t.
tx 3y = 6
2x + (t 5)y = 3t
think

a 1 Write and number the equations.

Rewrite each equation in the form


y = mx + c.

Write

tx 3y = 6
2x + (t 5)y = 3t
tx 3y = 6
3y = tx + 6
t
y= x2
3
2x + (t 5)y = 3t
(t 5)y = 2x + 3t
2
3t
y=
x+
t 5
t 5

When there are no solutions or infinitely


many solutions, the two lines have the same
gradients, therefore they should be equated.
Equate the gradients.

[1]
[2]
[1]
[3]
[2]
[4]

2
t
=
3 t 5
t(t 5) = 6
t2 5t + 6 = 0
(t 2)(t 3) = 0
t = 2 or t = 3

Check the possibilities by substituting the


values of t into equations [1] and [2].

When t = 2,
tx 3y = 6
2x 3y = 6

i First substitute the value t = 2, and

2x + (t 5)y = 3t
[2]
2x + (2 5)y = 3(2)
2x 3y = 6
When t = 2, the lines are co-incident and have
infinitely many solutions.

interpret the result.

ii Then substitute the value t = 3, and

interpret the result.

When t = 3,
tx 3y = 6
3x 3y = 6
xy=2
y=x2

[1]

[1]

2x + (t 5)y = 3t
[2]
2x + (3 5)y = 3(3)
2x 2y = 9
9
xy=
2
9
y=x
2
When t = 3, the lines are parallel lines and there
are no solutions.
b 1 To find the unique intersection point between

the lines, solve equations [1] and [2].


Write equations [2] and [3].
36

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2x + (t 5)y = 3t
t
y= x2
3

[2]
[3]

Substitute [3] into [2] and simplify to


find x in terms of t.

t
2 x + (t 5) x 2 = 3t
3

t2x
5tx
2t
+10 = 3t
3
3
6 x + t 2 x 6t 5tx + 30 = 9t

2x +

t 2 x 5tx + 6 x = 15t 30
x (t 2 5t + 6) = 15t 30
15t 30
t 2 5t + 6
15(t 2)
x=
(t 2)(t 3)
15
, t3
x=
t3
x=

Substitute the expression for x into


equation [3].

State the solution.

t
y= x2
3
t 15
y=
2
3 t 3
5t
y=
2
t 3
5t 2(t 3)
y=
t 3
3t + 6
y=
t 3

[3]

There is a unique solution when


15
3t + 6
, where t R\{2, 3}.
x=
and y =
t 3
t 3

Simultaneous equations with three variables


Simultaneous equations with three variables are systems of planes. The system of planes can have no
solution, one unique solution or infinite solutions.
No solution

One unique solution

Infinite solutions

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

There is no point at which


all three planes intersect.

There is one unique point


at which all three planes
intersect.

The three planes have a line of intersection


and therefore have an infinite number of
points at which they intersect.
Alternatively the planes might be co-incident.

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

37

So, the solution of simultaneous equation with 3 (or more) variables can be:
no solution
a point
a line
a plane.

WorkeD exampLe 33

Solve the following simultaneous linear equations.


x + 2y 3z = 11
4x 3y + z = 12
3x y z = 14
think
1

Write and number the equations.

One variable must be eliminated. Decide which


variable to eliminate first. In this case, eliminate z.

Write

x + 2y 3z = 11
4x 3y + z = 12
3x y z = 14

[1]
[2]
[3]

4x 3y + z = 12
12x 9y + 3z = 36

[2] 3
[4]

12x 9y + 3z = 36
x + 2y 3z = 11

[4]
+
[1]

13x 7y

[5]

To do so, multiply equation [2] by 3 to give


equation [4].
3

Add equation [1] to equation [4] to eliminate the


variable z to give equation [5].

Multiply equation [3] by 3 to give equation [6].

3x y z = 14
9x 3y 3z = 42

[3] 3
[6]

Eliminate z by subtracting equation [1] from [6]


to give equation [7].

9x 3y 3z = 42
x + 2y 3z = 11

[6]
[1]

8x 5y

[7]

Multiply equations [5] by 5 and [7] by 7 to give


equations [8] and [9] respectively.

Subtract equation [9] from equation [8] to


eliminate y and solve for x.

Substitute x = 2 into equation [7] to find y.

10

= 31

13x 7y = 47
65x 35y = 235

[5] 5
[8]

8x 5y = 31
56x 35y = 217

[7] 7
[9]

65x 35y = 235


56x 35y = 217

[8]
[9]

9x
x

38

= 47

= 18
=2

8x 5y = 31
8(2) 5y = 31
16 5y = 31
5y = 15
y = 3

[7]

Substitute x = 2 and y = 3 into equation [1] to


find z.

x + 2y 3z = 11
2 + 2(3) 3z = 11
2 6 3z = 11
3z = 15
z = 5

[1]

State the solution.

The planes will intersect at a unique point when


x = 2, y = 3 and z = 5.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WorkeD exampLe 34

Consider the following system of simultaneous equations.


kx y + z = 8
3x + ky + 2z = 2
x + 3y + z = 6
For what values of k, is there:
i a unique solution?
ii no solution?
iii an infinite number of solutions?
think

Write

i 1 Write the equations and attribute a number

kx y + z = 8
3x + ky + 2z = 2
x + 3y + z = 6

to each.
2

[1]
[2]
[3]

Eliminate a variable. In this case, eliminate


the variable z.
kx y + z = 8
x + 3y + z = 6

To do this, start by subtracting equation [3]


from equation [1] to give equation [4].

[1]
[3]

kx x 4y = 14
x(k 1) 4y = 14

[4]

Multiply equation [3] by 2 to give


equation [5].

x + 3y + z = 6
2x + 6y + 2z = 12

[3] 2
[5]

Subtract equation [5] from


equation [2] to give equation [6].

3x + ky + 2z = 2
2x + 6y + 2z = 12

[2]
[5]

x + ky 6y = 14
x + y(k 6) = 14

[6]

x(k 1) 4y = 14
x + y(k 6) = 14

[4]
[6]

Write equations [4] and [6] beneath each


other.

To eliminate the variable x, multiply


equation [6] by (k 1) to give equation [7]
and then subtract the result from
equation [4].

x ( k 1) 4 y = 14
x + y( k 6) = 14

[4]
[6] (k 1)

x ( k 1) 4 y = 14
x ( k 1) + y( k + 6)( k 1) = 14( k 1)

[4]
[7]

4y

y( k + 6)( k 1) = 14 14( k 1)
+ 6)( k 1)) = 14 k + 28
y( k 2 + 7 k 10) = 14 k + 28

14 k + 28
y= 2
k + 7 k 10
14( k 2)
y=
, k 5, k 2
( k 5)( k 2)

y( 4 ( k

Interpret the result.

ii 1 Determine the value of y in terms of k


from step 6 above.

14
into equation [4] to
( k 5)
determine the value of x in terms of k.
Substitute y =

That is, there is a unique solution


when k 5 or k 2.
14( k 2)
( k 5)( k 2)
14
=
( k 5)

y=

x ( k 1) 4 y = 14

[4]

14
x ( k 1) 4
= 14
k 5
Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

39

x ( k 1)( k 5) 56 = 14( k 5)
14( k 5) + 56
( k 1)( k 5)
14 k 14
=
( k 1)( k 5)
14( k 1)
=
( k 1)( k 5)
14
x=
k 5

x=

14
14
and y =
into
( k 5)
( k 5)
equation [3] to determine the value of z in
terms of k.
Substitute x =

x + 3y + z = 6

[3]

14
14

+ 3
+z= 6
x 5 x 5
14 + 42 + z ( k 5) = 6( k 5)
6( k

5) 56
k 5
6 k 26
=
k 5

z=

Determine the value of k for which there


will be no solution.

14
14
and y =
and
( k 5)
( k 5)
6 k 26
z=
, we know that x, y and z will all
k 5
be undefined when k = 5.
Given, x =

Therefore, there is no solution when k = 5.


iii Deduce when there will be an infinite number

of solutions.

We know from i that there is a unique solution


when k 5 or k 2.
We know from ii that there is no solution
when k = 5.
So, there are an infinite number of solutions
when k = 2.

Note: This solution is best understood


when explored using a CAS calculator. The
solution process is shown in the Calculator
companion.

Solving simultaneous equations with three variables can be applied in a number of situations. One
such example is outlined in Worked example 35.

WorkeD exampLe 35

The cubic function with the general equation y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 8 passes through the points
(1, 2) (2, 4) and (4, 8). Find the values of a, b and c.
think
1

40

Substitute the points (1, 2), (2, 4) and (4, 8)


into the equation y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 8 to form
three linear simultaneous equations.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Write

(1, 2)
2 = a(1)3 + b(1)2 + c(1) + 8
6 = a + b + c

[1]

Attribute a number to each resulting equation.

(2, 4)
4 = a(2)3 + b(2)2 + c(2) + 8
12 = 8a + 4b 2c
6 = 4a + 2b c

[2]

(4, 8)
8 = a(4)3 + b(4)2 + c(4) + 8
0 = 64a + 16b + 4c
0 = 16a + 4b + c

[3]

Write equations [1], [2] and [3] underneath each


other.

Begin by eliminating a variable. In this case,


eliminate the variable c first.
To do this, add equations [1] and [2] to give
equation [4].

Also, add equations [2] and [3] to give


equation [5].

=a+b+c
= 4a + 2b c
0 = 16a + 4b + c

6
12
4

[1]+
[2]

= 3a + 3b
= a + b

[4]

= 4a + 2b c
0 = 16a + 4b + c

Subtract equation [4] from equation [5] to


determine the value of a.

=a+b+c
= 4a + 2b c

6
6

[1]
[2]
[3]

1
4

[2]+
[3]

= 12a + 6b
= 2a + b

[5]

= 2a + b
= a + b

[5]
[4]

3 = 3a
1=a
6

Substitute a = 1 into equation [4] to find the


value of b.

= a + b
= 1 + b
3 = b

[4]

Substitute a = 1 and b = 3 into (1)


=13+c
6 = 2 + c
4 = c
6

Substitute a = 1 and b = 3 into equation [1] to


find the value of c.

State the equation of the cubic.

Given a = 1, b = 3 and c = 4, the equation


of the cubic function is y = x3 3x2 4x + 8.

=a+b+c
=13+c
4 = c
6

[1]

Units: 3 & 4

Simultaneous equations with three or


more variables
Simultaneous equations with any number of variables could also be solved using a CAS calculator and
matrix theory.
This method is certainly preferred when solving simultaneous equations where there are more than
three variables to be solved.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

41

WorkeD exampLe 36

Solve these five linear simultaneous equations using matrices and a CAS calculator.
2v + w 3x + 2y z = 12
v + 3w + 4x y + 2z = 13
v 2w + 5x 2y 3z = 32
3v w + 2x y 3z = 18
3v + 3w 4x + 3y 2z = 9
think
1

Write

Represent the equations in matrix form.

On a calculator, store the matrices as variables


a and b as shown opposite.

1
1
3

1
3

1
3

2
1
1
3

1
3
2
1
3

12
13
32
18
9

2
4
1
3
5

4
5
2

4
3

4
5
2

1
3
2
1
2
1
3

2
3

2
3
3

v
w
x
y
z

a 1b will give the solution.

Write the solution.

v = 2, w = 4, x = 1, y = 3 and z = 5.

exercise 1h

12
13
32

18
9

Solving systems of equations

1 We31 Find the value(s) of a where a R, when the following equations below have a unique

solution.

ax + 9y = 0
3x + (a 6)y = 0

2 We32 Consider the following linear simultaneous equations.

mx 5y = 10
3x (m 2)y = 6
a Find the values of m, where m R, for which there are infinitely many or no solutions.
b Find the unique solution for the equations in terms of m, specifying the restrictions on m.
3 We33 Solve:

x+y+z=9
+ 2y 3z = 15
x + 5y + 3z = 29

a algebraically
b using matrices and a CAS calculator.
42

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

4 Solve:

x y z = 5
6x + 2y 5z = 2
3x + y + 4z = 13

a algebraically
b using matrices and a CAS calculator.
5 We34 Consider the following system of simultaneous equations.

6x + 2y z = 1
x+y+z=2
kx + y z = 1
For what values of k, is there:
i a unique solution?
ii no solution?
6 An amateur drama company were selling tickets for their latest production. The opening night was a
sell out with all 200 tickets being sold. Tickets were priced as follows:
Adults
Children
Senior citizens

10

$9.50 each
$4.50 each
$3.50 each

The takings for the opening night amounted to $1375. Also, there were three times as many
childrens tickets sold as there were senior citizens tickets.
a Construct a system of linear simultaneous equations to represent this purchase of tickets for the
opening night. Determine algebraically the number of each type of ticket sold for the opening night.
b Use matrices and a CAS calculator to solve the problem.
As an experiment, the manager of a seafood outlet at a large food court has decided to offer a lunch
special for the purchase of cooked seafood. It would involve selling only fish (medium sized pieces
of flake), F, medium portions of chips, C, and potato cakes, P, over a luncheon period from 12 noon to
2.30 pm. The portions were priced as follows:
1 medium piece of flake
$6.00
1 medium serve of chips
$4.50
1 potato cake
$1.00
On the first occasion the lunch special was trialled, 255 portions of food were sold. The total
takings for the luncheon special were $1067.50. It was also known that there were 50 more portions
of chips sold than there were pieces of flake.
a Construct a system of linear simultaneous equations to represent this luncheon special.
Determine algebraically the number of each type of ticket sold for the opening night.
b Use matrices and a CAS calculator to solve the problem.
We35 The general equation of a cubic function is given by y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d where a, b, c and
d are real constants. If it is known that the cubic function passes through the points (2, 62), (0, 4),
(2, 26) and (5, 64), find the values of a, b, c and d a algebraically and b using matrices and
a CAS calculator.
The general equation of a circle is given by x2 + y2 + ax + by + c = 0 where a, b and c are real
constants. If it is known that the circle passes through the points (3, 1), (6, 2) and (0, 2), find the values
of a, b and c a algebraically and b using matrices and a CAS calculator.
We36 Solve the following five linear simultaneous equations using matrices and a CAS calculator.
a + 2b c + d e = 24
2a + 3b 2c d 3e = 34
2a + b + 3c 2d + e = 31
3a + 5b 2c 2d + 3e = 18
4a 2b c 3d + e = 5

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

43

Summary
1

pascals triangle

1
1
1
1
1

1
2

3
4

1
3

6
10

1
4

10

1
5

Binomial theorem

n
n
n
n
(ax + b)n = (ax)nb0 + (ax)n 1b + +
(ax)bn 1 + (ax)0bn
0
1
n 1
n
Notes
1. Indices add to n.
2. There are n + 1 terms in the expansion.
n
3. The (r + 1)th term is (ax)n rbr.
r

polynomials

If P(x) = an x n + an 1 x n 1 + . . . + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0 and n is a non-negative integer then P(x) is a


polynomial of degree n and an, an 1, . . . , a2, a1 are called coefficients and a R.
Remainder theorem:
If P(x) is divided by (x a), then the remainder is P(a). If P(x) is divided by (ax + b) then the
b
remainder is P .
a
Factor theorem:
1. If P(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of P(x) or if (ax + b) is a factor of P(x), then:
b
P = 0.
a
2. If (x a) is a factor of P(x) then a must be a factor of the term independent of x.

Linear graphs

Linear equations are polynomials of degree 1.


General equation is
ax + by + c = 0
or
y = mx + c
where m = gradient
c = y-intercept
y y
m= 2 1
The gradient
x 2 x1
Equation if a point and the gradient is known:
y y1 = m(x x1)
Parallel lines have the same gradient.
If m1 and m2 are the gradients of perpendicular lines, then:
m1 m2 = 1
1
m1 =
or
m2

Quadratic graphs

Quadratic equations are polynomials of degree 2.


General equation is
y = ax2 + bx + c
The general quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, can be solved for x using the
Quadratic formula:

44

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

x=

b 2 4 ac
2a

Discriminant = b2 4ac and:


1. if b2 4ac > 0, there are 2 x-intercepts (and if b2 4ac is a perfect square, the intercepts
are rational)
2. if b2 4ac = 0, there is 1 x-intercept
3. if b2 4ac < 0, there are no x-intercepts.
The power form or turning point form of the quadratic is:
y = a(x b)2 + c
and the turning point is (b, c).
b
The equation of the axis of symmetry and the x-value of the turning point of a parabola is
.
2a
The axis of symmetry is halfway between the x-intercepts.

Cubic graphs

Cubic equations are polynomials of degree 3.


General equation is y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d
Basic shapes of cubic graphs:
1. If a > 0:
Positive cubic

Power form
y

y = a(x b)3 + c

(b, c)

Factor form
y

Repeated factor
y

y = a(x b)(x c)(x d)


where a > 0

c d

y = (x a)2 (x b)

2. If a < 0, then the reflections through the x-axis of the types of graph in the above figures are
obtained.

Quartic graphs

Quartic equations are polynomials of degree 4.


General equation is y = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e
Basic shapes of quartic graphs:
1. If a > 0:
y

b
0

y = a(x b)2(x c)2

y = ax4
Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

45

b
x

y=

ax4

cx2,

c0

y = a(x b)(x c)3


y

y = ax2(x b)(x c)

e x

y = a(x b)(x c)(x d)(x e)

2. If a < 0, then reflection through the x-axis of the types of graph above is obtained.
Note: It is possible to translate the cubic and quartic graphs shown in the cubic graphs and
quartic graphs sections above.
Functions

Solving systems of
equations

Simultaneous equations with two variables can have no solution (if lines are parallel), one solution
(if lines intersect) or infinitely many solutions (if the lines overlap).
Simultaneous equations with three variables can have no solution (if there is no point in which
all three planes intersect), one solution (one unique point at which all three planes intersect)
or infinitely many solutions (if the three planes have a line of intersection, or if the planes are
coincident).
Simultaneous equations with any number of equations can be solved using a CAS calculator and
matrix theory.

46

A function is fully defined if the rule and domain are given.


The domain of a function is the set of values of x for which the function is defined.
The range of a function is the set of values of y for which the function is fully defined.
Restricted domains can be represented by interval notation:
[a, b] = {x: a x b}
(a, b) = {x: a < x < b}
[a, b) = {x: a x < b}

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Chapter review
1 Expand each of the following.
a (2y

x 2
b
2 x

3x)5

S ho rt
a n S W er

2 If a factor of P(x) = 7 + ax + 5x2 + 15x3 + bx4 is (x2 1), find the values of a and b.
3 Factorise each of the following expressions.
a x3 12x2 + 17x + 90

b 2x4 + 7x3 31x2 + 36

4 Find the equation of each of the straight lines described below.


a The line which passes through the points (5, 6) and (1, 1).
b The line which is perpendicular to the line with equation 2x y + 10 = 0 and passes through the

point (3, 3).


5 Sketch the graph of y = 8 2x x2, by labelling the turning point and all intercepts. State its domain

and range.
6 Sketch the graph of y = 3x2 + 8x 3, x [3, 0). State the range of this function.
7 a If (x + 3) is a factor of f (x) = x3 + bx2 + ax 18 and g(x) = ax2 + bx 75, then find the values of a

and b.
b Sketch the graph of f (x) by labelling all intercepts.
8 Sketch the graph of f (x) = x4 7x3 + 12x2 + 4x 16.
9 Solve the following five linear simultaneous equations using matrices and a CAS calculator.
3a

5b + c 7d + e = 17
+ 4b c + 3d 5e = 20
2a + 3b + 3c 3d 2e = 11
6a b c d + e = 20
5a + 2b 3c + 4d 4e = 53
2a

1 When expanded, (1 2x)5 is equal to:

a 1 + 2x

+
+
C 5 10x + 20x2 40x3 + 80x4 160x5
e 1 10x + 40x2 80x3 + 80x4 32x5

4x2

8x3

16x4

32x5

B 1 2x +

D 1 + 2x 4x2 + 8x3 16x4 + 32x5

4x2

8x3

16x4

32x5

m U Ltip L e
C ho iC e

1 8

2 The coefficient of x5 in the expansion of 4 x 2 is:

x
a 4096
D 16 384

B 131 072
e 16 384

C 4096

a 153 090 x2

B 243x4

1 10

3 Assuming descending powers of x, the fifth term of the expansion of 3 x + is:

81
x5
4 Which of the following expressions is not a polynomial?
a x3 + 3x 1
B x4 5x3 + 3x2 6x
D 729x2

81
x2

x 4 + 5x 3 2 x 2 + 5x 3

C x21 x11 + x 3

e x6 x5 + 2x4 x3 + 4x 2

5 The value of P(3) in the polynomial, P(x) = x5 4x3 3x2 + 10x + 1, is:
a 31
D 6

B 139
e 1

C 191

6 The degree of the polynomial (5 6x + x3 + 7x6) (x2 3x4 + 2) when expanded is:
a 24
D 16

B 8
e 21

7 The remainder when x5 + 2x4 + 4x3 5x + 3 is divided by (x + 3) is:


a 271
D 3

B 51
e 108

C 10

C 171

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

47

8 For which one of the following polynomial expressions is (x 2) not a factor?


a x3 + 3x2 4x 12
D x3 + x2 10x + 8

B x4 2x3 6x2 8x + 2
e 2x3 + 3x2 9x 10

C x4 + 2x3 7x2 8x + 12

9 Which one of the following is a factor of 2x4 4x3 10x2 + 12x?


a (x 2)
D (x 4)

B (x + 3)
e (x 3)

10 The rule for the graph shown is:


a 2x + y + 4 = 0
C 2y x 4 = 0
e 4x + 2y = 0

C (x + 1)

y
2

B x 2y 4 = 0
D x + 2y 4 = 0

0
y

Questions 11 and 12 refer to the graph at right, which has a gradient of 2.


11 The value of b must be:
a 5
D 1

B 3
e 4

(2, b)

C 1

(3, 5)
12 The y-intercept is:
a (0, 3)

B (0, 2)

D (0, 1)

C (0, 2 )

13 If 3x2 + 4x 5 = 0, then the value of the discriminant is:

e ( 2 , 0)

44
B 44
C
D 23
e 76
76
2

Questions 14 and 15 refer to the function with the rule: y = 2x + 8x 10 where x ( 6, 2).

14 Which one of the following graphs could represent this function?


a

(6, 14)

65

(2, 14)

65

10

(6, 22)

(6, 14)

(2, 14)

0 12
10

(2, 14)

(6, 14)

2 1 0
10

56

(2, 10)

(6, 6)

1 0 2
2

10

x
(2, 3.6)

15 The range of this function is:


a (18, 14)
D [18, 14]

B (10, 14)
e (14, 10)

16 The graph of y = 3x3 could be:


a
B
y
y

48

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

0 12

65

C [18, 14)

17 Which of the following intercepts does the graph of f (x) = 6 + 11x + 3x2 2x3 have?
a ( , 0), (2, 0), (3, 0) and (0, 6)

B (2, 0), (2, 0), (3, 0) and (0, 6)

C ( 12 , 0), (2, 0), (3, 0) and (0, 6)

D (2, 0), (1, 0), (3, 0) and (0, 6)

1
2

1
2

e ( , 0), (3, 0), (2, 0) and (0, 6)

18 The rule for the graph shown at right could be:


a
B
C
D
e

f (x) = (x
+ 3)
f (x) = (x + 1)(x 3)2
f (x) = (x + 1)2(3 x)
f (x) = (x2 1)(x + 3)
f (x) = (x 3)(x + 1)2

1 0

19 The rule for the graph shown at right could be:


a
B
C
D
e

f(x)

1)2(x

f (x) = x(x +
f (x) = x(x 2)2
f (x) = x2(x 2)2
f (x) = x(x 2)3
f (x) = x(2 x)2

f(x)

2)3

20 The graph of y = (x + 3)2(x 1)(x 3) is best represented by:


a

3
3

x
3

0 1

1 A rogue satellite has its distance from Earth,

d thousand kilometres, modelled by a cubic


function of time, t days after launch. After 1 day
it reaches a maximum distance from Earth
of 4000kilometres, then after 2 days it is
2000 kilometres away. It effectively returns to
Earth after 3 days, then moves further and
further away.
a What is the satellites initial distance from
Earth?
b Sketch the graph of d versus t for the first
6 days of travel.
c Express d as a function of t.
d The moon is approximately 240 000 kilometres from Earth. Which is closer to Earth after 8 days,
the satellite or the moon? By how far?

ex ten D eD
r eS p o n S e

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

49

e The satellite is programmed to self-destruct. This happens when it is 490 000 kilometres

from Earth. What is the life span of the satellite?


State the domain and range of d(t).
y
A bridge spans a narrow canal as shown in the diagram at right.
a Find the equation of a parabola that models the shape of the
3
archway.
2
b Show that a barge 3 m wide and carrying cargo with a total height of
1.7 m (with a rectangular cross-section) cannot fit under the arch.
1
c How much cargo (in height, correct to 1 decimal place) must be
Barge
x
removed for the barge to fit under the bridge?
2 1 0 1 2
In the town of Newtonia there is an annual 10 m race (for the
Surface of canal
Polynomial Cup) for mini robots that have been programmed with
mathematical formulas by Professor Liebnitz. There is a lot of betting
on the race as the professor keeps the formulas secret and is known to
favour surprise winners.
The three contestants were programmed as follows, where x is the distance from the start line in
metres and t is the time in minutes:
Liney
x = 2.4 + 0.75t
Quadder
x = 0.2t(t 5.1)
Cubric
x = 0.2t(t 5.1)(t 9.1)
Using a CAS calculator, describe the motions of the three contestants, specifically:
a the direction they travelled in and how fast they were moving
b where and when they changed direction
c where and when they passed or met each other
d who won the race and by how much.
Sketch the graphs of their movements on the same set of axes, labelling all relevant points. You will
need an extra graph to get a close-up of the finish.
The diagram at right shows a main road passing through O, A, C and E. The road crosses a river at
point O and 3 kilometres further along the road at point C. Between O and C, the furthest the river is
from the road is 8.54 kilometres, at a point D, 2.25 kilometres east of a northsouth line through O.
Point A is 1 kilometre east of point O. If point O is taken as the origin
N
and the road as the x-axis, then the path of the river can be modelled
River
W
E
by a quartic function, as shown in blue.
S
a Give the coordinates of C and D.
O A
b Find the rule for the quartic function, f (x).
C Main road
E
c How far is the river from the main road along the track AB?
d A canoeing race, of at least 17 kilometres in length, along
B
the river is being organised. It is suggested that the race
D
could start at O and finish at C. Is this course satisfactory?
Why?
y
Willie Wonkie, of Willie Wonkies Construction
Company, makes a sketch of the symmetrical W
for a large neon sign as shown at right. The x- and
y-axes represent the supporting crosspieces. The
width of the W along the x-axis is 6 metres and the
point on the vertical support is 2 1 metres above
4
the horizontal support. The W can be modelled
x
by a quartic function, with all x-intercepts exactly
evenly spaced.
a Find the rule for the letter W.
b If the top of the W is 8 metres wide, find the
coordinates of the highest points of the letter.
c State the domain of the function.
f

50

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

d Use a graphics calculator to find the coordinates of the lowest points of the W, giving values

correct to 3 decimal places. Hence find the range of the function.


e In order to test the strength of his design, Willie Wonkie moves the horizontal crosspiece so that it

just touches the lowest points of the W. Find the new rule that describes the W now.
State the domain and range of the new function.
Note: The following questions use differentiation of polynomials.
6 A plane cruising at 10 000 m is coming in to land at an airport at sea level, as can be seen in the diagram
below.
f

y
Planes

10 km

flight path

10 000 m
x

50 km
Airport

If the plane descends smoothly and makes no changes in direction, show that a possible model would
be y = ax2(x b).
a Find the equation if the plane begins its descent when 50 km horizontally from the airport.
b What is the altitude of the plane when it is 2 km horizontally from the airport?
c How accurate do you think this model is?
7 The diagram below shows a symmetrical skateboard ramp with horizontal platforms at A and B, and
vertical supporting struts at C and D.
y
A

B
E

G
2m

4m

x
3m

D
2m
4m

a Write an equation for a quartic function that models the ramp, assuming a smooth connection at

A and B.

b Show that the right half of the ramp can be modelled by a cubic equation y = a(x b)(x 4)2 and

DiGitaL DoC
doc-9173
Test Yourself
Chapter 1

find its equation by evaluating a and b.


c The right-hand side can also be modelled by two smoothly connected parabolas.
i If the strut DF is 1 m long, find the equation of the lower parabola passing through F.
ii Find the equation of the upper parabola if it meets the lower one at F, and show that the

connection is not smooth (that is, their gradients are not equal at the point where they meet).

iii Show that the two parabolas meet smoothly at (3, 0.75) provided the lower parabola passes

through F.
d Which model is the closest to the actual ramp if the strut is really 1.6 m long?

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

51

ICT activities
Chapter opener
DiGitaL DoC
10 Quick Questions doc-9159: Warm up with ten quick questions on
graphs and polynomials. (page 1)

1a

the binomial theorem

tUtoriaL
We3 eles-1173: Watch a worked example on binomial expansion.
(page 3)
DiGitaL DoC
SkillSHEET 1.1 doc-9238: Practise binomial expansions using Pascals
triangle. (page 4)

1B

polynomials

DiGitaL DoCS
Spreadsheet doc-9160: Investigate evaluating polynomials. (page 7)
SkillSHEET 1.2 doc-9239: Practise solving simultaneous equations.
(page 7)

1C

Division of polynomials

interaCtiVitY
Division of polynomials int-0246: Consolidate your understanding of
the division of polynomials and rational functions. (page 8)
tUtoriaL
We11 eles-1193: Watch a worked example on the division of
polynomials. (page 8)
DiGitaL DoCS
Spreadsheet doc-9161: Investigate finding factors of polynomials.
(page 10)
WorkSHEET 1.1 doc-9162: Binomial expansion, division of polynomials
and solving and factorising polynomial equations (page 10)

1D

Linear graphs

DiGitaL DoCS
SkillSHEET 1.3 doc-9240: Practise calculating the gradient of parallel
and perpendicular lines. (page 14)
SkillSHEET 1.4 doc-9241: Practise using the gradient to find the value
of a parameter. (page 14)
SkillSHEET 1.5 doc-9242: Practise using interval notation. (page 15)
SkillSHEET 1.6 doc-9243: Practise finding the domain and range for
linear graphs. (page 15)

1e

Quadratic graphs

tUtoriaL
We17 eles-1174: Watch a worked example on using the
discriminant. (page 16)

52

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

DiGitaL DoCS
Spreadsheet doc-9163: Investigate the value of the disciminant.
(page 20)
Spreadsheet doc-9164: Investigate quadratic graphs.
(page 20)
SkillSHEET 1.7 doc-9244: Practise recognising domain and range for
quadratic graphs. (page 20)
Spreadsheet doc-9165: Investigate graphs of functions.
(page 21)
Spreadsheet doc-9166: Investigate quadratic graphs in turning point
form. (page 21)
WorkSHEET 1.2 doc-9167: Calculate gradients, axial intercepts
and values of the discriminant, sketch graphs of polynomials, and
determine equations for graphs. (page 21)

1F

Cubic graphs

tUtoriaL
We24 eles-1194: Watch a worked example on determining the
rule of a cubic. (page 23)
DiGitaL DoCS
Spreadsheet doc-9168: Investigate cubic graphs in factor form.
(page 25)
Spreadsheet doc-9169: Investigate cubic graphs. (page 26)
Spreadsheet doc-9170: Investigate cubic graphs of the form
y = a(x b)3 + c. (page 27)

1G

Quartic graphs

tUtoriaLS
We27 eles-1195: Watch a worked example on sketching the
graph of a quartic. (page 30)
We28 eles-1196: Watch a worked example on finding the turning
points of a quartic using a CAS calculator. (page 30)
DiGitaL DoCS
SkillSHEET 1.8 doc-9245: Practise solving quartic equations.
(page 33)
Spreadsheet doc-9171: Investigate quartic graphs in factor form.
(page 33)
Investigation doc-9172: Quartics and beyond (page 34)

Chapter review
DiGitaL DoC
Test Yourself Chapter 1 doc-9173: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 51)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Answers CHAPTER 1
GraphS anD poLYnomiaLS
exercise 1a

3 a No
4 a C

the binomial theorem

1 a x2 + 6x + 9
b x5 + 20x4 + 160x3 + 640x2 + 1280x + 1024
c x8 8x7 + 28x6 56x5 + 70x4 56x3
d
e
f
2 a
b

+ 28x2 8x + 1
16x4 + 96x3 + 216x2 + 216x + 81
2401 1372x + 294x2 28x3 + x4
32 240x + 720x2 1080x3
+ 810x4 243x5
3 1
x3 + 3x + + 3
x x
2187x7 10 206x5 + 20 412x3 22 680x
15 120 6048 1344 128
+
3 + 5 7
x
x
x
x

c x12 + 18x9 + 135x6 + 540x3 + 1215 +

4
8
9
10
12
14

exercise 1D

1 a

exercise 1C

Division of polynomials
1 a Q(x) = x2 + 2x + 13
R(x) = 50
b Q(x) = x4 3x3 + 6x2 18x + 58
R(x) = 171
c Q(x) = 6x3 + 17x2 + 53x + 155
R(x) = 465
d Q(x) =

R(x) =

x3

3 20
27

7
3

x2

7
9

+ x+

iv
iv
iv
iv

1
14
7

19

9
10
11
12

a 2x + y 9 = 0
a y 2x 7 = 0

E
B

exercise 1e

1 a 0
d 2
2 a

Quadratic graphs
b 2
c 0
e 2
f 1

y
8

Linear graphs

b x + 3y 17 = 0
b x + 2y + 1 = 0

y
4
0

5 x

0
y

d
x

1
2

1 13

a y 3x + 5 = 0
a 3x + y + 13 = 0

a
c
6 a
d
7 a
d
8 a

i 1

1 12

12

10

1
y

y
5

b 2x + y + 5 = 0
b yx+2=0
b y 3x + 7 = 0

ii 8

2x + y = 0
iii
vi

b v
e i

[2, )
[2, 3]

b (5, )
e R

c iv
f ii

(12, 15) y

c [2, 3)
f (, 6)

5 9
)
2 4

1)

3 a (3,
1
2

b( ,
1
4

1
12

c (1 , 12 )
4 a
b
c
d
5 a
b
c

i
i
i
i
i
i
i

d ( , 12

(0, 2)
(6, 0)
(2, 0)
(3, 6)
y = x2 2x 1
y = x2 4x + 1
y = 8 + 2x x2

ii
ii
ii
ii
ii
ii
ii

R
R
R
R
R
[1, )
[4, 4)

1
)
24

iii
iii
iii
iii
iii
iii
iii

y2
y0
y0
y 6
[2, )
[3, )
[16, 9]

6 a

6
3
8 x
(12, 3)

i [12, 12]
b

ii [3, 15]

x
y

(0, 15)

y
5 x

0
2

i (, 5)
c

ii (, 0)

)
(5, 14
3

101
27

2 a i 50
ii 171
20
iii 465
iv 3 27
b The result is the same.

d Yes

2
3
4
5

polynomials

1 ii, iii, vi
2 a x5 2x4 2x2 3x + 7
b x5 3x4 8x3 11x2 + 4x 1
c 3x4 16x3 8x2 x + 24
d 17 18x + 29x2 + 24x3 + 5x4 x5
3 a i 6
ii 0
iii 124
b i 7
iii 280
ii 8
c i 6
ii 3
iii 331
d i 4
ii 7
iii 55
4 B
5 a = 4, b = 8
6 a = 3, b = 5
7 a = 0, b = 7
8 a = 2, b = 5
9 a C
bD

c No

5 a (x 2)(x + 3)2
b (3x 1)(x + 2)(x 6)
c (x + 2)(x 2)(x + 3)(x 1)
d 4x(x + 1)(x + 4)(x 2)
6 a x = 3, 0 or 2
b x = 4, 3, 0 or 2
3
c x = 2, 2 or 2
d x = 1
7 a=2
8 a=5
9 a=7
10 a = 10, b = 26
11 a = 9, b = 11

1458 + 729
x3
x6
243 810 1080 720
2
5
d 10 7 + 4 x + 240 x 32 x
x
x
x
ii 1
iii 0
a i 21
b i 40
ii 80
iii 80
c i 0
ii 810
iii 0
d i 0
iii 0
ii 540
e i 0
ii 302 526
iii 0
A
5C
6 D
7 D
540x3y3
19 683 x 2
4
4860
11 160
54
13 105
6

exercise 1B

b Yes
b B

(2, 23 )
0
2

i [2, 5)

3
2

2 14

ii [ 3 , 3 )

(2, 1)

1 0.09
1.5

2.91 x

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

53

7 a B
8 D
10 a

bC
9A

h
48 (0, 48)

(1, 4)

36
0

i
ii

11 t

1 a
b
2 a
e
3 a

Cubic graphs
y = x(x + 6)(x 5)
y = (x + 2)2(x 1)
v
vi

b iv
f viii

c ii
g vii

(1, 3)

2 1 0

1 0

1 0

1 3
4 (2 , 4 )
6

18

5t
c d (km) d(t) = t2
4

4 x

y = x2 + x 1, x R

R+

ii

4 a B
5 C

3
(, 4]

i [2, )

2 4 6 x

ii
y

1
[4 4 ,

128]

m3

3 1 0

32

(2, 32)

c
ii [100, 8]
b 80 m3
b6s

12 a 8
13 a 48 m
c Domain = [0, 6], range = [0, 48]
14 a 12 m
b 6 s
c 48 m
d Domain = [0, 11], range = [12, 48]

54

2
3

i [2, 1]

(5, 100)

100
f(x) = 5 + 6x 3x2

ii [0, )

(1, 0)
1 0

(1, 8)

1 2

Quartic graphs

y
24

1 a

y
4

x
5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3
(3, 4)
50

i [5, 3)

exercise 1G

9 E

d Max. d 4.6 km when t = 3 h and 20 min

6]

y
100

f(x) = x2 3x 2
108 64 2 0

bE
8 D

7 B

10 a

1
1
50 (12 , 4 4 )
(6, 16)

[10,

6 A

5
4
3
(2, 3)
2
1
0 1 2 3 4 5 t (h)

2 3

i
c (10, 128)

14
y

ii [1, 10]

(1, 1) [2, 3)
(57, 18] (3, 3)
a = 6, b = 24
a = 7, b = 4
a a = 3, b = 3, c = 3 and f (x) = 3(x 3)3 + 3
b g(x) = 3(x + 3)3 + 3, domain = [4, 2],
range = [0, 6]
c 7 cm
1
a a = 4, b = 5
2 (5 t )
b d (t ) = t
, domain = [0, 5]
4
i
ii

11
12
13

10

i [2, 2]
1
2

24

2
5 y = x 2x + 2
(2, 2)
2 (1, 1)

y
10

2 1 0

(1, 3)
(2, 18)
(3, 57)

(1, 8)

(2, 10)

11 a

(1, 3)

12

i [2, 1) (0, 3]
ii [12, 3) (0, 33]

4
1 0

(3, 33)

(2, 12)

3
(2, 1)

d i
h iii

[1, 2)
(14, 4]

exercise 1F

1 0

(2, 14)

(6, 12)

(2, 4)
(4, 9)

24

12

(11, 37)

y
3

ii
4
3

(1, 8)

[32, 0]

3 x

2 0 1 2

36 (0, 36)

i (0, 1]

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

ii (36, 8]

4 a y = (x + 2)(x 1)(x 3)(x + 1)

b y = 12 (x 2)2(x + 1)(x 4)

5
2

5 a

+ 810yx4 243x5
x8 x 6 7x 4
224
b

+
14 x 2 + 70 2
256 8
4
x
448 512 256
+ 4 6 + 8
x
x
x
2 a = 15, b = 2
3 a (x 9)(x + 2)(x 5)
b (2x 3)(x + 1)(x + 6)(x 2)
4 a 7x + 6y 1 = 0
b x + 2y 9 = 0

24

36

(3, 30)

i [2, 3]
3

32 0

2
3

ii [30, 0]

y
400

b (2, 400)

300
y

2 a

Short anSWer

1 a 32y5 240y4x + 720y3x2 1080y2x3

3 2

Chapter reVieW

0 1

2 1

(1.15, 2.08)

100

(1, 36)

(2, 1]

i
ii [36, 400)

(2, 0)

0
1
4

7 a a = 9, b = 2
y
b

i (, 2]
ii (, 16]

(0, 1)

x
y

(3, 45)

[3, 2]
[45, 0]
6 a = 4, b = 19
7 a = 1, b = 7
8 a = 3, b = 1

0 (1, 0)

exercise 1h

Solving systems of equations

1 a R\{3, 9}
2 a m = 5 infinitely many solutions, m = 3
(2.28, 9.91)
y

3
4

(0.25, 8.54)

5
6
(2, 0)

(1, 0)

3 a E
c A
e D

1 0

i
ii

(3, 0)

bB
dD
f C

8
9
10

18

(0.22, 3.23) (0, 3)

2 3

Range = [ 25
, 0]
3

(2, 16)

(1, 0)
0

(1, 0)

1
3

)
( 43 , 25
3

(1, 0)

(2.59, 1.62)

Domain = R, range = (, 9]

(3, 0) x

c
(0, 0)

(1, 9)

200

no solutions
6
10
b x=
, m R\{3, 0, 5}
, y=
m+3
m+3
x = 1, y = 2, z = 6
x = 2, y = 3, z = 4
5
5
Unique solution k , no solution k =
3
3
100 adult tickets, 75 childrens tickets,
25 senior citizen tickets sold on opening
night.
75 portions of flake, 125 portions of chips
and 55 potato cakes sold during the lunch
special period.
a = 3, b = 12, c = 3, d = 4
a = 6, b = 4, c = 4, d = 2
a = 7, b = 3, c = 2, d = 5, e = 4

16

9 a = 3, b = 2, c = 6, d = 1, e = 5
mULtipLe ChoiCe

1
5
9
13
17

E
C
E
E
A

2
6
10
14
18

B
C
D
B
E

3
7
11
15
19

A
C
A
C
D

4
8
12
16
20

D
B
D
B
A

extenDeD reSponSe

1 a 0 km
b d (1000 km)

c
d
e
f

(1, 4)

(3, 0)
t (days)

d = t 3 6t 2 + 9t
The satellite by 40 000 km
10 days
Domain = [0, 10], range = [0, 490]

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

55

2 a y = 3 0.75x2
b y = 1.3125, so cannot fit.
c Reduce the height by 0.4 m.

momentarily at (2.1, 8.8), then moving


back towards the start. Meets Liney
at (3.8, 5.24) and Quadder at the start
line at 5.1 min. Slows down, stopping
at (7.37, 5.8) and then speeding for
the finish.

3
x (m)

(2.1, 8.8)

10

(3.8, 5.24)

5
(0, 2.4) (0.3, 2.6)
0
5

Finishing
line

(5.1, 0)

L
Q

10.1
4

10 t (min)

(2.55, 1.3)
(7.37, 5.8)

10

Liney: Starts 2.4 m in front of start


line moving forwards at a constant
0.75 m/min. Passed by Cubric after
0.3 min and 2.6 m from the start line,
meets Cubric coming back towards
Liney at 3.8 min and 5.24 m from the
start line.
Quadder: Starts at start line, travelling
1.3m the wrong way for 2.55 min,
stopping momentarily then moving
forward with increasing speed. Meets
Cubric at the start line after 5.1 min.
Cubric: Starts at start line moving very
fast towards the finish passing Liney
at (0.3, 2.6), then slowing, stopping

56

x (m)
10.2

10
9.9

(10.1, 10.1)
(10.07, 10)

(10.092, 10)
(10.0899, 9.97)

(10.04, 9.9)
10

L
(10.13, 10)

C
10.15 t (min)

The Finish: Quadder overtakes Limey at


(10.04, 9.9).
Cubric overtakes Limey at (10.0899,
9.97).
Quadder finishes the race in 10.07 min,
Cubric in 10.09 min, Liney in 10.13 min.
Quadder wins by 1.2 s, Cubric second
by 2.4 s to Liney.
4 a C is (3, 0) and D is (2.25, 8.54)
b y = x4 3x3
c 2 km
d Yes, because a straight route from O to
D to C is approximately 17.4 km and the
river course is longer than this.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

5 a y = 14 (x + 3)(x + 1)(x 1)(x 3)


1

b (4, 26 4 ) and (4, 26 4 )

[4,

c Domain
4]
d (2.236, 4) and (2.236, 4);
1

range [4, 26 4 ]
1
e y = 4 (x 2.236)2(x + 2.236)2
1
f Domain [4, 4], range = [0, 30 4 ]
6 Teacher to check the model
x 2 ( x 75)
a y=
6250
b 46.72 m
c Seems to be extremely low 2 km from
touchdown. Not very accurate.
3( x 4) 2 ( x + 4)2
7 a y=
256
b y=

3( x 4)2 ( x + 2)

32
x2
3
c i
4

( x 4)2
y=
ii
; the gradients are 1 and 2,
2
respectively, so not smooth.
iii Teacher to check
d Quartic is the closest, 1.6875 m.

ChapTer 2

Functions and transformations


diGiTal doC
doc-9174
10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS
2a
2b
2C
2d
2e
2F
2G
2h
2i
2J

Transformations and the parabola


The cubic function in power form
The power function (the hyperbola)
The power function (the truncus)
The square root function in power form
The absolute value function
Transformations with matrices
Sum, difference and product functions
Composite functions and functional equations
Modelling

2a Transformations
Transformations

and the parabola

In this chapter we consider the basic graphs of the quadratic and cubic functions, the hyperbola and
truncus, square root and absolute value functions.
The following transformations of the above graphs are discussed: dilation, reflection and translation.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

dilation

Concept:

A dilation is the stretching or compressing of a graph.


Let the basic graph be y = f (x).

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

dilation away from the x-axis: y = af (x)

1. Stretches or compresses the graph f (x) by a factor of a from the x-axis.


2. Each y-value of the basic graph is multiplied by a factor of a, that is (x, y) (x, ay).
3. When | a | > 1, the graph of f (x) is stretched and becomes narrower.
4. When 0 < | a | < 1, the graph of f (x) is compressed and becomes wider.
dilation away from the y-axis: y = f (nx)

1
from the y-axis.
n
x
1
2. Each x-value of the basic graph is multiplied by a factor of , that is (x, y) ( , y).
n
n
3. When |n| > 1, the graph of f (x) is compressed from the y-axis and becomes narrower.
4. When 0 < |n| < 1, the graph of f (x) is stretched from the y-axis and becomes wider.
Note: For the graphs we will be looking at in this chapter a horizontal dilation can be expressed as
a vertical dilation. For example, (2x + 1)3 can be written as 23 ( x + 12 )3 = 8( x + 12 )3. So in this case a
1
horizontal dilation from the y-axis by a factor of 2 is the same as a vertical dilation from the
x-axis by a factor of 8. This can simplify the process of describing transformations for these
particular graphs.
1. Stretches or compresses the graph f (x) by a factor of

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

57

The concept of dilation is illustrated in the following diagrams:


y

Original graph dilated


from the x-axis

Original graph dilated


from the y-axis

Original graph

ref lection
Reflection provides a mirror image of a graph.
Reflection can take place in one or both axes.
Let the basic graph again be y = f (x).
ref lection in the x-axis: y = f (x)

1. The mirror image of the original graph appears across the x-axis (the mirror line).
2. Each y-value is the negative of the original, the x-value is unchanged, that is (x, y) (x, y).
reflection in the y-axis: y = f ( x)

1. The mirror image of the original graph appears across the y-axis (the mirror line).
2. Each x-value is the negative of the original, the y-value is unchanged, that is (x, y) (x, y).
reflection in both axes: y = f ( x)

1. The basic graph is reflected in the x-axis and then the y-axis (or vice versa).
2. Both the x- and y-values are the negatives of the original, that is (x, y) (x, y).
The concept of reflection is shown in the diagrams below. The red star is the original graph.
y

x
Reflection in the y-axis

Reflection in the x-axis


y

Reflection in both axes

Translation: y = f (x b) + c
A translation slides the graph. Translation can be horizontal (to the right or left along the x-axis), or
vertical (up or down along the y-axis).
Consider our basic graph y = f (x).
1. If y = f (x b) the basic graph is translated b units parallel to the x-axis:
(a) in the positive direction (i.e. to the right) when b > 0
(b) in the negative direction (i.e. to the left) when b < 0.
Each x-value has b added to it, that is (x, y) (x + b, y).
2. If y = f (x) + c, the basic graph is translated c units parallel to the y-axis:
(a) in the positive direction (i.e. up) when c > 0
(b) in the negative direction (i.e. down) when c < 0.
Each y-value has c added to it, that is (x, y) (x, y + c).
58

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

3. If y = f (x b) + c the basic graph is translated both horizontally and vertically.


y

x
x
Original graph

x
Vertical translation up
y

Vertical translation down

Horizontal translation
to the left

Horizontal translation
to the right

Naturally, the graph can be subject to a combination of two or more transformations.

Combination of transformations
diGiTal doC
doc-9175
Spreadsheet
Transformations

When describing transformations that have been applied to a basic graph f (x), it is best to put the graph
into the format y = af (x b) + c. The order of transformations is important as dilations and reflections
are applied before translations, so ensure that you describe the transformations in this order (remember
D-R-T).
In this chapter we shall consider graphs, derived from basic curves, using single transformations
dilations, reflections or translations as well as combinations of those.
Modelling of data will also be considered.

Units: 3 & 4

The quadratic function in power form


The graph of y = x2 is a parabola with the turning point at the origin. The
domain of the function is R and the range is R+ {0}.
Throughout this section we refer to the graph of y = x2 as the basic parabola.
Let us now consider the effect of various transformations on the graph of this
basic parabola.
Quadratic functions are also power functions. Power functions are functions
of the form f (x) = xn, n R. The value of the power, n, determines the type of
function. When n = 1, f (x) = x, and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2
and the function is quadratic. Other power functions will be discussed later.
Under a sequence of transformations of f (x) = xn, n R, the general form
of a power function, is f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c and n R). All linear
and quadratic polynomials are also linear and quadratic power functions,
because all linear and quadratic functions are transformations of f (x) = x and
f (x) = x2, respectively.
When a quadratic function is written in turning point form it is written in
power form. For example, the quadratic function y = x2 + 4x + 6 can also be
represented as the power function y = (x + 2)2 + 2.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

a=2
a=1 1
a = 2

y = ax2

dilation
In power form, a is the dilation factor. It dilates the graph in the y direction. The larger | a | is, the thinner
the graph of the parabola. If | a | is a proper fraction, that is, 0 < | a | < 1, the graph is wider than the basic
parabola.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

59

reflection
If a is negative, the graph of the basic parabola is reflected in the x-axis,
that is, the graph is flipped upside down.
If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic parabola is reflected in
the y-axis, that is, the graph is flipped sideways. Due to its symmetry,
this effect cannot be seen on the basic parabola, but it is more obvious
with a parabola that has already been translated. For example, the graphs
of y = (x 3)2 and y = (x 3)2 are reflections of each other across the
y-axis.

y = ( x 3)2 y

y = (x 3)2
(0, 9)

(3, 0)0 (3, 0)

Translation
horizontal translation

If b > 0, the graph of the basic parabola is translated horizontally to the right,
and if b < 0, the graph of the basic parabola is translated horizontally to the left.
For example, a graph with the equation y = (x 2)2 is a basic parabola that has
been translated 2 units to the right, and a graph with the equation y = (x + 3)2 is
a basic parabola that has been translated 3 units to the left.
If the coefficient of x is not 1, the equation must be rewritten in the form
y = a(x b)2 + c in order to be able to work out the value of b.
For example, y = (4x + 3)2 is translated 43 of a unit to the left, since

y
b=

0
3
2
y = (x b)

y = (4 x + 3)2

3
= [4( x + 4 )]2
3
= 16( x + 4 )2

c=2
c = 1

Vertical translation

If c > 0, the graph is translated vertically upward, and if c < 0, the graph is
translated vertically downward. For example, the graph with equation
y = x2 + 2 is a basic parabola that has been translated 2 units up, and the graph
with equation y = x2 1 is a basic parabola that has been translated 1 unit down.

Combination of transformations
diGiTal doC
doc-9166
Spreadsheet
The quadratic function
in power form

b=2

The graph of y = a(x b)2 + c shows the combination of the transformations shown
above.
The turning point of the graph is (b, c).
The domain of the parabola is R and the range is [c, ) if a > 0 or [, c) if a < 0.

x
0
1 y = x2 + c

y y = a(x b)2 + c

(b, c)
0

Worked example 1

State the changes required to transform the graph of y = x2 into the graph of y = 2(x + 3)2 4.
Think

60

WriTe

Write the general formula for the parabola.

y = a(x b)2 + c

Identify the value of a.

a=2

State the effect of a on the graph.

The graph of y = x2 is dilated by the factor


of 2 from the x-axis.

Identify the value of b.

b = 3

State the effect of b on the graph.

The graph is translated 3 units to the left.

Identify the value of c.

c = 4

State the effect of c on the graph.

The graph is translated 4 units down.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

We can use transformations to find the equation of the function from its graph by first examining the
new position of the turning point.
Worked example 2

Use transformations to find the equation of this function.

(4, 2)

0
Think

WriTe

Write the general formula of the parabola.

y = a(x b)2 + c

From the graph state the horizontal translation


and hence the value of b.

Translated 4 units to the right, so b = 4.

From the graph, state the vertical translation and


hence the value of c.

Translated 2 units up, so c = 2.

Substitute the values of b and c into the general


formula.

y = a(x 4)2 + 2

The graph of the parabola passes through the origin. Using (0, 0):
Substitute x = 0 and y = 0 into the formula.
0 = a(0 4)2 + 2

Solve for a, which is the dilation factor.

0 = 16a + 2
16a = 2
2
16

= 81

a=

Substitute the value of a into y = a(x 4)2 + 2


and write your answer.

The equation of the parabola shown is:


y = 81 ( x 4)2 + 2

Worked example 3

Given the equation y = kx2, determine the effect on the graph y = x2, when k = {2, 3, 4}.
Sketch the graphs.
Think
1

Sketch the graph of y = x2.

WriTe/draW

y
30
20
10
3 2 1 0

On the same set of axes as you used in step 1


sketch the graphs of y = 2x2, 3x2, 4x2

y
30
20
10
3 2 1 0

Answer the question by describing the changes


in words.

y = x2
1 2 3 x
y = 4x2
y = 3x2
y = 2x2
y = x2
1 2 3 x

As the value of k increases the graph becomes


thinner and stretches away from the x-axis.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

61

exercise 2a

Transformations and the parabola

State the changes required to transform the graph of y = x2 into the graph of each of the
following.

1 We1

a y = 2x2

b y = 13 x 2

c y = 3x2

d y = x2 6

y = (x 2)2

e y = 1 x2
2

g y = (x + 3)2

h y = 2(3 x)2

y = (x + 2)2 1
k y = 1 2(3 + x)2

y = (x 0.5)2 + 2

y = 3(2 x 3)2 4

2 mC The equation of a parabola is given by

being:
a translated further to the left
C thinner
e reflected in the y-axis

1
(2 x)
x )2 + 3. Increasing m will result in the graph
m
b translated further up
d wider
iii

3 Match the graphs of the parabolas with the following equations.


a y = x2 + 2
b y = 2(x 2)2
c y = 2 (x + 2)2

ii
y = x2

d y = (2 xx)2
2

e y = (2 + x)2 + 2

0
2

4 We2 Use transformations to find the equation of each function.


a

(2, 2)

y
0

(1, 2)
c

(1, 3)

y
4

2 x

(2, 4)
5 mC The equation of the graph shown opposite is best given by:
y
d
b

a y = (x c)2 + d
b y = c (x b)2
C y = (x + c)2 + b
d y = (c x)2 + d

a0

e y = d (x c)2

6 Find the equation of the image of y = x2 under each of the following transformations:
a dilation by the factor of
b
c
d
e
62

1
2

from the x-axis

a reflection in the x-axis


a translation by 2 units to the right and 1 unit down
a dilation by the factor of 3 from the x-axis, followed by translation of 2 units down
a reflection in the x-axis, followed by translation of 3 units to the left.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

iv

7 Find the equations of these graphs.


a
b
y

0
1

x
1 0

4
d

y
2
x

0 2

y
8

9
6
0

2 2

0 x

8 We3 Find the equation of y = x2 under the following sequential transformations (in order):
a dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis
b reflection in the x-axis
c translation of 1 parallel to the x-axis
d translation of 3 parallel to the y-axis.
9 Find the image of the point (x, y) under each of the following transformations:
a reflection in the y-axis
b reflection in the x-axis
c dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis
d dilation by a factor of 2 from the y-axis
1
e dilation by a factor of 3 from the y-axis
f translation of 2 units horizontally in the positive direction
g translation of 1 unit parallel to the y-axis.
10

The parabola has a turning point at (z, 8); it intersects the y-axis at y = 10 and one of the
x-intercepts is x = 5. Find:
a the value of z
b the equation of the parabola.

Units: 3 & 4

11 For the parabola whose range is y 3, whose x-coordinate of the turning point is 4 and whose
1

y-intercept is y = 2 3 , find:
a the y-coordinate of the turning point
b the equation of the parabola
c the coordinates of the x-intercepts.

12 The design shown in the diagram at right can be obtained by taking the red

3
3

4
2 0
1

2
2

Topic:

Concept:

The cubic function in power form

The graph of the function y = x3 is shown at right: Both the domain and range of
the function are R. The function is constantly increasing and has a stationary point
of inflection (where the gradient is 0) at the origin (0, 0).
Throughout this section we shall refer to the shape of the graph of y = x3 as a
positive cubic, or a basic cubic curve.
Cubic functions are also power functions. Power functions are functions of the
form f (x) = xn, n R. The value of the power, n, determines the type of function.
When n = 1, f (x) = x and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2 and the
function is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3 and the function is cubic. When n = 4,
f (x) = x4 and the function is quartic. Other power functions will be discussed later.

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

portion of the parabola and transforming it to form each of the other


9 fragments. (One or more transformations may be used to form each
fragment.) If the highlighted fragment is given by f (x), 2 x 2, define the
other 9 fragments in terms of f (x) and specify their domains.

2b

AOS:

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

63

Under a sequence of transformations of f (x) = x n, n R, the general form of a power function is


f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c and n R). All linear and quadratic polynomials are also linear
and quadratic power functions, but this is not the case for cubic functions (or quartic functions). For
example, a cubic power function in the form f (x) = a(x b)3 + c has exactly one x-intercept and one
stationary point of inflection. A cubic polynomial in the form f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d can have one,
two or three x-intercepts and is therefore not a power function.
All cubic power functions are also cubic polynomials, but not all cubic polynomials are cubic power
functions. For example, the cubic function y = 2(x 3)3 + 1 is a polynomial and a power function. It is
the graph of y = x3 under a sequence of transformations.
a=2
y

a=1
a = 12

dilation
The value a is the dilation factor; it dilates the graph from the x-axis. The
larger a is, the thinner the graph.

y = ax3

reflection
diGiTal doC
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Spreadsheet
Cubic function
y = a(x b)3 + c

y = (x 1)3 y

If a is negative, the graph of the basic cubic is reflected in the x-axis,


that is, the graph is flipped upside down.
If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic cubic is reflected in the
y-axis, that is, the graph is flipped sideways. For example, the graphs
y = (x 1)3 and y = (x 1)3 are reflections of each other across the
y-axis.

(1, 0) 0

y = (x 1)3

(1, 0)
(0, 1)

Translation
horizontal translation

If b > 0, the graph of the basic cubic is translated horizontally to the right, and
if b < 0, the graph of the basic cubic is translated horizontally to the left. For
example, the graph with equation y = (x 2)3 is a basic cubic translated 2 units
to the right, and the graph of y = (x + 3)3 is a basic cubic, translated 3 units to
the left, that is, parallel to the x-axis in the negative direction.
If the coefficient of x is not 1, the equation must be rewritten in the form
y = a(x b)3 + c in order to be able to work out the value of b. For example,
the graph of y = (2x 5)3 is translated 52 units to the right, since y = (2x 5)3

b = 3

b=2

y = (x b)3

= [2(
[2( x 52 )]3
= 8( x 52 )3

Vertical translation

The value of c translates the graph vertically or along the y-axis. If c > 0, the
graph is translated vertically up, and if c < 0, the graph is translated vertically
down.
The coordinates of the stationary point of inflection are (b, c).
For example, if y = x3 is translated 1 unit up, the equation of the resulting
graph is y = x3 + 1 and the point of inflection is (0, 1); if it is translated
2 units down, the equation of the resulting graph is y = x3 2 and the point of
inflection is (0, 2).

Combination of transformations
The graph of y = a(x b)3 + c shows the combination of the transformations
described above.
Finally, the domain and range of y = a(x b)3 + c are R (all real numbers).
64

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

c=1
c = 2
x

0
2

y = x3 + c

y = a(x b)3 + c

(b, c)
0

Worked example 4

State the changes necessary to transform the graph of y = x3 into the graph of y = 2(x + 1)3 4.
Think

WriTe

Write the general equation of the cubic function.

y = a(x b)3 + c

Identify the value of a.

a=2

State the effect of a on the graph.

The graph is dilated by the factor of


2 in the y direction.

Identify the value of b.

b = 1

State the effect of b on the graph.

The graph is translated 1 unit to the left.

Identify the value of c.

c = 4

State the effect of c on the graph.

The graph is translated 4 units down.

Worked example 5

For each of the following graphs:


i state the coordinates of the stationary point of inflection
ii find the x- and y-intercepts
iii sketch the graph
iv state the transformations that the graph of y = x3 has undergone to form each new equation.
a y = (x + 3)3 1
b y = (4 x)3 + 6
Think

a Write the equation.


i Since the rule is of the form y = a(x b)3 + c,

identify the values of b and c and hence write the


coordinates of the stationary point of inflection (b, c).

WriTe/draW

y = (x + 3)3 1
i b = 3, c = 1
Stationary point of inflection:
(3, 1)

ii Find the y-intercept by letting x = 0.

ii y-intercept: x = 0,

iii To sketch the graph on a set of labelled axes, mark the

iii

Find the x-intercept by letting y = 0.

stationary point of inflection and the x- and y-intercepts,


then sketch the positive cubic passing through the points
marked.

iv State the kind of reflection and the vertical and

horizontal translations.

y = (0 + 3)3 1
= 27 1
= 28
x-intercept: y = 0
(x + 3)3 1 = 0
(x + 3)3 = 1
x + 3 = 1
x = 4
y

(4, 0)
0
(3, 1)

iv The graph is reflected in the x-axis.

There is a horizontal translation


of 3 units to the left and a vertical
translation of 1 unit down.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

65

b Write the equation.

y = (4 x)3 + 6

i Since the rule is of the form y = a(x b)3 + c,

i b = 4, c = 6

identify the values of b and c and hence write


the coordinates of the stationary point of
inflection (b, c).

Stationary point of inflection: (4, 6)

ii Find the y-intercept by letting x = 0.

ii y-intercept: x = 0,

Find the x-intercept by letting y = 0.


Note: Do not round off until the very last step;
for graphing purposes, round off your final
answer to 1 decimal place.

y = (4 0)3 + 6
= 64 + 6 = 70
x-intercept: y = 0
(4 x)3 + 6 = 0
(4 x)3 = 6
4 x = 3 6

4 3 6 = x
x 5.8
iii To sketch the graph on a set of labelled axes,

iii

mark the stationary point of inflection and the


x- and y-intercepts, then sketch the positive
cubic passing through the points marked.

y
(4, 6)

0
iv State the kind of reflection and the vertical

(5.8, 0)

iv The graph is reflected in the y-axis. There is

and horizontal translations.

a horizontal translation of 4 units to the right


and a vertical translation of 6 units up.

To find the equation of the curve from a given graph, we need to establish exactly what transformations
were applied to the basic cubic curve. This is best done by observing the shape of the graph and the
position of the stationary point of inflection.
Worked example 6

Find the equation of the curve, if it is of the form y = a(x b)3 + c.

y
5
3
0

Think

66

WriTe

Write the general equation of the cubic function.

y = a(x b)3 + c

Write the coordinates of the stationary point of


inflection (b, c) and hence state the values of b and c.

The stationary point of inflection is


(1, 3). So b = 1, c = 3.

Substitute the values of b and c into the general formula.

y = a(x 1)3 + 3

The graph passes through the point (0, 5) (y-intercept).


Substitute the coordinates of this point into the equation.

Using (0, 5):


5 = a(0 1)3 + 3

Solve this equation.

2 = a (1)
=a

Write the solution for the equation.

a = 2

Substitute the value of a into y = a(x 1)3 + 3.

y = 2(x 1)3 + 3

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

The cubic function in power form

exercise 2b

State the changes necessary to transform the graph of y = x3 into the graph of each of the
following.

a y = 7x3
b y = 2 x3
c y = x3 + 4

1 We4

d y = 6 x3
g y = 4(2 x)3
j
2

y = 6 2 ( x 1)3

e y = (x 1)3
h y = 6(7 x)3

f
i

y = (x + 3)3
y = 3(x + 3)3 2

k y = 1 (2 x + 5)3
4

y = 3 2(4 + 2 xx)3

Which of these transformations were applied to the graph of y = x3 to obtain each of the graphs
below?
i reflection in the x-axis
ii translation to the left
iii translation to the right
iv translation up
v translation down
a

0
x

0
d

0
e

3 We5 For each of the following graphs:


i find the stationary point of inflection
ii find the x- and y-intercepts
iii state the transformation(s) that the graph y = x3 has undergone to produce the given graph
iv sketch the graph.
3

y = 1 2x3

y = 3 x3 6

y = 2(x 4)3

y=

y = 4(1 x)3

y = (x 1)3 + 2

y = 3 (x + 2)3

y = 2(x + 1)3 6

y = 4 x3

( x 2)3

diGiTal doC
doc-9176
Spreadsheet
Function grapher

Questions 4 to 6 refer to the function y = 2(mx 4)3 3.


4 mC The coordinates of the stationary point of inflection are:

4
,3

m
4

d , 3m 3
m

(4m, 3)

4 , 3

4 3
,

m m

5 mC The graph of y = x3 is dilated in the y direction by the factor of:


a

2
m

2m
2
m3

2m3

6 mC If m > 1, increasing m will cause the graph to become:


a wider

b thinner and translated not as far to the right

C shifted further to the left

d shifted further to the right

e shifted further down

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

67

7 Find the equation of the graph resulting from each of the following transformations of the graph of y = x3:
a a dilation by the factor of 12 from the x-axis
b a reflection in the x-axis and a translation by 5 units to the left
c a translation by 3 units to the right and 1 unit down
d a dilation from the x-axis by the factor of 2, followed by the vertical translation of 3 units
e a reflection in the x-axis, then a translation of 1 unit to the left and 1 unit down.
8 Find the equation of the graph resulting from the following sequential transformations of the graph

of y = x3:
a dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis
b reflection in the y-axis
c translation of 2 in the positive direction parallel to the x-axis
d translation of 1 in the negative direction parallel to the y-axis.

9 We6 Find the equations of these curves, if they are of the form y = a(x b)3 + c.
a

(1, 2)

(1, 1)

1
0
d

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact with
transformations of
the hyperbola.

x
e

12
1 1 0
2

10 mC The graph of y = 2(x + 3)3 + 1 has been reflected in the x-axis, shifted 3 units to the right and

1 unit up. The equation of the resulting graph is:


a y = 2(3 x)3 + 2
b y = 2(x + 2)3 + 2
C y = 2(2 x)3
d y = 2(x 3)3 + 1
e y = 2x3
11 The graph of a cubic function of the form y = a(x b)3 + c has a stationary point of inflection at

(1, 4) and cuts the y-axis at y = 2. Find the equation of the function.

12

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Do more
Interact with
transformations of
the truncus.

68

The graph of y = a(b x)3 + c has a stationary point of inflection at (2, 1) and passes through the
)
point (1,, 12 ).
a Find the equation of the curve.
b State the shape of the curve (that is, whether it is positive or negative cubic).

2C

The power function (the hyperbola)

1
y
The graph shown at right is called a hyperbola and is given by the equation y = .
x
n, n R. The value of
Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = x
the power, n, determines the type of function. We saw earlier that when
y=0
n = 1, f (x) = x and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2 and the function
x
0
is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3 and the function is cubic. When n = 4,
4 and the function is quartic.
f (x) = x
The power function that produces the graph of a hyperbola has a value of
1
x=0
n = 1. Thus, the function f ( x ) = can also be expressed as the power function
1
x
f (x) = x .
The graph exhibits asymptotic behaviour. That is, as x becomes very large positive or negative,
the graph approaches the x-axis, but never touches it, and as x becomes very small positive or negative
(i.e. approaches 0), the graph approaches the y-axis, but never touches it. So the line x = 0 (the y-axis) is

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

a vertical asymptote and the line y = 0 (the x-axis) is the horizontal asymptote. Both the domain and the
range of the function are all real numbers, except 0; that is, R\{0}.
1
The graph of y = can be subject to a number of transformations.
y
x
a
+ c or y = a(x b)1 + c.
Consider y =
a=2
xb

a=1
a = 12
x

y=0

dilation

The value a is a dilation factor. It dilates the graph from the x-axis.
x=0

y = ax

reflection

x = 3

If a is negative, the graph of the basic hyperbola is reflected


in the x-axis. If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic
hyperbola is reflected in the y-axis.
1
1
and y =
For example, the graphs of y =
x3
x3
are reflections of each other across the y-axis.

y=

x=3
y = x 1 3

1
3
x

y=0

(0, 13 )

Translation
horizontal translation

The value b translates the graph b units horizontally, that is, parallel to the x-axis. If b > 0, the graph is
translated to the right, and if b < 0, the graph is translated to the left. For example, the graph with
1
is a basic hyperbola translated 3 units to the right. This graph has a vertical asymptote
equation y =
x3
of x = 3 and domain R\{3} (and a horizontal asymptote y = 0). If a basic hyperbola is translated 3 units
1
, with a vertical asymptote of x = 3 and domain R\{3}. Hence, the
to the left, it becomes y =
x+3
equation of the vertical asymptote is x = b and the domain is R\{b}. The horizontal asymptote and the
range remain the same, x = 0 and R\{0}, respectively.
Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph c units vertically, that is, parallel to the y-axis. If c > 0, the graph is
translated upward, and if c < 0, the graph is translated c units downward. The graph with equation
1
y = + 3 is a basic hyperbola translated 3 units up. This graph has a horizontal asymptote of y = 3 and
x
a range of R\{3} (and a vertical asymptote x = 0). If a basic hyperbola istranslated 3 units down, it
1
becomes y = 3, with a horizontal asymptote of y = 3 and a range of R\{3} (and a vertical asymptote
x
x = 0). Hence the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = c and the range is R\{c}.
Always draw the asymptote as a dotted line and label it with its equation (for example, y = 3) at the
end of the asymptote. Ensure that the graph continues to approach the asymptote getting closer but not
touching or crossing the asymptote or bouncing away from the asymptote.

Combination of transformations
The graph of y =

a
+ c shows the combination of these transformations.
xb
y

y = x
c
b+
y=c

diGiTal doC
doc-9177
Spreadsheet
The hyperbola

c
0

x=b
ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

69

Finally, if the coefficient of x is a number other than 1, to obtain the value of h the equation should be
rearranged first. For example,
4
4
.
y=
=
3 x + 6 3( x + 2)
Therefore, b = 2 (not 6 as it may seem at first); that is, the graph is translated 2 units to the left.
Worked example 7

1
State the changes that should be made to the graph of y = in order to obtain the graph of
x
4
y=
1.
x+2
Think

WriTe

a
+c
xb

Write the general equation of the hyperbola.

y=

Identify the value of a.

a = 4

1
State the changes to y = x , caused by a.

1
The graph of y = x is dilated by the
factor of 4 from the x-axis and reflected in
the x-axis.

Identify the value of b.

b = 2

State the effect of b on the graph.

The graph is translated 2 units to the left.

Identify the value of c.

c = 1

State the changes to the graph, caused by c.

The graph is translated 1 unit down.

Worked example 8

2
+ 2, state:
x3
a the quations
e
of theas
ymptotes
c the range.
For the graph of y =

b the domain

Think

a 1 Write the general equation of the hyperbola.


2

Identify the values of b and c and hence write the


equations of the asymptotes:
Horizontal asymptote: y = c
Vertical asymptote: x = b

WriTe

a y=

a
+c
xb

b = 3, c = 2
Horizontal asymptote: y = 2
Vertical asymptote: x = 3

b State the domain of the hyperbola: R\{b}.

b Domain: R\{3}

c State the range of the hyperbola: R\{c}.

c Range: R\{2}

Sketching the graph of the hyperbola by hand can be easily done by following these steps:
1. Find the position of the asymptotes.
2. Find the values of the x- and y-intercepts.
3. Decide which quadrants the hyperbola is in depending on whether a > 0 or a < 0.
4. On the set of axes draw the asymptotes (using dotted lines) and mark the intercepts.
5. Treating the asymptotes as the new set of axes, sketch either the positive or negative hyperbola,
making sure it passes through the intercepts that have been previously marked.
70

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 9

2 4
, clearly showing the intercepts with the axes
x+2
and the position of the asymptotes.
Sketch the graph of y =
Think
1

TUTorial
eles-1197
Worked example 9

WriTe/draW

a
+ c and state
Compare the given equation with y =
xb
the values of a, b and c.

a = 2, b = 2,

c = 4

1
is dilated by the
x
factor of 2 from the x-axis, translated
2 units to the left and 4 units
down.

Write a short statement about the effects


1
of a, b and c on the graph of y = .
x

The graph of y =

Write the equations of the asymptotes.


The horizontal asymptote is at y = c.
The vertical asymptote is at x = b.

Asymptotes: x = 2; y = 4

Find the value of the y-intercept by letting x = 0.

y-intercept: x = 0
2
y=
4
0+2
= 1 4
= 3
Point (0, 3)

Find the value of the x-intercept by making y = 0.

x-intercept: y = 0
2
0=
4
x+2

2
=4
x+2
2 = 4(
4( x + 2)
= 4x + 8
4x = 2 8
= 6
x=
=
Point
6

6
4
3
2

3
2,0

To sketch the graph:


(a) Draw the set of axes and label them.
(b) Use dotted lines to draw the asymptotes. The
asymptotes are x = 2 and y = 4.
(c) Mark the intercepts with the axes. The intercepts are

y = 3 and x = 3 .

y
( 32 ,

0)
0
(0, 3)

(d) Treating the asymptotes as your new set of axes,


sketch the graph of the hyperbola (as a is positive, the
graph is not reflected); make sure the upper branch
passes through the x- and y-intercepts previously
marked.

x
y = 4

x = 2

The next example shows how to find the equation of the hyperbola from its graph.
ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

71

Worked example 10

Find the equation of the graph shown.

6
3
0 2

Think

WriTe

a
+c
xb

Write the general equation of the hyperbola.

y=

From the graph, identify the values of b and c


Remember that the equation of the horizontal
asymptote is y = c and of the vertical asymptote is
x = b.

b = 2,

Substitute the values of b and c into the formula.

y=

Substitute the coordinates of any of the 2 known


points of intersection with the axes into the formula
(say, the x-intercept).

Substitute (4, 0):


a
0=
+3
42

Solve for a.

0=

c=3

a
+3
x2

a
+3
2

a
= 3
2
a = 6
6

Substitute the value of a into y =

Re-order terms (optional).

exercise 2C

a
+ 3.
x2

y=

x2

y = 3

+3

6
x2

The power function (the hyperbola)

1
State the changes that should be made to the graph of y = in order to obtain the graph of
x
each of the following.

1 We 7

a y=

2
x

b y=

c y=

1
x6

d y=

2
x+4

e y=

1
+7
x

y=

2
5
x

g y=

1
3
4+x

h y=

72

y=

x 1

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2
+6
x3

1
Which of the following transformations were applied to the graph of y = to obtain each
x
of the graphs shown below?
i translation to the right
ii translation to the left
iii translation up
iv translation down
v reflection in the x-axis
a

3 We8 For each of the following, state:


i the equations of the asymptotes
2

ii the domain

1
x
x+6
2
3
d y=
e y= +4
3 x
x
4
5
g y=
2
h y=
+1
x+6
2 x
4 For each of the following graphs, state:
i the equations of the asymptotes
ii the dom
ain
a y=

b y=

iii the range.


c y=

x2
1
f y=
5
x
1
i y=
m
n+x

iii the range.


c

y
2

y
1
0

2
0

n
0

a
m

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

73

5 On the same set of axes sketch the graphs of y =


diGiTal doC
doc-9176
Spreadsheet
Function grapher

4
1
2
3
, y=
, y = and y =
.
x
3x
x
3x

6 We9 Sketch each of the following, clearly showing the position of the asymptotes and the intercepts

with the axes. Check your answers, using a CAS calculator.


1
1
a y=
b y=
1
x+3
x+2
2
6
d y=
e y=
3
1 x
x+5
1
2
4
g y = 1
h y= +
2 x
5 1+ x
x+3
2
j y=
1
k y=
3 4x
x2

y=

y=

i
l

3
3

x 1 4
3

+6
x2
1
y=
+4
2x + 3
4x + 3
y=
x 1

7 mC The equation of the graph shown is likely to be:

1
x4
1
C y = 3
4x
a

1
+4
x3
1
d y=
3
4x

y = 3+

y=

3
0

1
y = 3
x4

8 mC Which of the following is a true statement for the graph of y =


a
b
C
d
e

The domain is R\{1}.


The range is R\{3}.
The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 3.
The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 2.
None of the above.

2
3?
x +1

9 We10 Find the equation for each of the following hyperbolas, if they are of the form y =
a

4
1

10
diGiTal doCS
doc-9178
WorkSHEET 2.1
History of mathematics
doc-9179
The history of some
major curves

74

If a function is given by f ( x ) =
and the intercepts with the axes.
a f (x + 2)
d f (1 x) + 2

y
2
112
0

34

y
5

3 4

1
1

1
, sketch each of the following, labelling the asymptotes
x
b f (x) 1
e f (x 1) 1

11 Sketch the graph of yx 3x + 1 = 0, and state its domain and range.

(Hint: First transpose the equation to make y the subject.)

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

a
+ c.
xb

c f (x) 2
f 1 f (x 2)

2d

The power function (the truncus)

The graph shown at right is known as a truncus. The equation of the


graph is given by:

Units: 3 & 4

y = 12
x
Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R. The value
y=0
x
0
of the power, n, determines the type of function. We saw earlier that when
2 and the
n = 1, f (x) = x and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x
x=0
function is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3 and the function is cubic.
4 and the function is quartic. When n = 1, f (x) = x1
When n = 4, f (x) = x
and the power function produces the graph of a hyperbola.
The power function that produces the graph of a truncus has a value of n = 2. Thus, the function
f ( x ) = 12 can also be expressed as the power function f (x) = x2.
x
The function is undefined for x = 0. Hence, the equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 0 and the
domain of the function is R\{0}.
We can also observe that the graph approaches the x-axis very closely, but never touches it. So y = 0 is
the horizontal asymptote.
Since the whole graph of the truncus is above the x-axis, its range is R+ (that is, all positive real
numbers).
Similar to the graphs of the functions, discussed in the previous sections, the graph of y = 12 can
x
undergo various transformations.
a
+ c , or y = a(x b)2 + c.
Consider the general formula y =
( x b) 2

dilation

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

The value a is the dilation factor. It dilates the graph from the x-axis.
The dilation factor does not affect the domain, range or asymptotes.

y=0

a=3
a=2
x

x=0

reflection

If a is negative, the graph of a basic truncus is reflected in


the x-axis. The range becomes R (that is, all negative real
numbers).

a
y = 2
x

y = 12
x

y=0

y = 12

x=0
y
x,

the graph of the basic truncus is


If x is replaced with
reflected in the y-axis. The effect of this reflection
1
1
, but
cannot be seen in the basic graph, since 2 =

x
( x )2
it becomes more obvious if the graph has been translated
1
horizontally first. For example, the graphs of y =
(
x

3)2
1
are reflections across the y-axis.
and y =
( x 3)2
The vertical asymptote changes from x = 3 to x = 3 and
the domain changes from R \{3} to R \{3}.

1
( x 3)2

1
y=
( x 3)2

y=

y=0

x = 3

x=3

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

75

Translation
horizontal translation

y
The value b translates the graph b units horizontally. If b > 0, the
graph is translated to the right, and if b < 0, the graph is translated
1
b = 2
b=3
left. For example, the graph of the equation y =
results from
2
( x 3)
y=0
translating a basic truncus 3 units to the right. The vertical asymptote
x
2 0
3
is x = 3 and the domain is R \{3}. If a basic truncus is translated
1
y =
1
(x b)2
2 units to the left, it becomes y =
,
where
the
vertical
( x + 2)2

asymptote is x = 2 and the domain is R \{2}. Hence, the equation of the vertical asymptote is x = b and
the domain is R \{b}. The range is still R+ and the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0.
Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph c units vertically. If c > 0 the graph is translated upward, and if c < 0,
1
the graph is translated c units downward. For example, the graph with equation y =
+ 1 results when
x2
a basic truncus is translated 1 unit upward. The horizontal asymptote is y = 1 and the range is (1, ). If
1
a basic truncus is translated 1 unit down, it becomes y =
1, with y = 1 as the horizontal asymptote
2
x
and (1, ) as the range. Hence the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = c and the range
is (c, ).
y

y =
+c
x2
c=1

y=1

c = 1 x

1
x=0

y = 1

Note: If a is positive (see graph below), the whole graph of the truncus is above the line y = c (the
horizontal asymptote) and hence its range is y > c, (c, ).
If a is negative, the whole graph is below its horizontal asymptote and therefore the range is y < 0,
or (, c).
y

y
y=c
y=c

x
x

The graph of y =

a
+ c shows the combination of these transformations.
( x b) 2
y

y=

a
+ c
(x b)2

y=c

c
0

b
x=b

76

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 11

State the transformations required to change the graph of y =


Think

1
1
1.
into the graph of y =
2
x
( x 2) 2

WriTe

a
+c
( x b) 2

Write the general formula for the truncus.

y=

Identify the value of a.

a = 1

State the effect of a on the graph.

1
The graph of y = 2 is reflected in the
x
x-axis.

Identify the value of b.

b=2

State the effect of b on the graph.

The graph is translated 2 units to the right.

Identify the value of c.

c = 1

State the effect of c on the graph.

The graph is translated 1 unit down.

Worked example 12

2
4 , state:
(3 + x) 2
a the equations of the asymptotes
For the function y =

b the

dom
ain

Think

a 1 Write the general formula for the truncus.

c the range.
WriTe

a y=

a
+c
( x b) 2

Write the general equations of the asymptotes.

Vertical asymptote: x = b
Horizontal asymptote: y = c

Identify the values of b and c.

b = 3, c = 4

State the equations of the asymptotes by


substituting the values of b and c into
corresponding formulas.

Asymptotes: x = 3 and y = 4

b Write the domain of the truncus, which is R\{b}.

b Domain: R\{3}

c 1 Check whether a is positive or negative.

c a>0

Write the range (which for a > 0 is y > c).

Range: y > 4

a
+ c, then compare the given equation
( x b) 2
1
with the general formula to see what changes should be made to the basic curve (the graph of y = 2 ) to
x
transform it to the one you want. This should give you an idea of how the graph will look.
The following algorithm can then be used:
1. Find the position of the asymptotes.
2. Find the intercepts with the axes.
3. On the set of axes, draw the asymptotes (using
dotted lines), label with the equation and mark the
x- and y-intercepts.
4. Treating the asymptotes as the new set of axes,
a>0
a<0
sketch the basic truncus curve.
5. Make sure the curve passes through the points marked on the axes.
To sketch the graph of a truncus, first put it in the form y =

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

77

Worked example 13

Sketch the graph of y = 2

1
, clearly showing the position of the asymptotes and the
( x + 1) 2

intercepts with the axes (correct to 1 decimal place).


Think

WriTe/draW

a
+c
( x b) 2

Write the general formula for the truncus.

y=

Identify the values of a, b and c.

a = 1,

Write a short statement about the transformations


1
the graph of y = 2 should undergo in order to be
x
changed into the one in question.

1
is reflected in the
x2
x-axis, translated 1 unit to the left and
2 units up.

Write the equations of the asymptotes


(y = c and x = b).

Asymptotes: x = 1 and y = 2

Find the x-intercept (round off to 1 decimal place).

x-intercept: y = 0

b = 1,

c=2

The graph of y =

0 = 2

1
( x + 1)2

1
=2
( x + 1)2
( x + 1)
1)2 = 12
x +1 =
x=

1
2
1
2

1
x = 12 1 or x =
2 1

0.3
1.7

Find the y-intercept.

y-intercept: x = 0
1
(0 + 1)2
= 2 1
=1

y = 2

To sketch the graph: draw the set of axes and label


them; use dotted lines to draw asymptotes; mark the
x- and y-intercepts; treating the asymptotes as the
new set of axes, draw the basic truncus curve upside
down (since a is negative); make sure it intersects
the axes in the right places.

y=2
(0, 1)
0

(1.7, 0)

(0.3, 0)
x = 1

In the above example we have considered sketching the graph from the given equation. Sometimes
the opposite task is required; that is, the equation of the function should be established from its
graph.
78

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 14

Find the equation of the curve shown in this diagram.

x=2

12

Think

WriTe

a
+c
( x b) 2

Write the general equation of the truncus.

y=

1
Compared to y = 2 , the graph is shifted 2 units to the
x
right. (There is no shift along the y-axis.)

b = 2 and c = 0

Substitute the values of b and c into the formula.

y=

Substitute the coordinates of the y-intercept into the


formula.

Using (0,, 2 ) :

a
+0
( x 2)2
a
=
( x 2)2

a
2 (00 2)2
a
=
4
1
a = 4 ( 2)
=

Solve for a.

a = 2

Substitute for a in the equation.

y=

exercise 2d

2
( x 2)2

The power function (the truncus)

1
State the transformations required to change the graph of y = 2 into the graph of
x
each of the following:

2
3
a y= 2
b y=
x
x2
1
2
c y=
d y=
( x + 2)2
( x 3)2

1 We11

y=

2
+6
x2

e y=

1
x2

h y=

g y = 3
i

y = 5

1
( x + 2)2

(4 + x )2
4
+1
( x 3)2

1
2 mC To obtain the graph shown, the graph of y = 2 was:
x
a reflected in the x-axis and translated 2 units down
b translated 2 units to the left
C reflected in the x-axis and translated 2 units to the left
d reflected in the x-axis and translated 2 units to the right
e reflected in the x-axis and translated 2 units up

x=2
ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

79

3 mC Which of the following translations took place, so that the graph of

1
was changed into the one shown at right?
x2
m units to the left and p units up
m units to the right and p units up
m units to the left and n units up
m units to the right and n units up
m units to the left and n units down

y=
a
b
C
d
e

p
y=n
x
x=m

4 We12 For each of the following state:


i the equations of the asymptotes
ii the domain
iii the range.
a y=
d

y=

g y=

2
x2

b y=

2
( x + 1)2

e y=

4 1
+
5 x2

h y=

c y = ( x 2)2

3x 2
5

(4 + x )2

1 3

2 x2

y=

2
3
x2

y=

2
+4
( x 1)2

Questions 5 to 7 refer to the following diagrams.


i

ii

iii

3
0
iv

3
v

vi

3
3

3
0

5 mC Which of the above functions has the domain R\{3}?


a ii only
d ii, iii and vi

b iii only
e v and vi

C ii and iii

6 mC Which of the above functions has the range y < 3?


a i, ii and iv
d v only

b iii, v and vi
e iii and vi

7 mC Which of the graphs has asymptotes y = 0 and x = 3?


a i
b ii
d iv
e v

C iv only

C iii

8 We13 Sketch each of the following, clearly showing the position of the asymptotes and the intercepts
diGiTal doC
doc-9176
Spreadsheet
Function grapher

80

with the axes (correct to 1 decimal place where appropriate).


2
1
a y=
b y=
2
( x 3)2
5x
d y=

(x

1)2

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

e y = 1

4
x2

c y=

2
(4 + x )2

y=

1
3
2x 2

g y=
j

y=

2
(3 + x )2

y=

2
1
+
3 ( x 2)2

1
+3
(2 x )2

y=

4
1
(2 x 4)2

2
2
( x 1)2

h y = 4

3
1

2
4( x + 1)
4

k y=

9 We14 Find the equation for each of the following.


a
y

1
0

34

y = 2

x=0
c

x=2
d

y
1
2

y=1
0

x=

x=
f

2.5

y = 2

x=1

x=4
10

y = 3

y
0
2

y=4

4
1 0

x y=0

Units: 3 & 4

The domain of a truncus is R\{2}; its range is y > 3 and its graph cuts the x-axis at x = 1 and
x = 3. Find the equation of the function.

11 The domain of a truncus is R\{1}; its range is (2, ) and its graph cuts the y-axis at y = 5. Find the

equation of the function.

The square root function


in power form
2e

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

The square root function is given by y = x (or y = x 2 ).


y
Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R. The value of
the power, n, determines the type of function. We saw earlier that when n = 1,
f (x) = x and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2 and the function
is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3 and the function is cubic. When n = 4,
0
f (x) = x4 and the function is quartic. When n = 1, f (x) = x1 and the power
2, f (x) = x2 and the
function produces the graph of a hyperbola. When n =
power function produces the graph of a truncus.
1
The power function that produces the graph of the square root function has a value of n = 2 .
1
x 2.

Thus, the function f ( x ) = x can also be expressed as the power function f ( x ) = f ( x ) =


The function is defined for x 0; that is, the domain is R+ {0}, or [0, ). As can be seen from the
graph, the range of the square root function is also R+ {0}, or [0, ). Throughout this section we
will refer to the graph of y = x as the basic square root curve. Let us now investigate the effects
of various transformations on the basic square root curve. Consider the function y = a x b + c, or
y = a( x b) + c.
1
2

AOS:

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

81

dilation
The value a is a dilation factor; it dilates the graph from the x-axis. The domain is still [0, ).
y

a=3
a=2
a=1
a = 12

y=a x

reflection

If a is negative, the graph of a basic square root curve is reflected in


the x-axis. The range becomes (, 0]. The domain is still [0, ).

y = x
(1, 1)

(0, 0)

(1, 1)
y = x

If x is replaced with x, the graph is reflected in the y-axis.


For example, the graphs with equations y = x and y = x are
reflected across the y-axis. The domain becomes (, 0] and the
range is [0, ).

y
y = x

y = x

(1, 1)

(1, 1)
x

(0, 0)

Translation

horizontal translation

The value b translates the graph horizontally. If b > 0, the graph is translated
to the right, and if b < 0, the graph is translated to the left. The graph
with the equation y = x 3 results when the basic curve is translated 3
units to the right. This translated graph has domain [3, ) and range [0, ).
If the basic curve is translated 2 units to the left, it becomes y = x + 2 and
has domain [2, ) and range [0, ). The domain of a square root function
after a translation is given by [b, ).
Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph vertically. If c > 0, the graph is translated
vertically up, and if c < 0, the graph is translated vertically down. If y = x
is translated 2 units vertically up, the graph obtained is y = x + 2, with
domain [0, ) and range [2, ). If the basic curve is translated 4 units
down, it becomes y = x 4, with domain [0, ) and range [4, ).
The range of the square root function is [c, ) for a > 0.

b = 2
(2, 0) 0

y
(0, 2)
0

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

c=2

c = 4

(0, 4)

Combination of transformations

82

b=3
x

y= xb

The graph of y = a x b + c shows the combination of these transformations.


The point (b, c) is the end point of the square root curve. For example, the
end point of y = x 2 + 1 is (2, 1).

(3, 0)

y= x+c
y=a xb+c

(b, c)
0

It is always good practice to label the end point with its coordinates. Make sure it is an open circle if
the x-value is not in the required domain and a closed circle if its x-value is within the functions domain.
Consider the function y = a b x + c.
y
The graph of y = a x + b + c has (b, c) as its end point. If this
y=a bx +c y=a x+b +c
function is reflected in the y-axis, it
becomes y = a
x

y=a

+ b + c with end point (b, c). The equation

+ b + c can then be rewritten as y = a b x + c.

(b, c)

For example, the graph of y = 2 x + 1 can be rewritten as

y=

(b, c)
x

x + 2 + 1, which has an end point of (2, 1) and bends to the

left. The domain is (, 2] and the range is [1, ). The equation y = x + 2 + 1 results in y =
when it is reflected in the y-axis. The domain changes from [2, ) to (, 2]

+ 2 +1

1 the
and the range remains [1, ). The equation y = 2 x + 3 1 can be rewritten as y = 2( x + 32 ) 1;

domain is [ 2 , ) and the range is [1, ).


Worked example 15

State the transformations required to change y = x to y = 3 x + 5 + 3.


Think

WriTe

Write the general formula for the square root curve.

y = a x b +c

Identify the value of a.

a = 3

State the effect of a on the graph.

The graph is dilated by a factor of 3 from


the x-axis and reflected in the x-axis.

Identify the value of b.

b = 5

State the effect of b on the graph.

The graph is translated 5 units to the left.

Identify the value of c.

c=3

State the effect of c on the graph.

The graph is translated 3 units up.

Worked example 16

For each of the following functions find the domain and range.
a y = 2 x 3 +1

b y = 4 3x + 2 4

Think

c y=

TUTorial
eles-1198
Worked example 16

4 x+2

WriTe

Write the general formula.

y = a xb +c

a 1 Write the question.

a y = 2 x 3 +1

Identify the values of b and c.

b = 3, c = 1

State the domain x b.

The domain is [3, ).

State the range (y c for a > 0).

The range is [1, ).

b 1 Write the question.

b y = 4 3x + 2 4

Factorise the expression under the square root sign.

y = 4 3( x + 23 ) 4

State the domain.

The domain is [ 3 , ).

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

83

Identify the value of c and check whether a is positive or


negative.

c = 4, a < 0

State the range.

The range is (, 4].

Write the question.

Identify the values of b and c.

b = 4, c = 2

Since the function is of the form y = a b x + c, the


domain is x b.

The domain is (, 4].

State the range (y c).

The range is [2, ).

c y=

4 x +2

To sketch the graph of the square root function, we need to


a>0
a>0
compare the given formula with y = a x b + c. This will give
y=a bx+c
y=a xb+c
us an idea of the changes required to transform the basic square
(b, c)
a<0
a<0
root curve into the one we want. It will also let us know the way
the curve will look. The diagram at right illustrates the idea.
Once the coordinates of the end point and the direction of the curve are known, the intercepts with the
axes (if any) should be found before sketching.
Worked example 17

Sketch the graph of y = 2 x 3 + 1, clearly marking intercepts and the end points.
Think

WriTe/draW

Write the equation.

y = 2 x 3 + 1

Write the coordinates of the end point.

End point: (3, 1)

State the shape of the graph.

Shape:

Find the x-intercept by letting y = 0.

x-intercept: y = 0
0 = 2 x 3 +1
2 x3 =1
x3 =
x3=
=
x=

Find the y-intercept, if there is one.

1
2
1
( 2 )2
1
4
1
34

y-intercept: x = 0
y = 2 0 3 + 1
= 2

3 +1

Does not exist, so there is no


y-intercept.
6

Sketch the graph by plotting the end point, marking the


x-intercept, and drawing the curve so that it starts at the end point
and passes through the x-intercept.

y
1
0

84

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

(3, 1)
(3 14 , 0)
x
3

Worked example 18

Given f : [0, ) R, where f ( x) = x and g(x) = af (x) + b, where a and b are positive real
constants, consider the effect on g(x) as a and b increase individually.
Think
1

WriTe/draW

Sketch the basic graph of f ( x ) = x on a CAS calculator


using a suitable domain.

y
y = f (x)

0
2

Sketch g(x) = af(x) + b on the same set of axis as used


in step 1 for:
i a = 2, b = 0

y
y = g(x) = 2 f(x)
y = f (x)
x

0
ii a = 2, b = 1

ii

y = 2 f(x) +1
y = 2 f(x)
y = f (x)

y
(0, 1)

0
3

Explore other values for a and b, and write your


description in words.

exercise 2e

As a increases, the graph is dilated away


from the x-axis.
As b in increases, the graph is
translated up parallel to the y-axis.

The square root function in power form

State the transformations required to change y = x to each of the following.

1 We15

1
3

a y=2 x

b y =

c y = 3 x 1

d y= 2 4+x

e y = x 1

g y = x 4 +3

h y = 62 3+ x

y =

1
2

y = 23 x

2 x + 3

2 For each of the functions in question 1 write the coordinates of the end point.
3 mC The graph shown at right was obtained by translating the graph of y = x : y
a
b
C
d
e

3 units up and 9 units to the right


3 units down and 9 units to the right
9 units up and 3 units to the right
3 units down and 9 units to the right
none of the above

4 mC To obtain the graph in the diagram at right, the graph of y = x was:


a
b
C
d
e

translated 2 units to the right and 4 units up


translated 4 units to the right and 2 units up
translated 2 units to the right, 4 units up and reflected in the x-axis
reflected in the y-axis, translated 4 units up and 2 units to the right
reflected in the x-axis, translated 4 units up and 2 units to the left.

3
0

(2, 4)
0

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

85

5 We16 Find the domain and range for each of the following functions.
c y = x 3

d y = 4+2 x

y = x 1+3

g y = 2 + x 1

h y = 4 2 2x + 1

y= 3 x 7

k y = 6 + 4 2x

a y = x +1

b y= x3

e y = 5 x

f
j

= 35

3x 4 + 2

Questions 6 to 7 refer to the diagram at right.


6 mC The equation of the graph is of the form:
a y = a x b + c, a > 0
b y = a x b + c, a < 0
C y = a b x + c, a > 0
d y = a b x + c, a < 0
e could be either B or C
7 mC The domain and range (in that order) of the function are:
a (, 2] and (, 2]
b (, 2) and (, 2)

d ( , 2] and ( , 2]
e (, 2] and (, 2]
diGiTal doC
doc-9176
Spreadsheet
Function grapher

y
(2, 2)
0

8 We17 Sketch the graph of each of the following, clearly marking intercepts and end points.
a y= x+2

b y=

d y = x 6 +1

e y= 3+ x +2

y = 12 4 + x

g y = 2x 3

h y = 6 + 3x + 2

y = 2 x 1

1
3

x +3

c y = 2 x

mC The equation of the graph shown at right is:


y
=
2

x 1
a
b y = 22 1 x

C y = x 1 2

Units: 3 & 4
1

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video on the
modulus function.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

86

(1, 2)

d y = x 2 +1

e y = 22 x 1

The graph of y = x was dilated by the factor of 2 from the x-axis and
translated m units to the right and 4 units down. It intersects with the
x-axis at x = 5. Find:
a the value of m
b the equation of the curve.
11 The end point of the square root curve is at (4, 3) and its y-intercept is 9. Sketch the graph of the curve
and hence establish its equation.
10

12 The graph of y = x was dilated by the factor of 4 from the x-axis, reflected in the x-axis, translated

1 unit to the left and p units up. Find:


b the equation of the curve
a the value of p, if the graph cuts the y-axis at y = 4
c the x-intercept
d the domain
e the range.
f Hence, sketch the graph, showing the coordinates of the end points and the intercepts with the axes.

2F

Units: 3 & 4

C (, 2} and {2, +)

9 We18

AOS:

y = 1 2 x

The absolute value function

The function f (x) = | x | is called an absolute value function or modulus function.


The domain of this function is R and its range is R+ {0}. Its graph is
symmetrical in the y-axis and has a cusp (a sharp point) at the origin.
The symbol | x | represents the magnitude of x, (that is, the size of x),
regardless of its sign.
x , if x 0
Therefore,
|x| =

x , if x < 0
Compare the graphs of y = x and y = | x |.
For x 0, the graphs of the two functions are
y
identical, while for x < 0 the graph of y = | x | is the
reflection of y = x in the x-axis.
In general, any graph of the form y = |f (x)| is
x
0
called an absolute value function. To sketch the
graph of y = |f (x)|, we need to sketch the graph of
y=x
y = f (x) first and then reflect in the x-axis the portion
of the graph which is below the x-axis.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

0
y = |x|

0
y = |x|

Worked example 19

Sketch the graph of y = | x2 1|.


Think

WriTe/draW

We first need to sketch the graph of y = x2 1.


State the shape of this graph.

Let y = x2 1
Shape: positive parabola, translated 1 unit down

State the coordinates of the turning point (note


that it is also the y-intercept).

Turning point: (0, 1)

Find the x-intercept by letting y = 0.

x-intercept: y = 0
x2 1 = 0
x2 = 1
x= 1
= +1 or 1

Sketch the graph of the parabola (Figure A).

Reflect the portion of the parabola for


1 < x < 1 in the x-axis; mark the new y-intercept
(Figure B).

y
(0, 1)

(1, 0)

(1, 0) x

(1, 0) 0 (1, 0)

(0, 1)

y=

Figure A

|x2

1|

Figure B

Similar to the graphs discussed in the previous sections, the graph of the absolute
value function can be transformed through dilations, translations and
reflections. If y = a| f (x)| + c, a is the dilation factor. It dilates the graph from
the x-axis. The larger a is, the thinner the graph. If a < 0, the graph is reflected
in the x-axis.

The value c translates the graph along the y-axis. If c > 0, the graph
is moved c units up and if c < 0, it is moved c units down.

a=2
a=1

a = 1

c=1
c = 2

1
0
2

x
y = |x| + c

Worked example 20

Sketch the graph of y = |x 2| + 1.


Think

WriTe/draW

Compare the given function with y = a|f (x)| + c,


and write a short comment.

The graph of y = |x 2|
is translated 1 unit up.

To sketch the required shape we first need


to sketch y = x 2 (a straight line). Find the
y-intercept by letting x = 0.

Let y = x 2.
y-intercept: x = 0
y=02
= 2

TUTorial
eles-1199
Worked example 20

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

87

Find the x-intercept by letting y = 0.

Sketch the line.

x-intercept: y = 0
x2=0
x=2
y
(2, 0) x

0
(0, 2)

Reflect the portion below the x-axis in the x-axis;


mark the new y-intercept.

y
(0, 2)
0

Move the graph 1 unit up; mark the new y-intercept


and the coordinates of the cusp.

(2, 0)

y
(0, 3)
(2, 1)
0

absolute value functions as hybrid functions


An absolute value expression can be thought of as two separate expressions, depending on whether it is
negative or positive.
|2x + 3| can be written as (2x + 3) or (2x + 3) depending upon the value that x takes.
To determine these particular values of x, we need to solve the two inequalities 2x + 3 0 and
3
3
and x < , respectively.
2x + 3 < 0, giving x
2
2
This gives us a domain for the two expressions above, so we can write a representation for the
absolute value expression as:
3

2 x + 3, where x

2
|2x + 3| =

(2 x + 3), where x < 3

This is a useful process when used to rewrite an absolute value function that is to be graphed, because
it gives us a rule for each part of the graph in the form of a hybrid function. It is also important when
needing to differentiate a function of this type in a later chapter.

Worked example 21

Express f (x) = |5x 4| as a hybrid function, defining the domain of each part
and graphing the function.
Think
1

Break the function into two parts: a negative and


positive part.

Simplify the domain and function for each.

WriTe/draW

TUTorial
eles-1200
Worked example 21

5 x 4, where 5 x 4 0
f ( x ) = | 5x 4 | =
(5 x 4), where 5 x 4 < 0
First function: 5x 4
First domain: 5x 4 0
4
x5

Second function: (5x 4) = 5x + 4


Second domain: 5 x 4 < 0 x <

88

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

4
5

Rewrite the function in hybrid form with the two rules


with their respective domains.

Graph the two functions for the specific domains.

4
5 x 4, where x

5
f (x) =
5 x + 4, where x < 4

5
y
5
4 (0, 4)
3
2
1
2

exercise 2F

f(x) = | 5x 4 |
1

( 45 , 0)

The absolute value function

1 mC Which of the following functions best describes this graph?


a y = |(x 1)3|
C y = |x3 + 1|
e y = |(x + 1)3 + 1|

b y = |(x + 1)3|
d y = |x3 1|

1
1 0

2 For each of the following functions state the domain and range.
a y = 2|x|

b y = |x| + 1

1
+1
x +1
3 We19 Sketch the graphs of each of the following.
a y = 2|x|
b y = |x + 5| 6
d y = |x2 1| + 1
e y = 2 |x2 2|
d y = |x2 3| 2

1 3

g y=
x 4

y=

2
h y=
+3
6 x

c y = 4 3|x|
f

y= 2

y=

1
x2

c y = 2|3 x| + 1
f y = |(x + 1)2 1| 2
i

diGiTal doC
doc-9181
Spreadsheet
absolute value function

1 1
y=
4
4 x2

1
k y = 2 x 2 + 3
l y = 2 x +1 8
1
x2
4 We21 Given the function f (x) = | 3x 1|:
a rewrite the function as a hybrid function with appropriate domains
b find f (0) a nd f (2)
c sketch the graph, labelling any significant points.
5 Given the function f (x) = | x2 3x |+ 2:
a rewrite the function as a hybrid function with appropriate domains
b find f (1) and f (2)
c sketch the graph, labelling any significant points.
6 The design shown at right is to be embroidered on the outer side of a pair of
childrens socks. The total length of the design is 12 cm and its width is
8 cm. If we draw the set of axes through the centre of the design, the red
section can be thought of as the absolute value function on a restricted
domain.
a Find the rule for the red section and specify the domain.
b Using your knowledge of the transformations, and the rule for the red
section, find the rules for the blue, green and yellow sections of the
design.
c Using a graphics calculator, sketch the 4 functions that were obtained
in a and b. Have you obtained the right design?
j

y
6

4x

diGiTal doC
doc-9180
WorkSHEET 2.2

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

89

2G
inTeraCTiViTY
int-0247
Transformations
with matrices

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video on
transformations
using matrices.

Transformations with matrices

Transformations of graphs can be described using matrices as an alternative to function notation.


The transformations that have been considered so far (dilations, reflections and translations) can be
represented in matrix form. This describes how a particular point on a graph will be moved (or mapped)
to a resultant location by the application of a dilation, reflection or translation, or a combination of the
three. Remember the definition of a transformation is a rule that links each point in the Cartesian plane
to another point. So the matrix can be used for any point on a curve, or in fact used to determine the new
rule for a function that has undergone one or a series of transformations. The new points or rules are
termed images of the original.

reflections and dilations

x
We can summarise the use of matrices to map these transformations, T , of points on a curve as
y
follows:
(Let x be the transformed value of x, and y be the transformed value of y.)
x x' 1 0 x x
T =
=
represents a reflection in the y-axis.
=
y y' 0 1 y y
x x' 1
T =
=
y y' 0

0 x
=
1 y

x
represents a reflection in the x-axis.
y

x x' a 0 x ax
T =
=
represents a dilation of a factor of a from the y-axis.
=
y y' 0 1 y y
x x' 1 0 x x
T =
=
represents a dilation of a factor of a from the x-axis.
=
y y' 0 a y ay
These operations can be combined to represent more than one transformation, for example
x x' 2 0 x 2 x
T =
=

=
y y' 0 3 y 3 y
represents a reflection in the y-axis, a dilation of a factor of 2 from the y-axis, and a dilation of a factor
of 3 from the x-axis.
Worked example 22

Using matrices, find the location of the point (x, y) under the following transformations of the
point (1, 3):
dilation by a factor of 2 from the y-axis
reflection in the x-axis.
Think
1

Construct the correct matrix that represents the


transformations described.
x x' 2
T =
=
y y' 0

WriTe

0 x

y

Write the matrix equation* and interpret this to


answer the question.

0 1
=
1
3

The image of the point (1, 3) is at (2, 3).


Matrix

operations can be done using a CAS calculator, but as the matrix multiplication required here is simple, it
is recommended it be done by hand.

90

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

The difficult part is to correctly identify the transformation matrix. Once you have done that it is a matter
of performing a matrix multiplication.

Translations
Translations require a slightly different process. The transformation matrix is a 2 1 matrix, and finding
the new image requires addition of the matrices rather than multiplication.
b
Matrices describing translations are of the form .
c
This represents:
a translation of b units in the positive direction of the x-axis
a translation of c units in the positive direction of the y-axis.
Note b > 0 and c > 0:
If either of the terms is negative, the translation is in the negative direction.
A zero entry indicates there is no translation in a particular direction.
So a translation of a point (x, y) can be described as follows:
x x' x b
T =
= +
y y' y c
x+b
=
y + c

Worked example 23

Find the location of the point (x', y') under the following transformations of the point (2, 4):
translation of 3 units in the x direction
translation of 5 units in the y direction.
Think

WriTe

Construct the correct matrix that represents the


transformations described.
x x' x 3
T =

= +
y y' y 5

Construct and solve the appropriate matrix equation.


x x'
T =
=
y y'


+
4

Interpret this to answer the question.

+
4

3 1
=

2 3 1

+
=

4 5 1

The image of the point (2, 4) is at (1, 1).

Matrix operations can be done using a CAS calculator, but as the matrix addition required here is simple,
it is recommended it be done by hand.

Note it is very important to use the correct mathematical language, both for the size and the direction of
the transformation. For example, dilations are by a factor of, in other words a multiple of the original
value, as distinct from translations, which are described as of n units, which is a set distance. In terms
of direction, the expression from the y-axis can also be expressed as parallel to the x-axis, in the
x direction or even horizontally. The same applies for from the x-axis.

putting it all together


The formal notation often used to describe a transformation begins as T : R2 R2, which is saying
the transformation that maps a point (x, y) to another point (x, y) is and then the transformation is
ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

91

described. For example, a transformation involving a dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis followed
by a translation of 2 in the x direction and 1 in the y direction could be defined as T : R2 R2,
T(x, y) = (x 2, 3y + 1), or simply (x, y) (x 2, 3y + 1).
When more than one transformation is described, it is known as a composition of the transformations.
When a series of transformations are described, they need to be done in the correct order as stated in
the question.
Worked example 24

Find the location of the point (x', y') under the following transformation of the point (3,2):

dilation by a factor of 12 from the y-axis


dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis
reflection in the x-axis
translation of 3 units in the x direction.
Think
1

WriTe

Perform the first three transformations together.


Construct the correct matrix that represents these
transformations described.
x x' 12
T =
=
y y' 0

0 x

y
3

1
2
0

0 3 3

= 2
3 2

6

Construct and solve the appropriate matrix equation.


0 3
x x' 12

T =
=


y
y'


3 2
0

1
2
0

Now perform the translation. Construct and solve


the appropriate matrix equation. Note we are using
the product matrix from step 2.

3 9
2 + 3 = 2
6 0 6

x x' 1
T =
= 2
y y' 0
4

3 3
+
2
0

Interpret this to answer the question.

The image of the point (3, 2) is at

( ,6).
9
2

Remember that a transformation maps any point on a curve to another by the same rule. Rather
than mapping a series of individual points on the same curve, we can simply find a new rule under a
transformation (or a series of them) and use this new rule to determine the location of any points from
the curve described by the original rule.
Worked example 25

Write the resultant equation from the following transformations of the curve
described by y = x3:
dilation by a factor of 2 from the y-axis
reflection in the x-axis
translation of 2 units in the negative y direction.
Think
1

92

Perform the first two transformations together.


Construct the correct matrix that represents these
transformations described.
x x' 2 0 x

T =
=

y y' 0 1 y

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WriTe

TUTorial
eles-1201
Worked example 25

Construct and solve the appropriate matrix equation.

Now perform the translation. Construct the correct matrix


that represents this transformation described.
x x' 2
T =
=
y y' 0

0 x 0
+

1
y 2

0 x 2x
=
y y

Construct and solve the appropriate matrix equation. Note


we are using the product matrix from our first equation in
step 2.

x' 2 x 0
y' = y + =
2

The transformed values of x and y are 2x and y 2.

Therefore x' = 2x and y' = y 2.

Express x and y in terms of x' and y'.

x'
and
2
y = y' + 2
y = y' 2

State the resultant equation.

2x
y 2

x=

x
y= 2
2

So for any point on the graph of the original function, y = x3, we can map the corresponding point under
the transformations above by substituting the values into this transformed equation.
Lets have a look at another example. This time we will complete reflections/dilations and translations
in the one step.
Worked example 26

Find the image of the curve with equation y = x after a reflection in the x-axis, followed by a
dilation of a factor of 2 from the x-axis, and then a translation by +3 in the x direction.
Think

WriTe

Construct the correct matrices that represent the


transformations described.
x x' 1 0 x 3
+
T =
=

y y' 0 2 y 0

Construct and solve the appropriate matrix equation.

x' 1
y' =

The transformed values of x and y are x + 3 and 2y.

So x' = x + 3 and y' = 2y.

Express x' and y' in terms of x and y.

x = x' 3 and y =

x and drop
Substitute new y- and x-terms for y = x,
the primes.

0
3
and
2

0 x 3 x +3
+ =
2
y 0 2 y

y'

= x3
2
y = 2 x 3
y = 2 x 3

State the resultant equation showing all


transformations.

y = 2 x 3

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

93

exercise 2G

Transformations with matrices

Identify the dilations and/or reflections described by the following matrices.

0 4

1 0

0 2

ii

0 3

iii

2 We22

We24

1
2

iv

Find the image of the point (3, 5) under the above transformations in question 1.

3 Find the image of the graphs of the following equations under the transformations in 1 i and 1 ii.

1
c y= x
b y = x3 5
x2
4 Identify the translations described by the following matrices.
a y=

1
2

iii 5
0
2

Find the image of the point (1, 2) under the transformations given in question 4.

3
2

5 We23

ii

6 Find the image of the following equations under each of the transformations defined in questions 4 i
and 4 ii.
a y = |x|
b y = x2 3x
7 The transformation T : R2 R2 which maps the curve with the equation y = x3 to the curve with the

equation y = (3x 6)3 + 1, could have:


x

1 0 x 6

+
3 y 1

a T
=
y 0
1

C T
= 3
y 0
e
8

0 x 2
+
1 y 1

1 0 x 3

+
3 y 1

b T
= 3
y 0

0 x 6
+
1 y 1

d T
=
y 0

x 3 0 x 6
T =
+
y 0 1 y 1

For the following transformations, where T : R2 R2, state what the transformation T represents
1
and determine the image of the equation f ( x ) = .
x
Note: Brackets on RHS means perform that transformation first.
x
y

a T

1 0 x 6
= 0 2 y +
1

x
y

b T

2
=
0

0 x 3
+

y 1

x 1 0 x 1
+
T = 3

y 0 1 y 2

9 A function g(x) is mapped to the curve h(x) = g(4(x + 1)) + 3. Create a matrix equation that will
map g(x) to h(x).
c

10 We25 The following transformations are applied, in order, to the graph of y = x3 4x:

dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis


reflection in the y-axis
translation of 1 unit in the y direction.
a Use matrices to determine the image equation under these transformations.
b Find the image of the point (2, 0) and check whether this point lies on the curve of the equation
from a.
94

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

3
1
and g( x ) =
+ 1, describe, in order, the transformations performed to
( x 2)2
x2
the graph of f (x) to give g(x) and create a matrix equation which would map f (x) to g(x).

11 We26

If f ( x ) =

12 If f (x) = g(2(x + 1)) + 1 and g( x ) = x , find f (x) in terms of x only, using:


a an algebraic method without the use of a CAS calculator
b matrices and a CAS calculator.
13 If f (x) = 2g(x 1) 2 and g(x) = x2 3x, find f (x) in terms of x only, using:
a an algebraic method without the use of a CAS calculator
b matrices and a CAS calculator.
14 If

h( x + 2)
2) + 1 =

x3

1
3 x 2 6 x , find h(x) using matrix methods.
2
2

Sum, difference and product


functions
2h

Sum functions

y
4
3
2
1

Units: 3 & 4
y = x2

A sum function is of the form y = f (x) + g(x), or alternatively y = (f + g)(x).


Many functions include two or more terms added (or
y = 1x
1
2
subtracted) together. For example the function y = x + can be thought
x
4 3 2 110 1 2 3 4 x
1
of as the sum of the functions y = x2 and y = .
2
x
These graphs can be drawn by sketching the two individual functions on
the same set of axes then adding the y-values (ordinates) for each x-value
and plotting the resulting points.
This is a useful method when we know the basic shape of the individual functions but do not
recognise the whole function. We would not use this method for a familiar function such as y = x2 + 3x,
as we have learnt ways of sketching this without breaking it up into parts.
1
Using the example in the first paragraph, y = x 2 + , we do not
y
x
4
recognise the shape of this function, but we know the two individual
y = x2
3
functions are the basic positive parabola and the hyperbola. We could
2
therefore sketch the graph of the parabola and the hyperbola and add
y = x2 + 1x 1
y = 1x
the y-values together for corresponding x-values to obtain points on the
curve of the sum function which can be joined together to obtain the
4 3 2 110 1 2 3 4 x
graph of the sum function.
2
Note that the domain of the hyperbola is restricted to R\{0} so the
y-value at x = 0 is undefined. As you cannot add an undefined number,
this x-value is also undefined for the sum function. A general rule is that the sum function is only defined
for the domain over which both of the individual functions are defined. The domain of the sum function
is, therefore, the intersection of the domains of the individual functions.
If h(x) = f (x) + g(x), then the domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).

difference functions
A difference function is of the form y = f (x) g(x), or alternatively
y = (f g)(x).
). It is essentially the same as a sum function except that one
1
of the individual functions is subtracted from the other. So y = x 2
x
could be sketched by the same method as described above but instead of
adding the y-ordinates, we would subtract one from the other.
The domain of a difference function is determined in the same way as a
sum function. We could extend our rule above to include difference
functions.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with the sums of
functions.

Units: 3 & 4

y = x2
y=

1
x

y
4
3
2
1

4 3 2 110
2

y = x2 1x
1 2 3 4x

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

95

If h(x) = f (x) g(x), then the domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).
We can also think of a difference function as adding a negative and it could be written
1
y = x 2 + . With this in mind, an alternative method of sketching the graph of a difference function
x
1
is to reflect the graph of the second function (in this example, x ) in the x-axis and then add the ordinates
as for a sum function.
When sketching graphs of sum/difference functions, there are key points that can be found on either
individual function to easily identify the value of the ordinate of the sum or difference function. These
are the x-intercepts and any point of intersection of the individual functions.
The x-intercept is where the ordinate of that particular function is zero, so the graph of the sum or
difference function is actually the ordinate of the other function for that value of x.
At the intersection, the ordinate of the sum function will be double that of the two individual
functions. For a difference function, an intersection of the two individual functions corresponds to on
x-intercept (y = 0) of the difference function.
Another useful y-value to look for is where the graphs of individual functions have y-values that are of
the same magnitude but one is positive and one is negative. This point is an x-intercept of the sum function.
y
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
1.5 1 0.5 0
0.5

0.5

1 1.5 x

Worked example 27

Using addition of ordinates, sketch the graph of


f ( x) = log e ( x + 2) + x , x [ 1, 2 ].
Think
1

TUTorial
eles-1243
Worked example 27

WriTe/draW

Sketch the graphs of y = loge (x + 2) and


y = |x| on the same set of axes over the
required domain x [1, 2].

y
3
2 y = loge (x + 2)
(1, 1)

1.5 1 .5 0
2

96

Moving from left to right, add the


y-coordinates of the two graphs for the
key points and plot the resultant points.
The key points are the:
end points
y-intercepts
points of intersection.
The new points on the graph are marked
by an asterisk.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y =x (2, loge (4))


0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 x

3
(1, 1)

2 y = log (x + 2)
e
1

1.5 1 0.5 0

(2, 2)

(2, 2)

y =x (2, loge (4))


0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 x

Left end points (1, 0) and (1, 1), so the new point
will be at (1, 1).
Right end points (2, loge (4)) and (2, 2), so the
new point will be at (2, 2 + loge (4)).
y-intercepts (0, 0) and (0, loge (2)).
Points of intersection (0.44, 0.44) and (1.15, 1.15),
so the new points will be (0.44, 0.88) and (1.15, 2.30).

Join these points with a smooth curve to


create f (x).

y f(x) = loge (x + 2) +x
3
(2, 2)
y
=
x
(1, 1)
1
y = loge (x + 2) (2, loge (4))
1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 x
2

Remove the two individual graphs to leave


the sum function.

(2, 2 + loge (4))

y
3
2
(1, 1)

f(x) = loge (x + 2) +x

1.5 1 0.5 0

0.5

2 2.5 x

1 1.5

product functions
A product function is of the form y = f (x)g(x), or alternatively y = (fg)(x).
When graphing product functions, it is useful to graph the individual functions, f and g, and for any
relevant values of x, to identify the y-values, or ordinates and multiply these together to obtain the
y-value of the product function. If the y-value is undefined at a particular value of x for either of the
individual functions, then the product function is undefined for that value. We cannot multiply by an
undefined number.
If h(x) = f (x)g(x), then the domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).
When examining the graph of the two individual functions, it is useful to look at x-intercepts and
points where the value of either function is 1. The product function will also have an x-intercept at a
point where either individual function has an intercept (as multiplying by zero gives zero). At a point
where a function = 1, the product function will have a value equal to the value of the other function, or
its negative.
It is also useful to observe that where the individual functions are both above the x-axis, or both below
the x-axis, the value of the product function will be positive, that is, above the x-axis. This is because the
product of two positive numbers or two negative numbers is positive. Alternatively, where one function
is above and one below the x-axis, the value of the product function will be negative, that is, below the
x-axis.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Worked example 28

If f (x) = 2x and g( x) =

x + 1, sketch the graph of f ( x) g( x) = 2 x x + 1 .

Think
1

Sketch the graphs of f (x) and g(x).

WriTe/draW

y = 2x
y= x+1

(0, 1)
(1, 0) 0

Find the domain of f (x) and the domain of g(x).

Dom f = R and dom g = [1, )

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

97

Find the domain of f (x) g(x).

Dom fg = [1, )

Find the x-intercepts of both f and g and hence


find the x-intercepts of the product fg.

x-intercept for f (x) is when x = 0 and f (x) = 0


x-intercept for g(x) is when x = 1 and g(x) = 0
Hence, the x-intercepts for the product are
when x = 0 and x = 1.

Find the values of x for which the product is


negative.

f (x) is negative and g(x) is positive for


x (1, 0), so fg is negative for x (1, 0).

Find the values of x for which the product is


positive.

f (x) and g(x) are both positive for x (0, ),


so fg is positive for x (0, ).

Find the turning point using a CAS calculator.


Round the answer to 2 decimal places as
appropriate.

The turning point is ( 3 , 0.77).

Sketch the graph of the product.

y = 2x x +1

(1, 0)
(0, 0)
2
(
,
3

exercise 2h
1

0.77)

Sum, difference and product functions

Sketch the graphs of f (x) = g(x) + h(x) using addition of ordinates, given the following
functions g(x) and h(x). State the domain of f (x) in each case.
a g(x) = x2, h(x) = x
x3
b g( x ) =
, h( x ) = x
2
c g(x) = 3x2, h(x) = | x |

1
, h( x)
x) = x + 2
x
2
Determine the equation of g(x) h(x) in each of the following cases then, using addition of
ordinates, sketch the graph of g(x) h(x).
d g( x ) =

a g( x ) =

x + 1, hh(( x ) = x

b g(x) = | x |, h(x) = | x + 1| 2
3 For each of the following, find the domain of f (x)g(x).
a f ( x ) = x 2 , g( x ) = 3 x
b f (x) = x + 2, g(x) = |2x + 1|
c

f ( x ) = x , g( x ) = 1 x

d f (x) = | x |, g(x) = x2 1
e

f ( x ) = x 3 , g( x ) =

x+2

4 We 27 Sketch the graph of f ( x ) = x +

general shape and any asymptotes.

2
for 4 x 4, by the addition of ordinates, showing the
x

5 Two functions are defined as f (x) = x2 and g( x ) = x .


a Sketch the graph of each on the same set of axes for 2 x 2.
b Find the smallest possible value of a given that the domain of the function h, where

h(x) = (f + g)(x), is a x 2.

98

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

c Find f (0) and g(0), and hence find h(0).


d Find f (1) and g (1), and hence find h (1).
e Find f (2) and g (2), and hence find h (2).

Using this information, sketch the graph of h(x) (on the same set of axes as in a).

Given the functions f (x) = x3, g(x) = | x | and h(x) = f (x) + g(x):

a Sketch the graph of each on the same set of axes for 2 x 2.


b Find f (2)and g (2), and hence find h (2).
c Find f (0) and g (0), and hence find h (0).
d Find f (1) and g (1), and hence find h (1).
e Find f (2) and g (2), and hence find h (2).

What is the range of the function h (in exact form).

g Using this information, sketch the graph of h(x) (on the same set of axes as in a).

h ( x ) = f ( x ) g( x ) .
7 We 28 Two functions are defined as f (x) = x 3 and g( x ) = x . L et h(
a Find the domain of h.
b Sketch the graph of each on the same set of axes.
c Find f (0) and g (0), and hence find h (0).
d Find f (1) and g (1), and hence find h (1).
e Find f (2) and g (2), and hence find h (2).
f What is the range of the function h (in exact form)?
g Using this information, sketch the graph of h(x) (on the same set of axes as in a).

x + 5 and g( x ) = 8 x and use these to find the domain of


the function h(x) = f (x) + g (x). On the same axes, sketch the graph of h(x), including the coordinates of
any end points.
x2
9 Use a CAS calculator to view and sketch the graphs of f (x) = | x + 2 | and g( x ) =
4, for
2
2.5 x 2.5. Then, without using the calculator, use these graphs to sketch the graph of h, if
h(x) = (f g)(x) on the same set of axes. Using the calculator, check the shape of the graph you
have drawn and use it to identify any significant points such as intercepts and cusp points to
2 decimal places. (You may need to adjust your window settings in order to clearly identify these
points.)
8 Sketch the graphs of the functions f ( x ) =

Composite functions and functional


equations
2i

Composite functions

A composite function is formed from two functions in the following way. If f (x) = x + 5 and
g(x) = 2x are two functions, then we combine the two functions to form the composite function
g(f (x)) = 2f (x) = 2(x + 5). That is, f (x) replaces x in the function g(x).
The composite function reads g of f and can be written g f.
Another composite function is f (g(x)) = g(x) + 5 = 2x + 5. In this case, g(x) replaces x in f (x). This
composite function reads f of g and can be written f g.
For the composite function f (g(x)) to be defined, the range of g must be a subset of (or equal to) the
domain of f, that is ran g dom f. It is easiest to list the domain and function of both f (x) and g(x) first
when dealing with composite function problems. For example: f (x) = x2 and g( x ) = x :

Domain
Range

f (x)

g(x)

[0, )

[0, )

[0, )

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video on composite
functions.

Composite functions can be rather complex to graph by hand, so a CAS calculator can be used for
assistance when sketching.
ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

99

Worked example 29

For the pair of functions f ( x ) =


a show that f (g(x)) is defined

1
and g( x ) = x :
x+2
b find f (g(x))

c state its domain.

Think

WriTe

a 1 Create a table showing the domain and range of

both functions.
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

b Form the composition function f (g(x)) by substituting

g(x) into f (x).


c The domain of f (g(x)) must be the same as the domain

of g(x). Since the domain of g(x) is


domain of f (g(x)).

g(x)

Domain

R \{2}

R+{0}

Range

R \{0}

R+{0}

ran g(x) dom f (x)


f (g(x)) is defined.

For f (g(x)) to exist the range of g must be a


subset of f.

R +{0},

f (x)

it is the

f ( g( x )) = f ( x )
1
f ( g( x )) =
x +2

Domain of f (g(x)) = R+{0}

Functional equations
Sometimes we are required to solve or analyse equations that are in terms of unknown functions, for
example, f (x) or f (y), rather than being in terms of unknown variables, for example x or y. An example
of the type of problem you might encounter is to find a function that satisfies f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y).
Alternatively, you might be required to determine if a particular function satisfies the rule f (2x) = 2f (x).
Equations such as f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) are called functional equations.
There are generally two ways to solve these types of problems: algebraically or using a CAS calculator.
Worked example 30

Determine if f (x) = 3x satisfies the equation f (x + y) = f (x) f (y).


Think

WriTe

Substitute the function into the LHS and RHS LHS = f (x + y) = 3x + y


of the equation separately.
RHS = f (x) f (y) = 3x 3y

Simplify the LHS of the equation to determine


if it equals the RHS of the equation.

LHS = f (x + y) = 3x + y
LHS = f (x + y) = 3x 3y

Answer the question.

f (x) = 3x satisfies the equation f (x + y) = f (x) f (y).

Worked example 31

Determine if g(x) = 10x satisfies the equation g(2x) = 2g(x).


Think

100

WriTe

Substitute 2x into the rule for g(x) and


simplify.

g(2x) = 10(2x)
g(2x) = 20x

Multiply g(x) by 2 and simplify.

2 g(x) = 2 10x
2g(x) = 20x

Write the solutions for g(2x) and 2g(x).

g(2x) = 20x
2g(x) = 20x
Therefore g(2x) = 2g(x).

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

LHS = RHS

If we consider the same equation f (2x) = 2f (x) for a different function, for example, f ( x ) = x ,
x ) = 2 x , which are not equal.
we obtain two different equations, f (2 x)
x ) = 2 x and 2 f ( x)
However, if we define this function on a CAS calculator and enter the statement f (2x) = 2f (x), the result
is x = 0. This means this equation holds true when x = 0 but not for any other values of x.

Composite functions and


functional equations
exercise 2i
1

We 29

For each of the following pairs of functions:

i show that f (g(x))

is de
fined

a f (x) = 2x 1 and g( x ) =

ii find f (g(x)) and state its domain.

x+3

c f (x) = 3(x 2)3 and g(x) = x2


e f (x) = (x + 1)(x + 3) and g(x) = x2

1
and g(x) = | x | + 1
x+2
d f (x) = | x | and g(x) = x3
b f (x) =

2
f ( x ) + f ( y)
satisfies the equation
= x + y.
x
f ( xxyy)
Determine which of iv hold for the following functions:

2 We 30 Show that f ( x ) =
3 We 31

i f (x y) = f (x) f (y)
iii f (x) + f (y) = (x2 + y2) f (xy)

ii f ( x y) =
iv

f (x)
f ( y)

x f (x)
f =
y f ( y)

v f (xy) = f (x) f (y)


a f (x) =
c

f (x) =

x
1
x

e f (x) = x2

b f (x) = | x |

1
x2
f f (x) = 2x
d f (x) =

1
and g( x ) = x , determine the values of a such that f (g(x)) exists.
( x + a) 2
1
+ 2, determine if f g
5 If f: x 2 y 0, where f ( x ) = x 2 and g:R/{1} R, where g( x ) =
x
+1
and g f exist and, if so, find the composition functions.
6 If f: x 0 y 3, where f ( x ) = 3 x and g:R y 1, where g(x) = x2 1, show that f g is not
defined. By restricting the domain of g, find a function h such that f h is defined.
4 f (x) =

7 Given w(x) = x + 3, x > 3 and v(x) = | x | 2, x R+, state the domain and range of each function.

Hence, find if w v and v w exist and, if so, state their rules including their domains.
8

Show that the equation g(x) = x3 satisfies the equation g(x) = g(x). Show that this statement is true
for all functions of the form g(x) = xn, where n is an odd natural number.

Show that g(x) = x4 satisfies the equation g(xy) = g(x)g(y). Show that this equation is true for all
functions of the form g(x) = xn, where n is a natural number.
10 Consider f : [4, ] R, f ( x ) = x 4 and g: R R, g(x) = 1 x. What transformations are
required to obtain f (g(x)) from f (x)?
9

2J

modelling

People such as scientists, financial advisers, business analysts, economists, statisticians and others often
have to deal with large and small sets of data.
Once the data are collected, we are often interested in finding the rules that link features of the data.
The process of finding such a rule is called modelling and the rule itself is known as the mathematical
model. When finding the model, the best way to start is to plot the data, as the shape of the graph might
suggest the type of relationship between the variables.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video on modelling
with data.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

101

Types of graphs
By recognising the shape of a graph, it is possible to find the rule or mathematical model that describes
it. Throughout this chapter, several types of graphs have been investigated. Some of these basic
shapes are:
1
The graph of a cubic function: y = x3
The parabola: y = x2
The hyperbola: y =
x
y
y
y

y=0

x=0

The truncus: y =
y

The graph of a square root function:


y= x

1
x2

y=0

0
x=0

Reflections and translations can be applied to each of these graphs, but the basic shape of each graph
remains the same.

Worked example 32

Match each of the following graphs with the appropriate model.


a
a
i y = ax2
ii y = ax3
iii y =
iv y = 2
x
x
a

y
x

Think

Match the graphs using the information in the


summary above.

v y= a x
e

WriTe

i is a parabola; it matches graph b.


ii is a cubic; it matches graph e.
iii is a hyperbola (the graph is in opposite
quadrants); it matches graph c.
iv is a truncus (the graph is in adjacent
quadrants); it matches graph a.
v is a square root function; it matches graph d.

102

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 33

2.5

3.54

4.33

5.59

a
a
, y=
or y = a x .
x
x2
b Select the appropriate rule and state the value of a.

The data in the above table exactly fit one of these rules: y = ax 2 , y = ax 3 , y =
a Plot the values of y against x.
Think

a Plot the values of y against x.

WriTe/draW

y
5
4
3
2
1
0

b 1 Study the graph. It appears to be a square root curve.

1 2 3 4 5

b Assume that y = a x .

Write the appropriate rule.


2

To find the value of a: select any pair of corresponding


values of x and y. (Since we need to take a square
root, the best to choose is the one where x is a perfect
square.)

Using (1, 2.5):

Substitute selected values into the rule and solve for a.

2.5 = a 1
=a1
a = 2.5

We need to make sure that the selected rule is the right


one. Replace a with 2.5 in the rule.

Verifying:
y = 2.5 x

Substitute the values of x from the table into the


formula and check if you will obtain the correct
values of y.

y = 2.5 0
=0
(2, 3.54): y = 2.5 2
= 3.54
(3, 4.33): y = 2.5 3
= 4.33
y
=
2.5 4
(4, 5):
=5
y
=
2.5 5
(5, 5.59):
= 5.59

As the values of y obtained by using the rule match


those in the table, the choice of model is correct.

The rule that fits the data is y = a x ,


where a = 2.5.

(0, 0):

The process of fitting a straight line to a set of points is often referred to as linear regression. Statistical
data is easiest to deal with in linear form. If the data is not linear, then a linear relationship can still be
found by transforming the x scale. A regression line can then be fitted.
m
For example, y = x + c is a hyperbola. However, if we substitute X for 1x , the rule becomes linear:
y = mX + c. The graph of y versus X will be a straight line with a gradient of m and a y-intercept of c. These
values (m and c) can then be established from the graph and thus the hyperbolic model can be determined.
Note: In a quadratic relationship, X is substituted for x2; in a cubic relationship, X is substituted for x3.
ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

103

Worked example 34

It is believed that, for the data in the table below, the relationship between x and y can be
modelled by y = ax
ax 2 + bx + c.
x

5.3

8.6

14.8

23

34.4

a Plot the values of y against x.


b Calculate the values of a, b and c (correct to 3 decimal places) and write the equations.
Think
1

Since there are 6 data points and only 3 are required


to determine if the graph is a parabola, choose
3 points.
Note: The spread of x-values.

WriTe

14.8

5
34.4

Write the general rule for a parabola.

y = ax2 + bx + c

Substitute in the 3 chosen points.

4 = a(0) + b(0) + c
14.8 = a(3)2 + b(3) + c
34.4 = a(5)2 + b(5) + c

Simplify and number the equations.

4=c
14.8 = 9a + 3b + c
34.4 = 25a + 5b + c

[1]
[2]
[3]

Use [1] to simplify [2] and [3].

10.8 = 9a + 3b
30.4 = 25a + 5b

[4]
[5]

Solve simultaneously.

54 = 45a + 15b
91.2 = 75a + 15b

[4] 5
[5] 3

Subtract and simplify to find a.

91.2 54 = 75a 45a


37.2 = 30a
1.24 = a

Substitute the value of a into [5] and simplify.

30.4 = 25(1.24) + 5b
30.4 = 31 + 5b
0 = 5b
0.12 = b

Write the equation of the parabola.

a = 1.24
b = 0.12
c=4
y = 1.24x2 0.12x + 4

If the relationship between the variables is not given, we have to make an assumption of a model
from the graph of the data. We then have to transform the data according to our assumption. If the
assumption was correct, the transformed data, when plotted, will produce a perfectly straight, or nearly
straight, line.

a
+ b and so
x
on (we will not allow for a horizontal translation), so that the appropriate substitution can be made.
Note: In this section we will consider only the rules of the type y = ax2 + b, y = ax3 + b, y =

104

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 35

35

21

16

12

11

10

Establish the rule connecting x and y that fits these data.


Think
1

Using either graph paper or a CAS calculator, plot


y against x.

WriTe/draW

y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

The scatterplot appears to be a hyperbola. Write


the appropriate formula (remember that we do not
consider horizontal translations in this section).

Check your assumption: prepare a new table by


1
replacing values of x with (leave the values of
x
y unchanged).

1
Plot y against .
x

Assumption: y =

Comment on the shape of the graph.

If we replace

1
with X, the rule becomes
x
y = aX + b, which is the equation of the straight
line, where a is the gradient and b is the
y-intercept. These (a and b) can be found from the
graph as follows: draw in the line of best fit.

a
+b
x

0.5

0.33 0.25 0.2

35

21

16

12

11

0.17
10

y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

1 2 3 4 5 6

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

1
x

The graph is very close to a straight line,


therefore the assumption of a hyperbolic model
is correct.
y
35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

y2 y1
x 2 x1

Write the formula for the gradient.

m=

Select any 2 points on the line.

Using (0.17, 10) and (1, 35):

Substitute the coordinates of the points into the


formula and evaluate.

m=
=

35 10
1 0.17
25
0.83

= 30.12
ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

105

a=m
= 30.12.

10

Write the value of a.

Since a is the gradient,

11

Write the general equation of the straight line.

y = mx + c

12

Substitute the value of m and the coordinates of any


of the 2 points, say (1, 35) into the equation.

35 = 30.12 1 + c

13

Solve for c. (Alternatively, read the y-intercept


directly from the graph.)

35 = 30.12 + c
c = 35 30.12
= 4.88

14

State the value of b.

Since b is the y-intercept, b = c = 4.88.

a
Substitute the values of a and b into y = + b to
x
obtain the rule that fits the given data.

The rule for the given data is:

15

y=

30.12
+ 4.88
x

modelling

exercise 2J

1 We 32 Match each of the graphs with the appropriate model:


i y = ax2 + b
ii y = ax3 + b

a
+b
x
v y= a x +b

iii y =

iv y =

a
+b
x2

x
x

2 We 33 The data in each of the tables below exactly fit one of these rules: y = ax2, y = ax3,

a
a
,y=
or y = a x . For each set of data, plot the values of y against x and draw the graph.
x
x2
Select the most appropriate rule, and find the value of a.
y=

diGiTal doC
doc-9182
Spreadsheet
modelling

x
y

8.1

2.4

0.3

0
0

x
y

0
0

24

24

54

0.5

0.08

x
y

106

0.08

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

0.5

1
0.3

2
2.4

3
8.1

0.5

1.5

1.13

1.6

1.96

2.26

2.5

1.25

0.5

40.5

12

1.5

1.5

10

3 mC Which of the graphs below could be modelled by y =


i

ii

iii

12

a
+ b?
x2
y

x
iv

y
x

a i only
d i, ii and iv

b i, ii and iii
e i, iv, and v

C iv and v

4 We 34 It is believed that for the data in the table below, the relationship between x and y can be

modelled by y = ax2 + b.
x

3.2

4.9

14.5

29

46.8

a Plot the values of y against x.


b Plot the values of y against x2 and draw the line of best fit.
c Find the values of a and b and hence the equation describing the original data.
5 The table below shows the values of 2 variables, x and y.

28

13.5

12.5

2
10

4.3

41

Establish the mathematical model of the relationship between the variables, if it is known that it is of
the form y = ax3 + b.
6 The table below shows the results, obtained from an experiment, investigating the frequency of a

sound, f, and the length of the sound wave, .

0.3
1130

0.5
680

10

340

110

70

40

35

a Plot f against .
b From the following relationships select the one which you think is suggested by the plot:

a
, f = a .

1
c Based on your choice in part b, plot f against either 2, or , draw in the line of best fit and

use it to find the rule that connects the 2 variables.


f = a2, f =

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

107

7 For her science assignment, Rachel had to find the relationship between the intensity of the light, I, and

the distance between the observer and the source of light, d. From the experiments she obtained the
following results.
d
I

1
270

1.5
120

2
68

2.5
43

3
30

3.5
22

4
17

a Use a graphics calculator to plot the values of I against d. What form of relationship does the

graph suggest?
b Nathan (Rachels older brother) is a physics student. He tells Rachel that from his studies he is

a
certain that the relationship is of the type I = 2 . Use this information to help Rachel to find the
d
model for the required relationship.
8 We 35 The table below gives the values of 2 variables, x and y. Establish the rule, connecting x and y,
that fits these data.
x
y

0
4

1
7

3
9

5
11

7
12

9
13

9 Joseph is a financial adviser. He is studying the prices of shares of a particular company over the last

10 months.
Months
Price, $
diGiTal doC
doc-9183
Investigation
Goal accuracy

108

1
6.00

2
6.80

3
7.45

4
8.00

5
8.50

6
8.90

7
9.30

8
9.65

9
10.00

10
10.30

a Represent the information graphically.


b Establish a suitable mathematical model, which relates the share price, P, and the number of the

month, m.
c Use your model to help Joseph predict the share price for the next 2 months.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Summary
Graphs of the power
functions

Name
Parabola

Equation
y = a(x b)2 + c

Basic shape

Domain

If a > 0
yc
If a < 0
yc

Turning point at (b, c)

Stationary point of
inflection at (b, c)

R \{b}

R \{c}

Horizontal asymptote
y = c, vertical asymptote
x=b

R \{b}

If a > 0
y>c
If a < 0
y<c

Horizontal asymptote
y = c, vertical asymptote
x=b

xb

If a > 0
yc
If a < 0
yc

End point at (b, c)

(b, c)
0

Cubic

y = a(x b)3 + c

y
(b, c)
x

Hyperbola

y=

a
+c
xb

or
y = a(
a( x b) 1 + c
Truncus

y
c
x

a
y
+c
2
( x b)
or
y = a(
a( x b) 2 + c c

y=

y = a x b +c
or

y = a( x b) 2 + c

Special feature

Square root

Range

(b, c)

The equation for any graph y = f (x) above can be written in the general form:
y = af (x b) + c.
This form can be used to describe transformations of all of the functions considered.
For all of the above functions:
a is the dilation factor: it dilates the graph from the x-axis.
When an equation for these types of graphs is put into its general form of y = af (x b) + c, the
horizontal dilation can be described in terms of a vertical dilation.
If a < 0, the basic graph is reflected in the x-axis.
f (b x) or f (x + b) is the reflection of f (x + b) in the y-axis.
b translates the graph b units along the x-axis (to the right if b > 0, or to the left if b < 0).
c translates the graph c units along the y-axis (up if c > 0, or down if c < 0).
To put equations into general form:
If the coefficient of x is a number other than 1, to find the value of b and a, the equation should
be transposed to make the coefficient of x equal to 1.
For example,
y = (3x + 5)2 + 4
= [3( x + 53 )]2 + 4

= 32 ( x + 53 )2 + 4
= 9( x + 53 )2 + 4
Hence, a = 9, b =

5
3

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

109

The absolute value


function

y = |x| means

y = x, if x 0
and y = x, if x < 0
y
y = |x|
x

Domain: R Range: R+ {0}


To sketch y = | f (x)|:
1. Sketch the graph of y = f (x).
2. Reflect the portion of the graph that is below the x-axis in the x-axis.
Or:
1. Express the function in hybrid form with specific domains where the absolute value expression
is positive and negative.
2. Sketch each rule for the specified domain.
For functions of the form y = a| f (x)| + c, a and c have the same impact on the graph of the absolute
value function, as on the graphs of all other functions discussed in this section.
Transformations with
matrices

The use of matrices to map transformations of points and equations can be summarised as follows,
where (x, y) is the image of the point (x, y) under the transformation.
x x' 1 0 x
=
T =
=
y y' 0 1 y
x x' 1
T =
=
y y' 0

represents a reflection in the y-axis.


y

0 x x
=
represents a reflection in the x-axis.
y y

x x' a 0 x ax
T =
=
represents a dilation of a factor of a from the y-axis.
=
y y' 0 1 y y
1

x x' 1 0 x x
T =
represents a dilation of a factor of a from the x-axis.
=
=
y y' 0 a y ay
Transformations can be combined to represent more than one transformation. For example,
4x + 2
x' 4 0 x 2

1
y' =
+ = y

3
0
+
3
2

x = 4x + 2
y
y =
+3
2
1
describes the following: dilation by a factor of 4 from the y-axis, a dilation by a factor of 2 from
+
the x-axis, reflection in the x-axis, a horizontal translation of 2 and a vertical translation of +3.

Sum and difference of


functions

110

For the graph of the sum/difference function, dom (f (x) g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). The graph
of the sum/difference function can be obtained by using the addition of ordinates method.
For the product function, dom (f (x)g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). Some features of the graph of the
product function are as follows:
the x-intercepts of f (x)g(x) occur where either f (x) or g(x) have their x-intercepts
f (x)g(x) is above the x-axis where f (x) and g(x) are either both positive or both negative
f (x)g(x) is below the x-axis where one of the functions f (x) or g(x) is positive and the other is
negative.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Composite functions
and functional
equations

For the composite function f (g(x)) to be defined, the range of g must be a subset of the domain of f.
Furthermore, if f (g(x)) is defined, the domain of f (g(x)) equals the domain of g(x).
Equations involving algebra of functions, for example f (2x) = 2f (x), are generally tested to
determine if they are true for particular functions.
To determine if an equation is true for a particular function, consider the LHS and RHS of the
equation separately to determine if the equation holds true for all values of x.
Alternatively, you may find a particular x-value for which the equation does not work; that is, a
counterexample.
These types of equations can be investigated by defining the functions on a CAS calculator and
then testing the algebraic function equation.

modelling

Modelling is the process of finding the rule (mathematical model) that fits the given data.
To model:
1. Plot the original data on graph paper or use a CAS calculator.
2. Make an assumption of the model.
3. Transform the data in accordance with your assumption.
4. Check the assumption by plotting the transformed data (if correct, the graph will be a straight or
nearly straight line).
5. Draw in a line of best fit.
6. Find the equation of the line (y = mx + c).
1
7. Replace x in the equation with the transformed variable (for example, x2, ).
x

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

111

Chapter review
S h orT
anS Wer

1 For the function y = 2(x 3)2 4:


a state the coordinates of the turning point
b state the domain and range
c sketch the graph.

b
6x 5
in the form a +
. Hence describe the transformations required
3x + 1
x+c
1
to produce this curve from the graph of y = .
x
3 The graph of a cubic function has a stationary point of inflection at (1, 1). It cuts the y-axis at y = 4.
Find the equation of the graph.
1
4 The graph of y = was dilated by the factor of 4 from the x-axis, reflected in the x-axis and then
x
translated 2 units to the left and 1 unit down.
a State the equation of the asymptotes.
b State the domain and range.
c State the equation of the new graph.
y
d Sketch the graph.
1
2
5 a State the changes necessary to transform the graph of y =
into the
2
x
1
x
one shown.
2 Express the function f ( x ) =

23

b Find the equation of the graph.


6 The domain of a truncus is R \{1}, the range is (, 2) and the graph cuts the

y-axis at y = 3. Find the equation of the function.

7 The basic square root curve was reflected in both axes and then translated so that its intercepts at the

9
10

11

axes were (0, 1) and (5, 0). Find the size and the direction of the translations; hence, find the equation
of the new graph.
2
2 , clearly showing the coordinates of the cusps, the
a Sketch the graph of y = 2
( x + 2)2
intercepts with the axes and the position of the asymptotes.
b State the domain and range of the graph in a.
a
The point (1, 3) undergoes a translation given by the matrix to (2, 0). Find a and b and
b
describe the transformations involved.
a 0
The point (1, 2) undergoes a series of transformations given by the matrices
and then
0 b

2 to ( 7, 4).

a Find the values of a and b.
b Find the image under the transformations of:
i y=2 x
ii y = x3 + x
a 0
A point on a curve (x, y) undergoes a transformation descibed by
to (x, y), where a is a
0 2
real constant such that a > 0.
y

a Find the values of x and y in terms of a, x and y.


b If the point is on the curve y = 2x2 x, find the image of

the curve in terms of a under this transformation.


c If the point (3, 6) is on the transformed curve, find the
value(s) of a and hence the rule of this image.
12 The graph of the function f : (2, 1) R, f (x) = x3 + 2x2 is

3
f(x) = x3 + 2x2
(2, 0)

13 Let f (x) = x2 determine which of the following relationships are true.


a f (x) f (y) = f (x) f (y)
c
112

f (x)

f (y)

= f (x) + f (y)

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

f (x)

2
1

2 1.5 1 0.5 0
1

shown at right.
Let g(x) = f (x) + 1, and sketch this graph on the same set of
axes. Hence, sketch (f + g)(x).

f ( y) = f (x) + f (y)

d f (x) f (y) = f (x) + f (y)

(1, 3)

0.5

14 The data in the table below exactly fit one of these models: y = ax3, y =

x
y

2
25

4
6.25

5
4

10
1

a
or y = a x .
x2

20
25
0.25 0.16

a Plot the values of y against x and use the scatterplot to choose a suitable model.

1
or x (depending on your choice in part a). Did you
x2
choose the right model? Explain your answer.
c Find the value of a.
b Plot the values of y against either x3,

1 The equation of a parabola is given by y = m 2(x + 3)2, where m > 0. The increase in m will result in:
a the graph being thinner

m U lTip l e
C ho iC e

b the graph being wider


C the increase of the domain
d the increase of the range
e the graph being shifted further to the right

2 The coordinates of the turning point of the parabola y = 2(3x + 6)2 3 are:
a (6, 3)
d

(2,

b (6, 3)

3)

3 The graph of y =

2 (b
bxx
3

3)3

C (2, 3)

(2, 3)

+ 1 is dilated in the y direction by the factor of:


2

b 3b

a 3

2b 3
3

2
3b3
3
4 The graph of y = 2 (3 + 4x) has a stationary point of inflection at:
d b3

a ( 43 , 2)

b ( 4 , 2)

d (

3
4

C (3, 2)

e (3, 2)

, 2)

2
+ 1 , then f (x) + 2 will have:
x
a the horizontal asymptote y = 2

b the horizontal asymptote y = 1

C the horizontal asymptote y = 3

d the vertical asymptote x = 2

5 If f ( x ) =

e the vertical asymptote x = 1


6 The equation of the graph shown is likely to be:
a y=
C y=
e

y=

x2
2

x +1
2

x+2

y =1

d y=

x+2

2
1
x+2

x
resulting graph would have the equation:

d y=

7 If the graph of y = 1 is reflected in the y-axis, translated

a y=

1
3
+
x2 4
1

4x 3

+2

b y = 4x + 2
e y=

3
4

units to the right and 2 units up, the


1

C y = 2 3 4x

1
+2
3 4x
ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

113

8 Which of the following is not true for the graph at right?


a
b
C
d
e

The vertical asymptote is x = 2.


The horizontal asymptote is y = 4.
The domain is R\{2}.
The range is R\{4}.
The value of the y-intercept is greater than 4.

9 To obtain the graph shown, we need to:


a translate the graph of y =
b translate the graph of y =
C translate the graph of y =
d translate the graph of y =
e none of the above

1
x2
1
x2
1
x2
1
x2

one unit to the left and reflect in the x-axis

one unit to the left and reflect in the y-axis


1

one unit to the left and dilate it in the x direction


y

a y = a x m + n, a > 0

b y = a m x + n, a > 0

C y = a x m + n, a < 0

d y = a m x + n, a < 0

e y = a x + m + n, a < 0
11 The equation of this graph could be:
a y=d ax

e y=

xa

(m, n)
x
y

b y=

x a +d

d y = c a x

b a

a x c

a [1, )

2 x 1 + 3 is:
b [3, )

d [2, )

C [0.5, )

e [1, )

13 The range of the function y = 3


d (, 2)

1
2 is:
x2
b (, 5]
e (, 2]

C [3, )

x
y

15 Under the transformation T : R2 R2 of the plane defined by T

image of the curve y = | x | has the equation:


1

d y = 2 | x 1| + 3

b y = | 2x + 1| 3
e y=

1
2

y
2

14 The equation of the graph shown in the diagram at right is best described by:
a y = |x + 2| + 2
b y = 2 |x + 2|
C y = |2 x| + 2
d y = 2 |2 x|
e y = |x + 2| 2

a y = 2 x 1 + 3

12 The domain of the function f ( x ) =

a (1, )

one unit to the left and reflect in both axes

10 The equation of this graph is of the form:

C y=d

2 0 x 1
=
y + ,
0 1 3

the

C y = 2 | x + 1| 3

x 1 3

16 If g:[2, 4] R, where g(x) = x2(x 3), and h:(0, 3] R, where h(x) = 3 x, then the function f (x)

such that f (x) = g(x) h(x) is defined by the rule:


a f: R R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)2
b f: (0, 3] R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)2
C f: [2, 3] R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)2
d f: (0, 4] R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)2
e f: [2, 3] R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)(3 + x)

114

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

17 Given the function f ( x ) =


a h(x) = x + 2
d h(x) =

x2

x 3 then f h could exist if h(x) was defined as:


b h(x) = x2 3
e h( x ) =

+3

C h(x) = x3

x 2

18 Which of the following would be the best fit to model the data in the table below: y = ax2, y = ax3 or

y= a x.

x
y

1
0.3

2
2.4

3
8.1

4
19.2

The value of a is:


a 2.4
b 1.2
C 2.7
d 0.9
e 0.3
1
19 Certain data the values of y were plotted against and the line of best fit was drawn as seen on the
x
y
diagram at right. The model that relates the variables x and y is:
a y = 20x 1

C y = 20 1
e

y=

(1, 19)

b y = 19x + 1
d y=

19
1
x

20
1
x

(0.1, 1)
1

1 The graph of y = f (x) is shown at right.


a Sketch the graph of each of the following functions on the same set of axes

with the original graph and give the coordinates of the points A, B, C and D.
i y = f (x)
ii y = f (x)
iii y = f (x 2)

iv y = f (x) + 3

v y = 2f (x)

vi y = 1 f (x + 1)

b Maya, a fabric designer, wishes to use the curve of y = f (x) (red)

(0.5, 4)

D(4, 6)

ex Ten d ed
r eS p o n S e

B
C(2, 3)
A 2
3 2
7 x

2 units
apart

to create a wavy pattern as shown in the diagram at right. If she


wants the waves to be 2 units apart vertically, suggest the best way
she could alter the equation of y = f (x). (Remember a fabric has a
fixed width!)
1
2 The graph of the function f: (2, 0.5) (0.5, 2) R, f ( x ) = 2 is
x
shown below.
y
4

(0.5, 4)

3
f(x) = 12

2
(2, 0.25)

2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0

(2, 0.25)
0.5

1 1.5

2 2.5 x

The graph of y = f (x) is to be transformed to become the graph of y = f (2x) + 1.


a Describe these two transformations.
b Create matrices to represent these transformations.
c Use these matrices to find the images of the points (1, 1) and (2, 0.25) under these
transformations, and use these values to deduce the images of the points (1, 1) and (2, 0.25).
d On the same axes, sketch this transformed function, showing the coordinates of the four points
from c above.
e Using any method, find a rule for this transformed function.
ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

115

3 A proposed section of a ride at an amusement park is to be modelled on the curve

y=

1
(600 x
500

+ 25 x 2 x 3 ), where y is the height (in metres) of the ride above ground level and x

is the horizontal distance (in metres). The x-axis represents ground level. It will travel through a
tunnel from A to C; B is the lowest point in the tunnel and D is the highest point on the ride.
y

A
15

Ex
40

0C
B

a Find the horizontal distance from A to E.


b Find the greatest depth below ground level and the maximum height above ground level that the

rollercoaster will reach in this section (correct to 2 decimal places).


c Describe the impact that a dilation by a factor greater than 1 from the x-axis would have on:
i the maximum depth and maximum height from b
ii the point at which the rollercoaster would emerge from the tunnel
iii the gradient of the slope at this point.
4 Lena and Alex are planning to buy a new house. Theyve been watching the prices of 3-bedroom

houses in a specific area, where they want to live, for the whole year. During each month they collected
the data and then, at the end of the month, they calculated the average price for that month. The results
of their calculations are shown in the table below. (The prices given are in thousands of dollars.)

Month
Price

10

11

12

240

248

255

261

266

271

273

274

275

274

272

270

a Plot the prices against the months. What model does the graph suggest?
b If the model of the form y = a(x h)2 + k is to be used for these data, what is (judging from the

graph) the most suitable value for h?


116

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

c Plot the values of y (the prices) against (x h)2, where h is the value youve selected in part b.

Comment on the shape of the graph.


d Draw a line of best fit and find its equation. Hence, state the values of a and k in the model.
e Write the equation of the model.
f According to the Real Estate Institute, the property market is on a steady rise (that is, the prices

are going up and are likely to rise further). Do the data collected by Lena and Alex support this
theory?
g Use the model to predict the average price for the next 2 months.
h Lena and Alex were planning to spend no more than 250 000 for their new house. Several months
ago the prices were in their range, but they could not find what they wanted. If the prices are
going to behave according to our model, how long do they have to wait until the prices fall back
into their range?
5 An eagle soars from the top of a cliff that is 48.4 metres above the ground and then descends towards
unsuspecting prey below. The eagles height, h metres above the ground, at time t seconds can be
modelled by the equation h = 50 + a , where 0 t < 25 and a is a constant.
t 25
a Find the value of a.
b Find the eagles height above the ground after i 5 seconds ii 20 seconds.
c After how many seconds will the eagle reach the ground?
d Comment on the changes in speed during the eagles descent.
e Sketch the graph of the equation.
After 24 seconds, the eagle becomes distracted by another bird and reaches the ground exactly
2 seconds later. For this second part of the journey, the relationship between h and t can be modelled by
the equation h = a(t 24)2 + c.
f Find the values of a and c.
g Fully define the hybrid function that describes the descent of the eagle from the top of the cliff to
the ground below.

diGiTal doC
doc-9184
Test Yourself
Chapter 2

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

117

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9174: Warm up with ten quick questions on
functions and transformations. (page 57)

2a

Transformations and the parabola

diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9175: Investigate transformations. (page 59)
Spreadsheet doc-9166: Investigate the quadratic function in power
form. (page 60)

2b

The cubic function in power form

diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9170: Investigate the cubic function in power form.
(page 64)
Spreadsheet doc-9176: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 67)

2C

The power function (the hyperbola)

TUTorial
We9 eles-1197: Watch a worked example on sketching the graph
of a hyperbola. (page 71)
diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9177: Investigate the hyperbola. (page 69)
Spreadsheet doc-9176: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 74)
WorkSHEET 2.1 doc-9178: Find the domain, range, coordinates
of turning points and equations of asymptotes of various graphs.
(page 74)
History of Mathematics doc-9179: Investigate the history of major
curves. (page 74)

2d

The power function (the truncus)

diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc-9176: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 80)

2e

The square root function in power form

TUTorial
We16 eles-1198: Watch a worked example on implied domain
and range. (page 83)
diGiTal doC
Spreadsheet doc-9176: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 86)

118

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2F

The absolute value function

TUTorialS
We20 eles-1199: Watch a worked example on sketching the
graph of an absolute value function. (page 87)
We21 eles-1200: Watch a worked example on expressing an
absolute value function as a hybrid function. (page 88)
diGiTal doCS
WorkSHEET 2.2 doc-9180: Identify transformations, state domain
and range, sketch graphs of power functions and absolute value
functions. (page 89)
Spreadsheet doc-9181: Investigate graphs of absolute value
functions. (page 89)

2G

Transformations with matrices

inTeraCTiViTY
Transformations with matrices int-0247: Consolidate your
understanding of using matrices to transform functions.
(page 90)
TUTorial
We25 eles-1201: Watch how to use matrices to determine the
resultant equation after transformations. (page 92)

2h

Sum, difference and product functions

TUTorial
We27 eles-1243: Watch how to use addition of ordinates to sketch
the sum of two functions. (page 96)

2J

modelling

diGiTal doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9182: Investigate modelling with functions.
(page 106)
Investigation doc-9183: Goal accuracy. (page 108)

Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself Chapter 2 doc-9184: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 117)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Answers CHAPTER 2
FUnCTionS and
TranSFormaTionS
exercise 2a

Transformations and the

parabola
1 a Dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis
b Dilation by a factor of 13 from the x-axis
c Dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis,
reflection in the x-axis
d Translation 6 units down
e Dilation by a factor of 12 from the x-axis,
reflection in the x-axis, translation of
1 unit up
f Translation of 2 units to the right
g Reflection in the x-axis, translation of
3 units to the left
h Dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis,
translation of 3 units to the right
i Translation of 2 units to the left,
translation of 1 unit down
j Translation of 0.5 unit to the right,
translation of 2 units up
k Dilation by a factor of 2, reflection in
the x-axis, translation of 3 units to the
left, translation of 1 unit up
l Dilation by a factor of 12 from the
x-axis, translation of 1.5 units to the
right, translation of 0.25 units down
2D
3 a (ii)
b (v)
c (i)
d (iv)
e (iii)
4 a y = 1 (x 2)2 + 2
2
b y = 2(x + 1)2 2

c y = 3(x 1) + 3
d y = (x + 2)2 4
2

5E
b y = x2
6 a y = 12 x2
2
c y = (x 2) 1
d y = 3x2 2
e y = (x + 3)2
7 a y = (x 3)2 4
b y = 2(x + 1)2 + 1
c y = 13 (x + 3)2 4

7. f (x 4) + 6, 2 x 6
8. f (x + 2) + 9, 4 x 0
9. f (x 2) + 9, 0 x 4
exercise 2b

3 a

y=
b y=
y = 2(x + 1)2
d y = 2(x + 1)2 + 3
(x, y)
b (x, y)
(x, 3y)
d (2x, y)
x
f (x + 2, y)
e ( , y)
3
g (x, y 1)
10 a z = 3 or z = 15
2 (x 15)2 8
b y = 2(x 3)2 8 or y = 25
11 a 3
b y = 13 (x + 4)2 + 3
c x = 7, x = 1
12 1. f (x + 2) 3, 4 x 0
2. f (x 2) 3, 0 x 4
3. f (x + 4), 6 x 2
4. f (x 4), 2 x 6
5. f (x) + 6, 2 x 2
6. f (x) + 6, 2 x 2
8 a
c
9 a
c

2x2

i
iii

(1, 43 )
x

(1, 34 )

b iv

0.8
x

c iv

d iv

2.08

y
4

128

e iv

y
4

a dilation of 43 .

i (0, 1)
ii (0.8, 0), (0, 1)
iii There is a reflection in the x-axis, a

i
iii

3 a iv

i (0, 0)
ii (0, 0)
iii There are no translations, but there is

c
2x2

i (1, 6)
ii (0.4, 0), (0, 4)
iii There is a translation of 1 left and

6 down, and a dilation of 2.

The cubic function in

power form
1 a Dilation from the x-axis by the factor
of 7
b Dilation from the x-axis by the factor
of 23 , reflection in the x-axis
c Translation by 4 units up
d Reflection in the x-axis, translation by
6 units up
e Translation by 1 unit to the right
f Reflection in the x-axis, translation by
3 units to the left
g Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of
4, reflection in the y-axis, translation by
2 units to the right
h Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of
6, reflection in the x-axis, reflection in
the y-axis, translation by 7 units to the
right
i Dilation from the x-axis by the factor
of 3, translation by 3 units to the left,
translation by 2units down
j Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of
1 , reflection in the x-axis, translation by
2
1 unit to the right, translation by 6 units
up
k Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of
2, translation by 52 units to the left
l Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of
1 , reflection in the x-axis, translation by
4
8 units to the left, translation by 3 units
up
c ii
2 a i, iv
b iii, v
e ii, v
f iii, iv
d i, ii, iv

d y = 12 (x 2)2 + 2
e y = 3(x 1)2 + 6
f y = 4(x + 2)2 + 8

i
iii

i
iii

i
iii

i
iii

translation of 1 unit up, and a dilation


of 2.
(0, 6)
ii (2.08, 0), (0, 6)
There is a translation of 6 down and a
2
dilation of 3 .
(4, 0)
ii (4, 0), (0, 128)
There is a translation of 4 right and a
dilation of 2.
(2, 0)
ii (2, 0), (0, 4)
There is a reflection in the x-axis, a
translation of 2 right, and a dilation
1
of 2 .
(1, 0)
ii (1, 0), (0, 4)
There is a reflection in the y-axis, a
translation of 1 right, and a dilation
of 4.
(1, 2)
ii (0.3, 0), (0, 1)
There is a translation of 1 right and
2 up.
(2, 3)
ii (0.6, 0), (0, 5)
There is a reflection in the x-axis and
a translation of 2 left and 3 up.

f iv

y
4

g iv

y
2
1
0.3

h iv

3
x

2
0.6

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

119

i iv

4 a
0.4
4
6

i
iii
i
iii
i
iii
i
iii
i
iii
i
iii

c
d

4 E

5C

7 a y=
c
e
8 a
c
9 a

6 B
b y = (x + 5)3

1 x3
2

y = (x 3)3 1
y = (x + 1)3 1
y = 2x3
y = 2(x 2)3
y = 12 x3 + 4

c y=

3(x

1)3

d y = 2x3 + 3

10 E

b y = 2x3
d y = 2(x 2)3 1
b y = 2(x 1)3 + 2

+1

e y = 4(x + 1)3 12

d y=

1
3

(x

x = 4, y = 0
Range: R\{0}
x = 0, y = 2
Range: R\{2}
x = 3, y = 2
Range: R\{2}
x = 1, y = 1
Range: R\{1}
x = m, y = n
Range: R\{n}
x = b, y = a
Range: R\{a}

ii Domain: R\{0}

6
2

ii Domain: R\{3}

2 21

2
3

ii Domain: R\{m}

ii Domain: R\{b}

1
2

y
4

2
5

2
5

34 x

b Positive cubic

ii Domain: R\{1}

2 x
3

11 y = 2(x + 1) 4

12 a y = 12 (2 x)3 + 1

y
1
7 2

34 x

3)3

ii Domain: R\{4}

11 1

x
exercise 2C The power function
(the hyperbola)
1 a Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of 2
b Dilation from the x-axis by the factor
of 3, reflection in the x-axis
c Translation by 6 units to the right
d Dilation from the x-axis by the factor
of 2, translation by 4 units to the left
e Translation by 7 units up
f Dilation from the x-axis by the factor
of 2, translation by 5 units down
g Translation by 4 units to the left,
translation by 3units down
h Dilation from the x-axis by the factor
of 2, translation by 3 units to the right,
translation by 6 units up
i Dilation from the x-axis by the factor
of 4, reflection in the x-axis, translation
by 1 unit to the right, translation by
4 units down

2 a v
d v, iii
g v, i, iv
3 a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h
i

120

i
iii
i
iii
i
iii
i
iii
i
iii
i
iii
i
iii
i
iii
i
ii
iii

b iii
e v, ii, iii
h ii, iv

ii
x = 0, y = 0
Range: R\{0}
x = 6, y = 0
ii
Range: R\{0}
ii
x = 2, y = 0
Range: R\{0}
ii
x = 3, y = 0
Range: R\{0}
ii
x = 0, y = 4
Range: R\{4}
ii
x = 0, y = 5
Range: R\{5}
x = 6, y = 2 ii
Range: R\{2}
ii
x = 2, y = 1
Range: R\{1}
x = n, y = m
Domain: R\{n}
Range: R\{m}

4 31

1
3

185

31

21
2 1

1
x

y
y =1
1 5

43

Domain: R\{0}

Domain: R\{3}

y=4

(6, 2)
5

Domain: R\{0}

52

y=

x+3
x2

y
10
8
6
4
2

(2, 11)

0 2 4
6 4 2
(0, 3)
x=1

Domain: R\{0}
Domain: R\{6}

y
10
8
6
4
2

10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 x
(0, 32 ) 4
6
x=2
8
10

3 43

Domain: R\{6}

1 3
4 4

k
c

23
y

c i
f i, iii

Domain: R\{2}

6 a

Domain: R\{2}

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

7 E
y
3
1
3

8 C

2
9 a y=
x2
1

c y=

x+4
2
e y=
+2
x4

b y=

3
x +1

4
1
x
6
f y=
1
x +1
d y=

e Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of 5,

10 a

reflection in the x-axis, translation by


4 units to the left
f Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of
2, translation by 6 units up
g Reflection in the x-axis, translation by
3 units up
h Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of
4, translation by 3 units to the right,
translation by 1 unit up
i Reflection in the x-axis, translation
by 2 units to the left, translation by
5 units up
2 D
3 C
ii Domain R\{0}
4 a i x = 0, y = 0
iii Range: y > 0
ii Domain R\{0}
b i x = 0, y = 0
iii Range: y < 0
ii Domain R\{2}
c i x = 2, y = 0
iii Range: y > 0
d i x = 1, y = 0
ii Domain R\{1}
iii Range: y > 0
e i x = 4, y = 0
ii Domain R\{4}
iii Range: y < 0
ii Domain R\{0}
f i x = 0, y = 3
iii Range: y > 3

1
2

1
x

y
21
x

3
2
1

121

h
i

i x = 0, y

y
0.4

1
1
)
2

(3, 0)

2
1

3.7 3 2.3

y
4
3 97

y
11

12
2
3

i x = 1, y = 4

ii Domain R\{1}

6 B

2.7

7 B

1
2

0.7

41

y
y

3 4
3
x

x=2

l
x

(0,

9 a y=

1
8

exercise 2d

c y=
d

3 )
4

The power function


(the truncus)
1 a Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of 2
b Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of 3,
reflection in the x-axis
c Translation by 2 units to the left
d Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of 2,
translation by 3 units to the right

y
1
9

Domain: R\{0},
range: R\{3}

1
3

y=1

0.4

ii Domain R\{0}

= 12

iii Range: y < 12

8 a

iii Range: y > 4

11

ii Domain R\{0}

i x = 0, y = 5

5 C

(0,

y
1

iii Range: y > 45

1 2 3

2
2
x2
9

( x + 2)2

b y=

+1

8
3
( x 4)2
3
10 y =
3
( x + 2)2
e y=

d y=

f y=

( x 2)2
3
+4
( x + 1)2
5

2
( x 1)2
3
11 y =
+2
( x 1)2

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

121

exercise 2e The square root function in


power form
1 a Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 2
b Dilated from the x-axis by a factor
of 13 , reflected in the x-axis
c Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 3,
translated 1 unit to the right
d Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 2,
reflected in the x-axis, translated 4 units
to the left
e Translated 1 unit down
f Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 3,
reflected in the x-axis, translated 2 units
up
g Translated 4 units to the right, translated
3 units up
h Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 2,
reflected in the x-axis, translated 3 units
to the left, translated 6 units up
i Dilated from the x-axis by a factor
of 12 , reflected in the x-axis, reflected in
the y-axis, translated 2 units to the right
and 23 units up

2 a (0, 0)

b (0, 0)

c (1, 0)

d (4, 0)

e (0, 1)

f (0, 2)

g (4, 3)

(3,

6)

i (2,

3 E
4 D
5 a Domain: x 1, range: y 0
b Domain: x 3, range: y 0
c Domain: x 0, range: y 3
d Domain: x 0, range: y 4
e Domain: x 0, range: y 5
f Domain: x 1, range: y 3
g Domain: x 2, range: y 1

b
2

1
2

7
1

1 21

y
2
4

(1, 1)
x

y
2

2
x

0.4

2)
3

2 1
2.7

9 E
10 a m = 1

y=3 4x +3

0.7
1
2

b y = 2 x 1 4
11

1 2

4
3

4
3

3
4

(4, 3)

12 a
b
c
d
e
f

p=8
y = 4 x + 1 + 8
x=3
x 1
y8
y

(1, 8)

y
41

1
4

The absolute value function

1 C
2 a Domain: R, range: y 0
b Domain: R, range: y 1
c Domain: R, range: y 4
d Domain: R, range: y 2
e Domain: R \ {1}, range: y > 1
f Domain: R \ {0}, range: y 0
3 a
y

y
3 31
3

y
1

3.6
3

(6, 1)
x

122

exercise 2F

(1, 1)

4.4

y
2

3
2

1.4

3 43

i Domain: x 4 , range: y 2

6 D
7 D
8 a

5 1 1

11
x

h Domain: x 1 , range: y 4
j Domain: x 3, range: y 7
k Domain: x 2, range: y 6
l Domain: x 2, range: y 1

3.7

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 x

2
5

ii y = 32 x 3 + 20

35 63

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

f(x) = |3x 1|

3 2 1 0

x + 3 x + 2,0 < x < 3

b f (1) = (1)2 3 1 + 2 = 6,

6 a y = 32 x , 2 x 2
b Yellow: y = 6 32 x , 2 x 2;
2

green: y =

3
2

x 6,

blue: y =

3
2

x , 2 x 2

x 2;

c Teacher to check
exercise 2G Transformations with
matrices
1 i Reflection in the y-axis, dilation by a
factor of 2 from the x-axis
ii Dilation by a factor of 12 from the y-axis,
dilation by a factor of 4 from the x-axis,
reflection in the x-axis
iii Reflection in the y-axis, dilation by a
factor of 3 from the x-axis, dilation by a
factor of 2 from the y-axis
iv Dilation by a factor of 1 from the x-axis,
2
reflection in the x-axis
2 i (3, 10)
3

ii ( 2 , 20 )
iii (6, 15)
5

iv (3, 2 )

2
3 a i y= 2
x
1
ii y =
x2

0
1

dom f : R
b f (x) =

x3
+ x
2
y
3
2
1

6 a i y= x3 +2
3

ii y = x 2 2

0
1

dom f : [0, )

7C
8 a Reflection in the y-axis, dilation by a

iii ( 5 , 2)

2
ii y = x 7 x + 8

f(x) = |x 3x| + 2

2
b i y = x 9 x + 20

f (2) = 22 + 3 2 + 2 = 4

x 2 3 x + 2, x 0 x 3
5 a f (x) =

direction of the x-axis, translation of


2 units in the positive direction of the
y-axis
ii Translation of 2 units in the positive
direction of the x-axis, translation of
2 units in the negative direction of the
y-axis
iii Translation of 1 units in the negative
5
direction of the x-axis
5 i (4, 0)
ii (3, 4)

y=x

4 i Translation of 3 units in the positive

b f (0) =3 0 + 1 = 1, f (2) = 3(2) 1 = 5

y = x2

ii y = 4 2 x

3 x 1, x 1

3
4 a f (x) =
1

3
x
1,
x
+
<

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

y y = x2 + x

c i y=2 x

99

(1, 6)

exercise 2h Sum, difference and


product functions
1 a f (x) = x2 + x

b i y = 2 x 3 10

2
c f ( x ) = 3x + x

factor of 2 from the x-axis, translation


horizontally by +6, translation vertically
by +1
2
f (x) =
+2
( x + 6)

1.5 1 0.5 0

b Dilation by a factor of 2 from the y-axis,

1
2

dilation by a factor of from the x-axis,


reflection in the x-axis, horizontal
translation by +3, vertical
1
translation by 1 y =
1
x3

1
x 4
9 T
=

y 0

0 x 1

+
y 3
1

10 a y = 2 x + 8 x 1
b (2, 1); point lies on the curve
11 Dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis,

reflection in the x-axis, translation by


2 units in the positive direction of the
x-axis, translation by 1 unit in the positive
direction of the y-axis
x 1 0 x
+ 2
T =

1
y 0 3 y

2( x + 1) + 1
12 a, b g(2( x + 1)) + 1 =

13 a, b f (x) = 2x2 10x + 6


14 h(x) = x3 5

1.5

dom f : R
1
x

d f (x) = x + 2 +

y
6
4
2

c Horizontal translation by +1, vertical

translation by 2, 13 dilation from the


y-axis, reflection in the x-axis
1
+2
y =
3x + 1

0.5

6 4 2 2

dom f : R\{0}
2 a g( x ) h( x ) =

x +1 x

y
4
(1, 1)
6 4 2

2
0

b g( x ) h( x ) = x x + 1 + 2
(1, 3)

y
4
2

6 4 2 0
(1, 2) 2

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

123

3 a (, 3]

b R

c [0, 1]

d R

e [2, )

e f (2) = 1, g(2) =

(2, 4)

(2, 4)

e f (2) = 4, g(2) =
f

1 1 0
2
3
(2, 4) 4

(2, 8)

(2, 20.5 4)

(2, 2)
3 2 1

(2, 2)

0
2
4

(2, 8)

d f (1) = 1, g(1) = 1, h(1) = 0


e f (2) = 8, g(2) = 2, h(2) = 6

10
8
6
4
2

2 1 0
2
4
6
8

124

iii

4 a>0

(2.5, 5.38)

5 f  g does not exist; g  f (x) =

f(x)

5 4 3 2 1 0
2
4

g(x)

2 Teacher to check
3 a i f (x y) f (x) f (y)
ii f (x y) f (x) f (y)

(8, 13)

e ii f (g(x)) = (x2 + 1)(x2 + 3), domain R

f ran h: [6, 10]

iii f (x) + f (y) (x2 + y2) f (xy)


(2, 2)
1

iv
3

i
ii

x + 3 1, domain [3, )
1
b ii f (g(x)) =
, domain R
|x|+3
2
c ii f (g(x)) = 3(x 2)3, domain R
3
d ii f (g(x)) = x , domain R

c f (0) = 0, g(0) = 0, h(0) = 0

(2, 2)

v
f

6 (0, 6)

v
b i

(2, 6)

ii

(2, 8)

iii

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

x
f (x)
f( ) =
y
f ( y)
f (xy) = f (x) f (y)
f (x y) f (x) f (y)
f (x y) f (x) f (y)
f (x) + f (y) (x2 + y2) f (xy)

x
f (x)
y
f ( y)
f (xy) = f (x)f (y)
f (x y) f (x) f (y)
f (x y) = f (x) f (y)
f (x) + f (y) (x2 + y2)f (xy)
f (x)
x
f( )
f ( y)
y
f (xy) f (x) f (y)

iv f ( ) =

1 a ii f (g(x)) = 2

b f (2) = 8, g(2) = 2, h(2) = 10

(2, 10)
(2, 8)

ii f (x y) f (x) f (y)
iii f (x) + f (y) (x2 + y2) f (xy)

exercise 2i Composite functions and


functional equations

f (x)

1.5

f (x)g(x)

(2, 2)

iv

(2.5, 1.38)

v f (xy) = f (x) f (y)


e i f (x y) f (x) f (y)

6543210 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x

h(x)

0.5

y
5
4
3
2
1

(2, 4)

y
8

ii

8 x + x + 5, x [ 5,8]

(8, 13)

(2, 20.5)

6 a

8 h( x ) =

2 , h(2) = 4 + 2

y
1

g(x)

g(1) = 1, h(1) = 0

iv

1.5 1 0.5 0
2

c f (0) = 0, g(0) = 0, h(0) = 0

2 , h(2) =

v
d i
iii

x
f (x)
y
f ( y)
f (xy) = f (x) f (y)
f (x y) f (x) f (y)
f (x y ) f (x) f (y)
f (x) + f (y) = (x2 + y2)f (xy)
x
f (x)
f( ) =
y
f ( y)

iv f ( ) =

y
4

b a=0
d f (1) =

iii f (x) + f (y) (x2 + y2) f (xy)

f ran h: [ 2, )

(2, 2 )

0
1
1
2
3
4

1,

ii f (x y) f (x) f (y)

1.5

0.5

1
2

c f (0) = 3, g(0) = 0, h(0) = 0


d f (1) = 2, g(1) = 1, h(1) = 2

5 a

0.5
f (x)

(4, 4.5)

v f (xy) = f (x) f (y)

1.5 1 0.5 0
2
0

f (x)
f ( y)

c i f (x y) f (x ) f (y)

g(x)

(4, 4.5)

2
4

iv f ( ) =

y
4
2

y
4

x
y

7 a dom h: [0, )

1
+2
x 2 +1

6 Restricted domain of g(x) = R \(1, 1)


7 dom w: ( 3, ), ran w: (0, ), dom v: R+,

ran v: (2, ) w  v(x) = x + 1 ,


where x R+; v  w(x) = x + 3 2, where
x (3, )
8 Teacher to check
9 Teacher to check
10 Reflection in the y-axis, translated +1
parallel to the x-axis
exercise 2J

modelling

b ii
1 a iii
d i
e v
2 a y = ax3, a = 0.3

a
c y= 2,a=2
x
a
e y= ,a=5
x
3 D
4 a

c iv
b y = ax2, a = 6
d y = a x , a = 1.6
f y = ax3, a = 1.5

y
50
40
30
20
10
0
10

1 2 3 4 5

y
50
40
30
20
10

2 f (x) = 2

0
10

5 10 15 20 25

Dilation 13 from the y-axis, dilation from


the x-axis by a factor of 7, reflection in the
x-axis, translation 13 parallel to the x-axis
in the negative direction, translation +2
parallel to the y-axis
3 y = 1 3(x 1)3
4 a x = 2, y = 1
b Domain: R\{2}, range: R\{1}
4
c y=
1
x+2

x2

c a = 2, b = 3.2, y = 2x2 3.2


1
5 y = 4 x3 12

6 a

f
500
400
300

200
100

0
10

1
0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

3
6
9
12
15
18

D(4, 6)

f(x)

B C(2, 3)
A 2
2
A' B'
2
C'(2, 3)

by 2 units to the left and 1 unit down,


dilation by the factor of 2 along the y-axis
2
b y=
1
( x + 2)2

4d

ii

D'(4, 6)

1.3

Price

8 10 Month

ii y =

b p=2 m +4
11 a x =

c 10.63, 10.93

ChapTer reVieW
ShorT anSWer

1 a (3, 4)
b Domain: R, range: y 4
c
y

C(2, 3)
B2

A
2

1.6

4.4

x
y
,y =
a
2

b y=

4x2
a2

( f + g)( x ) = 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 1

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

A'(2, 3)

12 g:( 2,1) R, g( x ) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 1

B'(2, 2)

A'

D'(4, 9)

2x
a

D(4, 6)

C(2, 3)

f(x)

A(2, 3), B(0, 5), C(2, 6), D(4, 9)


v

2f(x)
D'(4, 12)

(1, 7)
( f + g)(x)
(1, 4)
(1, 3)
f(x)
1

C' (2, 6)
B'
5

f(x) + 3 A
2

c a = 2, y = x2 x

(2, 1)

D'(6, 6)

A(0, 0), B(2, 2), C(4, 3), D(6, 6)

(1 x )3 1 x
+
+2
512
8

g(x)

f(x)

C'(4, 3)

iv

1 x
+2
8

14

f(x2)
D (4, 6)

10 a a = 8, b = 1
b i y=2

C(2, 3)
A'
x
2

iii

1
2

b Domain: R\{2}, range: (, 2]

9 a = 3, b =

A(2, 0), B(0, 2), C(2, 3), D(4, 6)


(1, 2)

2.7 2

y
f(x)
f(x)
D'(4, 6) D(4, 6)

C'(2, 3)
A
2

y
(3, 2)

A(2, 0), B(0, 2), C (2, 3), D(4, 6)

8 a

C
E
E
C
E
E

exTended reSponSe

2
( x 1)2
7 4 units to the right and 3 units up;
y=3 4x

8 y=3 x +4
9 a
$

E
C
D
A
B
D

2
5
8
11
14
17

f(x)

6 y=

270
b I= 2
d

11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

D
D
D
C
E
C
E

5 a Reflection in the x-axis, translation

I
250
200
150
100
50
0

1
4
7
10
13
16
19

340

b No
d No

mUlTiple ChoiCe

c f=

13 a Yes
c Yes
14 c 100

1 a i

2 4 6 8 10

f
1000
800
600
400
200

7 a

7
3x + 1

C'(2, 6)
B'4
A 2B
A' 2

f(x)
D(4, 6)
C(2, 3)
x

A(2, 0), B(0, 4), C(2, 6), D(4, 12)

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

125

f(x)

vi

A'(3, 1)
A

B
2

C(2, 3)
C'(1, 2)

B'(1, 1)

D'(3, 5)

A( 3, 1), B( 1, 1),
C(1, 2), D(3, 5)
b Add multiples of 2, for example,
f (x) + 2, f (x) + 4, f (x) + 6,
f (x) 2 etc. and keep the domain
fixed at [3, 7].
2 a Dilation from the y-axis by a factor of 12 ,
vertical translation of +1
1 0
, 0
b 2
0 1 1

c ( 12 , 2), (1, 1.25) ( 12 , 2), (1, 1.25)

126

D(4, 6)

1 f(x + 1)

5 a a = 40
b i The eagle is 48 m above the ground.
ii The eagle is 42 m above the ground.
c It takes 24.2 s to reach the ground.
d The speed is slow to start but increases

e y=

1
+1
4x2

3 a 55 m
b Maximum height is 30.01 m above

ground and maximum depth is 5.38 m.

c i Minimum depths and maximum

heights would be greater.


iii Would be greater
y = a(x b)2 + c
b b=9
Straight line (negative gradient)
a = 0.55, c = 275
y = 0.55(x 9)2 + 275
No, the prices started going down.
$266 000, $261 000
About 4 months
ii No change

4 a
c
d
e
f
g
h

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

rapidly as the eagle approaches the


ground.

h
50 (0, 48.4)
(5, 48)
40

(20, 42)

30
20
10

(24.2, 0)
0

10

15

20

25

f a = 2.5, c = 10

40
, 0 t 24
50 +
t 25
g f (t ) =
2.5(t 24)2 + 10, 24 t 26

Exam practice 1 CHAPTERS 12


1 The functions f and g are graphed below. On the same axes sketch a graph of f + g.
f

S ho rT
a n S W er
15 minutes

0
1 mark

2 Write down the maximal domain of f : X R where f ( x ) =

x2 3 .

1 mark

3 For y = (2x
1:
a write down the y-coordinate of the turning point
b determine the equation of the axis of symmetry.

3)2

2 marks

4 a Using the factor theorem, show that x + 2 is a factor of x3 7x 6.


b Given x3 7x 6 = (x + 2)Q(x) where Q(x) is a quadratic factor, determine Q(x).
5 For what values of c does the graph of y =

2x

+ c intersect the graph of y =

x2

2 marks

+ x 2 at

two distinct points?

2 marks

6 Sketch the graph of the function f

:[1,

4) R, f (x) = | 3(x

3)2

10 |.

2 marks

1 Given a, b R, this graph could have the rule:


a y=

1
a
xb

b y=

e y=

10 minutes

+b

ax
1
d y=
a
xb

1
+b
C y=
x+a

m U lTip l e
C ho iC e

y=b

each question is worth


one mark.

x=a
x

1
+a
x+b
y

2 The graph sketched at right is best represented by the rule:


a y = (x a)(x b)2(x c)2
b y = (x a)(x c)2

C y = (x a)3(x c)2

d y = (x a)(x c)
e y = (x a)(x b)(x c)

3
x

3 The coefficient of the term in x4 in the expansion of (2 x 2 )5 is:


a 240
d 72

b 72
e 720

C 60

4 What is the equation of the horizontal asymptote of the graph of y =


a y = 4
d y=

3
4

b y = 3

3x 2
?
4x

C y = 1

e y=3

5 The quadratic function f : D R, f (x) = 2(x + 1)2 5 has a domain, D, of [0, 3]. The range of f is:
a [1, 3]
d [3, 27]

b R
e [5, )

C [5, 27]

6 The simultaneous linear equations 3x + ay = 12 and ax + 3y = 4a have infinitely many solutions for:
a a [3, 3]
d a=9

b a=3
e a=0

C a = 3 or a = 3

Exam practice 1

127

e x T ended
r e S ponS e
40 minutes

1 Severe tropical cyclone Vance devastated the town of Exmouth in northern WA in 1999. It produced a

measured wind gust of 267 km/h, which is the highest wind speed ever recorded on mainland Australia.
In order for it to be first categorised as a cyclone, its wind speed needed to exceed 119 km/h.
Several years later, it is a peaceful day, with no wind detectable at 1 pm. By 3 pm, however, the
wind speed is gusting to 200 km/h, and the residents know they are in trouble.
a Let t be the time in hours after noon and v be the wind speed. Establish a linear model of the form
v = at + b to represent the relationship between the wind speed and time.
2 marks
b Using this model, determine to the nearest minute when the wind speed will be high enough
for classification as a cyclone.
1 mark
c Predict to the nearest minute when the cyclone will break the record for the highest wind
speed ever recorded.
1 mark
d Explain why the linear model is unsatisfactory as a model for the cyclones behaviour.
1 mark
e i The wind speed actually peaks at 256 km/h at 5 pm. Use this data and the wind speed at
1 pm to help to create a quadratic model relating wind speed (v) to hours after noon (t).
How well does this model match all the data provided?
2 marks
ii The wind speed actually returns to zero at 1 am the following morning, 12 hours later.
Discuss how well this result matches the quadratic model.
1 mark
f i Establish a second quadratic model that exactly matches the following data:
1 mark
Time
1 pm
5 pm
1 am

Wind speed
0 km/h
256 km/h
0 km/h

ii Evaluate how well this model represents the relationship between time and wind speed.
g It has been suggested that a cubic function would be a better model for the data. Use all

the data provided in order to establish a cubic model.

1 mark
2 marks

h The graph below shows how air pressure in hectopascals (P hPa) and wind speed (v km/h) relate

1
)
x2
could represent the shape of the relationship between speed and distance across the cyclone.
1020
1010
1000
990
980
970
960
950
0 km

diGiTal doC
doc-1608
Solutions
exam practice1

128

Eye

Pressure
Wind speed

175
150
125
100
75
50
25

Wind speed (km/h)

Pressure (hPa)

to distance (x) across a cyclone. It has been suggested that a truncus (general form v ( x )

500 km

i What is the equation to the vertical asymptote for this relationship?


ii Determine a rule for the relationship between speed (v) and distance (x).
iii Determine a rule for the relationship between air pressure (P) and distance (x).

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

1 mark
2 marks
2 marks

ChapTer 3

Exponential and
logarithmic equations
diGiTal doC
doc-9185
10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS
3a
3B
3C
3d
3e
3F
3G
3h
3i

The index laws


Logarithm laws
Exponential equations
Logarithmic equations using any base
Exponential equations (base e)
Equations with natural (base e) logarithms
Inverses
Literal equations
Exponential and logarithmic modelling

The index laws

3a

A number in index form has two parts, the base and the index, power, exponent or logarithm. A number
in index form is represented like this:
Index, power, exponent or logarithm

ax
Base

The index laws are summarised below.


ax ay = ax + y
ax ay = ax y
(ax)y

axy

a0 = 1 (a 0)
x
1
a = x (a 0)
a

1
ax

(ab)x

a = ax =

(y a )

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

= x a (x 0)

x
y

Units: 3 & 4

(y 0)

axbx

ax
aa
= x , b 0
b
b

Worked example 1

Simplify

(2 x 2 y3 )3 3( xy4 ) 2
.
6 x 4 2 xy4

Think
1

Remove the brackets by multiplying the indices.

Add the indices of x and add the indices of y.


Simplify 23 to 8 and multiply the whole numbers.

Subtract the indices of x and y. Divide 24 by 12.

WriTe

(2 x 2 y3 )3 3( xy 4 )2 23 x 6 y9 3 x 2 y8
=
6 x 4 2 xxyy 4
12 x 5 y 4
24 x 8 y17
=
12 x 5 y 4
= 2x3y13

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

129

For negative indices and fractional or decimal indices, the same rules apply.
Worked example 2

Write in simplest form:


2

a 64

0.4

b 32

c 125

3.

Think

WriTe
x
y

a 1 Rewrite using the index law a =

ax

a 64

2
3

= 3 64 2

y
Rewrite using a x = ( a ) x .

= ( 3 664)2

Simplify by taking the cube root of 64.

= 42

Square 4.

= 16
0.4

b 1 Write as a fraction with a positive index.

Change 0.4 to

b 32

4
.
10

Simplify the fractional index.

=
x

1
320.4
1
4

3210
1
2

32 5

Rewrite using the index law a y = a x .

1
( 5 332)2

Simplify by taking the 5th root of 32.

1
22

Square 2.

1
4

c 1 Write 125

as a fraction with a position index.

c 125

125 3
=

1
( 125)2

Simplify by taking the cube root of 125.

1
(5)2

Simplify by squaring the denominator.

1
25

1
25

Rewrite using the index law

a x = ( y a ) x.

Write the answer.

125

Worked example 3

Simplify, leaving your answer with positive indices:

a a 2 b4 ( a 3 b 4 )

130

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

12 1 1
a b
b 1 2 .
3 b

Think

WriTe

a 1 Remove the brackets by multiplying the indices.

a a 2b4 (a3b 4)

Add the indices of a and of b.

= a 5b8

Place a5 in the denominator with a positive index.

b 1 Remove the outer index of 1 by inverting the

fraction.

= a 2b4 a 3b4

1 1
2
b a b
31 b 2

b8
a5

3 1 b2
1

a2b

Change 3 1 to 1 and change b 1 to b and place on


3
the numerator.

Simplify the numerator.

b 2b1
1

3a 2
b3
1

3a 2
4

1 1
a 2 b
31 b 2

Write the answer.

b3
1

3a 2

If the expression contains different numbers that do not have the same base, write each number as
a product of prime factors.
Worked example 4

Simplify

3 n 6 n + 1 12 n 1
, showing working.
32n 8n

Think

WriTe

3n 6n + 1 12n 1
32 n 8 n
3n (3
(3 22))n + 1 (2
(22 33))n 1
=
2
n
3
3 ((22 )n

Write each number as the product of prime factors.

Remove the brackets.

3n 3n + 1 2 n + 1 2 2 n 2 3n 1
32 n 2 3 n

In the numerator, add the indices of numbers


with base 3 and add indices of numbers with
base 2.

33n 23n 1
32 n 2 3 n

Subtract the indices of terms with the same base.

= 3n 2

Write the term with a negative index in the


denominator with a positive index.

= 3n

Simplify.

1
2

3n
2

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

131

Worked example 5

Simplify, leaving your answer with positive indices.


3
3
1

+
a x 2 2
b 1
x
x +2 x 12
Think

WriTe

a 1 Rewrite the expression with positive indices.

ax

x 2
1
= 2 3x 2
x

Find the lowest common denominator x2.

Simplify.

2
1
2 x

3
x
x2
x2

1 3x 4

x2 x2
1 3x 4
=
x2

b 1 Rewrite the question using positive indices.

3
1
+
1
1
+ 2 2
x x
3
x
+
1 + 2x 1 2x
x x

Find the common denominator for the terms


in the brackets and simplify.

Follow the process for division of fractions


(change the division sign to a multiplication
sign and invert the second fraction).

3x
x
+
1 + 2x 1 2x

Find the common denominator.

3 x (1 2 x)
x ) + x (1
(1 + 2 xx)
(1 + 2 x )(1 2 xx)

Expand the brackets on the numerator.

3x 6 x 2 + x + 2 x 2
(1 + 2 x )(1 2 xx)

Simplify the numerator by adding like terms.

4x 4x2
(1 + 2 x )(1 2 xx)

Factorise the numerator and write the answer.

4 x (1 x )
(1 + 2 x )(1 2 xx)

exercise 3a
1 We1

The index laws

Simplify:

a x3 x4
e

b x7 x2

( x 2 )3 x 5
( x 5 )2

2 We2

132

TUTorial
eles-1202
Worked example 5

2
27 3

c (x2)5

5x 2 y4 4 x 5 y
22 x 3 y 2

d (x 3)2

2 3
4 2
g (2 xy ) 5( x y)

4 x 5 y3 3 x 2 y3

Simplify:
3

b 25

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

c 810.25

27 3
d
64

243
e
32

3
5

3 Simplify:

x4 x5
a
x3

256
e
81

9 2
d
49

361.5

3
4

Simplify, leaving your answer with positive indices.

4 We3
a

3
16 4

3x 3y2

(x2y)

1
c x 2 y 2

3
2

b
5

3 2
9 x 2 y 2

1 2
2x 2 y 3

3 2
a2b c
d 1

3a 2 bc 2

1 1 2
9 x 5 y 2

2 3
a3b
3 1 2
a c

5 Simplify:
a

x4y 1

1
16 2

(x 2y3) 1

2 1
x 5 y 4

1
2

b
1

1 3
5x 3 y 4

1 2 1
83 x 3 y 2

3 3
a 2b4
d
ab 2

2 1 2
4 x 5 y 2

9a 3b 2
2 3
4a b

6 We4 Simplify:
a 2n 4n + 1 8n 1

b 3n 9n 1 27n + 1

c 2n 3n + 1 9 n

32 2

7 Simplify:
a 2n 1 3n 6n + 1

16

3
92

52 3

125 9

27
5

8 We5 Simplify, writing your answer as a single fraction with positive indices.
a

x 1+

b (x

x
1
1
c
+

x 1 +1 x 1 1
x

9 mC 3
a 1

+ 3x is equal to:
1 + 32 x
B
3x

+ x 2)2
1

d 2x(x2 y2)

C 3

x2

(x y)

d 6

1 + 3x
3x

logarithm laws

3B

If a > 0, then N = ax loga (N) = x.


For example, an expression in index form can also be rewritten in logarithmic form.
8 = 23 log2 (8) = 3

Since 0 then loga (0) is undefined.


a0 = 1 loga (1) = 0
a1 = a loga (a) = 1
Let m = ax loga (m) = x and n = ay loga (n) = y.
mn = ax ay loga (mn) = x + y
= ax + y
= loga (m) + loga (n)
x
m

m a
= xy
loga

=
n
n ay
= ax y
= loga (m) loga (n)
p
m = (ax)p loga (mp) = px
= axp
= p loga (m)
ax

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

133

Change-of-base rule
Suppose b = ax, then loga (b) = x.
Consider N = b y, then logb (N) = y.
But N = b y = (ax) y = ax y.
Therefore, loga (N) = xy
= loga (b) logb (N).
Thus, logb ( N ) =

loga ( N )
.
loga (b)

This is called the change-of-base rule.


Worked example 6

Evaluate:
a log2 (1)

b log5 (5).

Think

WriTe

a Log of 1 to any base is equal to zero:

a log2 (1) = 0

b If the number and base are equal the answer is 1:

b log5 (5) = 1

loga (1) = 0.
loga (a) = 1.

Worked example 7

Write in index form:


a log2 (8) = 3

b logx (81) = 4.

Think

WriTe

a Use ax = y loga (y) = x.

a log2 (8) = 3 23 = 8

b Use ax = y loga (y) = x.

b logx (81) = 4 x4 = 81

Worked example 8

Simplify:
a log10 (5) + log10 (2)
c log2 (16)

b log4 (20) log4 (5)


d log 5

(5 x ) .

Think

WriTe

a 1 Rewrite using loga (mn) = loga (m) + loga n.


2

Simplify.

= log10 (10)

Simplify using loga (a) = 1.

=1

b 1 Rewrite using loga

m = log (m) log (n).


a
a
n

20
5

b log4 (20) log4 (5) = log4

Simplify.

= log4 (4)

Simplify using loga (a) = 1.

=1

c 1 Rewrite 16 as a number with base 2.

134

a log10 (5) + log10 (2) = log10 (5 2)

c log2 (16) = log2 (24)

Rewrite using loga (m p) = p loga (m).

= 4 log2 (2)

Simplify using loga (a) = 1.

=4

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

d 1 Rewrite using

a=

1
a y.

g5
d log

(5 x ) = log5 x 5
1

Rewrite using loga (mp) = p loga (m).

= 5 log5 ( x )

Worked example 9

Simplify log3 (27) + log3 (9) log3 (81).


Think

WriTe

Simplify log3 (27) using loga (mp) = ploga (m).

log3 (27) = log3 (33)


= 3log3 (3)

Note that log3 (3) = 1.

log3 (27) = 3

Simplify log3 (9).

log3 (9) = log3 (32)


= 2log3 (3)
=2

Simplify log3 (81).

log3 (81) = log3 (34)


= 4log3 (3)
=4

Write the answer.

log3 (27) + log3 (9) log3 (81)


=3+24
=1

Worked example 10

Simplify:
a 2 + log10 (3)

b 3 log3 (6) 3 log3 (18)

Think

a 1 Write 2 as 2 log10 (10) because log10 (10) = 1.

log 3 (9)
.
log 3 (27)

WriTe

TUTorial
eles-1179
Worked example 10

a 2 + log10 (3) = 2 log10 (10) + log10 (3)

Rewrite using loga (m p) = p loga (m).

= log10 (102) + log10 (3)

Rewrite using loga (mn) = loga (m) + loga (n).

= log10 (102 3)

Write 102 as 100.

= log10 (100 3)

Multiply the numbers in the brackets.

= log10 (300)

b 1 Rewrite using loga (m p) = p loga (m).

b 3 log3 (6) 3 log3 (18) = log3 (63) log3 (183)

Rewrite using
m
loga = loga (m) loga (n).
n

Write 63 as 6 6 6 and 183 as 18 18 18.

666
= log3
18 18 18

Simplify.

1
= log3 3
3

Write the numbers with the base 3.

= log3 (3 3)

Rewrite using loga (mp) = p loga (m).

= 3 log3 (3)

Simplify using loga a = 1.

= 3 1 = 3

63
= log3 3
18

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

135

g3 ((9) logg3 ((332 )


c log
=
3

c 1 Write the numbers with the same base. It is

logg3 ((27)

not possible to cancel the 9 and the 27 because


they cannot be separated from the log.

logg3 ((33 )

Rewrite using loga (m p) = p loga (m).

2 log3 (3)
3log3 (3)

Cancel the logs because they are the same.

2
3

Worked example 11

Calculate the value of log2 (18), correct to 2 decimal places.


Think

WriTe

Calculators can compare log10 or loge (to be


covered later in the chapter) only, so we need
to change the base using the rule:
logb ( N )
loga ( N ) =
logb (a)

Use a calculator to find log10 (18), log10 (2).

Write the answer.

exercise 3B

log2 (18) =

1.2553
0.3010
= 4.170 (to 3 decimal places)

log2(18) = 4.170 (to 3 decimal places)

logarithm laws

1 We6
Evaluate the following.
a log3 (1)
b log5 (1)

c log2 (2)

2 We7
Write the following in index form.
a log2 (16) = 4
b logx (25) = 2
d log3 (x) = 5
3

log10 (18)
log10 (2)

log5 1
5

c log5 (125) = x

Write the following in logarithmic form.


b 34 = 81

d 5x = 125
e 2 1 = 12
a 23 = 8

4 We8
Simplify:
a log6 (3) + log6 (2)

c 43 = x
f

b log2 (10) log2 (5)

d log3 (81)

d log6 (6)

log5 1
5

x3 = 27

c log2 (32)
f

log3 1
27

Simplify:

6 We9 Simplify:
a log4 (10) + log4 (2) log4 (5)
c

1
2

x4

y2

b 3log3 ( 3 x )

a log
g2 ( x )

c log2

b log5 (25) + log5 (125) log5 (625)

log10 (16) + log10 (5 )

d log3 (2) log3 (10) + log3 (15)

e log2 (16) + log2 (8) + log2 (4)


7 We10
Simplify:
a 4 log2 (12) 4 log2 (6)

log2 (64)
d
log2 (8)

136

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

b 2 + log5 (10) log5 (2)


e

loga ( x )
loga ( x )

c 1 + log2 (5)

8 We11 Evaluate correct to 3 decimal places.


a log10 (3)
b log5 (4)
d log2 (0.8)
e log4 (20)
9
a
c
e
g

c log10 (0.5)
f log3 (60)

Simplify:
5 log3 (x) + log3 (x2) log3 (x7)
3 log4 (x) 5 log4 (x) + 2 log4 (x)
log10 (x2) + 3 log10 (x) 2 log10 (x)
log5 (x + 1) + log5 (x + 1)2

b
d
f
h

4 log2 (x) + log2 (x3) log2 (x6)


4 log6 (x) 5 log6 (x) + log6 (x)
4 log10 (x) log10 (x) + log10 (x2)
log4 (x 2)3 2 log4 (x 2)

10 mC 2 log10 (5) log10 (20) + log10 (8) is equal to:


a log10 (2)
C 1
B log10 (2)

11 mC If loga (b) = 2, then b is equal to:


a 0
B 1

d a

C 2

e log10 (4)
e a2

12 If y = a log10 (x), find x when a = 2 and y = 3. Give your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

3C

exponential equations

The equation ax = b is an example of a general exponential (or indicial) equation and 2x = 32 is an


example of a more specific exponential equation.
To solve one of these equations it is necessary to write both sides of the equation with the same base if
the unknown is an index or with the same index if the unknown is the base.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Worked example 12

Solve for x in each of the following.


1
a 2x = 32
b 3x =
27

c 2 3x =

Think

WriTe

a 1 Write 32 with base 2, the same as the

left-hand side.
2

d 2(1 x) = 16

162

The indices are equal because the base is


2 on each side of the equation.

b 1 Write 27 with base 3.

1
as a number with base 3.
33

Write

Equate the indices.

c 1 Divide both sides by 2 to leave 3x on the

left-hand side.
2

Write 81 as a number with base 3.

Equate the indices.

d 1 Write 16 with base 2.


2

Equate the indices.

Solve for x.

a 2x = 32

2x = 25
x=5

1
27
1
= 3
3

b 3x =

3x = 3

x = 3
c 2 3 x = 162

3x = 81

3x = 34
x=4
d 21 x = 16

21 x = 24

1x=4
x = 3

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

137

Worked example 13

Solve 5x 252x 3 = 625 for x using index laws.


Think
1

Write all numbers with the same base.

WriTe

5x 252x 3 = 625
5x (52)2x 3 = 54
5x 52(2x 3) = 54

Simplify.

Remove the brackets in the index.

Add the indices on the left-hand side.

55x 6 = 54

Equate the indices.

5x 6 = 4

Solve the equation.

5x 54x 6 = 54

5x = 10
x=2

Sometimes it is possible to use the methods for solving quadratic equations to help solve indicial
equations. Remember that 22x = (2x)2.
Worked example 14

Solve for x in the following.

a (2x 16)(2x + 4) = 0
b 32x 12 3x + 27 = 0
c 4x 2x + 3 + 16 = 0

TUTorial
eles-1180
Worked example 14

Think

a 1 Use the Null Factor Law to solve by making

each bracket equal to zero.

a (2x 16)(2x + 4) = 0

(2x 16) = 0 or (2x + 4) = 0

Solve each equation.

2x = 16 or 2x = 4

Write 16 as a number with base 2 but 4 can


not be written with base 2.

2x = 24 or no real solution

Solve by equating the indices.

b 1 Write 32x as (3x)2.

x=4
b 32x 12 3x + 27 = 0

(3x)2 12 3x + 27 = 0

Let 3x = a to make a simpler quadratic


equation to solve.

a2 12a + 27 = 0, where a = 3x

Factorise.

(a 3)(a 9) = 0

Use the Null Factor Law by making each


bracket equal to zero.

a 3 = 0, a 9 = 0

Solve for a.

Substitute back a = 3x.

3x = 3, 3x = 9

Write numbers with base 3.

3x = 31, 3x = 32

Equate the indices.

c 1 Rewrite 4x as (2x)2 and 2x + 3 as 2x 23.


2

138

WriTe

Rewrite 23 as 8.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

a = 3, a = 9

x = 1, x = 2
c

4x 2x + 3 + 16 = 0
(2x)2 2x 23 + 16 = 0
(2x)2 2x 8 + 16 = 0

Let 2x = a to make a simpler quadratic


equation to solve.

Replace a 8 with 8a because the coefficient


precedes the pronumeral.

Factorise.

Use the Null Factor Law (only one solution).

Solve for a.

a=4

Substitute back a = 2x.

2x = 4

Write 4 as a number with base 2.

10

Solve by equating the indices.

a2 a 8 + 16 = 0 where a = 2x
a2 8a + 16 = 0
(a 4)(a 4) = 0
a4=0

= 22
x=2

Remember to always make the right-hand side equal to zero when solving quadratic equations.
It is a good idea to substitute your answer back into the original equation to check the accuracy of
your work.
If the base is not the same and the numbers cannot be written with the same base, then logarithms
can be used. It is possible to take the logarithm of both sides of an equation provided the same base
is used.
Worked example 15

Solve for x in the following. Give your answers in exact form using base 10 and correct to
3 decimal places.
a 5x = 10
b 2(x + 1) = 12
Think

a 1 Take the logarithm of both sides to base 10.

WriTe

5x = 10
log10 (5x) = log10 (10)

Use loga (mp) = p loga (m) and loga (a) = 1.

x log10 (5) = 1

Divide both sides by log10 (5).

x=

Use a calculator to simplify.

x 1.431, correct to 3 decimal places.

b 1 Take the logarithm of both sides to base 10.


2

Use loga (mp) = p loga (m) to simplify.

Divide both sides by log10 (2).

Use a calculator to simplify the right-hand side.

Solve for x.

1
log10 (5)

(exact form)

2(x + 1) = 12
log10 (2(x + 1)) = log10 (12)
(x + 1) log10 (2) = log10 (12)
( x + 1) =
x=

log10 (12)
log10 (2)

log10 (12)
1 (exact form)
log10 (2)

x 2.585, correct to 3 decimal places.

Note: Logarithms in bases other than 10 may be used.


Inequalities are worked in exactly the same way except that there is a change of sign when dividing or
multiplying both sides of the inequality by a negative number.
ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

139

Worked example 16

Solve the following equations for x, giving your answers both in exact form and correct
to 3 decimal places.
a 2x > 5
b 0.5x 1.4
Think

WriTe

a 1 Write the inequality as an equation

(replace > with =).

a 2x = 5

Take the logarithm of both sides using base 10.

log10 (2x) = log10 (5)

Rearrange using loga (mp) = ploga (m).

xlog10 (2) = log10 (5)

Divide both sides by log10 (2).

x=

log10 (5)
log10 (2)
(exact form)

Simplify using a calculator.

x = 2.322 (3 decimal places)

Write answers as an ineqautions.

x>

log10 (5)
log10 (2)
> 2.322 (3 decimal places)

b 1 Write the ineqaulity as an equation

(replace with =).

Take the logarithm of both sides using


base 10.

log10 (0.5x) = log10 (1.4)

Rearrange using loga (m p) = plog10 (m).

xlog10 (0.5) = log10 (1.4)

Divide both sides by log10 (0.5).

x=

Simplify using a calculator.

x = 0.485

Write answers as an inequality.


Note: log10 (0.5) is a negative number,
so change the sign of the inequality.

exercise 3C

0.485

(3 decimal places)

1
2x

= 32

e 243x = 3

1
49

Solve for x in each of the following.

a 3 2x = 48
1

140

log10 (1.4)
log10 (0.5)

b 10x = 1000

c 52x 1 = 125

diGiTal doC
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SkillSHEET 3.2
Solving equations

(3 decimal places)

exponential equations

a 3x = 81
d 7x =

log10 (1.4)
log10 (0.5)

Solve for x in each of the following.

1 We12
diGiTal doC
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SkillSHEET 3.1
index form

b 0.5x = 1.4

3 We13
Solve for x in each of the following.
a 3x 3x 1 = 243
c 2x 4x 1 = 16

b 6x 2 = 216
d 22x 6 = 1
b 5x 52x + 1 = 625
d

33 x + 1
= 81
9x 2

4 We14
Solve for x in the following.
a (3x 9)(3x 1) = 0
b 22x 6 2x + 8 = 0
x
x
d 4 6 2 16 = 0
e 9x = 2 3x + 3

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

c 62x 7 6x + 6 = 0

5 Solve for x in the following.


a 25x + 4 5x 5 = 0

b 42x 20 4x = 64

6 We15 Solve for x correct to 3 decimal places.


a 2x = 5
b (0.3)x 1 = 10
x
d 3 5 = 27
e 5 7x = 1

c (1.4)2 x = 6
f 2x 3x + 1 = 10

7 We16 Solve for x correct to 3 decimal places.


a 3x > 5
b 22x 7
x
d 7 0.5
e (0.4)x > 0.2

c (0.2)x > 3

diGiTal doC
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SkillSHEET 3.3
Solving
indicial equations
by equating
the bases

8 mC The value of x for which 5 2x = 1255, correct to 3 decimal places, is:


a 7.971
B 897.750
C 897.749
d 7.972
e 2.059
9 mC The solution to the equation 102x = 3 10x + 4 is:
a log10 (1), log10 (4)
B 1, 4
d 0, 0.602
e log10 (4)

C 10x + 1, 10x 1

diGiTal doC
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SkillSHEET 3.4
Solving liner
inequations

logarithmic equations using


any base
3d

The equation loga (y) = x is an example of a general logarithmic equation. Laws of logarithms and
indices are used to solve these equations.
Worked example 17

Solve for x in the following equations.


a log2 (x) = 3
b log3 (x4) = 16
c log5 (x 1) = 2
Think

a 1 Rewrite using ax = y loga (y) = x.


2

Rearrange and simplify.

b 1 Rewrite using loga (m p) = p loga (m).


2

Divide both sides by 4.

Rewrite using ax = y loga (y) = x.

Rearrange and simplify.

c 1 Rewrite using ax = y loga (y) = x.


2

Solve for x.

WriTe

a log2 (x) = 3

23 = x

x=8
b log3 (x4) = 16

4 log3 (x) = 16
log3 (x) = 4

3 4=x
1
34
1
=
81

x=

c log5 (x 1) = 2

52 = x 1

x 1 = 25
x = 26

The base of a logarithmic function and the base of an exponential function must be a positive real
number other than 1. In the expression loga (x), a R+\{1}.
ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

141

Worked example 18

Solve for x in each of the following:


a logx (4) =

125

b log x

= 3.

Think

TUTorial
eles-1203
Worked example 18

WriTe

a 1 Rewrite using ax = y loga (y) = x.

logx (4) = 2
x2 = 4

Solve the quadratic equation.

x2 4 = 0
(x 2)(x + 2) = 0
x 2 = 0 or x + 2 = 0
x=2

Check to see if solutions are valid.

x = 2 is the only solution.

This is the only solution. The solution x = 2 is not valid because the base of a logarithmic function must
be a positive real number other than 1.
b log x

b 1 Rewrite using: ax = y loga (y) = x.

125

= 3

1
= 125

x
2

Rewrite the LHS using a positive index.

1
= 1
x 3 125

Equate the denominators.

x3 = 125

Take the cube root of both sides.

x = 3 125 = 5

State the answer.

log5

125

= 3

Worked example 19

Solve for x in the following.


a log2 (16) = x

b log 3

=x

c log9 (3) = x

Think

WriTe

a 1 Rewrite using ax = y loga (y) = x.


2

Write 16 with base 2.

Equate the indices.

b 1 Rewrite using ax = y loga (y) = x.

a log2 (16) = x

2x = 16

2x = 24
x=4
b

log3 1
3

=x

3x =
1

Write 3 with base 3.

Equate the indices.

c 1 Rewrite using ax = y loga (y) = x.


2

142

Write 9 with base 3.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
3
1

3x = 3

x = 1
c log9 (3) = x

9x = 3

(32)x = 3

Remove the brackets.

32x = 31

Equate the indices.

2x = 1

Solve.

x=

1
2

Worked example 20

Solve for x in the following.


a log2 (4) + log2 (x) log2 (8) =

b log10 (x) + log10 (x 3) = log10 (4)

Think

WriTe

a 1 Simplify the left-hand side.

Use loga (mn) = loga (m) + loga (n) and


m
loga = loga (m) loga (n).
n

Rewrite using ax = y loga (y) = x.

Solve.

a log2 (4) + log2 (x) log2 (8) = 3

4 x
=3
log2
8
x
log2 = 3
2
23 =

x
2

x = 2 23
=28
= 16

b 1 Simplify the left-hand side by using

loga (mn) = loga (m) + loga (n).

b log10 (x) + log10 (x 3) = log10 (4)

log10x (x 3) = log10 (4)


x(x 3) = 4

Equate the logs.

Expand.

Solve the quadratic equation.

x2 3x 4 = 0
(x 4)(x + 1) = 0
x = 4 or x = 1

x > 0, x 3 > 0 because it is not possible to


take the logarithm of a negative number, x > 3.

x = 4 is the only solution.

x2 3x = 4

logarithmic equations using any base

exercise 3d

1 We17 Solve for x in the following.


a i log5 (x) = 2
iii log10 (x2) = 4
v log4 (2x 3) = 0
vii log5 (1 x) = 4
b i log (x) = 4
3
iii log2 (x3) = 12
v log10 (2x + 1) = 0
vii log10 (5 2x) = 1

ii log2 (x) = 3
iv log3 (x + 1) = 3
vi log2 (x) = 5
ii log4 (x) = 2
iv log5 (x 2) = 3
vi log3 (x) = 2

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WorkSHEET 3.1

2 We18 Solve for x in the following.


a

i logx (9) = 2

8

g x ((25) =
ii log

2
3

iii log
g x 1 = 3

iv logx (62) = 2

i logx (16) = 4

ii logx (125) =

iv logx (43) = 3

g x 1 = 2
iii log
64

3
4

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

143

3 We19 Solve for x in the following.


a

i log2 (8) = x

ii log5 1 = x

iii log4 (2) = x


v log
g 1 ((2) = x

iv log6 (1) = x

16

1
ii log4 = x

b i log3 (9) = x
iii log8 (2) = x

iv log8 (1) = x

v log 1 (9) = x
3

4 We20 Solve for x in the following.


a i log2 (x) + log2 (4) = log2 (20)
iii log3 (x) log3 (2) = log3 (5)
v log4 (8) log4 (x) = log4 (2)
b i log3 (10) log3 (x) = log3 (5)
iii log2 (x) + log2 (5) = 1
v 5 log4 (8) = log4 (x)
5 Solve for x in the following.
a i log2 (x) + log2 (6) log2 (3) = log2 (10)
iii log3 (5) log3 (x) + log3 (2) = log3 (10)
v log5 (x) + log5 (x 2) = log5 (3)
b i log3 (x) + log3 (x + 2) = log3 (8)
iii log5 (x) + log5 (x + 20) = 3
v log6 (x 2) + log6 (x + 3) = 1

ii log5 (3) + log5 (x) = log5 (18)


iv log10 (x) log10 (4) = log10 (2)
ii log6 (4) + log6 (x) = 2
iv 3 log10 (x) = log10 (2)

ii log2 (x) + log2 (5) log2 (10) = log2 (3)


iv log5 (4) log5 (x)+ log5 (3) = log5 (6)
ii log4 (x) + log4 (x 6) = 2
iv log5 (x + 1) + log5 (x 3) = 1

6 mC If loga (x) = 0.7, then loga (x2) is equal to:


a 0.49
B 1.4
d 0.837
e 0

C 0.35

7 mC If log10 (x) = (a), then (log10 x)2 + log10 (x) 6 becomes:


a (log10 (a))2 + log10 (a) 6
B a2 + a + 6
e log10 (106x3)
d (a 2)(a + 3)

C log10 (x3) 6

8 Solve for x in the following.


a (log10 (x))2 + log10 (x) 2 = 0 (Hint: Let a = log10 (x).)

b (log10 x)2 2 log10 (x) 3 = 0

c (log2 (x))2 2 log2 (x) = 8

d (log2 (x))2 + 3 log2 (x) = 4

log3
+3=0
4
2
g log2 (x ) = (log2 (x))
i log10 (x2 + 2x 5) = 1

e (log3

9 If

(x))2

(x4)

(log5 (x))2 log5 (x3) + 2 = 0


h log3 (x3) = (log3 (x))2
j log3 (x2 3x 7) = 1

log10 ( x )
= 4, find x.
log10 (2)

3e

exponential equations (base e)

Eulers number e, named after an 18th century Swiss mathematician, is a very important number used in
problems involving natural growth and natural decay. Like , it is irrational and has to be approximated:
e = 2.718 281 828 459 . . . The number e can be used to find the value of an investment after a period of
time, or the temperature of a liquid after it has been cooling.
1 n
To find the value of e, take the expression 1 + and evaluate it for increasing values of n.
n
n
1
+ 1 = + 1 =
n=1
1 2
1
n
1

144

n=2

+ 1 = + 1 =
2.25
1
1
n
2

n=3

+ 1 = + 1 =
2.370 37
1
1
n
3

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

n=5

n
5
+ 1 = + 1 =
2.488 32
1
1
n
5

n = 10

+ 1 = + 1

1
1
n
10

n = 100

n
100
1 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2.704 81

n
100

n = 1000

n
1000
1 + 1 = 1 + 1
= 2.716 92

n
1000

10

= 2.593 74

10 000

1 n
1
n = 10 000 1 + = 1 +
= 2.718 15

n
10 000
1 n
As n increases, 1 + becomes closer and closer to 2.718 281 or e, or
n
1 n
e = lim 1 + .
n
n

An answer given in terms of e is an exact answer.


The laws of indices apply in the same way if e is the base, that is:
ex ey = ex + y
ex ey = ex y
(ex)y = exy
e0 = 1
1

e x= x
e
x

e y = ex
Worked example 21

Solve for x in e3x = e.


Think

WriTe

Write the equation.

e3x = e

Write e with a power of 1.

e3x = e1

Equate the indices.

3x = 1

Solve for x.

x=

1
3

CAS calculators have an ex function, which is treated in the same way as any other number.
Worked example 22

Solve for x, showing working. Express your answers in exact form and correct to 3 decimal places.
a ex = 3
b ex 3ex = 2
Think

a 1 Write the equation.


2

As loge (e) = 1, take loge of both sides


of the equation.

Rewrite using loga (x p) = p loga (x).

Solve for x.

WriTe

ex = 3
loge (ex) = loge (3)
x loge (e) = loge (3)
x = loge (3)
1.099, correct to 3 decimal places.
ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

145

b ex 3e

b 1 Write the equation.

1
.
ex

ex

=2

3
=2
ex

Write e x as

Multiply every term by ex.

(ex)2 3 = 2ex

Make the right-hand side equal to zero.

(ex)2 2ex 3 = 0

Let ex = a.

a2 2a 3 = 0 where a = ex

Factorise and solve for a.

(a 3)(a + 1) = 0
a 3 = 0 or a + 1 = 0
a = 3 or a = 1

Substitute ex for a.

ex = 3 or ex = 1

Solve for x by taking the log of both


sides to base e.

loge (ex) = loge (3)

ex = 3 is the only solution because


ex = 1 has no real solution.

x 1.099, correct to 3 decimal places.

exercise 3e

exponential equations (base e )

1 Evaluate the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.


1

a e2
f

b e4
g ln (4)

c e2
h ln (5)

d e3
i loge (1.5)

Solve for x in each of the following.


b ex = e2
c ex 2 = e4
1
1

e e x +1 =
f ex 2 = 2
g e3 x + 6 = e
e
e

2 We21
a ex = e

e 4e
j loge (3.6)
1

d e2x = e

h e2 x 1 =

e3

3 We22 Solve for x in each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.
a ex = 2

b ex = 5

e ex = 1.3

ex = 2.6

c ex =

1
2

g 2ex = 6

d ex =

1
4

h 3ex = 12

4 Solve for x in each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

a (ex 1)(ex + 2) = 0
b (e x 2)(e2x 3) = 0
c (3e x 2)(2ex 1) = 0
d (ex)2 ex = 0
e (ex)2 e ex = 0
f (ex)2 7ex + 10 = 0
g 6 11ex + 3e2x = 0
h 18 23ex + 7e2x = 0
5 Solve for x in each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

a ex 4e x = 0
b ex 15e x 2 = 0
c 5ex 12e x 11 = 0
x
x
x
x
x
x
d 3e + 6e 11 = 0
e 4e + 6e 11 = 0
f e + 2e = 3
6 Solve for x in each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.
a ex > 1
b ex < e
c ex < 2
d e2x 4
e ex + 1 6
f e1 x 10
x
g e > 0.75

7 If y = Ae kt, and y = 19.6 when t = 2, and y = 19.02 when t = 5, find the

value of the constants A and k. Give your answers correct to 2 decimal


places.
8 For a body that has a higher temperature than its surroundings,

Newtons Law of Cooling is given by the formula = 0e kt,


where is the difference between the temperature of the body and
its surroundings after t minutes and 0 is the difference between
the original temperature of the body and its surroundings. If the
temperature of a freshly poured cup of coffee is 90 C in a room with a constant temperature of 18 C,
and it cools to 65 C after 10 minutes, find the value of k. Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.

146

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

equations with natural (base e)


logarithms
3F

CAS calculators have an LN function that can be used to find the log to base e in the same way that the
LOG key is used to find the log of a number to base 10. CAS calculators default to base 10 when using
the LOG key.
In general, aloga(x) = x, where a R+\{1}.
The laws of logarithms apply in the same way for base e as they do for base 10.
ex = y loge (y) = x.
Worked example 23

Solve for x, giving your answer both in exact form and correct to 3 decimal places, given that
loge (x) = 3.
Think

WriTe

Rewrite using ex = y loge (y) = x.

loge (x) = 3
e3 = x

Write the answer in exact form.

x = e3

Use a calculator to obtain the answer correct to


3 decimal places. Enter 3 then press the ex key
(or equivalent).

loge 3 = 20.085 536


= 20.086, correct
to 3 decimal places

Worked example 24

Solve for x giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places where appropriate.
a loge (3) = loge (x)
b loge (x) + loge (3) = loge (6)
Think

WriTe

a Since the base is the same, equate the numbers.

a loge (3) = loge (x)

b 1 Rewrite using loge (mn) = loge (m) + loge (n).

b loge (x) + loge (3) = loge (6)

Equate the number parts.

Solve for x.

x=3

loge (3x) = loge (6)


3x = 6
x=2

equations with natural (base e)


logarithms
exercise 3F

1 We23 Solve for x in each of the following giving, exact answers.


a loge (x) = 1
b loge (x) = 2
c loge (x) = 2

d loge (x) = 1

2 Solve for x, giving exact answers when appropriate, otherwise, correct to 3 decimal places.
a ln (2x) = 2
b ln (3x) = 1
c ln (x3) = 3
2
2
d ln (x ) = 2
e ln (x ) = 0.4
f ln (x3) = 0.9

g ln (x 1) = 1
h ln (2x + 1) = 2
3 We24 Solve for x, giving exact answers when appropriate, otherwise, correct to 3 decimal places.
a loge (x) = loge (2)
b loge (x) = loge (5)
c loge (x) + loge (3) = loge (9)

d loge (x) + loge (2) = loge (8)

e loge (x) loge (5) = loge (2)

1 + loge (x) = loge (6)


ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

147

4 Solve for x, giving exact answers.


a loge (x) + loge (5) loge (10) = loge (3)
c 3 loge (2) + loge (x) loge (4) = loge (5)
e loge (x) + loge (x + 1) = loge (2)

b 2 loge (3) + loge (x) loge (2) = loge (3)


d loge (4) + loge (3) loge (x) = loge (2)
f ln (x + 1) + ln (2x 1) = ln (5)

5 mC If ln (y) = ln (x) + ln (a), then an equation relating x and y that does not involve logarithms is:
a y=x+a

B y = ax

C y=xa

d y=

6 mC In the equation 2 loge (x) loge (3x) = a, x =


a 3ea
C 3a
B a

x
a

d loge (6a)

y=

a
x

e no solution

7 Write the following equation without logarithms and with y as the subject.

2 loge (x) + 1 = loge (y)


8 If loge (x) = a and y =

ea,

express y in terms of x.

9 Solve for x the equation eln (x) = 2.


10 Five grams of a radioactive substance is decaying so

that the amount, A grams, that is left after t days, is

given by the formula A = 5e kt.


a Find the value of A when the number of grams
of the radioactive substance has been halved.
b Rewrite the equation with the new value of A.
c Rearrange the equation so that t is the subject
of the equation.
d If k = 0.005, find how long it will take for the
number of grams of the radioactive substance
to be halved. Give your answer correct to the
nearest day.

diGiTal doC
doc-9187
WorkSHEET 3.2

3G
inTeraCTiViTY
int-0248
inverses

inverses

Inverse operations are opposite operations. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations to each other
and multiplication and division are inverse operations to each other.
Squaring and taking the square root are also inverse operations. The equation of the inverse of the
function y = e x can be found by interchanging the x and y so that y = e x becomes x = e y. Using a x = y
loga (y) = x, x = e y becomes loge (x) = y or y = loge (x). Therefore y = e x and y = loge (x) are the equations
of inverse functions.
Thus two important properties follow:
aloga(x) = x, x R+

and

loga a(x) = x, x R.

Worked example 25

Calculate the inverse of y = 3ex + 1.


Think

148

Interchange x and y to write the inverse


equation.

Divide both sides by 3.

In order to make y the subject, begin by


rewriting the equation using
ax = y loga (y) = x.

Make y the subject.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WriTe

y = 3ex + 1
Inverse is x = 3ey + 1
x
ey + 1 =
3
x
y + 1 = loge
3
x
y = loge 1
3

Worked example 26

Calculate the inverse of f(x) = 2 log10 (x 1) + 1.


Think

WriTe

Interchange x and y to write the inverse equation.

Let y = 2 log10 (x 1) + 1
Inverse is x = 2 log10 (y 1) + 1

In order to make y the subject, begin by


subtracting 1 from both sides.

x 1 = 2 log10 (y 1)

Divide both sides by 2.

x 1
= log
log10 ( y 1)
2

Rewrite using ax = y loga (y) = x.

10

Add 1 to both sides.

y = 10

Write the answer.

exercise 3G

x 1
2

= y 1
x 1
2

+1

( x ) = 10

x 1
2

+1

inverses

1 We25 Find the inverse of the following.


a y = 2ex
c y = ex 1
e y = e2 x

b y = ex + 1
d y = e2x 1
f y = e2 3x

2 Find the equation of the inverse of the following.


a y = 2 + ex
c y = 1 2ex
e y = 3 2ex 2

b y = 2 ex
d y = 2 + ex + 1
f y = 2 3ex + 1

3 We26 Find the inverse of the following.


a f (x) = 2 loge (x)
c f (x) = loge (x 1)
e f (x) = loge (2 x)

b f (x) = loge (x + 1)
d f (x) = loge (2x 1)
f f (x) = loge (2 3x)

4 Find the equation of the inverse of the following.


a y = 2 + loge (x)
c y = 2 + 3 loge (x)
e y = 3 + 2 ln (x 1)

b y = 2 loge (x)
d f (x) = 2 ln (x 1)
f f (x) = 1 3 ln (x + 2)

diGiTal doC
doc-9250
SkillSHEET 3.5
inverses

5 mC If y = 5 loge (3x 2) + 1, the equation of the inverse is:


a

x 1
5

3
e

x 1
5

+2

x 1
5

3
e

x+2
3

x 1
5

+2

6 mC If y = 5e 2x + 1 1, the equation of the inverse is:


a

1 x + 1
ln
+1
2 5

1 x + 1 1
ln
+
2 5 2
(2x)

7 mC If eloge
a x2
d 2x

= y, then y equals:

1 x + 1
ln
1
2 5
1 x + 1 1
ln
e

2 5 2

5ln( x 1) + 1
2

B loge (2x)
e 2ex

C e2x

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

149

3h

literal equations

An equation such as ekx = a, where k R and a R+, is called a literal equation. It does not have a
numerical solution. The solution will be expressed in terms of the other variables, in this case a and k,
often called parameters.
For this equation, the solution is: kx = ln (a)
x=

1
ln (a), k 0, a R +
k

Worked example 27
kx

Solve ekx = 5 + 2e

for x, where k R\{0}.

Think

WriTe

TUTorial
eles-1204
Worked example 27

2
e kx

Rewrite the equation with positive powers.

e kx = 5 +

Multiply both sides by ekx.

(ekx)2 = 5ekx + 2

Let y = ekx and make the right-hand side zero


to obtain a quadratic equation in terms of y.

y2 5y 2 = 0

Solve for y using the quadratic formula.

y=
y=

( 5)

( 5)2 4 1 2
2 1

5 33
2

y =

5 + 33
5 33
or y =
2
2

Substitute ekx for y.

e kx =

5 + 33
5 33
or e kx =
2
2

Only the first solution is valid as ekx > 0.

e kx =

5 + 333
2

Re-write the exponential equation in


logarithmic form using ax = y loga (y) = x or
take logs of both sides. Divide both sides by k.

Write the solution and state the restriction


for k.

5 + 333
kx = loge
2

x =

5 + 333
1
loge
, k R \ {0}.
k
2

Worked example 28
1

Solve for x, given that 2 log 2 ( x ) 5log 2 ( p) = log 2 (6) where p > 0.
Think
1

150

Simplify the left-hand side using


p loga (m) = loga (mp) and
m
loga (m) loga (n) = loga .
n

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WriTe

1
log2 x 2 log2 ( p5 ) = log2 (6)

x
log2 5 = log2 (6)
p

x
=6
p5

Equate both sides.

Multiply both sides by p5.

x = 6 p5

Square both sides to obtain x.

x = (6p5)2

Write the solution and state the restriction for p.

x = 36p10 where p > 0

Some equations can only be solved using a CAS calculator, that is, no algebraic method exists. The
following example demonstrates this.
Worked example 29

Solve the following equations using a CAS calculator. Give your answers correct to
3 decimal places.
a ex = x3
b loge (x) = x 2
Think

WriTe

Enter the equations to be solved by choosing


the algebra and solve functions.

Write the solutions correct to 3 decimal places.

a Solving ex = x3 for x gives x = 1.857 or

x = 4.536.

b Solvinglog e (x) = x 2 for x gives x = 0.159 or

x = 3.146.

exercise 3h

literal equations

1 Solve 5e2x = a for x, where a R+.


2 If log3 (D) = cy + log3 (Z), solve for D.
3 Solve emx + n = 3k for x, where m R\{0} and k R+.
4 Solve for q given that 2 log3 (p + 5q) = 4.

x2
y4
z2x5
y
+ log10 3 log10 3 4 log10 4 = 0.

3
2
z x
z x
z
y z

5 Prove that log10

6 Consider the exponential equation 9xb 273a = 81.


a Find x in terms of a and b, where a R, b R\{0}.
b Hence find the value of x if a = 2 and b = 3.
7 Solve 42x b = 20 for x, where b R.
8 Solve 2x 1 = 3x + a for x, where a R.
9 If y = m + Rebx, solve for x.
10 Solve for a given that (log2 (5a))2 = 16b2.
11 We27 Solve e kx = 3 +

a
for x, where a 0, k R\{0}.
e kx
1

12 We28 Solve for x given that 2 log4 ( x ) 3log4 ( y) = log4 (3).


13 Solve for b given that 2 loge (a) 5 loge (b) 2 = 0, where a, b R+.
ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

151

14 We29 Solve the following equations using a CAS calculator. Give your answers correct to

3 decimal places.
a ex = 3x

b x+2=e x
2
c x 1 = e2x
15 We29 Solve the following equations using a CAS calculator. Give your answers correct to

3 decimal places.
a ln (x) = 2 x
b ln (x 2) = x 4
c x2 1 = ln (2x)
16 Solve for x given that log7 (x) = log4 (p).

exponential and logarithmic


modelling
3I

eleSSon
eles-0091
exponential and
logarithmic modelling

Exponential and logarithmic functions can be used to model many real situations involving natural
growth and decay.
Continuous growth and decay can be modelled by the equation A = A0ekt, where A0 represents the
initial value, t represents the time taken and k represents a constant.
For continuous growth, k is positive, but for continuous decay, k is negative. Logarithms to base 10,
often called common logarithms, are used in scientific formulas for measuring the intensity of
earthquakes, the acidity of solutions and the intensity of sound.

Worked example 30

In the town of Ill Ness, the number of cases of a particular disease,


D, can be modelled by the equation D = D0ekt, where t is the time in years.
TUTorial
Using available medication the number of cases is being reduced
eles-1181
Worked example 30
by 20% each year. There are 10 000 people with the disease today.
a How many people will have the disease after one year?
b Find the value of k correct to 3 decimal places.
c Write the equation substituting values for k and D0.
d Find how long it would take for the number of people with the disease to be halved. Give your
answer correct to the nearest year.
e How long would it take for the number of people with the disease to be reduced to 100? Give
your answer correct to the nearest year.
Think

a 1 Find the percentage of people with the

disease after one year.

a (100 20)% = 80%

Find 80% of the original number.

80% of 10 000 = 8000

Write a sentence.

Therefore, 8000 people will have the disease after


one year.

b 1 Substitute t = 0 and D = 10 000 into the

given equation.

152

WriTe

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

D = D0 ekt
When t = 0 and D = 10 000
10 000 = D0 ek 0
10 000 = D0 1
10 000 = D0
So
D = 10 000ekt

[1]

Substitute t = 1 and D = 8000 into [1],


and solve for k.

When t = 1 and D = 8000,


8000 = 10 000ek 1
8000
= ek
10 000
0.8 = ek
loge 0.8 = loge (ek)
0.223 = k log (e)
e
0.223 = k 1
k = 0.223
0.223t

c 1 Use the given equation D = D0ekt.

c D = 10 000e

d 1 Substitute 5000 for D.

d D = 10 000e

Simplify by dividing both sides by 10 000.

Take loge of both sides.

Solve for t.

0.223t

When D = 5000,

5000 = 10 000e 0.223t


0.223t

0.5 = e

loge (0.5) = 0.223t


t=

loge (0.5)
0.223

3.108 (3 decimal places)


5

Write a sentence.

e 1 Write the equation.


2

Substitute 100 for D.

Simplify by dividing by 10 000.

Take loge of both sides.

Solve for t.

Write the answer in a sentence.

exercise 3i

It would take about 3 years.


D = 10 000e0.223t

When D = 100,
100 = 10 000e0.223t
0.01 = e0.223t
loge (0.01) = 0.223t
t 20.651 (3 decimal places)
It would take about 21 years.

exponential and logarithmic modelling


0.6t
,

1 We30 Changing -gluconolactone into gluconic acid can be modelled by the equation y = y0e

where y is the number of grams of -gluconolactone present t hours after the process has begun.
Suppose 200 grams of -gluconolactone is to be changed into gluconic acid.
a Find the value of y0.
b Write the equation replacing y0 with your answer.
c How many grams of -gluconolactone will be present after 1 hour? Give your answer correct
to the nearest gram.
d How long will it take to reduce the amount of -gluconolactone to 50 grams? Give your answer
correct to the nearest quarter of an hour.
0.18t
,

2 The decay of radon-222 gas is given by the equation y = y0e

where y is the amount of radon


remaining after t days. When t = 0, y = 10g. Give all answers to the nearest whole number.
a Find the value of y0.
b Write the equation substituting your value of y0.
c What will be the mass after 1 day?
d How many days will it take for the mass to reach 1 g?
ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

153

3 The equation y = A + B loge (x) relates two variables x and y. The table below shows values of x and y.

x
y
a
b
c
d

1
3

2
4.386

3
m

Find the value of A and B correct to the nearest whole number.


Write the equation relating x and y substituting values for A and B.
Using your new equation, find the value of m correct to 3 decimal places.
If y = 7.6, find x correct to the nearest whole number.

4 An amount of $1000 is invested in a building society where the 5% p.a. interest paid is compounded

continuously. The amount in the account after t years can be modelled by the equation A = A0ert,
where r is the continuous interest rate.
a Find the value of A0 and r.
b Write the equation substituting values of A0 and r.
c Find the amount in the bank after i 1 year
ii 10 years. Give your answer correct to the
nearest dollar.
d How long will it take for the investment to double in value? Give your answer to the nearest
year.

5 The number of people living in Boomerville at any time, t years, after the first settlers arrived can be

modelled by the equation P = P0ekt. Suppose 500 people arrived on 1 January 1850, and by 1 January
1860 there were 675 people.
a What is the value of P0?
b Find the value of k correct to 2 decimal places.
c Write the equation substituting values for P0 and k.
d What will be the population on 1 January 1900? Give your answer to the nearest 10 people.
e When will the population be 2000?

6 A cup of soup cools to the temperature of the surrounding air. Newtons Law of Cooling can be

written as T TS = (T0 TS)e kt, where T is the temperature of the object after t minutes, and TS is
the temperature of the surrounding air. The soup cooled from 90 C to 70 C after 6 minutes in a room
with an air temperature of 15 C.
a Find the values of TS, T0 and k correct to 2 decimal places.
b Write the equation substituting the values for TS, T0 and k.
c Find the temperature of the soup after 10 minutes. Give your answer to the nearest degree.
d How long would it take for the soup to be 40 C? Give your answer to the nearest minute.
e If the soup is placed in a refrigerator in which the temperature is 2 C, how long will it take for the
soup to reach 40 C? Use the same value of k and give your answer to the nearest minute.

7 The diameter of a tree for a period of its growth can be modelled by the equation D = D0ekt, where t

is the number of years after the beginning of the period. The diameter of the tree grew from 50 cm to
60 cm in the first 2 years that measurements were taken.
a Find the values of D0 and k.
b Write the equation using these values.
c How much will it have grown in the first 5 years? Round to the nearest centimetre.
d How long will it take for the trees diameter to double? Round to the nearest year.

8 The decay of a radioactive substance can be modelled by the equation M = M0e kt, where M grams is

the mass of the substance after t years. After 10 years the mass of the substance is 98 grams and after
20 years the mass is 96 grams.
a What was the mass of the substance initially? Give your answer to the nearest gram.
b Find the value of k. Give your answer to 3 decimal places.
c Write the equation using these values.
d Find the mass of the substance after 50 years.
e How long would it take for the mass to be halved?

9 The number of bacteria present in a culture at any time, t hours, can be modelled by the equation

N = N0ekt.
a If the original number is doubled in 3 hours, find k correct to 2 decimal places.
b Write the equation substituting the value of k.
c Find the original number of bacteria if there were 2500 bacteria after 4 hours. Give the answer
correct to the nearest thousand.

154

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

d Write the equation substituting your value for the original population.
e Find the number of bacteria present after 8 hours. Give your answer correct to the nearest

thousand.
10 The intensity of light d metres below the surface of the sea can be modelled by the equation

I = I0e kd. Divers in the Sea of Loga have found that the intensity of light is halved when a diver is
5 metres below the surface of the water.
a Find the value of k correct to 4 decimal places.
b Write the equation substituting the value of k.
c Find the percentage of light available at a depth of 10 metres.
d If artificial light is necessary when the intensity of light is less than 0.1 of the intensity at the
surface (I<0.1I0), find how deep a diver can go before artificial light is necessary.

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

155

Summary
The index laws

For a 0,
ax ay = ax y
ax ay = ax + y
x
y
xy
(a ) = a
a0 = 1
1
1
x
a = x and x = a x
a
a
1
y
a y = y a and a = a x
ax = y loga (y) = x
x
y

logarithm laws

For a > 0
loga (1) = 0
loga (a) = 1
loga (0) is undefined.
loga (mn) = loga (m) + loga (n)
m
loga = loga (m) loga (n)
n
loga (mp) = p loga (m)
loga ( N )
logb ( N ) =
loga (b)

exponential equations

To solve exponential equations:


1. write all terms with the same base, write terms with the smallest possible base or take the
logarithm of both sides of the equation
2. then solve the equation.
A negative number cannot be expressed in index form.
If 0 < x < 1, then loga (x) < 0 and if x > 1 then loga (x) > 0.
It is not possible to take the logarithm of a negative number.
If the base is the same, equate the indices.
If the indices are the same, equate the bases.
Use the Null Factor Law to solve quadratic equations.
Change the sign of an inequality when multiplying or dividing by a negative number.

exponential equations
(base e)

1 n
Eulers number e = lim 1 + = 2.718 281828459 ...
h
n
The laws of indices and logarithms apply in the same way when using e.
Evaluate e by using the ex button on the calculator.
The number e is an exact answer. Use the calculator to give an approximation if required.
On a calculator, use the LN button to take the log of a number to base e. The LOG button defaults
to base 10 if not specified.
loge (x) = ln (x).
ex > 0, that is, ex = 1 has no real solution.

equations with natural


(base e) logarithms

To solve logarithmic equations use the laws of logarithms and indices.

inverses

literal equations

156

The equation y = loge (x) is an inverse function of y = ex.


To find an inverse, interchange x and y, then make y the subject of the new equations.
a log ( x ) = x , x R +
loga (a x ) = x , x R
a

An equation such as ekx = a, where k R and a R+, is called a literal equation.


Literal equations do not have numerical solutions.
The solution of a literal equation is expressed in terms of the other variables, in this case a and k,
often called parameters.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Chapter review
2

3 y 45 , leaving your answers with positive indices.


2 If log2 (5) = 2.321 and log2 (9) = 3.17, find log2 5 .
3 2

1 Simplify 4 x 5 y 3 2 x

S ho rT
a n S W er

3 Solve 3 2x 7 = 17 for x.

log2 (32)
.
log2 (8)
1
5 Solve log x (2) = for x .
3
6 If 4e(2 x) = 128, find x, giving your answer in exact form.
4 Evaluate

7 Solve for x in loge (5) + loge (x) loge (2) = loge (10).
8 Find the rule of the inverse function to y=3e2xa.
9 Find the rule of the inverse function of y = loge (1 x) + 3.
10 Solve 6e3x = k for x, where k R+.
11 Solve 3eax + b 6k = 0 for x and state the necessary restrictions for the parameters a, b and k.
12 Solve for x given that 4 log2 (ax + b) = 12.
13 Solve for x given that log2 (x) = y + log2 (z). State the restrictions for the parameters.
1 If a > 1, the solution of x for the equation x = a2 is:
a
B
C
d
e

m U lTip l e
C ho iC e

1
a negative number less than 1
a positive number less than 1
a negative number greater than 1
a positive number greater than 1

2 2 log3 (x) + 4 log3 (x) log3 (x6) is equal to:

6x

C log3 (6x x6)

B log3 6
x

a 0

8x

e 6log3 (x x6)

d log3 6
x

3 Evaluated to 3 decimal places, log3 (24) is:


a 2.892
d 0.346

B 2.893
e 1.380

C 0.345

4 The solution set of the equation (2x 1)(22x 4) = 0 over R is:


a {0, 1}
d {1, 4}

B {0, 2}
e {2, 4}

C {1, 2}

= 4 over R is:
B
2, ex + 6
e loge 6

5 The solution set of the equation ex 12e


a loge (2), loge (6)
d loge (2)

6 If loge (x) = a, then e2a + 3ea 2e


a a 2 + 3a

is equal to:

2
a

C 2 loge (a) + 3loge (a)

C 2, 6

ex

2
B x + 3x

2
loge (a)

2
x

d loge ( x 2 ) + 3loge ( x )

2
loge ( x )

e (ea + 2)(e + 1)

7 If loge (2x) = a, then x is equal to:


a 2ea

B 2ae

ae
2

e e2a

ea
2

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

157

8 If ex + 4 = e2x 1, then x is equal to:


a

C e5

B 5

d 5

9 The solution(s) to the equation 2 ln (x) = ln (x + 4) + ln 2 is/are:


a 2, 4
d 2

B 2, 4
e 4

C 1

x2
, then y is equal to:
y

10 If 2a =

x
2a
x
d
22 a
a

2
x
a
2

x2
4a

x2
2a

11 The equation which is the inverse of y = ex 1 is:


a y = loge (x) 1
d y = loge (x + 1)

B y = loge (x 1)

e y=e x1

C y = loge (x) + 1

12 The air pressure P cm of mercury at h km above sea level can be modelled by the equation

P=76e 0.13h. One kilometre above sea level the pressure has:
a increased by approximately 9 cm
B decreased by approximately 9 cm
C increased by approximately 41 cm
d decreased by approximately 41 cm
e neither increased nor decreased significantly
13 If 3log ( x + 4) = y , then y equals:
a log (x + 4)
B x+4
d 3 log (x + 4)
e 4
3

e x Tended
r e S p onS e

1 loge

C (x + 4)3

a = x . If log (a) = 0.6932, find the value of x, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
e
3

x x2 x3
+
+ + ...
1! 2! 3!
a Write the next 3 terms.
b Substitute x = 1 in the equation using the first 7 terms.
c Show that e 2.7182.

2 ex = 1 +

3 The apparent brightness of a star can be found using the formula B = 6 2.5 log10 A, where A is the

actual brightness of that star. Find the apparent brightness of a star with actual brightness of 3.16.

4 Earthquake magnitude is often reported on the Richter scale. The magnitude, M, is given by

a
M = log10 + B , where a is the amplitude of the ground motion in microns at the receiving
T
station, T is the period of the seismic wave in seconds, and B is an empirical factor that allows for the
weakening of the seismic wave with the increasing distance from the epicentre of the earthquake.
Find the magnitude of the earthquake if the amplitude of the ground motion is 10 microns, the
period is 1 second and the empirical factor is 6.8.

5 Five grams of a radioactive substance is decaying so that the amount, A grams, that is left after t days,

is given by the formula A = 5e kt.


a Find the value of A when the number of grams of the radioactive substance has been halved.
b Rewrite the equation with the new value of A.
c Rearrange the equation so that t is the subject of the equation.
d If k = 0.005, find how long it will take for the number of grams of the radioactive substance to
be halved. Give your answer correct to the nearest day.

158

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

6 A school in the suburb of Bienvenue opened with 30 students in February 1995. It has been found for

the first years after opening that the number of students enrolled in the school tyears after opening can
be modelled by the equation N = N0ekt. There were 45 students enrolled in February 1996.
a Find the values of N0 and k.
b Write the equation substituting the values for N0 and k.
c How many students will there be 5 years after the opening?
d How many years will it take for the school to have 1000 pupils?
Another school in the suburb of Enbaisse has a declining student population. The number of students

enrolled at any one time can be modelled by the equation E = E0e rt. There are 1000 students
enrolled in February 1995 and 900 in February 1996.
e Find the values of E0 and r.
f Write the equation substituting the values for E0 and r.
g How many students will be enrolled after 5 years?
h How many years will it take for the two schools to have approximately the same number of
pupils?
i What will the population be then? Use the calculator value in the working and do not round off
until the final answer.

7 Solve ekx = 4 + ke kx for x, where k R+.

diGiTal doC
doc-9188
Test Yourself
Chapter 3

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

159

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9185: Warm up with ten quick questions on
exponential and logarithmic equations. (page 129)

3a

The index laws

TUTorial
We5 eles-1202: Watch a worked example on writing expressions
with positive indices. (page 132)

3B

logarithm laws

TUTorial
We10 eles-1179: Watch a worked example on simplifying
logarithmic expressions. (page 135)

3C

exponential equations

TUTorial
We14 eles-1180: Watch a worked example on solving
exponential equations. (page 138)
diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 3.1 doc-9246: Practise writing expressions using index
form. (page 140)
SkillSHEET 3.2 doc-9247: Practise solving equations. (page 140)
SkillSHEET 3.3 doc-9248: Practise solving indicial equations by
equating the bases. (page 141)
SkillSHEET 3.4 doc-9249: Practise solving linear inequations.
(page 141)

3d

logarithmic equations using any base

TUTorial
We18 eles-1203: Watch a worked example on solving logarithmic
equations using a CAS calculator. (page 142)
diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 3.1 doc-9186: Simplify exponential and logarithmic
expressions, and solve logarithmic and exponential equations.
(page 143)

160

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

3F

equations with natural (base e) logarithms

diGiTal doC
WorkSHEET 3.2 doc-9187: Solve logarithmic and exponential
equations and application questions. (page 148)

3G

inverses

inTeraCTiViTY
Inverses int-0248: Consolidate your understanding of inverses using
the interactivity. (page 148)
diGiTal doC
SkillSHEET 3.5 doc-9250: Practise finding inverses. (page 149)

3h

literal equations

TUTorial
We27 eles-1204: Watch a worked example on solving literal
equations. (page 150)

3i

exponential and logarithmic modelling

eleSSon
Exponential and logarithmic modelling eles-0091: Learn about how
exponential and logarithmic modelling is used. (page 152)
TUTorial
We30 eles-1181: Watch a worked example on exponential
modelling. (page 152)

Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself Chapter 3 doc-9188: Take the end-of-chapter test to test
your progress. (page 159)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Answers CHAPTER 3
exponenTial and
loGariThmiC eQUaTionS
exercise 3a

1 a x7
e x
2 a 9
d
3 a

The index laws


1
b x5
c x10
d
x6
4
2
10 x y
f 5x4y3
g
3
b 1
c 3

9
16
x6

b8

d 3

4 a

125
8
27

c 216

27
64

5 5

b 6x 4 y 3

x11 y 2
5

243 x 2
y2
x6
5 a
y4
c

c
6 a

d
b

3
8y8

26n 1

7 a 22n 32n + 1

1 + x2
x
2
x
c
1 x2
9 B

b
d

2
3

iv 127
vii

( )=
1
2

iii

5 a 1 log2 (x) b log3 (x)


2
6 a 1
d 1
7 a 4

b1
e 9
b3

d 2

e 1

c 5
f 3

x2

c log2
y
c 2
c log2 (10)

8 a 0.477
b 0.861
c 0.301
d 0.322
e 2.161
f 3.727
9 a 0
b log2 (x)
c 0
d 0
e 3 log10 (x)
f 5 log10 (x)
g log5 (x + 1)3 or 3 log5 (x + 1)
h log4 (x 2)
10 C
11 E
12 31.623

c 1
c 2

5
1
2, 1
1

b
b
d
f
b

d 3
d 1

c 1, 0

1, 2
0.912
1.365
0.672
x 1.404

e x < 1.756

1
2
1

v 2
4 a i5
iii 10
v4
b i2
iii

2
5

vi 1

ii 1

iii 16

v 0

vi

32

16

125
6
625
4

1
iv 0

b2

c 6

e 2

f 0

2
11

1
14

3 a 0.693
c 0.693
e 0.262
g 1.099
4 a 0
c 0.405, 0.693
e 1
g 0.405, 1.099
5 a 0.693
c 1.099
e 0.288, 0.693
6 a x>0
c x < 0.693
e x 0.792
g x < 0.288
7 20.00, 0.01

b
d
f
h
b
d
f
h
b
d
f
b
d
f

8 0.04

equations with natural


(base e ) logarithms
1
1
1 a e
b e2
c
d
e2
e
2 a 3.695
b 0.906 c e
d e
e 1.221
f 1.350 g 1.368 h 0.432
3 a 2
b5
c 3
d 4
e 10
f 2.207
2
4 a 6
b
c 2.5
d 6
3

f 1.5
6A
8y=x

B
ex2
2
a 2.5
ln(2)
c t=
k
exercise 3G inverses
x
1 a y = loge
2

5
7
9
10

ii 6
iv 8

c y = loge (x) + 1

ii 9

(base e )
1 a 7.389
d 1.396
g 1.386
j 1.281

(1 2 x )
3 x
e y = 2 + log ( 2 )
2 x
f y = log ( 3 ) 1
c y = loge

1 + loge ( x )
2

2 loge ( x )
3
b y = loge (2 x)
d y = loge (x 2) 1

7 D
1
b 1000,

100
1
4

exercise 3e

b y = loge (x) 1

f y=

2 a y = loge (x 2)

ii 8
iv 4

1
b e kt = 2
d 139 days

d y=

e y = 2 loge (x)
ii 6
iv 2

1.609
1.386
0.956
1.386

0.693, 0.549
0
0.693, 1.609
0.251, 0.693
1.609
0.405, 1.099
0, 0.693
x<1
x 0.693
x 1.303

exercise 3F

e 1

ii 2
iv 0

d 2,

3, 27
1, 16
5, 3
9 16
e
g
i

2 a 1

iv 500

v 128
5 a i5
iii 1
v3
b i2
iii 5
v3
6 B
8 a 10, 1
c 16,

v 2

ii
iv
ii
iv
ii

f logx (27) = 3

b1
e 1

b
b
b
e

1
5

v
b i2
1
iii

b log3 (81) = 4
d log5 (125) = x

2 a i3
iii 2
b i2
iii 8
3 a i3

laws
b 0
d 1
b x2 = 25
d 35 = x

3 a log2 (8) = 3
c log4 (x) = 3

2 a 4
3 a 3
4 a 2, 0
d 3
5 a 0
6 a 2.322
c 3.325
e 0.827
7 a x > 1.465
c x < 0.683
d x 0.356
8 D
9 E

( x + 1)2
x4
1
d
x+y

logarithm
0
1
24 = 16
5x = 125

1
5 1= 5

e log2

15 7
2a 2 b 2

36n + 1

exponential equations
b 3
c 5
e

iv 26
vii 624
b i 81

exercise 3B

4 a 1
d 4

b 1

8 a

1 a 4
d 2

exercise 3d logarithmic equations


using any base
1
1 a i 25
ii
iii 100 or 100

y4

c 2n 33n + 1

1 a
c
2 a
c
e

3
a9 b3
20 x

exercise 3C

f
h
j

1
16

10

25, 5
1, 27
2, 5

exponential equations
b 54.598
e 1.284
h 1.609

c 1.649
f 1.221
i 0.405

3 a

f (x) = e 2

y = ex 2
y=e

x2
3

f (x) = e x 1
ex + 1
d f (x) =
2
2 ex
f
f (x) =
3
b y = e2 x
d

f (x) = e2 x + 1

x3
= 1+ e 2

f (x) = e

f (x) = e x + 1

f (x) = 2 ex

4 a
c
e
5 C

6E

1 x
3

7D

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

161

exercise 3h

1 x=

1
loge
2

literal equations
a, a > 0

5

2 D = Z 3cy

loge (3k ) n
m
9 p
4 q=
5
5 Proof:
3 x=

x 2 y4
z2x5
y
log10 3 5 log10 3 4 log10 4
z x
z
y z x
x 2 y4
z 2 x 5
y
= log10
log
log

+
10
10

z 4

z3x 4
y3 z 5 x

x 2 y4
z 2 x 5 y
= log10 3 5 log10 7 4
z x
y z x
xy
xy
= log10 5 log10 5
z
z
= log10 (1)
=0
4 9a
6 a x=
2b
7
b x=
3
loge 20 + 2b loge 2
7 x=
4loge 2
a loge ( 3) + loge ( 2 )
8 x=
2
loge
3
1
y m
9 x = loge
R
b
b
16
1
or a =
10 a =
5
5 16b
3 + 9 + 4a
1
11 x = loge

k
2

12 x = 9 y6
a2

13 b = 5
e2

162

14 a
b
c
15 a
b
c

x = 1.512 or x = 0.691

0.443

1.058
x = 1.557
x = 2.159 and x = 5.146
x = 0.191 and x = 1.433

16 x = 7

modelling
1 a 200
c 110 g
2 a
c
3 a
c
4 a
c
5 a
c
e
6 a
b
c
d
e
7 a
c
8 a
c
e
9 a
c
e
10 a
c

11

b y = 200e
1
d 2 hours
4

b
d
b
d
b
d
b
d

y = 10e 0.18t
13 days
y = 3 + 2 loge (x)
10
A = 1000e0.05t
14
0.03
2240

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

12 8 b , a 0

x R+,
y R,
z R+,

mUlTiple ChoiCe

1
5
9
13

E
D
E
B

2 A
6 B
10 B

3 B
7 C
11 D

4 A
8 B
12 B

exTended reSponSe

b
d
b
d

D = 50e0.09t
8 years
0.002
90 g

1 0.41
2 a

b I = I0e 0.1386d
d 16.6 metres

x4 x5 x6
+
+
4! 5! 6!

1 1 1
1
1
+ +
+
+
2 6 24 120 720
c Check with teacher.
4.75
4 7.8

a 2.5
b e kt = 0.5
ln(2)
c t=
d 139 days
k
a 30, 0.4055
b N = 30e0.4055t
c 228
d 9 years

e 1000, 0.1054
f E = 1000e 0.1054t
g 590
h 7 years
i 485
1
x = ln 2 + 4 + k
k
b e = 1+1+

b N = N0e0.23t
d N = 1000e0.23t
3
5

2 0.849
4 13

, a R \{0}
bR
k R+

13 x = z 2y,

33

3 3

b + ln(2 k )

0.6t

ShorT anSWer

14
y 15

k
10 1 ln
3

exponential and logarithmic

10 g
8g
3, 2
5.197
1000, 0.05
1051, 1649
500
P = 500e0.03t
1896
15 C, 90 C, 0.05

T = 15 + 75e 0.05t
60 C
22
27
50, 0.09
28 cm
100

M = 100e 0.002t
347 years
0.23
1000
6000
0.1386
25%

x5

1
2

ChapTer reVieW

loge x + a
3
9 y = 1 e(x 3)
8 y=

loge ( p )
loge ( 4 )

exercise 3i

6 2 5 ln (2)

5 8
7 4

Chapter 4

Exponential and
logarithmic graphs
Chapter ContentS
4a
4B
4C
4D
4e
4F
4G
4h

Graphs of exponential functions with any base


Logarithmic graphs to any base
Graphs of exponential functions with base e
Logarithmic graphs to base e
Finding equations for graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions
Addition of ordinates
Exponential and logarithmic functions with absolute values
Exponential and logarithmic modelling using graphs

Graphs of exponential functions


with any base

DiGital DoC
doc-9189
10 Quick Questions

4a

The function f (x) = ax is an exponential function where a is a positive, real number which is not 1 (that
is, a R+\{1}). In this chapter, a will take the values of 2, 10 and Eulers number e.
An exponential function f (x) can be written f: R R where f (x) = ax and a R+\{1}. In the previous
chapter it was seen that if x has a positive coefficient, f (x) is an increasing function and may be used to
describe physical growth. Examples of this include population and bacterial growth, and increases in
investment values, light intensity and temperature.
If x has a negative coefficient, f (x) is a decreasing function and may be used to describe physical
decay. Examples of this include population and bacterial decline, radioactive decay, temperature cooling
and decreases in light intensity and vehicle values.
Graphs with a positive coefficient of x are considered first.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Graphs of f (x) = 2x and f (x) = 10x


The graphs of f (x) = 2x and f (x) = 10 x are shown below.
y
12
10
8
6 (0, 1)
4
Asymptote 2
(1, 2)
y= 0
x
0
3 2 1
1 2 3

y
12
(1, 10)
10
8
6
4
Asymptote 2
(0, 1)
y= 0
x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

f (x) = 2x

f (x) = 10x

These graphs have a number of common features:


1. They both cross the y-axis at the point (0, 1) because a0 = 1.
2. The graph does not cross the x-axis; therefore, there are no x-intercepts.
3. There is a horizontal asymptote along the x-axis (y = 0).
4. For f (x) = a x, another point on the graphs is (1, a).
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

163

5. The maximal domain is R.


6. The range is R+.
7. They are both increasing functions. That is, as x , y .
8. It can be seen that the greater the value of a, the steeper the graph.

Dilation
A dilation changes the shape of the graph, making it wider or narrower.

Dilation from the x-axis


If the coefficient of ax is changed to a positive real number greater than 1, the graph is stretched
vertically and is said to be dilated from the x-axis.
This could be written f (x) = Aax where A is the dilation factor. The graph is stretched vertically (along
the y-axis) away from the x-axis because each y-value is being multiplied by the constant A. In mapping
notation, a dilation factor of A from the x-axis, where A > 0, is given by (x, y) (x, Ay). If A = 3 and
a = 2 the function becomes f (x) = 3 2x.
A comparison can be made more easily if graphs are drawn on the same axes.
The graphs of f (x) = 2x, g(x) = 3 2x and h(x) = 4 2x are shown. The dilation factor, A, is 1, 3 and
4 respectively.
y

h(x) = 4 2x
g(x) = 3 2x

(0, 4)

4
3 (0, 3) f(x) = 2x
2
1 (0, 1)
Asymptote
x y= 0
0
1 2 3
3 2 1

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 3 2x

h(x) = 4 2x

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 3)

(0, 4)

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

y=0

y=0

y=0

(1, 2)

(1, 6)

(1, 8)

Domain
Range
Horizontal asymptote
Dilation factor from the x-axis
A point on the graph

(x, y) (x, 3y)

Mapping

(x, y) (x, 4y)

If A is a real number between 0 and 1, the y-values are multiplied by a constant which is less than
1 and the graph becomes less steep.
A comparison can be made more easily if the graphs are drawn on the same axes.
The graphs of f (x) = 2x, g(x) = 12 2x and h(x) = 14 2x are drawn below.
y
2
(0, 1)
Asymptote
y= 0

164

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

(0, 12)
1

(1, 2)

f(x) = 2x
g(x) =

1
2

2x

h(x) = 14 2x

(1, 1)
1

(0, 14) (1, 2 )


x
0
1

The dilation factor is 1,

1
2

and

1
4

respectively.
f (x) = 2x

g( x ) = 12 2 x

h( x ) = 14 2 x

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, )

(0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

y=0

y=0

y=0

1
2

1
4

(1, 2)

(1, 1)

Domain
Range
Horizontal asymptote
Dilation factor from the x-axis
A point on the graph

1
2

1
4

1
2

Mapping

(1, )
(x, y) (x , y)

(x, y) x , 12 y

1
4

For any positive real value of A, as A increases, the graph of f (x) = A 2x becomes steeper and closer
to the y-axis. Similarly, as A decreases the graph becomes less steep and further from the y-axis. The
domain, range and horizontal asymptote stay the same as for f (x) = 2x. The mapping is (x, y) (x, Ay).

Dilation from the y-axis


If the coefficient of x changes, the graph is stretched horizontally and is said
y
g(x) = 22x
1
f(x) = 2x x
to be dilated from the y-axis. This can be written f (x) = a kx where is the
h(x) = 22
k
4
dilation factor. The dilation factor is the reciprocal of the coefficient of x.
1
In mapping notation, a dilation factor of from the y-axis, where k > 0, is
2
Asymptote
k
1
(0, 1)
given by (x, y) ( x, y).
y=0
k
0
1 2 3 x
3 2 1
To show the effect of a dilation
from the y-axis, the three graphs
x
f (x) = 2x, g(x) = 22x and h(x) = 2 2 are drawn at right. The dilation
factors are 1, 12 and 2, respectively.
x

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 22x

h(x) = 2 2

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 1)

(0, 1)

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

y=0

y=0

y=0

1
2

(2, 4)

(1, 4)

(4, 4)

Domain
Range
Horizontal asymptote
Dilation factor from the y-axis
A point on the graph
Mapping

(x, y)

1
2

x, y

(x, y) (2x, y)

For all the graphs discussed so far (that is, of the form f (x) = A akx, a R+\{1}, k > 0), the maximal
domain is R, the range is R+, the x-axis is the horizontal asymptote and they are all increasing
functions. The dilations have affected the steepness of the graphs. The mapping is (x, y) ( 1k x, Ay).
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

165

WorkeD exaMple 1
x

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 2 2 , showing the intercepts and the asymptote, and stating the
domain and the range.
think

Write/DraW
x

Write the rule.

f (x) = 2 2 2

State the basic shape and transformations.

An exponential curve with basic shape f (x) = 2x.


Dilation of 2 units from the x-axis and 2 units
from the y-axis.

Find the y-intercept. Either let x = 0 or use the


fact that the y-intercept is A in the function

If x = 0, then

f (x) = A a k .

y = 2 22
= 2 20
=21
=2
so the y-intercept is 2.

Find the horizontal asymptote.

The horizontal asymptote is the x-axis. There are


no x-intercepts.

Find another point on the graph.

If x = 2, y = 2 2 2 = 4.

Sketch the graph.

y
4

(2, 4)

(0, 2)
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

f (x) = 2 2 2
Asymptote
y=0
x

The domain is R and the range is R+.

State the domain and the range.

translation
Vertical translation
If a constant is added to the function, the graph is moved up or down and is said to be translated
vertically. In mapping notation, a vertical translation of B units is given by (x, y) (x, y + B).
The graph of g(x) = 2x + 1 is shown below with the graph of f (x) = 2x. The graph of f (x) = 2x has been
moved up 1 unit. Every y-value has been increased by 1. The line y= 1 is the horizontal asymptote.
f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x + 1

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 2)

Range

(0, )

(1, )

Horizontal asymptote

y=0

y=1

A point on the graph

(1, 2)

(1, 3)

Mapping

(x, y)

(x, y) (x, y + 1)

Domain

166

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y
4
3
(0, 2)

g(x) = 2x + 1
f(x) = 2x
(1, 3)

(0, 1)
0
1

(1, 2) Asymptote
y=1
2

The graph of g(x) = 2x 1 is the graph of f (x) = 2x translated 1 unit down. This means that the horizontal
asymptote is now the line y = 1 and the graph crosses the x-axis. Therefore, there is an x-intercept. Every
y-value has been decreased by 1. The graph of y = 2x 1 is shown with the graph of y = 2x.
f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x 1

x-intercept

(0, 0)

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 0)

Range

(0, )

(1, )

Horizontal asymptote

y=0

y = 1

A point on the graph

(1, 2)

(1, 1)

Domain

f(x) = 2x

4
2
(0, 1)
3 2 1

(1, 2)

g(x) = 2x 1

(1, 1)
x
0 1 2 3
Asymptote
y = 1

(x, y) (x, y 1)

Mapping

horizontal translation
In mapping notation, a horizontal translation of b units is given
by (x, y) (x + b, y).
The graph of g(x) = 2x 1 is the graph of f (x) = 2x translated 1 unit
to the right.
The graph of h(x) = 2x + 1 is the graph of f (x) = 2x translated 1 unit
to the left.
The graph of g(x) = 2x 1 is shown at right with the graph
of f (x) = 2x.

h(x) = 2x + 1
f(x) = 2x
f(

4
2
(0, 1)
3 2 1

g(x) = 2x 1

(1, 1)
(0, 12 )

01 2 3

Asymptote
y=0
x

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x 1

h(x) = 2x + 1

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, )

(0, 2)

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

Horizontal asymptote

y=0

y=0

y=0

A point on the graph

(1, 2)

(2, 2)

(0, 2)

(x, y) (x + 1, y)

(x, y) (x 1, y)

Domain
Range

1
2

Mapping

Horizontal and vertical translations have the same effect regardless of the base.
g(x)=2 + 10x + 1 is f (x) = 10 x translated 1 unit to the left and 2 units up. Horizontal translations
keep the same asymptote, domain and range as the original function; vertical translations keep the
same domain, but the range changes.
It is interesting to note that f (x) = 0.5 2x can be written as f (x) = 2x 1 because
f (x) = 0.5 2x
1

= 2 2x

= 2 1 2x
= 2x 1
A dilation of 0.5 from the x-axis has the same effect on f (x) = 2x as a translation of 1 unit to the right.
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

167

WorkeD exaMple 2

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2x 1 2, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and


stating the domain andrange.
think

tUtorial
eles-1205
Worked example 2

Write/DraW

f (x) = 2x 1 2
An exponential curve with the same shape as
f (x) = 2x
Horizontal translation of 1 unit to the right
Vertical translation of 2 units down

Write the rule.

State the basic shape.

State the translations.

Find the horizontal asymptote by translating


y = 0 down 2 units.

The horizontal asymptote is y = 2.

Find the y-intercept. Make x = 0.

y-intercept:
If x = 0, then

y=2 12
1

=22
1

Find the x-intercept. Make y = 0.


Equate the indices.
Solve for x.

Sketch the graph.

6
7

= 1 2
x-intercept:
If y = 0, then

y
1
3 2 1
1
2

10

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with exponential
functions and their
transformations.

(2, 0)
0 1 2 3 x

f (x) = 2x 1 2

1
(0, 12 ) Asymptote
y = 2

The domain is R and the range is (2, ).

State the domain and the range.

For all the graphs of the form f (x) = ax + b + B, where b, B R and a R+\{1}, the maximal domain
is R, the range is (B, ), the horizontal asymptote is y = B and they are all increasing functions.
The graph remains exactly the same shape as f (x) = ax. The mapping is (x, y) (x b, y + B).

reflections
If a negative sign is in front of the a the graph is reflected in the x-axis. (Remember a > 0.) The mapping
is (x, y) (x, y).
The graph of g(x) = 2x is shown with the graph of f (x) = 2x.
f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 1)

R+ = (0, )

R = (, 0)

y=0

y=0

Domain
Range
Horizontal asymptote
A point on the graph
Mapping

168

2x 1 2 = 0
2x 1 = 21
x1=1
x=2

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

(1, 2)

(1,

2)

(x, y) (x, y)

f(x) = 2x

Asymptote
(1, 2) y = 0
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 x
(1, 2)
2
(0, 1)

(0, 1)
g(x) = 2x

If there is a negative sign before the x term, the graph is reflected in the y-axis. The graph of g(x) = 2x
is shown with the graph of f (x) = 2x.

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2 x

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 1)

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

Horizontal asymptote

y=0

y=0

A point on the graph

(1, 2)

(1, 2)

Domain
Range

f(x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x y
3

Mapping

(1, 2) 2
1
3 2 1

(1, 2)
(0, 1)
0

Asymptote
y= 0
x
1 2 3

(x, y) (x, y)

For all the graphs of the form g(x) = ax, where a R+\{1}, the maximal domain is R and the range is
The horizontal asymptote is y = 0 and the functions are all decreasing. It is the reflection of f (x) = ax
in the x-axis. The mapping is (x, y) (x, y).
For all the graphs of the form g(x) = ax, where a R+\{1}, the maximal domain is R and the range is
+
R . The horizontal asymptote is y = 0 and the functions are all decreasing. It is the reflection of f (x) = ax
in the y-axis. The mapping is (x, y) (x, y).
R.

WorkeD exaMple 3

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 2x 1, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the domain
and the range showing all working.
think

Write/DraW

Write the rule.

f (x) = 2 2x 1

State the basic shape.

An exponential curve with basic shape f (x) = 2x

State the transformations.

Horizontal translation of 1 unit to the right


Vertical translation of 2 units up
Reflection in the x-axis

Find the horizontal asymptote by translating


y = 0 up 2 units.

The horizontal asymptote is y = 2.

Find the y-intercept by making x = 0.

If x = 0,

f (x) = 2 2
=2

1
2

= 12
1

The y-intercept is 1 2.
6

Find the x-intercept by making y = 0.

2 2x 1 = 0
2x 1 = 21
x1=1
x=2
The x-intercept is 2.

If y = 0,

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

169

Sketch the graph.

y
2

Asymptote
y=2
(0, 32 )

1
0

2 1

(2, 0)
x
2

f (x) = 2 2x 1

1
8

The domain is R and the range is (, 2).

State the domain and the range.

Graphs of exponential functions


with any base
exercise 4a

Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing the intercepts and the
asymptote, and stating the domain and range of each one.
a f (x) = 2x
b f (x) = 10x
c f (x) = 2 10x
d f (x) = 3 2x
x
x
3x
e f (x) = 0.3 2
f f (x) = 0.5 10
g f (x) = 2
h f (x) = 102x

1 We1
DiGital DoC
doc-9190
Spreadsheet
exponential graphs

f (x) = 5 32x
j f (x) = 4 23x
k f (x) = 2 10 2
l f (x) = 2 2 2
We2 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and
stating the domain and range of each one.
a f (x) = 2x + 1
b f (x) = 3x + 2
c f (x) = 3x 3
d f (x) = 2x 4
x
+
2
x
+
1
x

4
e f (x) = 2
f f (x) = 10
g f (x) = 3
h f (x) = 2x 3
x
+
1
x

2
i f (x) = 2
8
j f (x) = 10
+1
We3
Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and
stating the domain and range of each one.
a f (x) = 2x
b f (x) = 10x
c f (x) = 10x
d f (x) = 2x
x
x
x
e f (x) = 1 3
f f (x) = 10 10
g f (x) = 2 + 10
h f (x) = 1 + 2x
1

x
2

x
i f (x) = 2 2
j f (x) = 1 3
Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 31 x, showing the intercepts and asymptotes and stating the domain and
range.
Sketch the graph of the function f: R R where f (x) = 3 2x 1, showing the intercepts and
asymptotes and stating the domain and range.
Sketch the graph of the function f: R R where f (x) = 5 4 31 x showing the intercepts and
asymptotes and stating the domain and range.
State the transformation of y = 2x needed to sketch the graphs of the following functions. Give details of
each transformation.
a y = 23x
b y = 24x
c y = 2 2x
d y = 3 2x
e y = 2x
x
x
x
x

1
f y=2
g y=2 +1
h y=2 3
i y=2
j y = 2x + 5
Each of the following functions is a translation of f (x) = 10x. State how far each graph is translated, and
in which direction.
a f (x) = 10 x + 4
b f (x) = 10 x 2
c f (x) = 10 x + 2
d f (x) = 10 x 3
x
x
x

1
e f (x) = 10 3
f f (x) = 2 + 10
g f (x) = 10
h f (x) = 102 + x
x
+
1
x

4
x

3
i f (x) = 5 + 10
j f (x) = 10
+2
k f (x) = 10
4
l f (x) = 10 x + 2 3
Write down the domain and range for each of the following graphs and the equations for the horizontal
asymptotes.
i

4
5
6
7

6
4
2 (0, 2)
y=0
x
0
3 2 1
1 2

170

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

6
4
4 (0, 4)
2

(0, 2)
y=1

3 2 1

0 1

y=3

2
3 2 1

0 1

y
2

e
y=1

3 2 1 0

x
y=2

3 2 1

y=1

(1, 0)

4 (0, 4)

1 0

1 2

2 (0, 2)
0

1 2 3

10 If the graph of f (x) = 2x is translated 1 unit up and reflected in the x-axis, what is the new equation?
11 If the graph of f (x) = 1 2x + 3 is translated 2 units to the right and dilated by factor 3 from the x-axis,

what is the new equation?


12 MC The domain and range of the graph of f (x) = 102x 1 + 3 are respectively:
a R, R
B R, [1, )
C [3, ), R
D [1, ), R
e R, (3, )
13 MC The y-intercept of the graph of f (x) = 10x + 1 is:
a 1
B 2
e 11
C 1
D 2
x

1
14 MC When the graph of f (x) = 2
4 is translated 3units down and 2 units to the left, it becomes:
a f (x) = 2x 3 7
B f (x) = 2x 3 1
C f (x) = 2x + 1 7
x
+
1
x

2
D f (x) = 2
1
e f (x) = 2
6
15 Under certain conditions a mathobacillus bacterial colony doubles its numbers every minute. The

population can be modelled by:

P = 50 2t
where P is the number of bacteria t minutes after counting has begun.
a Find the number of bacteria when t = 0.
b Find the number of bacteria after 3 minutes.
c Sketch the graph of the population as a function of time.

4B

logarithmic graphs to any base

The function f (x) = loga (x) is a logarithmic function where a is a positive, real number which is not 1
(that is, a R+\{1}). Logarithms to base 10 appear in many scientific formulas. An example of this is the
intensity of earthquakes which is measured on the Richter scale.
Remember that loga (x) does not exist when x < 0.
In this course only graphs of functions where a > 1 are considered. Graphs with a positive coefficient
of x will be considered first.

Graphs of f (x) = log2 (x) and f (x) = log10 (x)


The graphs of f (x) = log2 (x) and f (x) = log10 (x) are shown below.
Asymptote
y x= 0
(2, 1)
2
(1, 0)
1
1 0
1
2

2 3

f (x) = log2 (x)

Asymptote
x= 0

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

(10, 1)

(1, 0)
2 4 6 8 10

f (x) = log10 (x)

These graphs have a number of common features:


1. They are both increasing functions; that is, as x , y .
2. Both graphs cross the x-axis at the point (1, 0), as loga (1) = 0
3. The y-axis is a vertical asymptote, so there is no y-intercept. This is because loga (0) is undefined.
4. There are no negative values of x because the log of a negative number does not exist.
5. Another point on the graph is (a, 1), where a is the base because loga (a) = (1).
6. The domain is R+.
7. The range is R.
8. It can be seen that the smaller the value of a, the steeper the graph or the more rapidly the graph rises.
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

171

Dilation
Dilation from the x-axis
If the coefficient of loga (x) is changed to a positive real number greater than 1, the graph is stretched
along the y-axis and is said to be dilated from the x-axis. This could be written
f (x) = A loga (x) where A is the dilation factor. The graph is stretched along the y-axis
because each y-value is being multiplied by the constant, A. In mapping notation, a dilation factor of A
from the x-axis, where A > 0, is given by (x, y) (x, Ay).
The asymptote, x-intercept, domain and range are the same for all graphs of the form
f (x) = A loga (x).
Graphs with different values of A can be more easily compared by drawing them on the same axes.
The graphs of g(x) = 2 log10 (x), f (x) = log10 (x) and h(x) = 1 log10 (x) are drawn below. Notice that, as
2
A increases, the graph becomes steeper.
Asymptote
y x= 0
(10, 2) g(x) = 2 log10 (x)
1
0

(10, 1) f(x) = log10 (x)


h(x) = 12 log10 (x)
1
(10, 2 )
x
2 4 6 8 10

f (x) = log10 (x)

g(x) = 2 log10 (x)

h(x) = 12 log10 (x)

x-intercept

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

y-intercept

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

x=0

x=0

x=0

1
2

(10, 1)

(10, 2)

Domain
Range
Vertical asymptote
Dilation factor from the x-axis
A point on the graph

1
2

(x, y) (x, 2y)

Mapping

(10, )
(x, y) (x , y)
1
2

1
2

Note: h(x) = 1 log10 (x) can be written as h(x) = log10 (x ) and is drawn in the same way.
2

Dilation from the y-axis


If the coefficient of x is changed to a positive
real number not equal to 1, the graph is
stretched along the x-axis and is said to be
dilated from the y-axis. This could be written
1
f (x) = loga (kx), where is the dilation
k
factor. When k > 1, the graph moves away
from the x-axis.
To see the effect of a dilation from the
x-axis the graphs g(x) = log10 (2x), f (x) = log10
(x) and h(x) = log10 ( 1 x) are drawn at right.
2

172

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y Asymptote
x= 0
1

g(x) = log10 (2x)


f(x) = log10 (x)

( 12 , 0)
0

h(x) = log10 (2 x)
2 (2, 0)
(1, 0)

h(x) = log10

( x)
1
2

f (x) = log10 (x)

g(x) = log10 (2x)

x-intercept

(1, 0)

( ,0)

(2, 0)

y-intercept

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

x=0

x=0

x=0

1
2

(10, 1)

(5, 1)

(20, 1)

Domain
Range
Horizontal asymptote
Dilation factor from the y-axis
Another point on the graph
Mapping

1
2

(x, y)

1
2

(x, y) (2x, y)

x, y

For all graphs discussed so far (that is, of the form y = A loga (kx), A R+\{1}, k > 0), the
maximal domain is R+, the range is R, the y-axis is the vertical asymptote and they are all
increasing functions. The graphs have varied in their x-intercepts. The dilation factor from
1
the x-axis is A and the dilation factor from the y-axis is . In mapping notation, (x, y) 1 x, Ay .
k
k

If the base is 2, the graph is steeper than when the base is 10 but the
vertical asymptote, intercept, domain and range stay the same as for
f (x) = A log10 (kx).
The graphs of f (x) = 2 log10 (3x) and f (x) = 2 log2 (3x) are shown
at right.
1. The vertical asymptote is the y-axis.
2. The x-intercept is 1 .
3
3. The domain is R+ and the range is R.
4. The basic graph is dilated by factor 2 from the x-axis and factor
1
from the y-axis.
3

Asymptote
y x=0
f(x) = 2 log2 (3x)
2
1

( 3 , 0)
1

f(x) = 2 log10 (3x)


2

WorkeD exaMple 4

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 3 log10 (2x), showing the intercepts and the asymptote, and state the
domain, range and the kind of transformation.
think

Write/DraW

Write the rule.

f (x) = 3 log10 (2x)

State the basic shape.

A logarithmic graph with basic shape


f (x) = log10 (x)

Find the vertical asymptote (log10 (0) is


undefined).

The vertical asymptote is the y-axis.

Find the x-intercept.


Remember that log10 (1) = 0.

x-intercept:
Let y = 0,
3 log10 (2x) = 0
2x = 1
x = 13
The x-intercept is 1 .

Find the y-intercept.

There are no y-intercepts.

Mark another point on the graph. Choose one


which makes 2x equal the base.

Let x = 5, y = 3 log10 (10)


=31
=3
Coordinates are (5, 3).

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

173

Asymptote
y x=0
3

Sketch the graph.

(5, 3)
f(x) = 3 log10 (2x)

( 2 , 0)

3
8

State the domain and the range.

The domain is R+ and the range is R.

State the transformations.

The dilations are of factor 3 from the x-axis and


factor 1 from the y-axis.
3

translation
Translations may be either vertical or horizontal.

Ver tical translation


If a constant is added to the function, the graph is moved up or down and is said to be translated
vertically.
The graphs of f (x) = log10 (x), g(x) = log10 (x) + 1 and h(x) = log10 (x) 1 are drawn and compared.
y Asymptote
x=0
2

g(x) = log10 (x) + 1


f(x) = log10 (x)

1
0
1

h(x) = log10 (x) 1


2

12 x

10

2
3

f (x) = log10 (x)

g(x) = log10 (x) + 1

1
10 ,

h(x) = log10 (x) 1

x-intercept

(1, 0)

y-intercept

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

Vertical asymptote

x=0

x=0

x=0

Vertical translation

1 unit up

1 unit down

(1, 0)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

(x, y) (x, y + 1)

(x, y) (x, y 1)

Domain
Range

A point on the graph


Mapping

(10, 0)

horizontal translation
If a constant is added to x, the graph of f (x) = log10 (x) is translated horizontally.
The graphs of f (x) = log10 (x), g(x) = log10 (x + 1) and h(x) = log10 (x 1) are drawn.
174

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

f (x) = log10 (x)

g(x) = log10 (x + 1)

h(x) = log10 (x 1)

x-intercept

(1, 0)

(0, 0)

(2, 0)

y-intercept

R+ = (0, )

(1, )

(1, )

x=0

x = 1

x=1

1 unit to left

1 unit to right

(10, 1)

(9, 1)

(11, 1)

(x, y) (x 1, y)

(x, y) (x + 1, y)

Domain
Range
Vertical asymptote
Horizontal translation
A point on the graph
Mapping

y
2
g(x) = log10 (x + 1)

1
2 1

0 1

f(x) = log10 (x)


h(x) = log10 (x 1)

2
x = 1

x=1

For all graphs of the form f (x) = loga (x + b) + B, where b and B R and a R+\{1}, the maximal
domain is (b, ), the range is R, the vertical asymptote is x=b and they are all increasing
functions. The graph has exactly the same shape as f (x) = loga (x). The horizontal translation is b
and the vertical translation is B. In mapping notation, (x, y) (x b, y + B).
WorkeD exaMple 5

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 1 + log10 (x + 2), showing intercepts and asymptotes,
and stating the domain, range and transformations. Give intercepts to
1 decimal place.
think

Write/DraW

Write the rule.

f (x) = 1 + log10 (x + 2)

State the basic shape.

Logarithmic graph, basic shape


f (x) = log10 (x)

Find the vertical asymptote (log10 (0) is


undefined).

x+2=0
x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.

Find the x-intercept.

If y = 0,

Use the law ax = y loga(y) = x.

x + 2 = 10 1
x = 0.1 2
= 1.9

The x-intercept is 1.9.

tUtorial
eles-1206
Worked example 5

1 + log10 (x + 2) = 0
log10 (x + 2) = 1

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

175

Find the y-intercept.

Sketch the graph.

If x = 0, y = 1 + log10 (0 + 2) (exact answer)


1 + 0.301 03
1.3, correct to 1 decimal place
The y-intercept is 1.3.
Asymptote y
x = 2
2

(0, 1.3)

(1.9, 0)
0

x
4 6 8
f(x) = 1 + log10 (x + 2)

State the domain and the range.

The domain is (2, ) and the range is R.

State the translations.

The horizontal translation is 2 units to the left and


the vertical translation is 1 unit up.

reflections
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with logarithmic
functions and their
transformations.

If there is a negative sign in front of the loga (x) term, the graph is
reflected in the x-axis. The mapping is (x, y) (x, y).
The graphs of f (x) = log10 (x) and g(x) = log10 (x) are shown at right.
f (x) = log10 (x)

g(x) = log10 (x)

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

x-intercept
y-intercept
Domain

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

x=0

x=0

(10, 1)

(10, 1)

Vertical asymptote
A point on the graph

(1, 0)
0
1

Range

Asymptote
y x=0
f(x) = log10 (x)
1
(10, 1)
2

6 8 10

g(x) =

(10, 1)
10 (x)

log

(x, y) (x, y)

Mapping

If there is a negative sign in front of the x term, the graph is reflected in the y-axis. The mapping is
(x, y) (x, y).
The graphs of f (x) = log10 (x) and g(x) = log10 (x) are shown below right.
f (x) = log10 (x)

g(x) = log10 (x)

x-intercept

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

y-intercept

Domain
Range
Vertical asymptote
A point on the graph
Mapping

176

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

R = (0, )

(,

x=0

x=0

(10, 1)

(10, 1)

Asymptote
y x=0
g(x) = log10 (x) f(x) = log10 (x)
1
(10, 1)
(10, 1)
(1, 0)

0)

(x, y) (x, y)

10

2
1

(1, 0)
2

10

WorkeD exaMple 6

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 log10 (3 x) 2, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the
domain, range and transformations. Give exact values or round to 3 decimal places.
think

Write/DraW

Write the rule.

f (x) = 2 log10 (3 x) 2

State the basic shape.

Logarithmic graph, f (x) = log10 (x)

Find the vertical asymptote (log10 (0)


undefined).

For the vertical asymptote,


3x=0
x = 3 is the vertical asymptote.

Find the x-intercept.

If y = 0,

Find the y-intercept.

If x = 0, y = 2 log10 (3) 2
= 1.046 (to 3 decimal places)
The y-intercept is 1.046.

Sketch the graph.

2 log10 (3 x) 2 = 0
2 log10 (3 x) = 2
log10 (3 x) = 1
3 x = 101
x = 7

The x-intercept is 7.

(7, 0)

x
6 4 2 0 2
Asymptote
(0, 2 log10 (3) 2)
x=3
2

f (x) = 2 log10 (3 x) 2
7

State the domain and the range.

The domain is (, 3) and the range is R.

State the transformations.

Reflection in the y-axis, dilation 2 units from the


x-axis, vertical translation 2 units down, horizontal
translation 3 units to the right

exercise 4B
1

logarithmic graphs to any base

Find the vertical asymptote of each of the following functions.


a f (x) = log2 (x)
b f (x) = log10 (x)
d f (x) = 5 log2 (x)
e f (x) = log2 (3x)
g f (x) = 3 log10 (2x)
h f (x) = 2 log2 (3x)

c f (x) = 2 log10 (x)


f f (x) = log10 (4x)

Sketch the graph of each of the functions in question 1, showing the intercepts and
asymptotes, and stating the domain and range of each one.

2 We4
3

State the horizontal and vertical translations required to transform f (x) = log2 (x) into the following
functions.
a f (x) = log2 (x + 2)
b f (x) = log2 (x + 1)
c f (x) = log2 (x 3)
d f (x) = log2 (x 4)
e f (x) = 1 + log2 (x 5)
f f (x) = log2 (x 3) + 2
g f (x) = 2 + log2 (x + 1)
h f (x) = 3 + log2 (x + 1)
i f (x) = log2 (x + 3) 2
j f (x) = log2 (x + 1) 2

4 We5 Sketch the graph of each of the functions in question 3, showing the intercepts and asymptotes,

and stating the domain and the range of each one.


5 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the

domain, range and the transformation of f (x) = log10 (x).


a f (x) = log10 (x)
b f (x) = 2 log10 (x)

d f (x) = 3 log10 ( x)
e f (x) = 1 log10 (x)
g f (x) = 2 + log10 (x)
h f (x) = 2 log10 (x)

c f (x) = log10 (x)


f f (x) = 1 + log10 (x)

DiGital DoC
doc-9191
Spreadsheet
logarithmic graphs

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

177

6 Sketch the graph of f (x) = log2 (2x 1), showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the domain,

range and transformations of the graph f (x) = log2 (x).

7 We6 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and

stating the domain and range of each one. Give exact values or round to 1 decimal place.
a f (x) = 2 log2 (x) + 3
b f (x) = 3 log10 (x) + 1
c f (x) = log10 (1 x)
d f (x) = log10 (3 x)
e f (x) = 1 2 log2 (x)
f f (x) = 2 5 log10 (x)
g f (x) = 3 log10 (x + 1) 2
h f (x) = 4 log2 (x 2) 1
i f (x) = 1 + 2 log10 (3x)
j f (x) = 3 4 log10 (2x)
8 Each graph in question 7 is a transformation of the graph of f (x) = loga (x), a = 2, 10. State the base of

each graph and the kinds of transformation that have taken place.

9 Sketch the graph of f: R R where f (x) = 3 log2 (2 x) + 1, showing all key features and stating the

domain and range.

10 Sketch the graph of f: [0, 10] R where f (x) = 3 log10 (x + 1) 2, showing key features.
11 MC When the function f (x) = log2 (x + 2) is translated 2 units up and 3 units to the left, the function

becomes:
a f (x) = log2 (x + 4) + 3
C f (x) = log2 (x 1) + 2
e f (x) = log2 (x + 1) + 2

DiGital DoC
doc-9192
WorkSHEET 4.1

B f (x) = log2 (x + 5) + 2
D f (x) = log2 (x + 5) 3

Graphs of exponential functions


with base e
4C

Graphs of exponential functions with base e are drawn in exactly


the same way as with any other base. The graph of f (x) = ex can be
dilated, translated and reflected in the same way. The graphs of
f (x) = ex, g(x) = 2x and h(x) = 10x are shown at right. The graph of
f (x) = ex is shown in red.
It can be seen that h(x) = 10x is steeper than f (x) = ex and
h(x) = 2x is less steep than f (x) = ex.

y
4
3
2

Features common to all


three graphs

h(x) = 10x
f(x) = ex

g(x) = 2x
(1, e)
(1, 2)
Asymptote
(0, 1)
y=0
x
0
2
1

1. The graphs all cross the y-axis at the point (0, 1).
2. The horizontal asymptote is the x-axis or the line y = 0.
3. The domain is R.
4. The range is R+.
5. They are all increasing functions.
WorkeD exaMple 7

State the transformations of f (x) = ex needed to form the graph of f (x) = 2 e3x 1.
think
1

Write the rule.

f (x) = 2e3x 1

State the dilation. The coefficient of ex gives


the dilation from the x-axis.
The reciprocal of the coefficient of x gives
the dilation from the y-axis.

Dilation by a factor of 2 units from the x-axis

State the translation. The vertical translation is


given by the constant added to the ex term.

The graph is translated 1 unit down.

178

Write/DraW

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Dilation by a factor of 13 units from the y-axis

WorkeD exaMple 8

Sketch the graph of f (x) = ex. On the same set of axes sketch the graph of f (x) = ex 2, marking
the asymptote and y-intercept, and state the transformation, the domain and the range.
Give exact answers.
think

Write/DraW

Write the rule for the first graph.

f (x) = ex

State the basic shape.

Exponential curve

State the horizontal asymptote.

The horizontal asymptote is the x-axis.

Find the y-intercept by making x = 0.

If x = 0, y = e0
y = 1 is the y-intercept.

Draw the graph.

f(x) = ex

Asymptote y = 0

(0, 1)
3 2 1 0

2 3

Write the rule for the second graph.

f (x) = ex 2

State the transformation. The horizontal


translation is given by the constant added
to the x term.

The horizontal translation is 2 units to the right.

State the horizontal asymptote, which is the


same as for f (x) = ex.

The horizontal asymptote is the x-axis.

Find the y-intercept by making x = 0.

If x = 0, y = e0 2

y=e 2
=

10

Sketch the graph on the same set of axes.

y
2
(0, 1)

1
e2
f(x) = ex
f(x) = e (x 2)

2
(0, e )
Asymptote y = 0.
(2, 1)

3 2 1 0
11

12

Check the accuracy of your graph by


transforming the point (0, 1) and marking it
on your graph.
State the domain and the range which are the
same for both graphs.

2 3

(0, 1) (2, 1)

The domain is R and the range is R+.

For graphs of y = Aekx, k > 0 the coefficient of the ex term shows the dilation of A from the
1
x-axis and the reciprocal of the coefficient of the x term shows the dilation of from the y-axis.
k
1
The mapping is (x, y) ( x, Ay).
k
WorkeD exaMple 9

Sketch the graph of y = 3e2x, marking the asymptote and intercept, and state the transformations,
domain and range.
think

Write/DraW

Write the rule.

f (x) = 3e2x

State the basic shape.

Exponential curve
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

179

State the transformations.

Dilation by a factor of 3 units from the x-axis and


dilation by a factor of 12 unit from the y-axis

Find the asymptote, recognising that it is


unchanged by dilation.

The horizontal asymptote is the x-axis.

Find the y-intercept by making x = 0 or


by multiplying y-values of f (x) = ex by
3. (0, 1) (0, 3)

If x = 0,

y = 3e2 0
=31
=3
so y-intercept is 3.
y
4
2

Sketch the graph.

State the domain and range.

(0, 3)

f (x) = 3e2x
Asymptote y = 0

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

The domain is R and the range is R+.

The vertical translation is given by the constant added to the ex term. The horizontal translation is given
by the constant added to the x term.

WorkeD exaMple 10

Sketch the graph of f (x) = ex 2 + 1, marking the asymptote and intercept, and
state the transformations, domain and range. Find the y-intercept correct to
2 decimal places.
think

Write/DraW

Write the rule.

f (x) = ex 2 + 1

State the basic shape.

Exponential curve

State the transformations.

The horizontal translation is 2 units to the right and


the vertical translation is 1 unit up.

Find the asymptote by translating the


asymptote of f (x) = ex up one unit.

The horizontal asymptote is y = 1.

Find the y-intercept.

If x = 0, y 1.14 (to 2 decimal places)


so the y-intercept is 1.14.

Find another point by translating the


y-intercept of f (x) = ex to the right by
2 units and up by 1 unit.

(0, 1) (2, 2)

Sketch the graph.

y
(0, 1.14) 2
1 0

180

tUtorial
eles-1207
Worked example 10

State the domain and the range.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

(2, 2)

Asymptote
y=1
3

f (x) = ex 2 + 1

The domain is R and the range is (1, ).

A reflection in the x-axis is shown by a negative sign before the ex term.


A reflection in the y-axis is shown by a negative sign before the x term.
WorkeD exaMple 11

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 e x, marking the asymptote and intercepts. State the
transformations, domain and range. Give exact answers. Check using a CAS calculator.
think

Write/DraW
x

State the rule.

f (x) = 2 e

State the basic shape.

Exponential curve

State the transformations.

A reflection in the x-axis and a reflection


in the y-axis. The vertical translation is
2 units up.

Find the horizontal asymptote by translating


the asymptote of f (x) = ex up 2 units.

The horizontal asymptote is y = 2.

Find the y-intercept by making x = 0 or by


reflecting (0, 1) in the x-axis and translating it up
2 units.

If x = 0,

Find the x-intercept by making y = 0


and solving the equation.

If y = 0,

y=2e 0
=21
=1
or (0, 1) (0, 1) (0, 1)
The y-intercept is 1.

1
ex
loge (ex) = x loge (e)
=x1

2e x=0

e x=2
1
=2
ex
ex = 12

e x=

loge (ex) = loge 1


2

x=

loge 1
2

so the x-intercept is loge 12 .


7

Sketch the graph.

y
2

(loge( 12 ), 0)

Asymptote
y=2
(0, 1)
0
1

f (x) = 2 e
x

The domain is R and the range is (, 2).

State the domain and the range.

The graphs of f (x) = e2x, g(x) = e2x 1 and h(x) = e2x 2 are drawn below.
y

f(x) = e 2x
g(x) = e 2x 1

h(x) = e 2x 2

(0, 1)
1
(0, e1)
1

(1, 1)
( 12 , 1)
Asymptote
(0, e2) y = 0
x
1

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

181

f (x) = e2x

g(x) = e2x 1
2 x
=e ( )

h(x) = e2x 2
= e2(x 1)

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

0, 1 = 0, e 1
)

(
e

0, 1 = 0, e 2
)

(
e2

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

y=0

y=0

Domain
Range
Horizontal asymptote

1
2

y=0
1
2

Horizontal translation
A point on the graph

1 unit to right

unit to right

( , 1)
1
2

(0, 1)

(1, 1)

In summary, transformations can be represented in the following way:


1. Dilation by factor A from the x-axis can be written as y = Af (x), A > 0.
1
2. (a) Dilation by factor from the y-axis can be written as y = f (kx), k > 0.
k
(b) Dilation by factor k from the y-axis can be written as y = f 1k x , k > 0.

( )

3. (a)
(b)
4. (a)
(b)
5. (a)
(b)

Translation of B units up can be written as y = f (x) + B, B > 0.


Translation of B units down can be written as y = f (x) B, B > 0.
Translation of b units to the right can be written as y = f (x b), b > 0.
Translation of b units to the left can be written as y = f (x + b), b > 0.
Reflection in the x-axis can be written as y = f (x).
Reflection in the y-axis can be written as y = f (x).

exercise 4C

base e

Graphs of exponential functions with

1 We7 State the transformations of f (x) = ex needed to form each of the following functions.
a f (x) = e3x
x
3

d f (x) = 2e
g f (x) = 3 e2x

b f (x) = e2x

c f (x) = 4e 2

e f (x) = 1 + ex 2
h f (x) = 1 e3x

f
i

f (x) = 2 + ex + 5
f (x) = 3e2 + x 1

For each of the following examples sketch the graph of f (x) = ex. On the same set of
axes, sketch the graph of the given functions, marking the asymptote and y-intercept, and state the
transformation, the domain and the range. Give exact answers.
a f (x) = ex 1
b f (x) = ex 3
c f (x) = 2ex
x
x
d f (x) = 3e
e f (x) = 1 + e
f f (x) = ex 2
2

x
1

x
g f (x) = e
h f (x) = e
i f (x) = 3 ex

2 We8

DiGital DoC
doc-9190
Spreadsheet
exponential functions

3 We9 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, marking the asymptote and intercept, and

stating the transformations, domain and range. For the intercepts give exact answers or correct to
1decimal place where appropriate.
a f (x) = e3x
b f (x) = e2x
c f (x) = 4ex
1
2

d f (x) = 2ex

e f (x) = e4x

g f (x) = 2e3x

h f (x) = 3e4x

f (x) = 1 e2x
4

Sketch the graph of each of the following, marking the asymptote and intercepts, and stating
the transformations, domain and range. Mark the y-intercepts as exact values.
a f (x) = ex + 3
b f (x) = ex 3
c f (x) = ex + 1
x
x
+
1
d f (x) = e + 2
e f (x) = e
+2
f f (x) = ex + 2 + 1
x

1
x

2
g f (x) = e
+3
h f (x) = e
+5
i f (x) = ex + 2 1

4 We10

182

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

5 We11 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, marking the asymptote and intercepts,

and stating the transformations, domain and range. For intercepts, give exact answers or correct to
1decimal place where appropriate.

a f (x) = e x
b f (x) = ex
c f (x) = 1 ex
x
x
d f (x) = 2 + e
e f (x) = 1 + e
f f (x) = 1 + ex
x
x

g f (x) = 3 e
h f (x) = 5 e
i f (x) = 2e x
6 Sketch f: R R where f (x) = e2x 3 1, marking all the key features and stating the domain and range.

Write answers correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate.


7 Sketch f: [0, ) R where f (x) = ex 2 1, marking all the key features and stating the domain and

range, giving answers correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate.


8 If f (x) = ex, sketch the following functions.
a y = f (x) + 1

b y = f (x) 2

e y = 1 f (x)
i y = f (x)

f
j

y = 2 f (x)
y = 1 + f (x)

1
2

c y = 2f (x)

d y = f (x)

g y = f (x + 1)

h y = f (x 2)

9 MC The graph with equation y = e2x + 3 is translated so that the new graph has a horizontal asymptote

of y = 1. The new graph has undergone a translation of:


a 1 unit down
B 2 units down
D 4 units down
e 5 units down

C 3 units down

10 MC An increasing exponential function has a horizontal asymptote of y = 2 and a y-intercept of 4. A

possible equation for this exponential is:


B y = e4x + 2
e y = 2ex + 2

a y = e2x + 4
D y = 2ex + 4

C y = e2x 4

11 The graph shown is modelled by the equation y = 2ex b + B.


a Find the values of B and b.
b If the graph was translated down 1 unit, translated 3 units to the left

and dilated by factor


new graph.

1
2

y
4
3
2

from the x-axis, write the equation of the


2 1

4D

(3, 3)
Asymptote
y=1
0 1 2 3

logarithmic graphs to base e

Graphs of logarithmic functions with base e are drawn in exactly the same way as with any other base.
The function f (x) can be dilated, translated and reflected in the same way.
The graphs of f (x) = log2 (x), g(x) = log10 (x) and h(x) = loge (x) are shown below. The graph of
h(x) = loge (x) is in blue.
f (x) = log2 (x) and h(x) = loge (x) are steeper than g(x) = log10 (x).
Remember h(x) = loge (x) h(x) = ln (x)
y Asymptote
x=0
2
(1, 0)
1
1 0
1

1 2 3 4 5

f(x) = log2 (x)


h(x) = loge (x)
g(x) = log10 (x)
x

Common features
1. The graphs all cross the x-axis at (1, 0) because loga (1) = 0.
2. The vertical asymptote is the y-axis (x = 0) because loga (0) is undefined.
3. The domain is R+.
4. The range is R.
5. They are all increasing functions.
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

183

WorkeD exaMple 12

State the transformations of f (x) needed to form the graph of f (x) = 2 loge (x 3) + 1.
think

Write

State the rule.

f (x) = 2 loge (x 3) + 1.

State the dilation. The coefficient of loge (x)


gives the dilation from the x-axis.

Dilation is 2 units from the x-axis.

State the translations.


(a) Horizontal translation is given by the
constant added to the x term.
(b) Vertical translation is given by the constant
added to the log term.

Horizontal translation is 3 units to the right.

Vertical translation is 1 unit up.

Dilations do not change the vertical asymptote, the domain or the range of a logarithmic graph. The
x-intercept does change, however.
WorkeD exaMple 13

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 3 loge (2x), marking all key features and stating the domain
and range.
think

Write/DraW

Write the rule.

f (x) = 3 loge (2x)

State the basic shape of the curve.

A log graph with basic shape f (x) = loge (x).

State the vertical asymptote, which occurs at


loge (0).

Vertical asymptote is the y-axis.

Find the x-intercept by letting y equal 0.


Solve for x. Divide both sides by 3.
Use loge (x) = a ea = x.
Use e0 = 1.
Divide both sides by 2.

If y = 0, 3 loge (2x) = 0
loge (2x) = 0
e0 = 2x
2x = 1
x = 12
The x-intercept is 1 .

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 3 loge (2x).

y Asymptote
x=0
6
4
2
1 0
2

State the domain and the range.

f (x) = 3 loge (2x)


( 12 ,
1

0)
2 3

The domain is R+, and the range is R.

Translations do not change the shape of the basic graph, only the position. The asymptotes, intercepts
and domain may change but the range stays the same.
WorkeD exaMple 14

Sketch the graph of f (x) = ln (x + 1) 2, marking the vertical asymptote and the intercepts.
think

184

Write/DraW

State the rule.

f (x) = ln (x + 1) 2

State the basic shape.

Log graph with shape f (x) = ln (x).

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Find the vertical asymptote by making


(x + 1) = 0.

x + 1 = 0 for asymptote
so x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.

Find the y-intercept by making x equal to 0.


Remember that ln (1) = 0.

If x = 0, y = ln (0 + 1) 2
= ln (1) 2
= 2
y-intercept = 2.

Find the x-intercept by making y equal to 0.


Use ln (x) = a ea = x.

If y = 0,

Sketch the graph.

ln (x + 1) 2 = 0
ln (x + 1) = 2
e2 = x + 1
x = e2 1
x 6.39
x-intercept 6.39 (to 2 decimal places)
Asymptote
x = 1
y
2

2
2 (0, 2)

(e2 1, 0)
4 6 x

f (x) = ln (x + 1) 2

A reflection of f (x) = loge (x) in the x-axis does not change the graphs asymptote, x-intercept, domain or
range. If there is a y-intercept, the sign changes.
A reflection in the y-axis does not change the vertical asymptote or the range, but the x-intercept and
the domain change.
WorkeD exaMple 15

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 3 loge (1 x), marking the asymptote and intercepts.
State the domain and range.
think

Write/DraW

State the rule.

f (x) = 2 3 loge (1 x)

Find the vertical asymptote by translating the


line x = 0 one unit to the right or by making
1 x = 0.

Vertical asymptote is x = 1.

Find the y-intercept by making x equal to 0 and


solving the equation.

If x = 0, y = 2 3 loge (1)
=2

Find the x-intercept by making y equal to 0.

If y = 0, 2 3 loge (1 x) = 0
3 loge (1 x) = 2
2
loge (1 x) = 3

tUtorial
eles-1208
Worked example 15

e3 = 1 x

x = 1 e3

x 0.95 (to 2 decimal places)


5

Sketch the graph, remembering that there is a


reflection in both the x- and the y-axes.

y
4
(0, 2)
2
(1 e 3 , 0)

f (x) = 2 3 loge (1 x)

x
2 1 0 1
2 Asymptote
x=1
6

State the domain and the range.

The domain is (, 1) and the range is R.

To sketch a graph by using transformations it is necessary to dilate, reflect and then translate.
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

185

exercise 4D

logarithmic graphs to base e

1 We12 State the transformations of f (x) needed to form the graph of each of the following.
a f (x) = 5 loge (2x)
b f (x) = 2 loge (4x)
c f (x) = loge (x + 1) 3
d f (x) = loge (x 2) + 1
e f (x) = loge (x)
f f (x) = loge (2x)
g f (x) = 1 loge (x 2)
h f (x) = 2 loge (x + 3)
i f (x) = 3 loge (x + 4) 1
j f (x) = 1 loge (x 4)
k f (x) = 2 loge (1 x) + 3
l f (x) = 3 loge (2 x) 1

Sketch the graph of the following functions, marking all key features and stating the domain
and range. Give exact values.
a f (x) = loge (2x)
b f (x) = loge (3x)
c f (x) = 3 loge (x)

2 We13
DiGital DoC
doc-9191
logarithmic graphs

d f (x) = 2 loge (x)

e f (x) = 2 loge

()
x
3

f (x) = 3 loge (2x)

3 We14 Sketch the graph of the following functions, marking the vertical asymptote and the intercepts.
Give exact answers for a f, otherwise round to 1 decimal place.
a f (x) = 1 + loge (x)
b f (x) = 2 + loge (x)
c f (x) = loge (x 1)
d f (x) = loge (x 2)
e f (x) = loge (x + 2)
f f (x) = loge (x + 3)
g f (x) = loge (x 3) + 2
h f (x) = loge (x 1) + 1
i f (x) = loge (x + 3) 2
j f (x) = loge (x + 1) 2
4 We15 Sketch the graph of the following functions, marking the asymptote and intercepts, and stating

the domain and range. Give intercepts correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate.
f (x) = loge (x)
b f (x) = loge (x)
c f (x) = 2 loge (x)

f (x) = loge ( 2x)


e f (x) = 3 loge ( 2x)
f f (x) = 2 loge (4x)
f (x) = loge (1 x)
h f (x) = loge (2 x)
i f (x) = loge (2 x)
f (x) = loge (3 x)

a
d
g
j

5 The graph of f (x) = loge (x) undergoes the following transformations. Find the equation of the image of

f (x) in each case.


a Translation of 1 unit to the right.
b Translation of 2 units down.
c Dilation of 5 units from the x-axis.
d Dilation of 3 units from the y-axis.
e Reflection in the x-axis.
f Reflection in the y-axis.
g Reflection in the x-axis and translation of 3 units to the left.
h Dilation of 4 units from the y-axis and translation 1 unit up.
i Reflection in the x-axis, dilation of 2 units from the x-axis and translation of 3 units down.

6 Sketch the graphs of the equations found in question 5, showing the asymptote and intercepts, and

stating the domain and the range. Give intercepts correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate.
7 State the transformations of f (x) needed to form the graph of f (x) = 2 loge (3x + 6) 1 and sketch the

graph, showing the asymptote and intercepts. Give intercepts correct to 2 decimal places.

8 Sketch the graph of f: (, 1] R where f (x) = 3 loge (2 x), showing key features.
9 MC The graph of y = loge (x) is transformed into the graph of y=5loge(2x) by:
a A dilation of factor 5 from the x-axis and a dilation of factor 2 from the y-axis
B A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis and a dilation of factor 5 from the y-axis
C A dilation of factor 1 from the x-axis and a dilation of factor 2 from the y-axis
5
1
D A dilation of factor 5 from the x-axis and a dilation of factor from the y-axis
2
1
e A dilation of factor from the x-axis and a dilation of factor 5 from the y-axis.
2

10 MC For the function f (x) = 3 loge (x 2), the vertical asymptote and the coordinates of the

x-intercept are respectively:

a x = 3, (2, 0)
D y = 2, (3, 0)

B x = 2, (3, 0)
e x = 3, (3, 0)

11 MC The function f: [0.5, 6] R where f (x) =


a 0
D 6

B 0.5
e a

C y = 3, (2, 0)

a
is undefined when x is equal to:
logge ( x )
C 1

12 a When the function f (x) = a + b loge (x) is reflected in the x-axis and

translated 2 units to the right, find g(x), the equation of the image of f (x).

DiGital DoC
doc-9193
WorkSHEET 4.2

186

b State the domain and range of g(x) and write it using correct function notation.
c If g(x) is reflected in the y-axis and dilated by factor 4 from the x-axis, write in correct function

notation the equation of h(x), the image of g(x).

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Finding equations for graphs of


exponential and logarithmic functions
4e

As with other functions, it is sometimes necessary to be able to determine the equation of an exponential
or logarithmic function from its graph.
If we know points on the curve, we can substitute the values into the most suitable general equation:
1. For an exponential graph the general equation is y = Ae(x + b) + B.
2. For a logarithmic graph the general equation is y = A loge (x + b) + B.
Both of these examples are written with base e but they could be written with any base, for example
y = A 2(x + b) + B or y = A log10 (x + b) + B.
If there are two unknowns, two pieces of information are necessary. The coordinates of two points,
substituted into a general equation, will give two equations and enable two unknowns to be found.

WorkeD exaMple 16

y
4

The equation of the graph shown is of the form f (x) = Aex + B.


Find the values of A and B correct to 2 decimal places and hence
find the equation of the function.

(0, 2)
(2.44, 0)
0 1 x

4 3 2 1
think
1

2
3
4

Use the point on the y-axis and substitute


values into the given equation.
Substitute the coordinates of another point into
the given equation.
Solve simultaneous equations by subtracting
[1] from [2].

Write

For (0, 2):


2 = Ae0 + B
2=A+B
(2.44,
2.44

For
0 = Ae

[1]

0):
+B

[2] [1]:

Find A, rounding the answer correctly.

[2]
2.44

= Ae
A

= A(e 2.44 1)
2

A=

Substitute in [1]: 2 =

e
1
2.19 (to 2 decimal places)

Find B by substituting the exact value of A in


equation [1] or [2] to find B.

2.44

2.44

B=2

e
0.19

Rewrite the original equation, substituting


values for A and B.

1
2
2.44

+B
1

f (x) = 2.19ex 0.19

Note: You can use a CAS calculator to solve


equations [3] and [2].
1

Enter the following into your CAS calculator.

solve (a + b = 2 and a e 2.44 + b = 0, a)

a = 2.190 97
b = 0.190 967

Write down the solutions correct to


2 decimal places.

A = 2.19 and B = 0.19

The horizontal asymptote of an exponential equation gives the vertical translation and hence the value of
B in the general equation f (x) = Aex + B.
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

187

WorkeD exaMple 17

y
10

The equation of the graph shown is of the form f (x) = aex + b. Find the
values of a and b and hence find the equation of the function.

(0, 5)
3 2 1
think

Asymptote
y=2
0 1

Write

Use the horizontal asymptote to find the value


of b.

The graph of ex has been translated up 2units, so


b= 2.

Substitute the value of b in the equation.

f (x) = aex + 2

Use the y-intercept to find a by substituting in


the given equation.

For (0, 5):


5 = ae0 + 2
ae0 = 3
a=3

Write the equation, using the values of a and b.

f (x) = 3ex + 2

If there are three unknowns, three pieces of information are necessary to solve the equation.
The vertical asymptote of a logarithmic graph gives the horizontal translation and hence the value of b
in the equation y = A loge (x + b) + B. A translation to the left gives a positive value of b and a translation
to the right gives a negative value of b.
WorkeD exaMple 18

y
The equation of the graph shown is of the form
x = 1
y = A loge (x + b) + B. Find the values of A, b and B
5 (0, 5)
and hence find the equation.
0
think

tUtorial
eles-1209
Worked example 18

(2, 0)
1

Write

Use the vertical asymptote to find the value of b.

The graph of f (x) = loge (x) is translated 1 unit to


the left, so b = 1.

Substitute the value of b into the equation.

f (x) = A loge (x + 1) + B.

Use the y-intercept to find an equation.

For (0, 5):


A loge (0 + 1) + B = 5

Simplify using loge (1) = 0.

Substitute the value of B in the equation.

f (x) = A loge (x + 1) + 5

Use the x-intercept to find A.

For (2, 0):


A loge (2 + 1) + 5 = 0
A loge (3) + 5 = 0
A loge (3) = 5

A loge (1) + B = 5
B=5

A=
A

logge ((3)
4.55

(to 2 decimal places)


7

188

Substitute values back into the original equation.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

f (x) = 4.55 loge (x + 1) + 5

Finding equations for graphs of


exponential and logarithmic functions
exercise 4e

1 We16 The equation of the graph shown is of the form

f (x) = Aex +B. Find the values of A and B correct to 2 decimal places
and hence find the equation of the function. State the equation of the
horizontal asymptote.

4
2

(1, 4)
(0, 3)
0 1

y=

y
6

2 Find the values of b and B if the general equation of the graph shown is

ex + b

+ B. Give your answers correct to 2decimal places.

(1, 6)

4
2 (0, 2)
x

10.5 0 0.5 1 1.5


y

3 Find the values of A and k if the general equation of the graphshown is

y = Aekx. Give your answers correct to 2decimal places.

0
2 1
(1, 4)
5

10
(2, 10)
y
4

4 Find the values of A and B if the general equation of the

graph shown is y = A

2x

+ B. Give exact answers.

(1, 3)
2
x
3 2 1 0 1 2
Asymptote
(3, 1)
2

y = 19
15

5 We17 The equation of the graph shown is of the form

f (x) = a 2x + b. Find the values of a and b and hence


find the equation of the function. Give exact answers.

4
2

(0, 112 )
1 Asymptote
y=1
0 1 2 x
3 2 1
6 MC If the horizontal asymptote is y = 1 and the y-intercept is 2, the

equation for the exponential function of the form y = e x + b + B is:


a y = ex + 1 2
B y = ex + 2 + 1
C y = ex + 1 2
D y = ex 1 2
e y = ex + 1.1 + 1
7 Find the values of b and B if the general equation of the graph shown is
y
y = e x + b + B. Give exact answers.
6
4

(2, 4)
Asymptote
y=3

2
0 1

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

189

8 Find the values of A and B if the general equation of the graphshown is

y = Aex + B. Give exact answers.

4
(0, 3)
2
0 1 2 x
Asymptote
2
y = 1

3 2 1
9 We18 The equation of the graph shown is of the form

y = A loge (x + b) + B. Find the values of A, b and B and hence find the


equation. Give answers correct to 1 decimal place.
10 Find the values of A and k, given that the graph of y = A log10 kx passes
through the points (1, 1) and (3,2). Give your answers correct to 4
decimal places where appropriate.
11 If the horizontal translation is 2 units to the left, the vertical translation
is 3, the graph passes through the point (2, 6), and the equation is of the
form y = A log2 (x + b) + B, find the values of A, b and B.

4F
interaCtiVitY
int-0249
addition of ordinates

y
Asymptote
6

x= 2

(2, 6)

4
2
3 2 1

0 1

addition of ordinates

Sometimes we need to sketch the graph of a function that can be thought of as the sum of two functions.
For example, the function y = x2 + ex can be thought of as the sum of the functions y = x2 and y = ex.
Such a graph can be drawn by sketching the two individual functions on the same set of axes, then
adding the y-values (ordinates) for each x-value and plotting the resulting points.
This method is convenient to use when we know the basic shape of the individual functions but cannot
recognise the basic shape of the given function. We can sketchboth graphs on the same set of axes, then
plot the resulting points by adding the y-values for each x-value, and hence sketch the new curve.
For example, the graph of y = x2 + ex can be sketched using the addition of ordinates technique,
since the basic shape of the function is not known, but the two individual functions are a basic positive
parabola and a basic exponential curve. The graph of y=ex + 1 can also be thought of as the sum of two
functions, but since we can recognise its shape as the basic exponential curve translated 1 unit up, there
is no need to use the addition of ordinates method.
Note that the sum function can only be defined for the domain over which both of the individual
functions are defined. So the domain of the sum function is obtained by finding the intersection of the
domains of the individual functions. That is, if h(x) = f (x) + g(x), domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).
Sometimes a function is defined as the difference between two individual functions. We can still
use the method of addition of ordinates to graph such a function, because the second function can
be expressed as the addition of a negative function. That is, h(x) = f (x) g(x) can be written as
h(x) = f (x) + (g(x)).
So if, for example, we need to graph y = x2 ex, we could think of it as y = x2 + (ex). We then would
sketch the basic parabola and the basic negative exponential curves on the same set of axes and use the
addition of ordinates technique to obtain the graph of the original function.
WorkeD exaMple 19

State the domain of f (x) = 3x2 + loge (x).


think

190

Write

Write f (x) as the sum of the two individual


functions g(x) and p(x).

Let f (x) = g(x) + p(x), where g(x) = 3x2


and p(x) = loge (x).

State the domain of g(x).

Domain g(x) = R

State the domain of p(x).

Domain p(x) = R+

State the domain of f (x) by finding the


intersection of the domains of individual
functions.

Domain f (x) = domain g(x) domain p(x)


= R R+
= R+

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

When sketching the graph by hand, it is important to select wisely the values of x for which the ordinates
should be added. As a guide, good points to select are:
1. the end points of the graph
2. the points of intersection of the graphs
3. the x-intercepts of either of the graphs.

WorkeD exaMple 20

Using the same scale and axes, sketch the graphs of y1 = ex and y2 = e x over the domain [2, 2).

Hence, sketch the graph of y = ex + e x, rounding coordinates to 1 decimal place.


think
1

Sketch y1 = ex by finding the horizontal


asymptote, the y-intercept, and the end points.

DraW

The horizontal asymptote is the x-axis.


x = 0, y = e0, y = 1
x = 2, y = e2, y = 7.4

x = 2, y = e 2, y = 0.1
The y-intercept is 1.
y
8

(2, 7.4)

y1 = ex

4
2

(2, 0.1)

(0, 1)
0

2 1
2

On the same axes, sketch y2 = ex by reflecting


y1 in the y-axis and finding the horizontal
asymptote, the y-intercept, and the end points.

The horizontal asymptote is the x-axis.


The y-intercept is 1.
y2 = ex
(2, 7.4)

y1 = ex

y
8

(2, 7.4)

6
4
2

(2, 0.1)

(0, 1)
0

2 1

(2, 0.1)
x

Add ordinates at the end point with the lowest


x-value (y = y1 + y2 = ex + ex).

When x = 2,y = e 2 + e2
7.5
Point (2, 7.5)

Add ordinates when the graphs intersect.

When x = 0,

y=1+1
=2

Point (0, 2)
5

Add ordinates at the other end point.

Plot the points (which were obtained by adding


ordinates), and join them to sketch the graph.
It is necessary to label only end points and
intercepts.

When x = 2,
Point (2, 7.5)
x

y2 = e

(2, 7.5)

y 7.5

y
8
6
4
2

2 1

y1 = ex

y = ex + e x

(2, 7.5)
(0, 2)

0 1

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

191

WorkeD exaMple 21

Given the graphs of f (x) and g(x), sketch the graph of h(x) = f (x) + g(x).
y
f(x)
g(x)
x

0
think
1

Add the ordinates at the LHS end


points of the graph: a large positive
value plus a smaller negative value
should give a smaller positive value.
Mark this point on the axes.

Add the ordinates at the point where


g(x) has the x-intercept and mark
the resulting point on the set of
axes. Note that g(x) = 0 at this point;
therefore f (x)+ 0 = f (x) (that is, if
one of the functions cuts the x-axis,
the sum is equal to the y-value of
the other function).

Add the ordinates at the first point


of intersection of the 2 functions.
Note that at the point of intersection
the value of y is the same for both
functions, so the resulting point is
double the y-value. Mark the point
on the set of axes.

Add the ordinates at the point where


f (x) has the x-intercept and mark the
result on the set of axes.

Add the ordinates at the second


point of intersection of the 2 graphs
and mark the resulting point on the
set of axes.

Add the ordinates at the RHS end


points of the graph: 2 positive
values together give an even larger
positive value.
Join the points with a smooth curve
to produce the graph of h(x).

DraW
1

f(x)

g(x)

g(x)

y
f(x)

g(x)

g(x)

f(x)

f(x)

g(x)

g(x)

h(x)

g(x)

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

f(x)

f(x)

192

f(x)

WorkeD exaMple 22

Sketch the graph of f (x) = x + x , using addition of ordinates.


think

Write/DraW

State the two individual functions.

State the domain of f (x) by finding


the intersection of the domains of
individual functions.

On the set of axes sketch the graph


of g(x) (a straight line, passing
through the origin and bisecting
the first quadrant) and p(x) (a basic
square root curve). Note that only
the first quadrant is needed, since
the domain is R+ {0}.

The first point of intersection of


g(x) and p(x) is at the origin,
f (x) = 0 + 0 = 0 (that is, f (x) will
also start at the origin). Mark this
point on the set of axes.

Let f (x) = g(x) + p(x), where g(x) = x and p(x) = x


Domain g(x) = R
Domain p(x) = R+ {0}
Domain f (x) = domain g(x) domain p(x)
Domain= R R+ {0}
Domain= R+ {0}

g(x)
p(x)

Add the ordinates at the RHS end


points of the graph and mark the
resulting point on the set of axes.

Sketch the graph of f (x) by joining


the points.

Add the ordinates at the second


point of intersection of the two
graphs and mark the resulting point
on the set of axes.

g(x)

y
g(x)

p(x)
x

p(x)

f(x)
y
g(x)
p(x)
x

Further graphs
The example below shows how to draw the graph of a product function.
WorkeD exaMple 23

Sketch the graph of y = x2ex using a CAS calculator. Show all axis intercepts and any asymptotes.
think
1

Define the function on your CAS calculator.

Write/DraW

f1(x) = x2ex
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

193

Plot the graph using the graphing function on


your CAS calculator.

f1 (x)

As x , ex 0.
Therefore as x , y 0.

Horizontal asymptote y = 0

Substitute x = 0 into f1(x) to find the x-intercept.


The only x-intercept is at f1(0).

f1(0) = 0 e0 = 0
x-intercept = (0, 0)

Find the y-intercept. The only y-intercept is


when f1(x) = 0.

x2e2 = 0
x2 = 0 or ex = 0
x=0
Not possible
y-intercept = (0, 0)

exercise 4F

addition of ordinates

1 We19 State the domain of each of the following functions.


a y=x+

1
x

d y = x+2 x
g y=
j

2
x2
( x + 1)2

1
2

b y=3 x x

c y = x2 +

x 1

e y = x2 3x3

y = 2x3

h y = 3x 2 1 x

y = 3(2 x)2 +

1
x3
2
3x

y = 2 3 x 3 x +1

2 MC If f (x) = g(x) + p(x), and if f (x) is defined over the domain [2, 7] and g(x) is defined for x 7, the

domain of p(x) could not be:


a [2, 7]
C [2, 7)
e [2, 15]

B [2, )
D [2, 7.5)

3 We20 Using the same scale and axes, sketch the graphs of y1 and y2 over the given domain. Hence,

sketch the graph of y = y1 + y2, rounding coordinates to 1 decimal place as this is accurate enough for
most sketch graphs. Check all graphs using a CAS calculator.
a y1 = 2ex, y2 = 2ex, [1, 1]
b y1 = 3ex, y2 = 3ex, [1, 1]
c y1 = ex, y2 = x, (2, 2]
d y1 = ex, y2 = x, (2, 2]
x
2

e y1 = e , y2 = x , ( 2, 2)
f y1 = ex, y2 = x2, (2, 3)

4 Using the same scale and axes, sketch the graphs of f (x) and g(x). Hence, sketch the graph of

h(x) = f (x) + g(x), rounding coordinates to 1 decimal place as this is accurate enough for most sketch
graphs. State the domain and range of h(x). Check all graphs using a CAS calculator.
a f (x) = 2 loge(x), g(x) = x
b f (x) = 3 loge(x), g(x) = x
1
2

c f (x) = loge(x), g(x) = 2x

d f (x) = loge(x), g(x) = x

e f (x) = loge(x), g(x) = x

f (x) = 2 loge(x), g(x) = x


1
2

1
2

5 Using the addition of ordinates, sketch the graph of f: [2, 2] R, where f (x) = ex + e x. State the

domain and the range, giving answers to 1 decimal place where rounding is necessary.
6 MC If the domain of y1 is (2, 2] and the domain of y2 is (0, ), the domain of y1 + y2 is:
a (2, )
B [2, )
C (0, )
D (2, 0)
e (0, 2]
194

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

7 We21 Given the graphs of f (x) and g(x), sketch the graph of h(x) = f (x) + g(x).
y

f(x)

x
f(x)

f(x)

g(x)

g(x)
y

g(x)

g(x)

f(x)

f(x)

g(x)

f(x)

g(x)

8 On the same set of axes sketch the graphs of f (x) = x2 and g(x) = 5x + 6. Use the addition-of-ordinates

method to sketch the graph of y = x2 + 5x + 6.

9 On the same set of axes sketch the graphs of f (x) = x3 and g(x) = x2 1 and hence sketch the graph of

y = x3 + x2 1, using the addition-of-ordinates technique.

10 We22 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, using addition of ordinates. Check your

answers using a CAS calculator.


a y=

x + 2 x

b y = 2x

c y=

x 3 x2

d y=

x +5 + 5 x

11 MC The graph at right is likely to represent the sum of which 2 functions?


a

0
0

D
0

x
0

12 Sketch the graph of y = loge x +

x by sketching the 2 individual functions on the same set of axes


and then adding the ordinates. State the domain of the function. Verify your answer with a CAS
calculator.

13 If f (x) = 3x 3 and g(x) = loge x, sketch the graph of h( x ) = f ( x ) + g( x ), using addition of ordinates.

Check your answer using a CAS calculator.

14 We23 For each of the following, sketch the graph using a CAS calculator. Show all axis intercepts

and any asymptotes. State the domain and range.


a y = x2e2x

b y = x2ex

c y = ex

15 For each of the following, sketch the graph using a CAS calculator. Show all axis intercepts and any

asymptotes. State the domain and range.


a y = x2 loge (x)
b y = x2 loge (3x)

c y = x loge (x)
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

195

exponential and logarithmic


functions with absolute values
4G

x for x 0
The modulus, or absolute value, function is defined as f ( x ) = x =
.
x for x < 0

To obtain the graph of y = f x , the graph of y = f (x), where x 0, is reflected in the y-axis.
The rule of the composite function y = f x , where f (x) = loge (x), x > 0, can be written as:
ge ( x )
log
y = loge x =
ge ( x )
log

ffor
or x > 0

ffor
or x < 0

2
1
2

0
1

2 x

2
3

To obtain the graph of y = f ( x ) , negative y-values of y = f (x) are reflected in the x-axis. The rule
of the composite function y = f ( x ) , where f (x) = loge (x), x > 0, can be written as:
logge ( x )
y = loge( x)
x) =
logge ( x )

f or 0 < x < 1

f or x 1

4
3
2
1
0

4 x

The rule of the composite function y = f x , where f (x) = ex, can be written as:
y

e x for x 0
y = e x = x
for x < 0
e

(0, 1)
2

2 x

The rule of the composite function y = f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = e x k, k R+, can be written as:
y

(e x k ) for x < loge k


y = ex k = x
for x loge k
e k

y=k
(0, |1 k|)

2 x

(loge(k), 0)
196

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WorkeD exaMple 24

For the function y = 2 log e x + 2 3 :


a sketch the graph of y = 2 log e x + 2 3, showing any asymptotes
b calculate all axis intercepts both in exact form and correct to 2 decimal places
c state the domain and range.
think

a 1 Sketch the graph of y = 2 loge x + 2 3 ,

x > 2. The graph is not defined when x = 2,


so there is a vertical asymptote at x = 2.

Write/DraW

2
1
1 2 3 4 5 x

7 6 5 4 3 2 110
2
3
Asymptote
x = 2

Reflect y = 2 loge x + 2 3 in the vertical


asymptote at x = 2.

2
1
1 2 3 4 5 x

7 6 5 4 3 2 110
2
3
Asymptote
x = 2

y = 2 loge x + 2 3 as a hybrid function.

2 loge ( x + 2) 3
y=

2 loge ( ( x + 2)) 3

Substitute y = 0 and solve each equation.

2 loge (x + 2) 3 = 0

b 1 To locate the x-intercepts, express

logge ( x + 2) =

for x > 2
for x < 2

3
2

Write the equation in exponential form and


solve for x.

x + 2 = e2
3

x = e2 2
x = 2.481 69

Repeat for the other x-intercept.

2 loge ((x + 2)) 3 = 0


3
logge ( ( x + 2)) =
2
(x

+ 2) = e 2
3

x = 6.481 69
5

Write down the coordinates of the x-intercepts


in exact form and correct to 2 decimal places.

x = e 2 2

2 2, 0 and e 2 2, 0
e

(2.48, 0) and (6.48, 0)

Substitute x = 0 to obtain the y-intercept and


simplify, using the first function in step b 1 .

y = 2loge 0 + 2 3
y = 2loge 2 3
y = 1.613 71
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

197

c x R\{2}

c 1 State the domain.


2

(0, 2 loge (2) 3)


(0, 1.61)

Write down the coordinates of the y-intercept


in exact form and correct to 2 decimal places.

yR

State the range.

WorkeD exaMple 25

a Sketch the graph of y = e x 1 showing all axis intercepts and asymptotes.


b State the domain and range.
think

tUtorial
eles-1210
Worked example 25

Write/DraW

a 1 Sketch the graph of y = e x 1 .

The graph has a horizontal asymptote at


y = 1.
2

Reflect the negative part (below the x-axis) of


y = e x 1 and the asymptote about the x-axis.

Note that the graph of y = e x 1 now has a


horizontal asymptote at y = 1.

b 1 Substitute x = 0 to obtain the y-intercept and

2
1
2

0
1

Asymptote
y=1
x
2 Asymptote
y = 1

b y = e0 1

simplify.

= 11
=0

Write the coordinates of the y-intercept (which


is also the x-intercept).

The coordinates of the y-intercept are (0, 0).

State the domain.

xR

State the range.

y R+{0}

exponential and logarithmic functions


with absolute values
exercise 4G

1 We24 Sketch the graphs of the following functions, showing all axis intercepts and asymptotes in

exact form. For each graph, state the maximal domain and the range of the function.
b y = loge ( x + 1) 2
c y = log10 3 x + 1
y = 3loge x 2 + 3

2 Sketch the graphs of the following showing all axis intercepts and asymptotes in exact form. For each

graph, state the maximal domain and the range of the function.
a
y = loge ( x 2)
b y = loge (1 x ) 2

y = log10 ( x + 3) + 1

3 Sketch the graphs of the following showing all axis intercepts in exact form. For each graph, state the

maximal domain and the range of the function.


a

y = e x 1 + 4

y = e 4 x 3

y = e

x 1

+2

4 We25 Sketch the graphs of the following showing all axis intercepts and asymptotes in exact form.

For each graph, state the maximal domain and the range of the function.
a

198

y = ex 3

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

b y = e x 2 + 4

y= e

1 + 2

exponential and logarithmic


modelling using graphs
4h

As seen in chapter 3, exponential and logarithmic functions can be used to model real situations.
Graphs of these functions can be used to illustrate the model and make predictions for future changes.
In most cases when modelling real life situations, the domain is restricted to [0, ) because t = 0 when
the model begins.
WorkeD exaMple 26

The population of wombats in Snubnose Gully is increasing according to the equation:


W = 100e0.03t
where W is the number of wombats t years after 1 January 1998.
a Find the initial size of the population.
b Find the population 2 years and 10 years after the number of wombats was first recorded. Give
answers to the nearest whole wombat.
c Graph W against t for 0 t 30.
d Find the expected size of the population in the year 2020.
e Find the year in which the wombat population reaches 250.
think

a 1 State the rule.

Write/DraW

a W = 100e0.03t

Find W when t = 0.

When t = 0, W = 100, since e0.03(0) = 1.

Write the answer in a sentence.

The initial size of the population is


100 wombats.

b 1 Find W when t = 2.

b When t = 2, W = 100e0.03 2

= 100 1.0618
106 (nearest whole number)

Write the answer in a sentence.

After 2 years there are 106 wombats.

Find W when t = 10.

When t = 10, W = 100e0.03 10


= 100 1.3499
135 (nearest whole number)

Write the answer in a sentence.

After 10 years there are 135 wombats.

c 1 The rule w = 100 e0.03t is a standard

increasing, exponential functions.


Determine w(0) and w(30).
2

Sketch the exponential function.

w(0) = 100
w(30) = 100e0.9
= 246.0
w
250
200
150
100
50
0

d 1 Convert the year 2020 to the correct

number of years.
2

Find W by substituting t = 22 into the


equation.

(30, 246)

30

d t = 2020 1998

= 22 years

When t = 22, W = 100e0.03 22


= 193.479
= 193 (nearest whole number)
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

199

Write the answer as a sentence.

e 1 Let W = 250.

In the year 2020, there are approximately


193 wombats.
e 250 = 100e0.03t

Divide both sides by 100.

2.5 = e0.03t

Take natural logs of both sides.

loge (2.5) = loge (e0.03t)


0.03t = loge (2.5)

Divide both sides by 0.03.

t=

Evaluate the answer using a CAS calculator.

t = 30.543
t = 31 (nearest year)

Express t = 31 as a year and write the answer


as a sentence.

There will be 250 wombats in the year 2029.

1
loge (2.5)
0.03

exponential and logarithmic modelling


using graphs
exercise 4h

1 We26 The population of a species of koala found on Eucalyptus Island is increasing according to the
DiGital DoC
doc-9165
Spreadsheet
Function grapher

equation K = 50e0.04t, where K is the number of koalas t years after 1 January 1998.
a Find the initial size of the population.
b Find the population 2 years and 10 years after the number of koalas was first recorded. Give
answers to the nearest whole number.
c Plot a graph of K against t.
d Use the graph to find the size of the population after 15 years.

2 The population of a species of wallaby found on a reserve is increasing according to the equation

W = 150 1.08t, where W is the number of wallabies t years after records were first kept.
a Find the initial size of the population.
b Find the population 1 year and 5 years after records were first kept. Give answers to the nearest
whole number.
c Plot a graph of W against t.
d Use the graph to find the size of the population after 15 years.
e Use the graph to find how long it would take for the population to double.

3 A student invests $500 with a company that pays interest of 6% compounded continuously. (Interest

paid according to the formula A = A0ert is said to be compounded continuously and r is called the
continuous interest rate.)
a How much money made up the initial investment?
b How much did the student have with the company after 1 year? Give your answer correct to the
nearest 5 cents.
c How much interest did the student have after 5 years? Give your answer correct to the nearest
5 cents.
d Plot a graph of A against t.
e Use your graph to find how much the student would have in the account after 8years.

200

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

4 The decay of a radioactive element, E, is given by the equation E = E0 e kt, where E is the number of

radioactive nuclei present t days after the experiment begins.

a If 200 radioactive nuclei are present in the element at the beginning of the experiment and there

b
c
d
e
f

are 33 radioactive nuclei present after 10 days, find the value of k correct to 2 decimal places. Use
this rounded value for all working in the other parts of this question.
Find the number of radioactive nuclei, E, present after 1 day and after 5 days.
Plot a graph of E against t.
Use the graph to find how long it would take before 50 radioactive nuclei are left.
Would there ever be no radioactive nuclei left? Give reasons for your answer.
The half-life of a radioactive element is the time taken for half of the radioactive nuclei to decay.
Use your graph to find the half-life of this element.

5 A hard-boiled egg is placed in water to cool. The cooling process can be modelled by the equation

T T1 = (T0 T1)e kt, where T is the temperature of the egg t minutes after it was placed in the water
and T1 is the temperature of the water. Assume that the temperature of the egg is 98 C when it is first
placed in the 18 C water and it takes 5minutes for it to cool to 38 C.
a Substitute the values of T0 and T1 into the equation and simplify, making T the subject.
b Find the value of k to 3 decimal places.
c Substitute it into the equation.
d Find how long it would take to reach a temperature of 25 C. Give your answer to the
nearest minute.
e Draw a graph of T against t, marking in asymptotes.
f Use the graph to find the temperature after 15 minutes.
g Assuming that the water does not become significantly warmer, use your graph to determine
whether the egg will ever reach the temperature of the water.

6 The population of a species of fish

in Lake Underwater is declining due


to an unknown cause. The number
of fish t weeks after the first dead
fish was found on the surface of the
water can be modelled by the
equation P = A loge (t) + B. One
week after the first dead fish was
discovered, the population was
10 000. The population was 8000
after 5 weeks.
a Find the values of A and
B. Give answers correct
to 2decimalplaces where
appropriate.
b Find how many fish there are after 10 weeks.
c Find how long it would take for the population to be 3000. Give your answer to the
nearest week.
d Sketch a graph of P against t, clearly indicating the asymptote.
e Use the graph to find how many fish there would be after 20 weeks.
7 MC The relationship between m and n is modelled by the equation m = log10 (an + b). The graph is

shown below.

m
2
1
1

The values of a and b are:


a 3 nd
a 2
B 2 nd
a

(4, 1)

(1, 0)
0 1

C 3 and 2

D 1 nd
a

e 1 and 3

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

201

8 It costs a clothing company $20 to produce a jacket. Production costs are proportional to the number of

jackets produced.
a If the company produces n jackets, write an equation for the companys production costs for the
jackets, $C.
As the company produces more jackets they find that they have to sell them at a lower price. The
companys revenue, $R, is modelled by the equation

R(n) = 2000(1 e 0.1n)


b Show that R(0) = 0.
c According to this model, revenues plateau as costs increase. What is the value that the revenue
approaches?
d On the same axes, sketch the graphs of the cost equation and the revenue equation for 0 n 55.
e Use addition of ordinates to sketch the graph of the profit the company can expect to make from
selling the jackets (profit = revenue cost).
f Write an equation for this profit.
g Use a CAS calculator to find the number of jackets that must be sold in order to maximise the
profits and what that profit would be.
h Use a CAS calculator to find how many jackets the company could make before they began to
make a loss.
i Is this a reasonable model for a company to use? Explain your reasons.

202

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Summary
exponential functions

y
For graphs of the form f (x) = ax, where a R+\{1}:
1. The maximal domain is R.
4
2. The range is R+.
3. The x-axis is the horizontal asymptote.
2
4. The y-intercept is 1.
(0, 1)
5. They are all increasing functions.
x
2 1 0 1 2
Reflection:
1. If f (x) = ax is reflected in the x-axis the result is the graph of f (x) = ax. The graph is a
decreasing function instead of an increasing function. The y-intercept changes to (0, 1) and the
range becomes R.
2. If f (x) = ax is reflected in the y-axis the result is the graph of f (x) = ax. All key features stay the
same but the graph is a decreasing function instead of an increasing function.
Translation:
For all of the graphs of the form f (x) = ax + b + B, where b, B R, and aR+\{1}, the maximal
domain is R, the range is (B, ), the horizontal asymptote is y = B and they are all increasing
functions. b translates the graph horizontally, B translates the graph vertically.
Dilation:
If f (x) = Aakx, where A, k R+, the graph of f (x) = ax is dilated by factor A from the x-axis
1
and by factor from the y-axis.
k
Combinations of transformations:
For all the graphs of the form f (x) = A ak(x + b) + B, where b, B R, A, k R+ and a R+\{1},
the maximal domain is R, the range is (B, ), the horizontal asymptote is y = B and they are all
increasing functions. b translates the graph horizontally, B translates the graph vertically and
1
A dilates the graph by factor A from the x-axis, k dilates the graph by factor from the y-axis. If
k
A, k < 0 the graphs are reflected in the x- and y-axes, respectively.

logarithmic functions

For graphs of the form f (x) = loga (x), where a R+\{1}:


y
1. The maximal domain is R+; that is, there are no negative values of x.
2. The range is R.
3. The vertical asymptote is the y-axis so there are no y-intercepts.
4. The graph crosses the x-axis at (1, 0) because loga(1) = 0.
x
0 (1, 0)
5. They are all increasing functions.
Reflection:
1. If f (x) = loga (x) is reflected in the x-axis the result is the graph of
f (x) = loga (x). All key features remain the same but the graph is a
decreasing function instead of an increasing function.
2. If f (x) = loga (x) is reflected in the y-axis the result is the graph of f (x) = loga (x). The vertical
asymptote and the range remain the same but the x-intercept and the domain change.
(a) The graph crosses the x-axis at (1, 0).
(b) The domain is (, 0).
Dilation:
1. The function f (x) = A loga (x) dilates the graph of f (x) = loga (x) by a factor of A from the x-axis.
The vertical asymptote, x-intercept, domain and range remain the same. As A increases, the
graph becomes steeper.
1
2. The function f (x) = loga (kx) dilates the graph of f (x) = loga (x) by a factor from the y-axis.
k 1
the vertical asymptote, domain and range stay the same, but the x-intercept is . As k increases,
k
the graph becomes steeper and the x-intercept becomes smaller.
Translation:
1. The function f (x) = loga(x) + B translates the graph of f (x) = loga (x) vertically, B units. The
vertical axis, domain and range remain the same but the x-intercept changes. There is no change
in the shape of the graph.

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

203

2. The function f (x) = loga (x + b) translates the graph of f (x) = loga (x) horizontally b units. The
shape and the range remain the same but the vertical asymptote, the x-intercept and the domain
change:
(a) The vertical asymptote becomes x = b.
(b) The graph crosses the x-axis at (1 b, 0).
(c) The domain is (b, ).
Combinations of transformations:
The function f (x) = A loga (x + b) + B has dilation factor A from the x-axis and is translated b units
horizontally and B units vertically. If A < 0 there is a reflection in the x-axis and if x is used there
is a reflection in the y-axis.
addition of ordinates

A graph of the sum of two functions can be drawn by sketching the two functions on the same set
of axes and then adding the y-values for each value of x.
If h(x) = f (x) + g(x), domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).
Suitable points at which to add ordinates are:
1. the end points of the graph
2. the points of intersection of the two graphs
3. the x-intercepts of the two graphs.
The technique can be used for the difference of the two functions, if it is rewritten as a sum:
h(x) = f (x) g(x) = f (x) + [g(x)].

Further graphs

Use a CAS calculator to graph the product of two functions or composite functions.
Obtain the equation of any asymptote of the function by considering asymptotic behaviour of the
individual functions.
On your graph, clearly label:
1. asymptotes
2. axis intercepts.

absolute value graphs

x for x 0
The modulus, or absolute value, function is defined as f ( x ) = x =
.
x for x < 0
For y = f x , the graph of y = f (x), where x 0, is reflected in the y-axis.
For y = f ( x ) , negative y-values of y = f (x) are reflected in the x-axis.

204

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Chapter review
1 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2(x + 1) 4, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the domain and range.
2 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 3 log10 (2x), showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the domain and

S ho rt
a n S W er

range.

3 Find the equation of the graph below, given that it is of the form f (x) = Aex + B.
y
4
2
x
4 3 2 1 0 1 2
2 (0, 1)
y = 4
4
5
4 The graphs of f (x) and g(x) are shown below. Sketch the graph of (f + g)(x), using the addition-

of-ordinates technique.
y

g(x)
f(x)

g(x)

f(x)

5 a Use the law loga (mp) = p loga (m) to simplify f (x) = log10 (x2) and hence sketch the graph of the

function f: (0, ) R where f (x) = log10 (x2).


b Sketch the graph over the domain, R, noting that it is now possible to take negative values of x.

6 P = P0e t. If P = 120 when t = 0, find the exact value of P when t = 20.


7 For the function g(x) = 2ex + 1 4:
a sketch the graph of g(x) by finding the equation of any asymptotes and the coordinates of all

intercepts

b determine the rule for g 1(x), and hence state the domain and range of g 1(x).
8 If h(x) = f (x) + g(x) where f (x) = x2 + 1 and g(x) = loge (x), sketch the graph of h(x) = f (x) + g(x). State

the domain and range of h(x).

9 Describe a sequence of transformations that maps the graph of y = f (x) on to the graph of

y = 2f (3 x) + 5.

10 After a protection program for tigers was introduced in a province of

India on 1 January 2006, the population of the tigers is modelled by


T(t) = 50 20.4t, where t is the number of months after the start of the
program. At the same time, the number of elephants in the province is

modelled by E(t) = 400 4 0.1t.


Find:
a the number of tigers and elephants in the province on
1 January 2006
b which of the two animals has the highest numbers in the province
on 1 April 2007
c the date when the population of the tigers will equal the
population of elephants in the province.
If the number of elephants falls below 25, they are at risk of
extinction in this province.
d According to the model, will this happen? If so, when will it
happen?
11 Sketch the graph of y = loge ( x + 3) , showing all intercepts and asymptotes in exact form. State the
maximal domain and the range.
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

205

M U lt ip l e
C h oiCe

1 The horizontal asymptote for the graph of f (x) = 2x 1 is:


a x=2
B x=1
D y = 1
e y = 2

C y=0

2 The domain and range of the graph of f (x) = 3 10x + 1 are respectively:
a R, [1, )
B R, (1, )
C R, [3, )
e R, R
D R, (3, )
3 The y-intercept for the graph of f (x) = 1 2x is:
a 0
B 1
C 2
D 3
e 4
4 When the function f (x) = log10 (x 1) is translated 2 units up and 1 unit to the left the function becomes:
a log10 (x 2) + 2
B log10 (x 3) + 3
C log10 (x) + 2
D log10 (x + 1) + 2
e log10 (x + 2) + 1
5 The function f (x) = log2 (x + 1) has as its domain:
a (1, )
B [1, )
C (1, )
D [1, )
6 Which of the following graphs best represents the function f (x) = log10 (x 2) + 1?
a

x=2

2
6 4 2 0
2

y
2

x = 2 y

2
2 4

2 4

6 4 2 0
2

4
e

x=2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

6 4 2 0
2

4
D

x = 2 y

x = 2 y

3 2 1

0 1 2 3 x

7 The graph of f (x) = 2ex + 1 is obtained from the graph of f (x) = ex by:
a a dilation of 2 units from the y-axis and a translation of 1 unit to the left
B a dilation of 2 units from the y-axis and a translation of 1 unit to the right
C a dilation of 2 units from the x-axis and a translation of 1 unit to the left
D a dilation of 2 units from the x-axis and a translation of 1 unit to the right
e a dilation of 1 unit from the x-axis and a translation of 2 units to the right

8 If f (x) = ex, the function in the graph below is:


y
2
(0, 1)
x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
Asymptote
2
y = 2

a 3f (x) + 2
D 2 3f (x)
206

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

B 3f (x) 2
e 2 + 3f (x)

e R

C 2f (x) + 3

2 4

9 If the horizontal asymptote is y = 2 and the y-intercept is 1, a possible equation for the graphis:
a y = ex + 2
B y = 2ex + 1
C y = 2ex 1
x
x
D y=e 2
e y=2e
10 The vertical asymptote for the graph of f (x) = 3 loge (x 2) + 1 is:
a x = 1
B x=0
C x=1
D x=2
e x=3
11 For the function f: [1, ] R where f (x) = 3 loge (x + 2), the domain and range are respectively:
a (2, ), (0, )
B (2, ), R
C (1, ), R+

+
D [ 1, ), [0, )
e R ,R
12 If f (x) = loge (x + 1), the y-intercept of 2f (x) + 3 is:
a 0
B 1
D 3
e 4

C 2

13 The general equation of the graph shown is y = Aex + B. The values of A and B are:
y
4
(0, 3)
2
0 2 x
Asymptote
2 y = 1

6 4 2

a 3, 1
D 1, 3

B 2, 1
e 4, 1

C 4, 1

14 If f (x) = loge (x + 2) + 1, then f (1) and f (0) are respectively (correct to 2 decimal places):
a 2.10, 1.69
B 2.09, 0.69
C 2.098, 1.693
D 1.10, 1.69
e 2.10, 0.69
15 The domain of {f (x) + g(x)} is:
a dom f dom g
D dom g

B dom f dom g
e R

C dom f

16 If f (x) = g(x) + p(x), and dom g(x) = (, 5] and dom p(x) = (2, ), then the domain of f (x) is:

a ( 2, 5]
B [2, 5)
C [2, 5]

e none of the above


D ( 2, 5)
17 Which of the following shows the graph of y +
y

4
4
D

x+4 +

4x ?
y

4
4 x

4 x

4 x

4
4
4

4 x

18 The decay of uranium-235 is modelled by the equation U = U0ekt, where U is the number of grams

of uranium-235 after t million years. If a 1000 g mass of uranium-235 decays to 907g in 100 million
years, the values of U0 and k are respectively:
a 100, 0.000 976
B 1000, 0.000 976
C 10 000, 0.000 907

e 100, 907
D 1000, 0.000 907
Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

207

e x t enDeD
r e SponS e

1 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2ex 1 + 1, showing all key features. State the domain and the range.
2 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 1 loge (2 x), clearly showing intercepts and asymptotes, and state the

domain and range.

3 By adding ordinates, sketch the graph of f (x) = log10 (2x) + log10 (x). State the domain and the range.
4 N is the number of bacteria in a culture where N = 10 000e0.04t is the formula for the number of bacteria

in the culture after t hours. Find:


a the initial number of bacteria
b the number of bacteria after 10 hours. Give your answer to the nearest thousand.
5 Sketch the graph of y = 4 e x 1 showing all axis intercepts in exact form and any asymptotes. State

the maximal domain and the range of the function.


6 Kerri invested $5000 with a company that pays interest of 5% compounded continuously. To answer

the questions below, use the formula A = A0ert, where A is the amount of the investment, A0 is the
original investment, r is the continuous interest rate and t is the number of years since the money was
originally invested. Round the answer to the nearest 5c.
a How much money did Kerri first invest with the company?
b How much money did Kerri have with the company after 1 year?
c How much did she have after 5 years?
If the company had been paying interest compounded quarterly, the formula used would have been

( )

4t

A = A0 1 + r .
4
d Using this system, how much would Kerri have after 5 years of the investment?
e How long would it take to double the investment? Give your answer in years.
f Which is the better investment? Give reasons.
g What is the difference in the amount of interest after 5 years?
h What would be the difference in 5 years if Kerri had invested $10 000?
7 A local council decided to build a new road along the coast. To make it safer it was decided to design

the road so that it followed the curve represented by the equation:


y = 2 log10 (2x a) + 3 where a > 0.

The grid below shows the road. In each direction, 1 unit represents 1kilometre.
y
Bridge
Ship
4

a If the new section of road goes over the bridge marked on the graph, find the value of a.
b Find the x-coordinate of the point where the road begins. Give the answer correct to 2decimal

places. How far would this be from the vertical axis to the nearest metre?
c What is the shortest distance from the beginning of the road to the coastline if the coastline is on

the vertical asymptote at that point? Give the answer correct to the nearest metre.
d The main highway is along the x-axis. How far is the road from the main highway when it is in

line with the ship marked on the grid? Give the answer in kilometres, correct to 1decimal place.
208

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

8 The air pressure P in kilopascals (kPa) at a height of x kilometres (km) above sea level may be

modelled by the equation P = aebx.


A mountain climber uses an altimeter to record air pressures at known heights on a climb of
Mount Kosciuszko (height 2.228 km). These pressures are shown in the table below.
x

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

101.3

95.2

89.4

84.0

78.9

a If b is between 0.1 and 0.2, find the value for b (to 3 decimal places) which produces the best

fitting model of the form P = aebx for the above data.


b Use your model to predict the air pressure at the top of Mount Kosciuszko.
9 The graph of the function f (x) = e2x bex + c is shown below.
y
y=6

DiGital DoC
doc-9194
Test Yourself
Chapter 4

(0, 2)
0

a Find the values of b and c.


b Show that the exact values of the x-intercepts are x = loge (2) and x = loge (3).
c Use a CAS calculator to find the coordinates of the turning point. Round answers to 2 decimal
d
e
f
g
h

places.
Find the exact values of the coordinates of the point of intersection of the function and the
horizontal asymptote.
If the function is reflected in the x-axis, fully define the new function g(x) = f (x).
If the function is reflected in the y-axis, fully define the new function, h(x).
If the function is reflected in both the x- and the y-axis, sketch the graph of
the new function, k(x), write its equation and state the domain and the range.
Find the equation of f (2 x) + 1. State the domain and range, rounding to
2 decimal places where appropriate.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

209

ICT activities
Chapter opener
DiGital DoC
10 Quick Questions doc-9189: Warm up with ten quick questions on
exponential and logarithmic graphs. (page 163)

4a

Graphs of exponential functions with any base

tUtorial
We2 eles-1205: Watch how to sketch a graph of an exponential
function. (page 168)
DiGital DoC
Spreadsheet doc-9190: Investigate exponential graphs. (page 170)

4B

logarithmic graphs to any base

tUtorial
We5 eles-1206: Watch how to sketch the graph of a logarithmic
function. (page 175)
DiGital DoCS
Spreadsheet doc-9191: Investigate logarithmic graphs. (page 177)
WorkSHEET 4.1 doc-9192: Sketch graphs of exponentials and
logarithms, identify transformations and determine rules for graphs.
(page 178)

4C

Graphs of exponential functions with base e

tUtorial
We10 eles-1207: Watch how to sketch the graph of
an exponential function and state the transformations.
(page 180)
DiGital DoC
Spreadsheet doc-9190: Investigate the exponential function.
(page 182)

4D

logarithmic graphs to base e

tUtorial
We15 eles-1208: Sketch the graph of a logarithmic function
stating the domain and range using a CAS calculator to check.
(page 185)

210

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

DiGital DoCS
doc-9191: Investigate logarithmic graphs. (page 186)
WorkSHEET 4.2 doc-9193: Sketch graphs of exponentials and
logarithms and determine points of intersection between graphs.
(page 186)

4e Finding equations for graphs of exponential


and logarithmic functions
tUtorial
We18 eles-1209: Watch how to find the equation of an
exponential given the graph. (page 188)

4F

addition of ordinates

interaCtiVitY
Addition of ordinates int-0249: Consolidate your understanding of
addition of ordinates using the interactivity. (page 190)

4G exponential and logarithmic functions with


absolute values
tUtorial
We25 eles-1210: Watch a worked example on how to sketch the
graph of an absolute function. (page 198)

4h exponential and logarithmic modelling using


graphs
DiGital DoC
Spreadsheet doc-9165: Invesigate graphs using a function grapher.
(page 200)

Chapter review
DiGital DoC
Test Yourself doc-9194: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 209)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Answers CHAPTER 4
i Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

exponential anD
loGarithMiC GraphS

y
6

exercise 4a Graphs of exponential


functions with any base
1 a Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

f (x) = 2x

y
2

(0, 5)

3 2 1

f (x) = 10x

y
2

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

01 2 x

3 2 1

c Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

f (x) = 2 10x

y
2 (0, 2)
x

01 2

f (x) = 3 2x

01 2 3

(0, 0.3)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

horizontal asymptote y = 1, domain R,


range (1, )
f (x) = 2x + 1
y

0 1

g Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+


y
8

6
4

(1, 8)

6
4
2
1

(0, 1)
0
1

h Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+


y
8
6
4
2
0.5

f (x) = 102x

(12 ,

10)

4 (1, 0)

3 2 1 0
x

1 2 3 x
(0, 2) y = 3

1
8

horizontal asymptote

y = 0, domain R, range R +
f (x) = 2x 3

0 1

horizontal asymptote y = 3, domain R,


range (3, )
f (x) = 3x 3
y
2

(0, 1)
0 0.5

h y-intercept is , no x-intercepts,

3
2
1 (0, 1 )
8

c y-intercept is 2, x-intercept is 1,

(1, 5)
(0, 3) y = 2
01 2 3

3 2 1

81 )

0 1

horizontal asymptote y = 2, domain R,


range (2, )
f (x) = 3x + 2
y

f (x) = 23x

1
,
81

(4, 1)

(0,

(1, 3)
2 (0, 2) y = 1

b y-intercept is 3, no x-intercepts,
0 1

0.5

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

1 )
2

01 2 3 x

no x-intercepts,
horizontal asymptote
y = 0, domain R, range R+
f (x) = 3x 4
y

f (x) = 0.5 10x

(1, 5)

2
(0,

3 2 1
x

g y-intercept is

f Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

2 1

5
(1, 1)

2 a y-intercept is 2, no x-intercepts,
(2, 1.2)

y
(0, 10)

(3, 4)

f (x) = 0.3 2x

horizontal asymptote y = 0, domain R,


range R+
f (x) = 10x + 1

f (x) = 2 2 3

2 (0, 2)

(2, 1)

f y-intercept is 10, no x-intercepts,


x

l Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+ x

2 x

4 (0, 4)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 x

y
6

e Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

y
6

f (x) = 2 10 2

y
4

k Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+ x

(1, 121) 2

2 1

horizontal asymptote y = 0, domain R,


range R+
f (x) = 2x + 2

(0, 3)

0 1

e y-intercept is 4, no x-intercepts,

4 (0, 4)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

d Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

(2, 0)
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 x
2
(0, 3) y = 4
4

f (x) = 4 23x

2 (0, 2)

(1, 0.2)

2 1

y
6

3 2 1

(0, 1)

horizontal asymptote y = 4, domain R,


range (4, )
y
f (x) = 2x 4
4
2

j Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

b Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

d y-intercept is 3, x-intercept is 2,

(1, 2)
(0, 1)
01 2 x

3 2 1

f (x) = 5 32x

(3, 1)
2

i y-intercept is 6, x-intercept is 2,

horizontal asymptote y = 8, domain R,


range is (8, )
f (x) = 2x + 1 8
y
(2, 0)
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 x
5

(0, 6)

y = 8

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

211

j y-intercept is 1.01, no x-intercepts,

f y-intercept is 9, x-intercept is 1,

horizontal asymptote y = 1, domain R,


range (1, )
f (x) = 10x 2 + 1

horizontal asymptote y = 10, domain R,


range (, 10)
y
f (x) = 10 10x

y
2 (0, 1.01)

10

(0, 9)

2
(0, 1)
2

4
1
(1, 2
10 )

(0, 3)
2

asymptote y = 2, domain R, range (2, )

f (x) = 2 + 10 x

horizontal asymptote y = 0, domain R,


range (, 0)
f (x) = 2x
y
0

g y-intercept is 3, no x-intercepts, horizontal

3 a y-intercept is 1, no x-intercepts,

0 1

2 1

b y-intercept is

0
1
(0, 1)
2

y
4

y=2
x

(0, 2)
1

(1, 12 )

0 1

2 1

y=1
x

i y-intercept is 0, x-intercept is 0,

horizontal asymptote y = 2, domain is R,


range (, 2)
y

c y-intercept is 1, no x-intercepts,

horizontal asymptote y = 0, domain R,


range (0, )

f (x) = 10 x

y=2

2
(1, 1)
0 1 2

2 1

f (x) = 2 21 x

4
2
1
(1,
10 )
(0, 1)
2 1 0 1 2

j y-intercept is 8, x-intercept is 2,

horizontal asymptote y = 1, domain is R,


range (, 1)

horizontal asymptote y = 0, domain R,


range (0, )

f (x) = 2 x

(1, 2)

(0, 1)
x

e y-intercept is 0, x-intercept is 0,

horizontal asymptote y = 1, domain R,


range (, 1)
f (x) = 1 3x
y

1 0
2

212

y=1
1

4 x

(0, 7)

y-intercept is 7, x-intercept is 0.8.


Horizontal asymptote is y = 5, domain is R,
range is (, 5).
1
7 a Dilation by factor
from the y-axis

f (x) = 1 32 x
f (x) = 2 31 x

y
6 (0, 6)

1
4

from the y-axis

c Dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis


d Dilation by factor 3 from the x-axis
e Reflection in x-axis
f Reflection in y-axis
g Translation of 1 unit up
h Translation of 3 units down
i Translation of 1 unit right
j Translation of 5 units left
8 a 4 units up
b 2 units down
c 2 units to the left
d 3 units to the right
e 3 units down
f 2 units up
g 1 unit to the right
h 2 units to the left
i 5 units up and 1 unit to the left
j 2 units up and 4 units to the right
k 3 units to the right and 4 units down
l 2 units to the left and 3 units down
9 a R, R+, y = 0
b R, (1, ), y = 1
c R, (3, ), y = 3
d R, (, 1), y = 1
e R, (2, ), y = 2
f R, (, 1), y = 1
10 f (x) = 1 2x
11 f (x) = 1 3 2x + 1
12 E
13 B
14 C
15 a 50
b 400
c

p
400

(3, 400)

0 1 2

2 1

(0, 8)

y=1

(2, 0)
0 1

d y-intercept is 1, no x-intercepts,

(0.8, 0)
2 3

horizontal asymptote y = 1, domain R,


range (1, )

f (x) = 1 + 2 x

no x-intercepts,
horizontal asymptote y = 0, domain R,
range (, 0)
f (x) = 10x
y

b Dilation by factor

h y-intercept is 2, no x-intercepts,
1,

f (x) = 5 4 31 x

y=5

(1, 0)
0 1 2 x

2 1

4 x

y=1
0

y = 10

y-intercept is 1 1 , no x-intercepts.
2
Horizontal asymptote is the x-axis, domain
, 0).
is R, range is (

200

(1, 2)

2
0

4 x

y-intercept is 6, no x-intercept.
Horizontal asymptote is the x-axis, domain
is R, range R+.
y
5
f (x) = 3 21 x
2 1

(1, 2)

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2
4

0 1 2 x
(0, 112)
(1, 3)

2 1

(0, 50)
0 1 2 3 t

Asymptote y = 0
exercise 4B

any base
1 a y-axis
c y-axis
e y-axis
g y-axis

logarithmic graphs to
b
d
f
h

y-axis
y-axis
y-axis
y-axis

2 a

4 a x = 2 y

y
2
(2, 1)
(1, 0)
0 1 2 3 4 5 x

y
1
(1, 0)
2 4 6

b x = 1

(1, 0)
4 6

y
6
4
2

(1, 0)

Asymptote x = 0
f (x) = 5 log2 (x)
R+, R

2 3

4 5 x

2 3

4 5 x

Asymptote x = 0
f (x) = 3 log10
(2x) R+, R

2 left
3 right
5 right, 1 up
1 left, 2 up
3 left, 2 down

(1, 0)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5x
2

b
d
f
h
j

Asymptote x = 0
f (x) = 2 log2 (3x)
R+, R
1 left
4 right
3 right, 2 up
1 left, 3 up
1 left, 2 down

y
1
(1, 0)
0 x
5 4 3 2 1
1

(4, 2)

(3.25, 0)
x
4
6 8

5 4 3 2 1

(1, 3)

2 (0, 2)
1
1

f (x) = 2 + log2 (x + 1)
Domain (1, ), range R

1
0

Asymptote x = 0
R, R, in y-axis
Asymptote x = 0
R+, R, in x-axis

y
2

Asymptote x = 0
R, R, in y-axis

y
2
(1, 0)

y
x = 13

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R, in x-axis

f (x) = log2 (x 3) + 2
Domain (3, ), range R

( 23 , 2)
( 13 , 0)

(5.5, 0)
6 8 x

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R, in x-axis

x=3

1
0

(6, 1)
2

x=5

y
2

(1, 0)
01 2 3 4

f (x) = 1 + log2 (x 5)
Domain (5, ), range R
f

( 12 , 0)

0
1

(5, 3)

3 a
c
e
g
i

Asymptote x = 0
f (x) = log10 (4x)
R+, R

( 14 , 0)
1

f (x) = log2 (x 4)
Domain (4, ), range R
e

(2 12 , 1)

1
0

Asymptote x = 0
f (x) = log2 (3x)
R+, R

2 x

y
2

(6, 1)
(5, 0)

0
1

( 23 , 1)
0 ( 1 , 0) 1
3

f (x) = log2 (x + 1) 2
Domain (1, ), range R
5 a

x=4

1 2 3 4
(3, 0)

2 (0, 2)

f (x) = log2 (x 3)
Domain (3, ), range R

y
x = 1
1 0
1

(2, 5)

f (x) = log2 (x + 3) 2
Domain (3, ), range R

(4, 0)
(5, 1)
2

x = 3 y
(1, 0)
x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4
2
(0, 0.4)

x=3

1
0

( 78 , 0)

(1, 1)

f (x) = log2 (x + 1)
Domain (1, ), range R
Asymptote x = 0
f (x) = 2 log10 (x)
R+, R

8 10 x

0 1 2 3 4 x

f (x) = 3 + log2 (x + 1)
Domain (1, ), range R
i

1 0 1
1

(10, 2)

2 1 0 1 2 3 4 x

y
1

(0, 3)

Asymptote x = 0
f (x) = log10 (x)
R+, R

y
x = 1
4

(0, 1)

f (x) = log2 (x + 2)
Domain (2, ), range R

8 10 x

Asymptote x = 0
f (x) = log2 (x)
R+, R

(10, 1)

(1, 0)

(1, 1)
2

(10, 0)
x

8 10

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

213

y
2
(0.1, 0)
0

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R, no
reflection

2
1
(
,
100

(1, 2)
2
(105 , 0)
0 1

(10, 1)1
x

Asymptote x = 0
R, R in x- and
y-axis

2 3
(1, 0)

13

(2 2, 0)

y
2
1

y
5

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

Asymptote x = 2
(2, ), R

y
2

x=3
(0, log103)

(2, 0)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x

Asymptote x = 3
(, 3), R

8 10

2 (0, 2)

exercise 4C Graphs of exponential


functions with base e
1
1 a Dilation by factor 3 from the y-axis
1
2

from the y-axis

c Dilation by factor 4 from the x-axis and

by factor 2 from the y-axis

( 2 , 3)
2

d Dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis and

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

(0.24, 0)

by factor 3 from the y-axis

e Translation of 2 units to the right and

1 unit up

f Translation of 5 units to the left and

2 units up

1
from the y-axis,
2
reflection in the x-axis, translation of
3 units up
1
h Dilation by factor 3 from the y-axis,
reflection in the x-axis, translation of
1 unit up
i Dilation by factor 3 from the x-axis,
translation of 2 units to the left and
1 unit down

g Dilation by factor
0 2

4 6
(5, 1)

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

1 unit to the right


10, reflection in the y-axis, translation of
3 units to the right
2, reflection in the x-axis, dilation by
factor 2 parallel to the y-axis, translation
of 1 unit up
10, reflection in the x-axis, dilation by
factor 5 from the x-axis, translation
2 units up
10, dilation by factor 3 from the x-axis,
translation 1 unit to the left, translation
2 units down
2, dilation by factor 4 from the x-axis,
translation 2 units to the right and
1 unit down

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

(10, 1.1)
(3.6, 0)
0 2 4

b Dilation by factor

translation of 1 unit up

Asymptote x = 1
(, 1), R

2 a

c 10, reflection in the y-axis, translation of

214

b 10, dilation by factor 3 from the x-axis,

y
2 x=1
(0, 0)

3
4
(3, 1)

y
4

Asymptote x = 0

translation of 3 units up

1 12 3

(10 3 , 0)

3 2 1 0 1 2

Asymptote x = 1
(1, ), R

(2.8, 0)

8 a 2, dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis,


(1, 1)

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

11 B

(1.2, 0)
0
1

(1, 3)
0

10

x=2

5
y

(3.2, 0)

Domain
), range R, dilation by
1
factor 2 from the y-axis, horizontal
1
translation of 2 unit to the right.

0 1 2

( 12 ,

7 a

(0, 2)

y
5

(1.5, 1)

x=2

(, 2), R

0 1

x = 2

1 0 1
2
3

(3.6, 0)

100 80 60 40 20 0

2
1

y
4 (0, 4)
2

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

y
2

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

g x = 1

Asymptote x = 0
R, R, in y-axis

and by factor 3 from the y-axis,


translation 1 unit up
j 2, dilation by factor 4 from the x-axis
and by factor 12 from the y-axis,
translation of 3 units up and reflection in
the x-axis

0 x

5 4 3 2 1

(100, 0)

0)

( 2, 0)
0 1 2 3
(2, 1)

i 2, dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis,

y
2

y
4

f(x) = ex
f(x) = ex 1

2
(0, 1)

(1, 1)
(0, 1e )
x
0
1 2 3
3 2 1

Asymptote y = 0
Translated 1 unit to the right, R, R+
b

y f(x) = ex
4
f(x) = ex 3
2
(0, 1) (0, e3)
(3, 1)
x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

Asymptote y = 0
Translated 3 units to the right, R, R+

3 a

y f(x) = 2ex
4
f(x) = ex

(0, 2)
x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

y f(x) = 3ex
4
f(x) = ex
(0, 3)
2
(0, 1)

3 2 1

Translated 2 units down, R,

(2,

y
f(x) = e2 x
8 (0, e2) f(x) = ex

y
f(x) = e1 x 8

f(x) = ex

2 1

0 1

Asymptote y = 0
Reflected in the y-axis, translated
1 unit to the right, R, R+
i

(0, 1)
2 1

y
4

f(x) = ex

(0, 2)

e
4

(0, 4.72)

Translated 3 units up, reflected in the


x-axis, R, (, 3)

y
2 (0, 2)

x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

y
8
6
4
2

Asymptote y = 0
Dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis
and by factor 1 from the y-axis, R, R+
3

Translation of 1 unit to the left and


2 units up, R, (2, )
f

1
1

y=2

Asymptote y = 0
Dilation by factor 14 from the x-axis
1
and by factor 2 from the y-axis, R, R+

y=3

0 1 2 x
f(x) = 3 ex

y=2

Translation of 2 units up, R, (2, )

(0, 4 )
x

y=1

y
4

(0, e)

x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

4
(0, 1)

y
4

(0, 3)

y
2

Asymptote y = 0
Dilation by factor 12 from the x-axis,
and by factor 14 from the y-axis, R, R+

Asymptote y = 0
Reflected in the y-axis, translated
2 units to the right, R, R+
h

x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

1
(0, 2 )

(0, 1)
0 1

Translation of 1 unit up, R, (1, )

(3, 1)

2 (0, 2)

y
4

2 1

Asymptote y = 0
Dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis, R, R+

(0, 0.05)

Asymptote y = 0
Translation of 3 units to the right, R, R+

y
4

x
1.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

y = 2

y
2
1

Asymptote y = 0
Dilation by factor 4 from the x-axis, R, R+

1 2 3

Asymptote y = 0
Translation of 3 units to the left, R, R+

x
1.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

0 1 x

3 2 1

2 (0, 2)

(0, 1) 2

10

y
4 (0, 4)

y
20 (0, 20.09)

Asymptote y = 0
1
Dilation by factor 2 from the y-axis, R, R+

2
(0, 1)

f(x) = ex
f(x) = ex 2

3 2 1 0

Asymptote y = 0
Dilation by factor 3 from the x-axis
and by factor 1 from the y-axis, R, R+
4 a

(0.5, e)
(0, 1)
0 0.5

1 0.5

y=1
(0, 1)
01 2 3 x

y
4

Translated up 1 unit, R, (1, )


f

1.5 1 0.5

f(x) = 1 + ex
f(x) = ex

Asymptote y = 0
Dilated by factor 3 from the x-axis,
R, R+
y

(0, 1)
0 0.5 1

Asymptote y = 0
1
Dilation by factor 3 from the y-axis, R, R+

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

(0, 2)

(0, 3)
2

1 0.5

Asymptote y = 0
Dilated by factor 2 from the x-axis,
R, R+

y
4

2
(0, 1)

(0.5, e1.5)

(0, 8.39)

y=1
x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

Translation of 2 units to the left and


1 unit up, R, (1, )

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

215

y
6
4

y=3

2
01 2 3

3 2 1

y=5

y=5

(0, 1)
x

1 0

Reflection in the x-axis, translation of


1 unit up, R, (, 1)

y=2

8 a

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y
2

y = 1

1 (0, 1)

2 1

0 1

Asymptote y = 0

x
y = 1

y
2 (0, 2)

(0, 0.86)
y
2 (0, 2)

Asymptote y = 0
i

(0, e2)
0 1

[0, ), [0.86, )

Reflection in the y-axis, translation of


2 units up, R, (2, )

(0, 0.95)

(2, 0)
0 1 2

1
1

4
(0, 3)
(1, 2 + e)
2

R, (1, )

Asymptote y = 0

(12 , 0)
0 1 2

2 1

(0, e)

x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

x
1
(1, 1 e)

(0.69, 0)
x
1

y
4

Asymptote y = 0
Reflection in the y-axis, reflection in
the x-axis, dilation by factor 2 from
the x-axis, R, R

y=1

(1, e)

y
2
0

2 (0, 2)

y=2

2
0

Asymptote y = 0
Reflection in the x-axis, R, R

y
1

y=1

(0, 1)
0

0
1
(0, 1)
2

216

y
2

4 (0, 4)

Asymptote y = 0
Reflection in the y-axis, R, R+

Reflection in the y-axis, reflection in


the x-axis, translation of 5 units up,
R, (, 5)
2

Asymptote y = 0
e

(ln5, 0)

0 1

y = 1

Reflection in the y-axis, reflection in


the x-axis, translation of 3 units up,
R, (, 3)

Translation of 2 units to the left and


1 unit down, R, (1, )

(0, 2)

(2, 0)

(0, 2 )

(ln3, 0)

2 1

y=3

(1, e) 2

Asymptote y = 0

y
4

(0, 6.39)
6

3 2 1

Translation of 1 unit up, R, (1, )

5 a

x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
y=1

Translation of 2 units to the right and


5 units up, R, (5, )

y = 2

2
y
4

(0, 2)

(0.69, 0)
0 1 2 x

2 (0, 2)

(0, 5.14)
01 2 3 4 x

3 2 1

y
4

y
8
6
4
2

2 1
(0, 1)

Reflection in the y-axis, translation of


1 unit up, R, (1, )

Translation of 1 unit to the right and


3 units up, R, (3, )
h

y=1
0 1

y
(1, 1 + e) 4
(0, 2)

(0, 3.37)

y=1
2

9 D
11 a 1,

y=1
0

10 E

b y=ex

exercise 4D logarithmic graphs to


base e
1 a Dilation by factor 5 from the x-axis and
by factor 1 from the y-axis

d
e
f
g
h
i

j
k

2 a

(e1, 0)
x
0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
(1, 0)
x
0
2 1.5 1 0.5 0.5
2

Asymptote x = 0
y

(e2, 0)

0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Asymptote x = 0
(, 0), R

y
2

4 a

y
2
(1, 0)
0 1 2

x=1

1
(2, 0)
0

(3, 0)
0 12 3 4 5 6 7x

x = 2

(1, 0)

(0, loge2)
0
2

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

y
4

e
1

2
4

(3.1, 0)
2

y
5
( 2, 0)

2
2

Asymptote x = 0
R, R

(0, loge3)

x=3

2
2

y
1

2
1
( 2 , 0)

x = 3 y
2
(2, 0)

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

y
2

y
2
(1, 0)
0 1 2

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R
c

x=2

y
1

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

(6.4, 0)

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2
(0, 2)

x
1.510.5 00.5 1 1.5 2
1

(1, 0)
x
1.510.5 00.5 1 1.5 2
1

y
x = 1

3 a

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

( 3 , 0)

(1, 0)
x
1.510.5 00.5 1 1.5 2
1

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

(4.4, 0)
x
3 21 0 1 2 3 4 5
1 (0, 0.9)

(0.5, 0)
x
0
0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Asymptote x = 0

y
1

x = 3 y

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

(1.4, 0)
0
2

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

y
1
(0.5, 0)
x
1.510.5 00.5 1 1.5 2
1

b Dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis and


c

y
4 x=1

(3, 0)

x
0
0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
1

by factor 14 from the y-axis


Translation of 1 unit to the left and
3 units down
Translation of 2 units to the right and
1 unit up
Reflection in the x-axis and in the
y-axis
Reflection in the x-axis and dilation by
factor 1 from the y-axis
2
Translation of 2 units to the right and
1 unit up, reflection in the x-axis
Translation of 3 units to the left and
2 units up, reflection in the x-axis
Translation of 4 units to the left and
1 unit down, dilation by factor 3 from
the x-axis
Translation of 4 units to the right and
1 unit up, reflection in the x-axis
Translation of 1 unit to the right and
3 units up, dilation by factor 2 from
the x-axis, reflection in the y-axis
Translation of 2 units to the right and
1 unit down, dilation by factor 3 from
the x-axis, reflection in the y-axis

Asymptote x = 0
R, R

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

217

y
5
1
( 4 , 0)
0
1

translation of 2 units to the left and 1 unit


down
x = 2 y

(1, 2)

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R
c

x=1

0 1 2 3

3 2 1

7 Dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis,

2 (0, 2.58)

Asymptote x = 0
R, R
2

(7.39, 0)
x
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

y
0

y
5

(1, 0)
0 0.5 1

1.5

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

(, 1), R
y
2

x=2

(0, 0.69) (1, 0)


3 2 1 0 1 2

(, 2), R
x=2

(3, 0)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x
2

y
2

(1, 0)
2 1 0
(0, 0.69)
2

(1, 0)
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x
2

(, 2), R
j

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

y
2

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R
x=3

y
2

(2, 0)
x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
(0, 1.10)
2

y
2
(1, 0)
x
0
2.52 1.510.5 0.5
2

Asymptote x = 0
R, R

5 a f (x) = ln (x 1)
b f (x) = ln (x) 2
c f (x) = 5 ln (x)

x = 3

3
h

f f (x) = ln (x)

218

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(0.22, 0)

4
6

Asymptote x = 0
R+, R

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

B=

19

15

1, f (x) = 12 2x + 1

addition of ordinates
R \{0}
b [0, )
[0, )
d [2, )
R
f R \{3}
R \{1}
h (, 1]
R \{0}
j [1, 3]

2 C
(1, 6.2)

y
6

(1, 6.2)

f(x)
(1, 5.4)
(1, 5.4)
4 (0, 4)
y1 = 2ex
y2 = 2ex 2
(1, 0.74)
(1, 0.74)
(0, 2)
0 0.5 1 x
1 0.5

x
0
2 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(2,0)

(1, ), R

R+, R
y
2

32
,
15

2, 3
4, 1
2.9, 2.0, 2.0, y = 2.9 loge (x + 2.0) + 2.0
2.0959, 3
1.5, 2, 3

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

6
7
8
9
10
11

1
,
2

(1.47, 0)

x=1

4 A=

3 a
0

x + 1
h f (x) = ln
4

i f (x) = 2 ln (x) 3
y
2

exercise 4e Finding equations for


graphs of exponential and logarithmic
functions
1 0.58, 2.42, f (x) = 0.58ex + 2.42, y = 2.42
2 0.84, 0.33
3 1.60, 0.92

1 a

y
2

g f (x) = ln (x + 3)

(0, 2.08)

exercise 4F

(3, ), R

e f (x) = ln (x)

a f: (2, ), g(x) = a b loge (x 2)


b Domain is (2, ) and range is R.
c h(x) = 4a 4b loge (x 2)

2
2 1 0
(0, 1.10) 2

D
B
C

(2, 0)

d f (x) = ln

6 a

9
10
11
12

(, 3), R

2 4 6
(1.45, 0)

(1, 0)
0

0
2

y
(1, 9.3)
(1, 8.2)

f(x) (1, 9.3)


8 (0, 6) (1, 8.2)
6
y1 = 3ex
y2 = 3ex 4
(0, 3)
2
(1, 1.1)
(1, 1.1)
x
1 0.5 0 0.5 1

(2, 7.4) y
y1 = ex 8
6
4
(2, 5.4) y = x 2
2
(2, 2)

1 2

(2, 11.4)
f(x)
(2, e2)
y1

y
10
(2, 4.14)
(2, 4)
(2, 0.14)

y2

(2, 4)

(1, 1)
=x
g(x)

10
5

y2 = x2
x

(1, 1)
0.5

h(x)

g(x)

(1, 1)

(2, 0.6)

y
y = x2 + 5x + 6

h(x)

Asymptote x = 0
Domain R+, range (0.6, )
5

1.5
(1, 0)

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x


f(x)

0.5
2

y
(2, 3.76) 4

6 5 4 321 0 1 2
g(x)
y

2
0

y = x3 + x2 1

1
3 2

6 E

2
g(x)

h(x)

h(x)
g(x)
f(x)
x

g(x)

10 a

y= x+ 2x

x
y= 2x

y= x

Asymptote x = 0
Domain R+, range R
b

y
2

h(x)
(1, 1)

x
f(x)
g(x)
h(x)

g(x)

0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5


2
f(x) = 3 loge(x)

0 0.5 1 1.5 x
1
5 f(x) = log (x)
e

y
2
1
2

(1, 2 )
0 0.5 1 1.5
(1, 0)

Asymptote x = 0
Domain R+, range R

x
y= x

g(x)

y= x3

h(x)

f(x)
h(x)

g(x)

y = x 3 x2

y = x2

x
h(x)
g(x) = 21 x
f(x) = loge(x)
x

y = 2x

Asymptote x = 0
Domain R+, range R
d

d
e

y = 2x x

h(x)
g(x) = 2x

(1, 2)

1
4

f(x)

y
5

Asymptote x = 0
Domain R+, range R
c

f(x)

7 a

Domain [2, 2], range [1, 3.76]


3

f(x)

(2, 3.76)

f(x)

g(x)

Asymptote x = 0
Domain R+, range [1, )

0 1 2 3 x

y
2

x
f(x)

f(x) = loge(x)

y1 = e (3, e )

2 1

h(x)

(0, 1)
(3, 9.05)
f(x) (3, 9)

(2, 4)

0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5


2
(1, 0)

(2, 11.4)
(2, 7.4)

4 a

f(x)

y
2

(2, 2.14)
(2, 2)
(2, 0.14)
x
2

y
(2, 9.4)
f(x) (2, 7.4)
8
y1 = ex
6
4 (0, 1) y = x
2
(2, 0.14) 2
(2, 2)
(2, 1.9)
x
1 2 0 1
2
(2, 2)

h(x)

y
y= 5x

f(x)

g(x)
x

2 5 y= x+5+ 5x
y= x+5
5

11 E

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

219

12

y = loge(x) + x

4
3
1

( 1 , 0)
3

y= x

y
4

y = loge(x)
1

(0, 2)
x

2
y

x-intercept

f(x)
g(x)
0

y
3

1
Domain (0, ), range ,
e
x-intercept (1, 0)

0.3
0.2
0.1
(0, 0)
4

y
0.6
0.4
0.2
(0, 0)
1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 a

y
10
9
8
7
(0, e1 + 4) 65
4
3
2
1

3 2

3
4
1
(2 + e , 0)

(0, e4 3)

1 1 0
(0, 2)
3
x = 1

1
e2

, 0)
2

Domain R, range [2, )


c

Domain R\{3}, range R

2 a

(1, 1)

(ln (2) 1, 0)

(3.1, 0)

(2.9, 0)
1

(4 + ln (3), 0)

(4 ln (3), 0)

(4, 2)

y (0, log (3) + 1)


10
x=3

Domain R, range [1, )


y-intercept (0, 1)

(ln (2) 1, 0)

0
2
1
1
(0, 2 e1)
2
3
4

4 a

y
y=3

3
1
1

(0, 2)

1
Domain (0, ), range ,
2e
x-intercept (1, 0)

Domain R, range (, 1]

220

Domain R, range [5, )


x

Domain R\{1}, range R

1 (0, 1)

(1, 5)

y
2 (1 +
1

(1 e 12 , 0)

Domain R\{2}, range R

Domain R, range [0, )


Asymptote x = 0
c

y
6 (0, 3loge 2 + 3)
5
4
3
2
1
1 0 1
2
2
1
(2 e , 0)
x=2

Domain (3, ), range [1, )

exercise 4G exponential and logarithmic


functions with absolute values

1 a

Domain R, range [0, )


Asymptote x = 0

15 a

3 2
x = 3

(0, log10 (3) + 1)

(2, 1)

(f+g)(x)

14 a

1
, 0)
x=1

Domain (, 1), range [0, )

2
3

1
e2

(1

( )
1
,0
3

Domain (0, ), range ,

18e

Domain x > 0
13

1
0

2 (3, 0) 4
x=2

Domain (2, ), Range [0, )

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

1
2
(ln (3), 0)

Domain R, range [0, )

e According to the model, no, because the

y
4
(0, 3)
2
1
2

f
y=2
x

1 1 0 1
2
2 (ln (6), 0)
3

5 a
c
e

graph approaches the line E = 0.


4 days

b 0.277
T = 80e kt + 18

d 9 minutes
T = 80e 0.277t + 18
f 19 C
T

Domain R, range
c

20

y=3

(10, 75)
60
(0, 50) (2, 54)
40

2000

P(n)
(20, 1329)

d 475 wallabies
3 a $500
b $530.90

f
g
h
i

e 9 years
c $174.95

(0, 500)

(5, 675)

400

e $810
4 a 0.18
c
E

8 t

b 167, 81

g(x) = 2e x + 1 4
(0, 2e 4)

(1 + loge 2, 0)

55

y = 4

x + 4 1
b g 1(x) = loge

Domain = (
8

4,

), range = R

y
2
(1, 0)
x
2
6 4 2 0
2 (0, 2)
y = 4
4

200

y = h(x)
0 (0.33, 0)

Domain R, range (4, )

(1, 167)

(5, 81)
(10, 33)

y
4

Domain = R+, range = R

(5, 3)

9 Dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis,

0 2 4 6 8 10121416 t

d 7 days

6 120 e 20
7 a

P = 2000 (1 e 0.1n) 20n


23 jackets, profit $1339
100
No. Not enough jackets are made before
profits begin to decrease.

1
0 2

100

20

(55, 1100)

Short anSWer

200

6 8 10

Chapter reVieW

(1, 530.9)

2 4
y

(20, 400)

(10, 2)

(55, 892)

300

600

R = 2000
(55, 1992)

(20, 1729)

400

800

y
2
(1, 0)
0
2

(1, 0)
(1, 0)
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

500

5 a f (x) = 2 log10 (x)

12 16 18 20 t

12 16

(5, 220)
(1, 162)
(0, 150)
0 4
9 15

g(x)
f(x)

b Teacher to check

d 92 koalas
2 a 150 wallabies
b 162 wallabies, 220 wallabies
c
W

200

12 16

8 a C = 20n
c R 2000
d, e

20
8

y
(f + g) (x)

e 6300
7 C

(15, 92)

0 4

T = 18

P
(1, 10 000)
10 000
(5, 8000)
(10, 7139)
6300
5000

exponential and logarithmic


modelling using graphs
1 a 50 koalas
b 54 koalas, 75 koalas
80

never reach 18 C because the line


T = 18 is an asymptote.
6 a A = 1242.67, B = 10 000
b 7139
c 279 weeks

exercise 4h

g(x)

g According to the model, the egg will

Domain R, range [2, )

(f + g) (x)
f(x)

(5, 38)
(9, 25)

2 1 1 0 1

60

4]

y
5
4
3
(0, 2)
1

4 a

80
40

(,

3 f (x) = 3ex 4

( 2 , 0)
1

Domain R+, range R

reflection in the y-axis, a translation


of 3 units right and a translation of
5 units up

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

221

10 a On 1 January 2006, there are 50 tigers

and 400 elephants.


b On 1 April 2007, there are 3200 tigers
and 50 elephants.
c The numbers of tigers and elephants is
equal on 1 June 2006 (there are 200 of
each).
d The elephant population is at risk from
1September 2007, as the model predicts
their population will reach 25 on this date.

11

4
2
(0.7, 0) (0, 0.3)
x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3

Domain (, 2), range R


3

f(x)
y = log 2x

y
(1, 0.3)

(2, 0)

1 0
2
3

2 3 4 5

extenDeD reSponSe

y
2

3 2 1

(0, 1.74)
y=1
0 1 2 3 x

Domain R, range (1, )

222

(loge(2), 0) y
(loge(3), 0)
0

3
6
9
12
15
18

A
D
E
D
B
B

MUltiple ChoiCe

B
C
B
D
A
B

1
0.52, 516 metres
16 metres
3.6 kilometres

P = 101.3e 0.125x
76.7 kPa
b = 5, c = 6
x = loge (2) and loge (3)
(0.92, 0.25)
x = (loge (5), 6)
g: R R, g(x) = e2x + 5ex 6

h: R R, h(x) = e 2x 5ex + 6

(0, 2)

(0, 4)
3
2
1

Domain (3, ), range (, 0]


2
5
8
11
14
17

y = log x
x
3 4

7 a
b
c
d
8 a
b
9 a
b
c
d
e
f
g

4 a 10 000
b 15 000

x = 3

D
C
C
D
C
A

1 2
(1, 0)

Domain R+ range R

(0, loge (3))

1
4
7
10
13
16

x=2

3 2 110
2

y = 6

y=3

1 2

(loge (5), 0)

Domain R, range (, 4]
$5000
$5256.35
$6420.15
$6410.20
13.95 years
The first investment, because the interest
is compounded continuously.
g $9.95
h About $20

6 a
b
c
d
e
f

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

k(x) = e 2x + 5e x 6, domain R,
range (, 0.25]

h y = e 2x + 4 5 x + 2 + 7 or
2(2 x) 5e(2 x) + 7, domain R,
y=e
range [0.75, )

ChapTer 5

Inverse functions
diGiTal doC
doc-9195
10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS
5a
5B
5C
5d

Relations and their inverses


Functions and their inverses
Inverse functions
Restricting functions

5a

relations and their inverses

You will recall from Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS that a relation is a set of ordered pairs
that can be graphed or may be described by a rule.
As we have seen, the inverse of a relation can be found by:
1. interchanging the x- and y-coordinates of an ordered pair; for
y
y=x
example, (1, 2) becomes (2, 1)
3
2. reflecting the relation in the line y = xa
(1, 2)
2
3. interchanging x and y in the rule and rearranging the equation to
(2, 1)
(0, 1)
make y the subject; for example, y = x 1 becomes x = y 1,
1
(1, 0)
(1, 0)
giving y = x + 1.
The domain of a relation becomes the range of its inverse
and the range of a relation becomes the domain of its inverse.
The diagram at right shows a set of ordered pairs
A = {(1, 2), (0, 1), (1, 0), (2, 1)}, the line y = x and the inverse
B = {(2, 1), (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 2)}.
The domain of A is {1, 0, 1, 2} and the range of A is {2, 1, 0, 1}.
The domain of B is {2, 1, 0, 1} and the range of B is {1, 0, 1, 2}.

0 1 2
3 2 1
1 (0, 1)

(2, 1)

inTeraCTiViTY
int-0250
inverse functions

(1, 2)

Using matrices to describe a reflection in the line y = x


In chapter 2, we looked at how matrices can be used to find the image of a point that is transformed
on a plane, or to find the rule for the graph of a relation that undergoes a transformation or series of
transformations.
As the graph of an inverse is the reflection in the line y = x of the original, we can use a matrix to

describe this transformation and find the image of a point on f (x), or the rule of the inverse f 1(x) given
f (x).
0 1 x
The matrix operation that produces a reflection in the line y = x is
.

1 0 y
Finding the image of a point using this method is trivial, as we know that the points on the graph of
an inverse are found by interchanging the (x, y) values of any point on the original. This can be shown as
follows:
The graph of a relation passes through the point (3, 4). Find the image of this point on the graph of
the inverse.
0 1 3
1 0 =
4

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

223

That is, (3, 4) maps to (4, 3).


A more general application will be to find the rule of the inverse of a relation. This can be done using
matrices but in practice this is unnecessary as it simply involves swapping the variables and rearranging
the new equation.
Again, it is not time effective to employ this method, but it is shown as a demonstration of the
relationship of the inverse graph to its original.
x x 0 1 x y
T =
=
=
y y 1 0 y x
That is, (x, y) maps to (y, x).
Therefore, we can write y = x and x = y, which relates to the practice of reversing the variables to
find the rule of the inverse.
Worked example 1

Sketch the graph of each of the following relations. State the domain and range of each.
a {(3, 1), (1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5)}
b y = x2 + 2
Think

a 1 Plot each coordinate pair on a set of axes.


2

The domain is the set of first elements of


the ordered pairs.

The range is the set of second elements of


the ordered pairs.

b 1 The relation is a parabola with a minimum

WriTe/draW

y
5
4
3
2
1

Domain
= {3, 1, 1, 3}

321 0
1

1 2 3

Range = [2, )

turning point (0, 2).


2

Sketch the parabola.

The domain is the set of real numbers.

The range is any real number greater than


or equal to 2.

Range
= {1, 1, 3, 5}

y = x2 + 2 Domain = R

(0, 2)
0

Worked example 2

Find the inverse of each relation in Worked example 1. Sketch the graph of each inverse relation,
stating its domain and range.
Think

a 1 Write the original relation.


2

Interchange the x and y elements to


obtain the inverse.

Plot these points on a set of axes.

WriTe/draW

a {(3, 1), (1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5)}

The inverse is {(1, 3), (1, 1), (3, 1), (5, 3)}
y
3
2
1
11 0 1 2 3 4 5 x
2
3

224

State the domain, which is the set of first


elements of the ordered pair.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Domain = {1, 1, 3, 5}

Range = {3, 1, 1, 3}

State the range, which is the set of second elements


of the ordered pair.

b y = x2 + 2

b 1 Write the original relation.


2

Interchange x and y in the rule.

The inverse is:


x = y2 + 2

Subtract 2 from both sides.

y2 = x 2

Take the square root of both sides to make y the


subject.

The graph of y = x 2 is a sideways parabola


with a turning point (2, 0).
(Use a CAS calculator to verify this graph.)

y= x2
y

y=+
x 2

Sketch the graph of the relation.

State the domain.

Domain = [2, )

State the range.

Range = R

Note: The domain of the original relation is the range of its inverse, and the range of the original relation
is the domain of its inverse.
Worked example 3

For each relation graphed below, sketch the graph and its inverse on the same
axes. Draw in the line y = x.
a

(2, 0) x

(0, 5)

4
(2, 2)

(3, 0) 0

Think

a 1 Copy the graph shown.

y
(2, 4)

(2, 2)

TUTorial
eles-1211
Worked example 3

(1, 4)

draW

Interchange the points (2, 0) and (0, 5) to


(0, 2) and (5, 0), respectively, and mark them on a
set of axes.

(0, 2)

Draw a straight line through each pair of points.

(5, 0)

Draw the line y = x, noting that the inverseis a


reflection of the original function in y = x.

y=x

(2, 0)

(0, 5)

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

225

b 1 Copy the graph shown.


2

Interchange the points (2, 2), (0, 0), (0, 4) and


(2, 2) to (2, 2), (0, 0), (4, 0) and (2, 2) and mark
on a set of axes.

Draw a circle through the second set of 4 points.

Draw the line y = x, noting that the inverse is a


reflection of the original relation in y = x.

c 1 Copy the graph shown.


2

(0, 4)

(2, 2)

Draw a sideways cubic through the second set


of points.
Draw the line y = x, noting that the inverse is a
reflection of the original function in y = x.

(2, 2)

(4, 0) x

0
2
c

Interchange the points (3, 0), (2, 4), (0, 0) and


(1, 4) to (0, 3), (4, 2), (0, 0) and (4, 1) and mark
them on the same set of axes.

y=x

(2, 2)
y
4

(2, 4)

(1, 4)

y=x

2
(4, 1)
(3, 0)
2

0
2
(0, 3)

(4, 2)

Note: This example shows that the graph of the inverse relation can be obtained by reflecting the graph
of the original relation in the line y = x. Some specific points can be marked and used as a guide;
intercepts are particularly useful. Note also that a relation and its inverse intersect on the line y = x.

how to visualise the graph of an inverse


The following activity can help you to quickly see the shape of an inverse from the graph of a relation.
Make a sketch of the graph of a relation in the right-hand bottom corner of a blank page. This should
be 4 or 5 cm square. You will need to use a pen or a dark pencil for best results.
Fold the corner in to the centre at 45. Keeping the page orientation the same, view the axes through
the paper and you will see the graph of the inverse!

Looking through
paper

Fold in along
this line at 45

Another method is to take the original graph, turn the paper over and rotate 90 until the old y-axis is
at the x-axis and the old x-axis is at the y-axis.
226

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

exercise 5a

relations and their inverses

Sketch the graph of each of the following relations. State the domain and range of each.
a {(0, 1), (1, 2), (3, 2), (3, 5)}
b {(8, 7), (5, 2), (2, 1), (1, 1)}
c y=x
d y = 2x 5
e 2x + 4y = 8
2
2
f y = x + 4x
g y=x 1
h y = (x + 1)2
3
i x2 + y2 = 4
j y= x
k y=2

1 We 1

x = 4

diGiTal doC
doc-9251
SkillSHEET 5.1
domain and range

m y = 2x3

2 We 2 Find the inverse of each relation in question 1. Sketch the graph of each inverse relation,

stating its domain and range. (Check your graphs using a CAS calculator.)
The graph of a relation passes through the points (0, 1), (1, 2) and (3, 3). The graph of the
inverse of this relation must pass through the points:
a (2, 1) and (3, 3)
B (0, 1) and (3, 3)
C (0, 1) only
d (1, 2) and (3, 3)
e (3, 3) and (4, 10)

3 mC

diGiTal doC
doc-9165
Spreadsheet
Function grapher

A relation has x-intercepts 2 and 3. The y-intercepts of the inverse of this relation are:
a 2 and 3
B 2 and 3

d 2 and 3
C 2 and 3
e cannot be determined

4 mC

5 We 3

For each relation, sketch the graph and its inverse on the same axes. Draw in the line y= x.

4
3

y
0

1 0

(1, 1)

(1, 1)
0

2 x

2
x

y
2

(1, 3)

(2, 3)

2
4

2 x

(1, 2)

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

227

5B
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video on inverse
functions.

Functions and their inverses

Recall that a function is a relation which has only one


y
y-value for each x-value. The graph of a function can be
y = f(x)
crossed only once by any vertical line.
To find the inverse of a function, we use the same
procedures that we used for relations in the previous
exercise.
1. The rule for the inverse of a function is obtained by
x
0
either:
(a) interchanging the x- and y-values of its ordered pairs
(b) interchanging x and y in the rule for the function,
then making y the subject.
2. The graph of the inverse of a function is obtained by
Vertical lines cross the curve only once.
either:
(a) interchanging the x- and y-values of its ordered pairs
(b) reflecting the graph of the function through the line y = x
(c) finding the rule of the inverse and graphing the new function.
The domain of a function is the range of its inverse. The range of a function is the domain of its inverse.
Worked example 4

State whether or not each of the following is a function by using the vertical line test.
a y = (x + 1)2 3
b x2 + y2 = 1
c y= 4 +1
x2
Think

a 1 Write the equation.


2

State the type of graph.

Do a rough sketch and use the vertical line test to


determine if the relation is a function.

WriTe/draW

a y = (x + 1)2 3

A parabola with minimum turning point


(1, 3)
y

0
(1, 3)

b 1

State whether or not it is a function.


Write the equation.

State the type of graph.

Do a rough sketch and use the vertical line test


to determine if the relation is a function.

(0, 2)

y = (x + 1)2 3 is a function.
b x2 + y2 = 1

A circle, centre (0, 0), radius 1


y
(0, 1)
(1, 0)

(1, 0)
0
(0, 1)

228

State whether or not it is a function.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

x2 + y2 = 1 is not a function.

c 1 Write the equation.


2

State the type of graph.

Do a rough sketch and use the vertical test to


determine if the relation is a function.

c y=

4
+1
x2

A hyperbola with asymptotes x = 2 and y = 1


y (x = 2)

(y = 1)
(2, 0) 0 (0, 1)

State whether or not it is a function.

y=

4
+ 1 is a function.
x2

Worked example 5

For each of the following functions, sketch, on the same set of axes, the graph
of the function, its inverse and the line y = x. State the domain and range for
the function and its inverse.
a y = x2 2x
b y = loge (x + 1)
Think

a 1 Write the original function.

TUTorial
eles-1212
Worked example 5

WriTe/draW

a y = x2 2x

Change it to turning point form by completing the


square.

= x2 2x + 12 12
= (x2 2x + 1) 1
= (x 1)2 1

Determine the turning point of the parabola.

This is a parabola with turning point


(1, 1).

Find the y-intercept by letting x equal 0 and


substituting in the original equation.

If x = 0, y = 02 2(0)
y=0
The y-intercept is 0.

Find the x-intercepts by letting y equal 0.

If y = 0, x2 2x = 0

Solve the equation by factorising the left-hand


side.

x(x 2) = 0
x = 0 and x = 2
The x-intercepts are 0 and 2.

Sketch the graph of the function.

0
1

x
1 2
(1, 1)
y = x2 2x

Interchange x and y to find the equation of the inverse.

x = (y 1)2 1

Rearrange to make y the subject.

x + 1 = (y 1)2
y 1 = x +1
y = 1 x + 1 which is a sideways
parabola.
ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

229

10

Interchange the x- and y-coordinates of the turning


point and intercepts in the original equation to find
the turning point and intercepts of the inverse.

11

On the original axes, sketch the graph of the


inverse and the line y = x.

(1, 1) becomes (1, 1),


(2, 0) becomes (0, 2) and
the origin remains the same.
y

y=x
y = x2 2x

x
y=1 x+1

12

State the domain and range of the function.

The domain is R and the range is [1, ).

13

State the domain and range of the inverse.

The domain of the inverse is [1, ) and


the range is R.
b y = loge (x + 1)

Write the function.

Find the vertical asymptote using the fact that


loge (0) is undefined.

Vertical asymptote occurs where x + 1 = 0.


x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.

Find the x-intercept using loge (1) = 0.

x-intercept occurs where y = 0 or x + 1 = 1.


x = 0 so the x-intercept is 0.

Sketch the graph of the function.

x = 1

y = loge (x + 1)

Interchange x and y to find the equation of the inverse.

x = loge (y + 1)

Rearrange to make y the subject.

ex = y +

Find the horizontal asymptote and intercepts from


the original function.

x = 1 is the original vertical asymptote, so


y = 1 is the horizontal asymptote for the
inverse.
(0, 0) is on both graphs.

On the original axes, sketch the graph of the


inverse and the line y = x.

x=

y = ex 1

y = ex 1

y=x

y = loge (x + 1)
x
y = 1

9
10

230

State the domain and range of the function.

The domain is (1, ) and the range is R.

State the domain and range of the inverse.

The domain of the inverse is R and the


range is (1, ).

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Worked example 6

If f(x) = ln (x + 1) + 1:
a find f 1(x)
b draw the graph of f(x) and its inverse f 1(x).
Think

WriTe

a 1 Let y = f (x).

a y = ln (x + 1) + 1

Interchange x and y.

x = ln (y + 1) + 1

Use the solve feature of a CAS calculator.

solve (ln (y + 1) + 1 = x, y)

Write the inverse.

y = ex 1 1

f 1(x) = e x 1 1

Write the answer in the form f (x).

b f1(x) = ln(x + 1) + 1

b 1 On a CAS calculator enter rules for the

f2(x) = e(x 1) 1

original function and its inverse.


2

Use the graphing feature of your CAS


calculator to sketch the two graphs on the
same set of axes.

(x)

y=x
f1(x)
x

Functions and their inverses

exercise 5B

1 We 4 State whether or not each of the following is a function by using the vertical line test.
a y = 2x 1
d

y=

(2 x + 1)2

g y = loge (x + 1) 2

4
1
x+3

b y = 3(x 1)2 + 2

y=

e x2 + y2 = 4

y = 3e(x 2) + 1

y= x +2

2 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions and state the domain and range of each. (Verify that

it is correct using a CAS calculator.)


a (4, 2), (2, 0), (0, 1), (2, 4), (3, 6)}

b 3x + 4y = 12

c f (x) = 5 2x

d f (x) = x2 9

e f (x) = (x + 2)2

g f (x) = x2 + 8x

h f (x) =

x3
2
f
(
x
)
=
4 x2
k

f (x) = loge (2x)

4
x
f (x) = 2ex
f (x) =

Find the inverse of each function in question 2. Sketch the graph and state the domain and
range of each inverse. (Verify using a CAS calculator.)
4 For each function graphed below:
i copy the graph of each function and sketch its inverse on the same axes
ii state the domain and range of f (x)
iii state the domain and range of the inverse of f (x).

diGiTal doC
doc-9252
SkillSHEET 5.2
matching graphs
with equations

3 We 5

b
y=x

f(x)

f(x)

f(x)

diGiTal doC
doc-9196
Spreadsheet
inverse graphs

1
0

x
0

y=x

y=x

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

231

f(x)

y x=1

f(x)

3
f(x)
3

0
y=x
g

3 x

y=x

y=x
y

f(x)

y=x

f(x)
5

5x

y
y=x

(4, 1)
3

f(x)

y=x

5
j

y=x

y
x = 3

f(x)
6

3 2

(3, 4)

f(x)

2
x

y=x

2
y=x

Questions 5 to 8 relate to the following function.


f : R + R, f ( x ) =
5 mC The range of f (x) is:
a R+
d R

B R
e (, 0]

6 mC The domain of the inverse of f (x) is:


a R
d [0, )

B R
e (, 0]

7 mC The range of the inverse of f (x) is:


a R
d (, 0]

C [0, )

C R+

C [0, )

B R
e R+

8 mC The inverse of f (x) can be defined by:


a y = x2, where x [0, )
C y = x2 where x R
e y=
diGiTal doC
doc-9197
WorkSHEET 5.1

x , where x [0, )

B y = x2, where x R
d y = x2, where x R+

9 We6 For each of the following functions, fully define the inverse.
a f : [2, ) R, f (x) = (x 2)2 3
b f : R R, f (x) = 3e x 1 + 2

5C

inverse functions

A one-to-one function is a function where for each x-value there is only one y-value and vice versa.
The graph of a one-to-one function can be crossed only once by any vertical or horizontal line.
A function that is not one-to-one is many-to-one.
A function will have an inverse that is also a function if and only if it is a one-to-one function. If a

function, f , is one-to-one, then its inverse function is denoted by f 1.


232

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Furthermore:

dom f 1 = ran f

ran f 1 = dom f

The graph of f 1 is obtained by reflecting the graph of f through the line y = x.

(Note that if f crosses the line y = x at any point, f and f 1 will intersect at that point.)
The maximal domain of a function is the largest domain for which its rule is defined. If a function is
given without its domain specified, then it is understood that the maximal or implied domain is intended.
y
y = f(x)

Horizontal lines
cross the curve
only once.

Vertical lines cross the curve only once.

Worked example 7

1
Consider the function f ( x ) = x + 2 .
a State whether or not it is a one-to-one function, and hence determine if the
inverse function exists.
If the inverse function exists:
b on the same set of axes, sketch f(x), its inverse and the line y = x

c use a CAS calculator to find the points of intersection of f(x) and f 1(x)
d find the maximal domain and range of the original function
e find the domain and range of the inverse function.
Think

TUTorial
eles-1213
Worked example 7

WriTe/draW

1 a basic hyperbola
,
x+2
translated 2 units to the left.

a f (x) =

Write the function.

Find the vertical asymptote by making the


denominator of the fraction equal to 0.

Vertical asymptote occurs where


x+2=0
x = 2

Find the horizontal asymptote remembering there is


no vertical translation.

Horizontal asymptote occurs where


y=0.

Sketch the graph of f (x) and use vertical and


horizontal line tests to decide whether or not f (x) is a
one-to-one function.

x = 2

y
(0, 12)

x
1
f(x) = x + 2

State whether or not the inverse function exists.

f (x) is a one-to-one function, so

f 1(x) exists.
ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

233

b On the same axes sketch f (x), f

b The horizontal asymptote is y = 2.

(x) and y = x.

The vertical asymptote is x = 0.


( 0, 12 ) becomes ( 12 , 0 )
1
The equation is y = x 2.
x = 2
1)
(0,
2
1
y =
x+2

y=x

0
1 , 0)
(
2

1 x 2
y=
x y = 2

c The points of intersection are (2.414,

c Find the points of intersection.

2.414)

and (0.414, 0.414). Note that


these points both lie on the line y = x.

d The domain is R\{2} and the range is

d Find the domain and range of f (x).

R \{0}.
e The domain of the inverse is the range of the original

e The domain of the inverse is R \{0} and

function. The range of the inverse is thedomain of the


original function.

the range is R \{2}.

Functions are either one-to-one or many-to-one.


If a function, f, is not one-to-one but is many-to-one, it is possible to restrict its domain so that the
limited domain is one-to-one and hence the inverse function exists.
Worked example 8

State the largest negative domain of f(x), shown in the figure,

so that f 1(x) exists.

f(x)
(0, 9)

3
Think

234

WriTe

Decide whether f (x) is a one-to-one function.

The parabola can be divided through its axis of symmetry,


x = 3, so that 2 one-to-one functions are formed.

State the domain of the left part of the parabola that is


one-to-one.

f (x) is one-to-one if the domain is


restricted to (, 3].

State the domain of the right part of the parabola that is


one-to-one.

f (x) is also one-to-one if the domain is


restricted to [3, ).

State the largest negative domain of f (x) so that f 1(x)


exists.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

f (x) is not one-to-one, because horizontal


lines cut the parabola in 2 places.

The largest negative domain for f 1(x) to


exist is (, 3].

exercise 5C

inverse functions

1 We 7 Consider the following functions.

For each function:


i state whether or not it is a one-to-one function and hence determine if the inverse function
exists.
If the inverse function exists:
ii on the same set of axes, sketch f (x), its inverse and the line y = x

iii use a CAS calculator to find the points of intersection of f (x) and f 1(x)
iv find the maximal domain and range of the original function
v find the domain and range of the inverse function.
a f (x) = 4x + 1
b f (x) = 6x
c f (x) = 5
d f (x) = x2 + 2
e f (x) = (x 3)2
f f (x) = (x + 1)3
2

16 x 2
g f (x) =
h f (x) =
i f (x) = x2 6x + 3
x
j f (x) = e4x 2
k f (x) = 2 loge (x 1)
2 Find: i which of the functions below has an inverse function f

ii f 1(x), if it exists.

1
(x)

1
2
x2
x3
f (x) =
2
f ( x ) = 16 x 2
f (x) = 3ex 2
f (x) = 1 + 2 ln (x)

a f (x) = 4x

b f (x) =

c f (x) = 5 x2

d f (x) = (x 1)2

g f (x) =

x2
j f (x) = 5 ex 2
m f (x) = 2 loge (x 4)

k
n

f (x) = (x + 5)2 28

f (x) = 2ex + 1
l f (x) = loge (3x)
o f (x) = 3 loge (2x + 3)
i

3 Copy and complete the following table.

Function

Inverse of the function

Domain

Range

Domain

Range

R+

[10,

[1, )

[3, 3]

[0, 3]

(0, )
[5, 5]

[0, 8]

g
h

R+

4 mC Consider the function in the figure shown below.


y

a The function would be one-to-one if the domain were restricted to:


a [3, 5]

B [2, 10]

C [1, 3]

b The largest domain that restricts it to a one-to-one functionis:


a (, 4]

B [0, )

C R+

d [0, 4]

e [0, 2.2]

d R

e (, 2]

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

235

2
+ 1.
( x 3)2
a The function would be one-to-one if the domain were restricted to:
a (3, ]
B [3, )
d (1, )
e [3, )
b The inverse would be a function if the domain of f (x) were:
a [0, 4]
B (1, 4]
d [0, 3)
e [1, )

5 mC Consider the function f ( x ) =

6 mC Consider the function f : S R, f (x) = x2 + 1.

a The maximal domain, S, for f 1(x) to exist is:


a R+
d R+ {0} or R {0}

b For f

a R

B R
e (, 1]

C [2, 4]

C [1, )

to exist, the largest possible positive set, S, is:


B R
C [0, )

d R+

e [1, )

For each function graphed below, state the largest possible domain of f so that f

7 We 8
a

f(x)
y
0

exists.
y

(3, 3)

f(x)

1 0

y
9

f (x)

f (x)

f(x)

C (3, )

f(x)
1

f(x)
0 1
3

f (x)

5d

9 x

9x

0
x=5

f (x)

restricting functions

As we have seen in the previous exercise, functions which are not one-to-one can have their domains restricted

so that they become one-to-one. As a result their inverses will then be functions, that is, f 1 will exist.
Worked example 9

Consider the function fully defined as follows:


f : [ 3, 3] R
R,,

f ( x)
x) = 9 x 2

a Find the largest possible positive domain so that f

b Use this restricted domain to fully define f 1(x).


Think

a 1 Write the function.

exists.

WriTe

a Let y = f (x)

y = 9 x2

236

Square both sides.

Add x2 to both sides.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y2 = 9 x2
x2 + y2 = 9

TUTorial
eles-1173
Worked example 9

State the shape and key features of the graph.

This is the equation of a circle with centre


(0,0) and radius 3.

Describe f (x), remembering that a positive


square root implies the upper part of a
semicircle.

The graph of f ( x ) = 9 x 2 is an upper


semicircle.

Sketch the graph of f (x).

y
3

3
7

State the possible domains if f (x) is one-toone.

State the largest positive domain for f 1(x) to


exist.

f (x) is one-to-one if the domain is [3, 0]


or [0, 3].
1

The largest positive domain for f


is [0, 3].

using dom f

= ran f.

= ran f
= [0, 3]

= dom f
= [0, 3]

Find the domain of f

Find the range of f

Write the function.

y = 9 x2

Find the inverse by interchanging x and y.

Inverse is x = 9 y 2

Make y the subject.

Select the appropriate inverse function.

State the function f 1.

using ran f

dom f

to exist

b If dom f = [0, 3], then ran f = [0, 3].

b 1 Find the range of f(x).


1

= dom f.

ran f

x2 = 9 y2
x2 + y2 = 9
y2 = 9 x2
y = 9 x2

Since ran f

= [0, 3], use y = 9 x 2 .

Therefore the inverse of f with the largest


positive domain is:

1
2
f 1: [0, 3] R, f ( x ) = 9 x

Worked example 10

If f: S R, f(x) = 3(x 1)2 2:

a find the largest positive set, S, for which f 1(x) exists


1
b fully define f and sketch its graph.
Think

a 1 Write the function.


2

State the shape and key features of the graph.

WriTe/draW

a y = 3(x 1)2 2

A parabola with turning point (1, 2),


y-intercept (0, 1) and x-intercepts
(0.184, 0) and (1.816, 0)
ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

237

Sketch the graph of f (x).

(0, 1) (0.184, 0) (1.816, 0)


x
0
(1, 2)

State whether or not it is a one-to-one function.

The parabola is not one-to-one so the


domain must be restricted.

State the possible domains if f (x) is to be


one-to-one.

The domain could be (, 1] or [1, ).

State the largest positive domain, set S, for f


exist.

Find the range of f (x).

Find the domain of f

Write the function.

y = 3(x 1)2 2

Interchange x and y and make y the subject.

x = 3(y 1)2 2
x + 2 = 3(y 1)2
x+2
= ( y 1)2
3
x+2
y 1 =
reject the negative
3
solution because the range is [2, ).

to

S = [1, )
b The range is [2, ).

using dom f

= ran f.

The domain of f

y = 1+
5

Fully define the inverse function.

is [2, ).

x+2
3


f 1:[ 2, ) R, f 1 ( x ) = 1 +

x+2
3

key feature of inverse functions


A feature of inverse functions is that by taking the inverse function of a function, or vice versa, the
independent variable (x) is always obtained. That is:

f 1 [ f (x)] = f [ f 1(x)] = x.
The following example illustrates how this works.
Worked example 11

For f : R R, f(x) = x3:

a find f 1(x) and state its range

b find f [ f 1(x)] and f 1[ f(x)] and show that f [ f 1(x)] = f 1[ f(x)] = x.


Think

a 1 Write the function.

238

Interchange x and y.

Make y the subject by writing both sides to


the power of 13 and simplifying.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

TUTorial
eles-1242
Worked example 11

WriTe

a f(x) = y = x3

Its inverse is x = y3.


1

( y3 ) 3 = x 3
1

y = x3

Write the rule for f 1(x).

Find the range of f 1(x), remembering that ran

f 1 is the same as dom f.

Write your answer in the same form as the question.

Find f ( x 3 ) by replacing x by x 3 in f(x) = x3.

Simplify.

Simplify.

f (x 3 )

=x

f 1[ f ( x )] =

(x3) by replacing x by x3 in f 1 ( x ) = x 3 .

1
( x )] =

1 3

Find f

R R, f 1 ( x ) = x 3

= x 3

[f(x)] by rewriting f(x) as x3.

1
:

b f[ f

Find f

dom f = R

ran f 1 = R

(x)] by rewriting f 1(x) as x 3 .

b 1 Find f [ f

f 1(x) = x 3

f 1( x 3 )
1

= (x3 )3
=x

Compare f [ f (x)] to f

f [ f 1 (x
( x )] =

[ f(x)].

f 1[ f ( x)]
x )] = x

Worked example 12

a Sketch the graph of f(x) = x2 3x + 3, showing the turning point and relevant
intercept(s).
TUTorial
b Find the rule of the inverse by an algebraic method and sketch this graph on eles-1214
Worked example 12
the same set of axes together with the line y = x.
c Is the inverse a function?
d The inverse is a reflection in the line y = x of the original function f(x). Use this information to
find any points of intersection between the original curve and its inverse.

e Find the maximum value of a for f: (, a] R, f(x) = x2 3x + 3 so that f 1(x) exists.


Think

WriTe/draW

a Use a CAS calculator to help in drawing a graph of f (x)

including the relevant points.

y
4
3
2
1
0

b 1 To find the equation of f 1(x), let y = x2 3x + 3.

f (x) = x2 3x + 3
y=x

(1.5, 0.75)

1 2 3 4

b x = y2 3y + 3

Interchange x and y.
2

Use the solve feature of your CAS calculator to


determine the inverse.

Solve (y2 3y + 3 = x, y).

State the inverse.

y=

( 4 x 3 + 3)
or
2

y=

( 4 x 3 3)
2

Write the answer in the form of f 1(x).

f 1( x) =

4x 3 + 3
2
ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

239

Use the calculator to draw the graphs of f (x),

f 1(x) and y = x.

c The inverse is a one-to-many relation and therefore is

not a function.
d 1 Use a CAS calculator to determine the points of

intersection of f(x) and the line y = x.


Note: These are the points of intersection of

f and f 1.

y
4
3
2
1

f(x) = x2 3x + 3
y=x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

c The graph of the inverse does not pass the

vertical line test, as it is a one-to-many


relation, and therefore it is not a function.
d Solve (x2 3x + 3 = x).
y
4
3
2
1

f (x) = x2 3x + 3
y=x

(1.5, 0.75)

1 2 3 4

0
2

State the intersections.

e 1 Use a CAS calculator to find the turning point of f (x).

Intersections are (1,1) and (3, 3).


f Min (x2 3x + 3, x)

State the minimum.

Minimum is x = 32 .

Since the domain is (, a] use left half of the


parabola, a = 32 .

Domain is ( , 32 ].

Worked example 13

Let f: R R, f(x) = ex + 1.
a Sketch the graph of f and state its range.

b Find the rule and domain of the inverse. function f 1


1
c Find the rule and maximal domain for y = f( f (x)).
ax
d Find y = f(f 1(2x)) in the form
where a, b and c are constants.
bx + c
Think

a 1 Carefully sketch the graph of f, showing the y-axis

intercept of 2 and the graph approaching the


asymptote y = 1.

WriTe

y
8
6
4
2

y=1

1 20

2x

Range = (1, )
b 1 Interchange x and y to find the inverse equation.

240

by=e

+ 1 is the given function.

x = e y + 1 is the inverse.
y

In order to make y the subject of the equation,


subtract 1 from both sides.

x1=e

Rewrite using a x = y loga ( y) = x .

loge(x
log (x
e

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

1) = y
1) = y

c f (f 1(x)) = eloge(x 1) + 1

c 1 Form the composite function.

Since the range for the given function was (1, ) then
this becomes the domain of the inverse function.

f 1:(1, ) R, f 1(x) = loge(x 1)

Write the rule for the inverse using


function notation.

=x1+1
=x

Dom f (f 1(x)) = dom f 1(x) = (1, )

Sketch the graph of this composite


function.

y
5
4
3
2
1
0

d 1 Find the rule for f 1(x) and then find


f 1(2x).

Form the composite function f ( f 1(2x)).

exercise 5d

5x

f (x) = ex + 1

f 1(x) = loge(x 1)
f 1(x) = log (x 1)
e

f 1(2x)

= loge(2x 1)

f ( f 1(2x)) = eloge(2x 1) + 1
= eloge(2x 1) 1 + 1
= (2x 1)1 + 1
1
1
=
+
2x 1 1
1 + 2x 1
=
2x 1
2x
1
f ( f (2 x ) =
2x 1

restricting functions

1 We9a Find the largest possible domain(s) of the following functions so that the inverse function

exists. (Use a CAS calculator to sketch the graph if necessary.)


b f : R R, f (x) = 3x2 1
1
c f : R R, f (x) = (x + 3)2 2
d f : R \{0}
} R, f ( x ) = 2 3
x
1
1
} R, f ( x ) =
+1
} R, f ( x ) =
e f : R \{4}
f f : R \ {2}
2
( x 4)
x2
a f : R R, f (x) = x2 + 3

g f : [ 5, 5] R,
R, f ( x)
x ) = 25 x 2

R,, f ( x)
x) = 1 x 2
h f : [ 1, 1] R

i f : [4, ) R, f ( x ) = x 4
k f : R R, f (x) = e x + 2

j
l

diGiTal doC
doc-9253
SkillSHEET 5.3
Function
notation

f : R R, f (x) = x2 2x + 5
f : (5, ) R, f (x) = 2 loge (x 5)

2 We 9b For each function in question 1 use the restricted domain to fully define f

1
(x).

(If there are two possible domains, use the one which is to the right.)
3 mC Use the function f : [0, ) R, f (x) = x2 to answer the following questions.

a Any points of intersection of f (x) and f 1(x) must lie on the line:
a y=0

b f

B y=x

C y = 2x

d y=x+1

e x=0

(x) is correctly defined by:

a f 1 : [0, ) R, f 1(x) = x

f 1: [0, )

f 1: (0, ] R, f 1 ( x ) =

R,

f 1( x)

= x

B f 1 : [0, ) R, f 1(x) = x

d f 1: [0, ) R, f 1 ( x ) = x

1
x2
ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

241

c The range of f

(x) is:

a (, 0]

C R+

B R

d The graphs of f and f

e R

d [0, )

intersect at the point(s):


B (1, 1) only
C (0, 0) and (1, 1)
e (1, 1) and (2,, 14 )
4 Copy each of the following graphs, then on the same set of axes sketch the graphs of y = x and

y = f 1(x).
a (0, 0) and (1, 1)
d (0, 0) and (3, 3)

f(x)

f(x)

3
5

f (x)

0
d

1
h

f (x)
x

f(x)

f(x)

(2, 5)

y
2

f(x)

5 We10 If f : S R, f ( x ) = 3 + x 1, find:

a the largest set, S, for which f 1(x) exists

[2,

f(x)

b f

and sketch its graph.

6 If f :
a] R, f (x) = (x
5, find:
a the largest possible value of a so that f will have an inverse which is a function
b f

4)2

and sketch its graph.

7 We11 For f : R+ R, f ( x ) =
a find f
c find f

:
1

and state its range

b find f [ f

[ f (x)]

d show that f [ f

(x)]

a
b
c
d

9 We12 If g : [b, 8] R, g(x) = 9 x2, find:


a the smallest value of b so that g(x) has an inverse that is a function

b g 1

c the range of g 1(x).


242

(x)] = f 1[ f (x)] = x.

1
:
x2 + 2
sketch the graph of f (x)

state the largest positive domain for f (x) so that f 1(x) exists
1
sketch the graph f (x) on the same set of axes as f (x), using the positive domain

show that f [ f 1(x)] = f 1[ f (x)] = x.


For f : R R, f ( x ) =

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

10 Given that g( x ) = 3 +

4 x 2 , fully define two inverse functions, g 1, using maximal domains.


11 The Richter scale is used to measure the intensity of an earthquake. The intensity of an earthquake
indicates the violence of the Earths motion. The actual model is a little more complex but simplifies to:
I
R = log10
I0
where I is the intensity of the earthquake, I0 is the initial intensity which equals one and R is the
magnitude of the earthquake on the Richter scale.
The following earthquakes occurred during the first six months of 2011.
Date

Place

Magnitude on Richter Scale

March 11

Tohoku, Japan

9.0

April 7

Honshu, Japan

7.4

February 23

Christchurch, New Zealand

6.3

June 13

Christchurch, New Zealand

6.0

a Calculate the intensity of each of the four earthquakes listed, giving your answers in scientific notation.
b i Compare the magnitudes of the two Japanese earthquakes by setting up a simplified ratio of the

two intensities.
ii Compare the magnitudes of the two New Zealand earthquakes by setting up a simplified ratio of

the two intensities.


iii Compare the magnitudes of the smaller Japanese earthquake and larger New Zealand

earthquake by setting up a simplified ratio of the two intensities.


12 a Sketch the graph of the function f (x) = ex 1, stating the domain and range.

b Find the inverse function, f 1, stating the domain and range. Use function notation to state the

rule for the inverse.

c Sketch the graph of f 1 on the same set of axes used for part (a).

d Find the rule for y = f (f 1(x)) and investigate the conditions under which this composite function

exists.

e If g(x) = 3x, find the rule for g(f

(x)) and investigate the conditions under which this composite


function exists.

f Sketch the graph of y = g(f 1(x)).


g Find the rule for y = g(x) f(x), stating the domain for this function. Sketch the graph of this
function with the assistance of a CAS calculator.
13 For the function f : ( 2, ) R, f ( x ) = loge ( x + 2)
a Sketch the graph of f and state the range of the function.
b Find the rule, domain and range of the inverse function. Sketch this on the same set of axes as
used in part (a).
c Find where these two functions intersect, giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places.

d Find the rule and maximal domain for y = f ( f 1(x)).


14 For the function y = e2x 2ex + 1:
a find where the graph cuts the y-axis
b find where the graph cuts the x-axis algebraically
c find any stationary point(s) and investigate the nature of the point(s).
d sketch the graph of the function, with the aid of a CAS calculator, stating the domain and range
e find the inverse function, stating the domain and range
f find where the graphs of the two functions intersect giving answers correct to 2 decimal places,
where appropriate
g sketch the inverse function on the same set of axes used for part (d).
15 a Sketch the graph of f where f : ( 1, ) R, f ( x ) = 2loge ( x + 1) .
b Find the rule for the inverse function, stating the domain and range. Express the rule of the inverse
using function notation.

c Find the rule and maximal domain for y = f (f 1(x)).


ax

d Find y = f ( f 1(3x)). in the form y =


where a, b and c are real constants.
bx + c

diGiTal doC
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WorkSHEET 5.2

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

243

Summary
relations and their
inverses

A relation is a set of ordered pairs which may be described by a rule.


The inverse of a relation can be found by interchanging the x and y elements.
The graph of a relation and its inverse are reflected in the line y = x.
If the rule for a relation is known, then the rule for its inverse is obtained by interchanging x and y
in the rule and then making y the subject.
The domain of a relation is the same as the range of its inverse and the range of a relation is the
same as the domain of its inverse.

Functions and their


inverses

A function is a relation which has only one y-value for each x-value. The graph of a function can
be crossed only once by a vertical line.
A one-to-one function is a function which has only one x-value for each y-value. The graph of a
one-to-one function can be crossed only once by any vertical or horizontal line.
A function which is not one-to-one is many-to-one.
The rule for the inverse of a relation, or a function, can be obtained by either:
1. interchanging the first and second elements of the ordered pairs
2. interchanging x and y in the rule and making y the subject.
y
Graphing the inverse The graph of the inverse of a relation, or a
function, can be obtained by either:

1
f (x)
1. interchanging the first and second elements of the ordered pairs of
2
the relation or function
(5, 2)
2. reflecting the graph of the relation or function through the line y = x
x
0
5
f(x)
3. using the rule of the relation or function to find the rule of the
inverse and then graphing the inverse.
y=x
The domain and range of a function and its inverse are interchanged.
(2, 5)
The graphs of a function and its inverse intersect on the line y = x.

inverse functions

restricting functions

A function, f (x), which is not one-to-one can have its domain restricted so that f 1(x) exists.

The points of intersection of f (x) and f 1(x) lie on the line y = x.


A function is fully described using the notation

The inverse of a one-to-one function, f (x), is also a function and is denoted by f 1(x).

dom f 1 = ran f
1
ran f = dom f

f 1[ f (x)] = f [ f 1(x)] = x
The implied (or maximal) domain of a function is the largest domain for which the function has
meaning. When the domain is not mentioned, use the maximal domain.

f : X Y, f (x) = rule
where X is the domain and Y is the co-domain.

The graph of f 1(x) is a reflection of f (x) in the line y = x.


1

f [ f (x)] = f [ f 1(x)] = x

244

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Chapter review
1 Sketch the graph of the inverse of each of the following relations.
y

S ho rT
a n S W er

b
(4, 4)

2
2

3
2 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions and state its domain and range.

2
a y = 36 x

b f (x) = 2e x 2

3 Using the graph of the functions given below sketch the graph of the inverse of each function.
a

x = 2

b
f(x)

1
2

1 0

y
f(x)

8 x

f(x)
(4, 4)

(1, 4)
4 State the largest possible domain for each of the following functions to be one-to-one.
a f (x) = 3 loge (x +

4)

c f (x) = 5

b g(x) = (x 2)2

1
x2

5 For the following functions:


i Sketch their graphs and, by inspection, define them as one-to-one or many-to-one

functions.
ii For the functions defined in i as many-to-one, define the maximal domain for which the inverse

is a function, stating their domains in formal function notation. If there is more than one
option, choose the right-hand option.
iii Find the rules of their inverses.
iv For all of the one-to-one functions from i and the redefined functions from iii, sketch all these
inverse functions.
a f (x) = 2x 1
b f (x) = 2(x 1)3 + 1
c f (x) = |x2 + x |

d f (x) =

e f (x) = 3ex + 1

g f (x) =

( x + 3)2

2 x 3
2
f (x) =
1
3( x 2)

+1

6 a Sketch the graph of f (x) = loge (x 2) + 1, marking the intercepts and asymptotes and stating the

domain and the range.

b Find the rule for the inverse function.

c If f 1(m) = 3, find the value of m.

d Draw the graphs of y = x and f 1(x) on the same axes as f (x) = loge (x 2) + 1, marking the point

(m, 3) and checking that it is on f 1(x). State the domain and the range.
e Mark the image of (m, 3) on the original graph.
1

7 If g : (, b) R, g(x) = x2 + 5x 1, find the largest value of b for g

to exist.
ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

245

m U lTip l e
C h oiCe

1 A relation has an x-intercept of 4 and y-intercept of 2. The inverse of this relation has an x-intercept

and y-intercept, respectively, of:


B 2, 4

a 4, 2

C 4, 2

d 2, 4

e 0, 0

2 The graph that best represents the inverse of the relation shown in the figure below is:
y

y
0
1

1
0

3 The relation x2 + (y + 1)2 = 16 has an inverse that is:


a a one-to-one function
C a many-to-many relation
e a one-to-one relation

B a many-to-one relation
d a one-to-many function

3 is closest to:
(x), where f ( x ) = 3 x 3,
C 3
d 1.27
e 6
2

+ 3, is closest to:
5 The y-intercept of the inverse function f 1(x), where f ( x ) =
( x 2)
a 43
B no x-intercept
C 34
d 2
e 2
2

+ 3, at:
6 Asymptotes exist on the graph of the inverse function f 1(x), where f ( x ) =
( x 2)
a x = 1 only
B y = 1 only
C x = 3, y = 2

d x = 2, y = 1
e x = 3, y = 2
4
7 The inverse of the relation y =
is:
x2
2
2
2
a y=
B y=
C y=
x
x
x
2
2
d y=
e y=
x
x
4 The x-intercept of the inverse function f
a 1.27

B 6

8 A function has a domain of [0, ) and a range of R+. The domain of its inverse must be:
a R

B R

C R+

d [0, )

e (, 0]

1
is:
1
C R \{0}

d R \{1, 1}

e R+

9 The implied domain of the function, f ( x ) =


a R

246

B R \{1}

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

x2

Questions 10 to 12 can be answered by considering the function f (x) = 4 ln (x + 3) 2.


10 The maximal domain for f (x) is:
a [3, )

11 dom f
a

R+

B (, 3)

C R \{3}

d (3, )

e R+

B [0, )

C R

d (, 3)

e (3, )

is equal to:

12 The rule for f

is completely described by:

a f 1 : R R, f 1 ( x ) = e 4 3

C f 1: ( , 3) R, f 1 ( x ) =

f 1 : R + R, f 1 ( x ) =

x4
e 2

B
x+4
e 2

d f 1 : R R, f 1 ( x ) =

x+2
4

x+4
e 3

f 1 : R R, f 1 ( x ) = e

13 At which one of the following points is it possible for a function and its inverse to intersect?
a (2, 2)

14 The value of
a

B (1, 2)

f [ f 1 ( 13 )]

C (2, 1)

d (0, 1)

C x

e (1, 2)

is equal to:
1
3

1
3

e 3

15 The function shown in the figure is one-to-one if the domain is restricted to:
a [2, )

[3,

2]
e [0, )
C

B [3, )

f(x)

d (, 2]

16 If f : S R, f (x) = x2 10x + 18, then the largest possible set, S, for f


a (, 0]

B [0, )

C [0, 5]

to exist is:

d [5, 100]

e (, 5]

1 Using a CAS calculator:


a Find the rule for the inverse of the function f (x) = 0.213x2 + 1.127x 2.124.
b Explain why this inverse is not a function.
c Find the value of a, correct to 2 decimal points, for [a, ), the maximal domain of f (x) so that the

ex Ten d ed
r eS p o n S e

inverse is a function. Let this new function be g(x).

d Find the domain and range of f 1(x).

e Solve g(x) = g 1(x) for x, correct to 2 decimal places.


2 The function, f (x), in the figure below is a parabola with a turning point at (0, 4).
y
4
y=x

A
2

Find the function which describes f (x).


Find the coordinates of the point, A.
State the domain and range of f (x).
Sketch the graph of f (x) and its inverse on the same set of axes.
What shape is enclosed between f (x) and its inverse?
i State the domain for which the inverse of f (x) is a function.
ii Give the rule for the inverse of f (x) over this domain.
g i State the domain for which the inverse of f (x) is not a function.
ii Give the rule for the inverse of f (x) over this domain.
a
b
c
d
e
f

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

247

3 The graph of f (x) = exx2 is shown at right.


a Use a calculator to find the turning points, rounding answers

to 2 decimal places as appropriate.


b State the domain and range of f (x).
c On the same set of axes, sketch f (x), its inverse and the line

y = x. Mark all turning points and asymptotes.

f(x) = exx2

d State the domain and range of the inverse of f (x).


e Use a CAS calculator to solve exx2 = x to find the points of

intersection of f (x) and its inverse.


Find the largest possible negative domain of f (x) so that

f 1(x) exists (that is, the inverse is a function).


g Find the domain of the inverse function.
4 a Use a CAS calculator to draw the graph of f (x) = 6 loge |x 3|.

b Find the value of a for (a, ), the maximal domain of f (x), such that f 1(x) exists. Let this new
function be g(x).

c Solve g(x) = g 1(x) for x, correct to 2 decimal places.

d Consider the function f (x) = a loge (x 3), where a > 0. Let f 1(x) = h(x). Given that
x
a
1
and h ( x ) = e a , find the value of a (correct to 2 decimal places) for which the
f ( x ) =
a
x3
graph of f (x) and its inverse intersect only once.
5 Bacteria share one major characteristic; they divide by simple binary division. The mathematical series
describing their growth is 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, . . . which can be rewritten as 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, . . .
a i Write a mathematical equation relating the number of bacteria present in a colony, N, to the
number of hours, t, after the first division. This division model is only valid for seven days.
ii How many bacteria would be present in the colony after 12 hours?
iii How many bacteria would be present in the colony after 1 day?
iv Sketch the graph of N versus t for the first twelve hours.
b Bacterial growth can be graphed as N versus t, as seen in part (a) (iv) above, since it is exponential
growth. However, because population numbers are so large, it is common practice to plot the
logarithm of the N versus t.
i Explain how this is possible.
(Hint: find the equations relating logarithm of N and t and show that it can be expressed in the
form y = mx + c)
ii Sketch, without the use of a calculator, the graph of loge (N) versus t for one week, i.e.
168 hours. Complete the following table to assist with the sketching.
f

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

diGiTal doC
doc-9199
Test Yourself
Chapter 5

248

t (hours)

loge (N)
0

(2 days) 48

2.8147 10

(4 days) 96

7.9228 1028

(6 days) 144

2.2301 10144

(7 days) 168

3.7414 10168

c Find how long will it take for the number of bacteria in the colony to reach 1.142 1026?

Give your answer in days and hours.


6 For the function f : R R, f ( x ) = 2e x 2
a Sketch the graph of f and state the range.
b Find the rule, domain and range of the inverse function. Express the rule of the inverse using
function notation.

c Find the rule and maximal domain for y = f (f 1(x)).


ax

d Find y = f ( f 1(x)) in the form y =


where a, b and c are real constants.
bx + c

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGiTal doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9195: Warm up with ten quick questions on
inverse functions. (page 223)

5a

relations and their inverses

inTeraCTiViTY
Inverse functions int-0250: Use the interactivity to consolidate your
understanding of graphs of the inverses of relations. (page 223)
TUTorial
We3 eles-1211: Watch a worked example on how to sketch
relations and their inverses. (page 225)
diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 5.1 doc-9251: Practise identifying domain and range.
(page 227)
Spreadsheet doc-9165: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 227)

5B

Functions and their inverses

TUTorial
We5 eles-1212: Watch a worked example on sketching functions
and their relations. (page 229)
diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 5.2 doc-9252: Practise making graphs with equations.
(page 231)
Spreadsheet doc-9196: Investigate inverse graphs. (page 231)
WorkSHEET 5.1 doc-9197: Sketch relations, functions and their
inverses. (page 232)

5C

inverse functions

TUTorial
We7 eles-1213: Watch a worked example on sketching graphs of
inverse functions. (page 233)

5d

restricting functions

TUTorialS
We9 eles-1173: Watch a worked example on defining inverse
functions. (page 236)
We11 eles-1242: Watch a worked example on identifying that the

composite functions f [ f 1(x)] = f 1[ f (x)] = x. (page 238)


We12 eles-1214: Watch a worked example on restricting a
function to define an inverse function. (page 239)
diGiTal doCS
SkillSHEET 5.3 doc-9253: Practise using function notation.
(page 241)
WorkSHEET 5.2 doc-9198: Recognise types of functions and sketch
polynomials and power functions. (page 243)

Chapter review
diGiTal doC
Test Yourself doc-9199: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 248)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

249

Answers CHAPTER 5
inVerSe FUnCTionS
exercise 5a

1 a

y = (x + 1)2

1 0

y
5
4
3
2
1

8
x2 + y2 = 4

c
2

2
1
2 0 1
1

2 x

[2,

(1, 1)

2], [2, 2]

R, R
(1, 3)

3
y=x
1 0
(1, 1)

R, R

y = 2x 5

y = 3
x

5
2

5
2

R, R

y=2
2

e
5

y = 2x + 4

5
2

y = 12 x +

R\{0}, R\{0}
y

(1, 3) 3

0 1

y=x

{8, 5, 2, 1}, {1, 1, 2, 7}


c

{1, 1, 2, 7}, {8, 5, 2, 1}

y
7

{0, 1, 3}, {1, 2, 5}

1
1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x
2

R, [0, )

{(7, 8), (2, 5), (1, 2), (1, 1)}


y

relations and their inverses

0 123

R, {2}
R, R
e

y
x = 4

2x + 4y = 8

2
0

{4}, R

R, R
m

R, R

y= x+42
y

y
3

y = 2x

y = x2 + 4x
4

(2, 4)

(4, 2)

0 1

[4, ), R

R, R

R, [4, )
y

2 a

(1, 2)

{(1, 0), (2, 1), (2, 3), (5, 3)}

y = x +1
y

y
1
1

0
1

R, [1, )

250

3
2
1

0 12345

y = x2 1

1
x

{1, 2, 5}, {0, 1, 3}

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

0
1

[1, ), R

5 a

y = 1 x

x = 2

y=x

y=x

y
0
1

y=3

y=x
2

(1, 3)

y=x
(3, 3)

y=x

3
y=
x

0
3

0
4

(3, 1)

[2, 2], [2, 2]


j

y=x

x=3

x2 + y2 = 4

(1, 1)

y = 2

[0, ), R

(1, 1)

3
(3, 3)

(4, 4)

(3, 1)

(3, 1)
x

y
y=x

0 2
4

y=x

0 2

R\{0}, R\{0}
k

x=2

(1, 1)

y=x

y=x
y
y

{2}, R
y=

y=x

y=x
6

(1, 1)

x
2

y=x

y=x

1
0

(2, 1)

1
1
2

y=x
0

0 2

R, R

y
2

R, {4}
m y= 3

y
2
4 2 0
2
4

y=x
1

2
3

3A
4C

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

251

exercise 5B

1 a
c
e
g
2 a

Functions and their inverses


Function
b Function
Function
d Function
Not a function
f Function
Function
h Function

y
5
2

y = 25 21 x

y
6

R, R

(3, 6)

(2, 4)

R, [ 16, )

2 3

y= x+9
[9, ), R

R, R
(4, 0)

0 x

0 1

(0, 3)

(1, 1 )

1
2

{4, 2, 0, 2, 3}, {2, 0, 1, 4, 6}

4 (2, 0) 0
2
(4, 2)

(4, 16)

(0, 1)

R, R
c

0
x

0
5

R, R+
j

5
2

y= x 2
[0, ), R

R, R
d
3

0 1

3 x

3
2

R, [0, )
f

1 0
(1, 4)

(1, 4)

(6, 3)

(4, 2)
6

y = x + 16 4
[16, ), R
y

h
1

(16, 4)

y
(0, 4)

( 1 , 1)

4x + 3y = 12

252

R, R

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

0 1

(3, 0) x

y=

R\{0}, R\{0}

R\{0}, R\{0}

{(2, 4), (0, 2),


(1, 0), (4, 2), (6, 3)}
{2, 0, 1, 4, 6}, {4, 2, 0, 2, 3}

0 (1, 0) 4
2 (0, 2)
(2, 4)
4
2

3 a

0
1

4
(4, 1)

[2, 2], [0, 2]


y

(4, 1)

4
y = x

R ,R
2

R,

[9,

R, R

2x

y
3

y = loge ( 2 )

y=x

x = 3

3 2

y = 12 ex

(0, 1 )
2

y
2

ii (1, ), R
iii R, (1, )

y = 4 x2
2

4 a

2
1

4
y=x
x

y=x

ii R, [4, )
iii [4, ), R
d

(1, 4)

(1, 0)

1
4

y=
x
4
x

1
4

(0, )

y=x

5 x

iii
iv
v
b i

( 13 , 13 )
R, R
R, R

one-to-one, f 1 exists
y = 6x

ii

(1, 6)

y=x
(6, 1)

(0, 0)

y=x

(0, 1)
1
( , 0)
4

y
6

1
=
x
6

3
3

ii R, R+
iii R+, R

y=x

ii [5, 5], [5, 0]


iii [5, 0], [5, 5]

inverse functions

ii R, R+
iii R+, R

( x + 3) + 2

1 a i one-to-one, f 1 exists
y
ii

ii R, [1, )
iii [1, ), R

(x) =

y = 4x + 1

1
0 1

exercise 5C

y=x

ii R, R
iii R, R

a f 1 : [3, ) R,

x2
b f 1 : (2, ) R, f 1 = loge
3 +1

(4, 1)

D
A
E
B

5
6
7
8
9

ii R, R
iii R, R

y=x

1 2 3 4 5

ii [ 2, 3), [0, 4)
iii [0, 4), [2, 3)

y=x

y=x
(4, 3)

x=1

y = 4 x2
[0, 2], [2, 2]

32

(3, 4)

4
3
2

y=1
x

y=x

R, R +
k

ii (3, ), R
iii R, (3, )

ii [3, 3], [0, 3]


iii [0, 3], [3, 3]

0
2

R+, R
j

y=x

ii [2, 6], [2, 0]


iii [2, 0], [2, 6]

6 x

iii
iv
v
c i
d i

(0, 0)
R, R
R, R

f 1 does not exist

f 1 does not exist

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

253

e i f 1 does not exist

f i one-to-one, f 1 exists
y = (x + 1)3

(0, 1)
(1, 0)

y=

x 1
x

(1, 0)
(0, 1)

m f 1(x) =

iii
iv R, R
v R, R

g i one-to-one, f 1 exists
y
ii

o f

(x) = 12 (e3 x 3)

Function
a
b
c
d
e
f
g
h

None
R \{0}, R \{0}
R \{0}, R \{0}

f 1 does not exist

f 1 does not exist

one-to-one, f 1 exists

Domain

R
[1, )
[3, 3]
R
R
R
[5, 5]
R+

R
R
[0, 3]
R+
[10, )
(0, )
[0, 8]
R

R
R
[0, 3]
R+
[10, )
(0, )
[0, 8]
R

7 a (, 0] or [0, )
c

[1,

y=e 2

(,

R+

R, f

: R R, f

R
[1, )
[3, 3]
R
R
R
[5, 5]
R+

c D

d A

(0.17, 0)
(0, 1)

y = 2

+5

6
5
0

1(x)

y=x

x
f (x)

y
f(x)
(0, 3)

(1, 0)

b [3, )

R+

f 1(x)

0
(0, 1)

(3, 0)

y=x

h R or R+

restricting functions

b [0, ) or (, 0]

f(x)

d (0, ), or (, 0)

x=1

y=x

i [4, )

j (, 1]

y = 2 loge (x + 1)

y
3

k R
y=1

iii None
iv (1, ), R
v R, (1, )
2 i a, e, g, i, j, k, l, m, n, o

f 1(x)

y=x

h [1, 0] or [0, 1]

y = e0.5x + 1

(2, 0)

f R\{2}
g [5, 0] or [0, 5]

(0, 2)

254

+ loge (x)

c [3, )

(0.2, 0.2) and (1.99, 1.99)


R, (2, )
(2, ), R

one-to-one, f 1 exists

(x) =

x
e2

x4

e (, 4)

ii a f 1(x) =

(x) =

1 a [0, ) or (, 0]

(1, 0)

iii
iv
v
k i
ii

b C

Range

5) or (5, )

exercise 5d

(0, 0.17)

3 a B

f [9, 0] or [0, 9]

g [1, 5] or [5, 9]

y=x

k f

b E
b D
b C
d

e R

4x

j f 1 : [, 4) R, f 1 (x) = 1

Inverse of function

Range

4 a B
5 a C
6 a D

i f 1 : [0, ) R, f 1 (x) = x2 + 4

4 a

Domain

25 x 2

h f 1 : [0, 1] R, f 1 (x) = 1 x 2

l f

+4

( x 1)
e 2

y=x

x = 2 y

x
e2

n f 1(x) =

(2.3, 2.3)

iii
iv
v
h i
i i
j i
ii

x2

y=x

(x) = + 2, where x [0, )

f 1(x) = loge x 1
2

j f 1(x) = 2 + loge (5 x)

k f 1(x) = loge ( x + 2)
3

ex
l f 1(x) = 3
g f

ii

g f 1 : [5, 0] R, f 1 (x) =

e f 1(x) = 2 x

f 1(x)

l (5, )

2 a f 1 : [3, ) R, f 1 (x) =

x3

b f 1 : [1, ) R, f 1 (x) =

x +1
3

c f 1 : [2, ) R, f 1 (x) =

x+2 3

(0, 1) y = x

d f 1 : (3, ) R, f 1 (x) =

1
x+3

1
e f 1 : (1, ) R, f 1 (x) = 4
x 1
1

f f 1 : R\{0} R, f 1 (x) = + 2
x

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y=x

(1, 0)
(1, 0)
(0, 1)

0
f 1(x)

f
f

13 a and c

8 a

1
2

1(x)

f (x)

(5, 2)

f(x)

(2, 5)

1
2

1
f

1(x)

y
0

(2, 5)

(5, 2)

0 1

f (x)

y=x
4

4 ( x 3)2 or

Graphs intersect at x = 1.15, y = 1.16

b f 1 : R R, f 1(x) = ex 2

d Dom f ( f 1(x)) = dom f 1(x) = R


14 a The graph cuts the y-axis where x = 0;

y = e0 2e0 + 1 = 1 2 + 1 = 0

b A = ex; ex = 1 x = 0
c Local minimum x = 0
d and g

: [3, ) R, f

2
1

(x) = 1 + (x 3)2

1 0.5

0.5

f 1(x)

x+5

f (x)
y=x

10
4
0

x
(31, 2)

10

: R R, f

b x
d Teacher to check

1
(x) = 2
x
c x

1
2
1

g 3x(ex 1)

1
2

y
4
3

15 a

y
4

f 1(x)
5

b f 1 : (1, ) R, f 1(x) = loge(x + 1)


d x

e g( f 1(x)) = g(loge (x + 1)) = 3loge(x + 1)

0.5

For y = e2x 2ex + 1 then dom = R and


ran = R+ {0}
e y = loge ( x + 1)
where dom = R+ {0} and ran = R

b f 1 : [5, 31] R, f 1 (x) = 4

0
1

1.5x

6 a 4

7 a f

0.5

0
1

(2, 31)

y
3

[1, )

5 a

g 1 : [3, 5] R, g 1 (x) = 4 ( x 3)2


11 a
11 March 1 109 = I;
7 April 2.512 107 = I;
23 February 2.000 106 = I;
13 June 1 106 = I
b i Approximately 40 : 1
ii Approximately 2 : 1
iii Approximately 12.6 : 1
12 a and c
y
3

y
5

10 g 1 : [3, 5] R, g 1 (x) =

x=4

9 x

c [0, 8]

f (x)

y=x

b g 1 : [55, 9] R, g 1 (x) =

d Teacher to check
9 a 0
0

f 1(x)

1
2

y=x
1

f(x)

y=4
f 1(x)

b [0, )

y=x

y
3

b f 1 : R R, f 1(x) = e 2 1
c x
d Thus a = 3, b = 3 and c = 1.

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

255

ChapTer reVieW

iv

y=

ShorT anSWer

( )( )
(x 1)
2

1
3

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 x

0.40.2 0

y=

iii

y = 2 (x 1)3+1

1 a

g i Many-to-one
ii Restrict domain to (3, ).

+1

iv
y=

iii y =

(4, 4)

iv
b

2 a
6

[6, 6], [6, 0]

(.5)

1 2 3 4

6 a

(2, ), R

x=2

y
y = |x 2 + x |
x

2 2.4

0.5

R,

R+

0.2 0

b f 1(x) = ex 1 + 2

y = x + 14 12
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 x

c m=1

R, (2, )

0.5

y=x

d i One-to-one
iii y = x2 6x 7, [3, )
iv

y
1 x

0
1
2

1
(x 1)

3 a

y=

x + 1 1, x 0

1.5

6 x

ii x 0

c i Many-to-one

4 x

1
(x + 3) +1

y
4
+1
2

3 2 1 0

1 3
x 1

(1, 3)

2.4
0

2.4

y = 2

2
y

0
1

4
(4, 1)

3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0


2
y = x2 6x 7
4

0.5 1 1.5 2 x

e (3, 1)

y=x

y = 2 x 3

iv
x

4 a (4, )

y = 3e x + 1

b (, 2]

c R or R+
iii y =

x +1
2

y
6

iv

y = 2x 1

0
7 6 5 4 3 2 12
4
6

b i One-to-one

x 1 +1
iii y = 3
2

iv
6

mUlTiple ChoiCe

2
1
1 2 3 4 x
y = ln

x1
3

2
iii y = 3( x + 1) + 2
f

8
6
2
y = (3(x + 1)) + 2 4
2

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2.4

7 5

f 1

0
5 4 3 2 1
2
4
6
8
f 1

y
4
3

f i One-to-one

y = x +2 1

256

3 2 110
2
3

5 a i One-to-one

(3, 1)

x 1
iii y = loge
3

e i One-to-one

2.4

y
8

(4, 4)

1 B

2 E

3 C

4 D

5 A

6 C

7 A

8 C

9 D

10 D

11 C

12 B

13 A

14 D

15 A

16 E

exTended reSponSe
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x
2

y = (3(x 2)) 1
f

1 a y=

852 000 x + 3 079 777 1127


426

b The inverse is not a function because it

is a one-to-many relation (does not pass


the vertical line test).

c a = 2.65

d Domain f 1 ( x ) , [ 3.61, ), range f 1 ( x ) ,

[ 2.65, )
e x = 2.87
2 a f(x) =
b

3x 2

e
f
g
4 a

(0.57, 0.57) and (0,0)


(, 2]
[0, 0.54]

( 43 , 43 )
4

c Domain = [2, 3 ], range = [2, 4]

2 120
4

b
c
d
5 a

y=x

A ( 4 , 4 )
3 3

4 x

(2, 2)

ii f 1 : [2, 43 ) R, where

f 1(x) =

2( x 4)
3

g i [ 4 , 4]
ii Inverse of f (x) is y =

2( x

4)
3

3 a (2, 0.54) and (0, 0)


b R, [0, )
y

6 x

a=3
x = 5.50
a = 4.97
i N = 2t 0 t 168
ii 4096 bacteria
iii When t = 24 then N = 224 = 16 777 216
bacteria.

2x

1
2
3

b Dom f 1 = ran f 1 = (2, )

Ran f 1 = dom f = R

f 1(2, ) R, f 1(x)
1

= loge ( x + 2)
2

c Where dom f(f (x)) = dom f (x) = (2, )


d y=

2x
x+2

2
4
6
8
10 12 t
b i This is of the form y = mk where k is
a constant. When loge(N) is plotted
against t a straight line should result.
ii

f(x) = exx2
y=x

(2, 0.54)
y=0

x
(0.54, 2)
f 1
x=0

d [0, ), R

N
5000
4000
3000
2000
1000

f i [2, 3 )

y
3
2

iv

e Heart-shaped

y
10
8 y = 6 ln (|x 3|)
6
4
2

+4

Ln(N)
120
100
80
60
40
20
0

32

64

96

128 160 192 t

c It takes 86.5 hours or 3 days and

14.5 hours.

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

257

Chapter 6

Circular (trigonometric) functions


diGital doC
doc-9200
10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS
6a
6B
6C
6d
6e
6F
6G
6h
6i

Revision of radians and the unit circle


Symmetry and exact values
Trigonometric equations
Trigonometric graphs
Graphs of the tangent function
Finding equations of trigonometric graphs
Trigonometric modelling
Further graphs
Trigonometric functions with an increasing trend

revision of radians and the


unit circle
6a

Units: 3 & 4

revision of basic concepts

1u

nit

nit

9. An arc length of a quarter of a circle is

1u

Angles are measured in degrees or radians.


To define a radian we can use a circle which has a radius of one unit.
This circle is called the unit circle. If we take a piece of string which is
the same length as the radius and place it along the circumference of the
circle from S to P to form an arc, then the angle formed by joining S and
P to O, the centre of the circle, measures one radian.
The radius of the circle can be any length and can still be regarded as
a unit. As long as the arc is the same length as the radius, the angle will
always measure one radian.
In general, therefore, a radian is the angle formed at the centre of any
circle by radii meeting an arc which is the same length as the radius of the
circle. Note the following.
1. One radian is written as 1c (or 1 radian can be written as 1).
2. The circumference of a circle is 2 r units in length.
3. If the radius is one unit, as in the case of the unit circle, then the
circumference is 2 units, and the angle at the centre of the circle is
2 radians.
B
4. 2 radians = 360
5. The length of the semicircle from S through A to B is half the
circumference and is units.
6. radians = 180
7. An arc length of r units subtends an angle of 1 radian.
8. An arc length of 2 r units subtends an angle of 2 radians.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

A unit circle
y
A

P
r

S x

A radian

r
2 r
units thatis, and subtends an angle of radians.

2
2
4

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

259

Finding the number of degrees in one radian


Since
we have

c = 180
180
= 57.296 (correct to 3 decimal places)
1c =

Converting radians to degrees


Radians are converted to degrees using the following equation.
1c =

180

Worked example 1

Convert the following to degrees, giving the answer correct to 2 decimal places.
9
a 2c
b 6.3c
c
10
think

a 1 Multiply the number of radians by

Write

180
.

2c = 2

180

360

Simplify where possible.

Write the answer correct to 2 decimal places.

= 114.59, correct to 2 decimal places.

b 1 Multiply the number of radians by

b 6.3c =

Give the answer correct to 2 decimal places.

c 1 Multiply the number of radians by


2

6.3 180

= 360.9634

180
.

180
.

= 360.96
c

9 c 9 180
=

10
10

= 162

Simplify by cancelling.

Converting degrees to radians


Degrees are converted to radians using the following equation.
180 = c
1 =

c
180

Worked example 2

Convert the following to radians.


a 2
b 36.35
c 150
think

a 1 Multiply the number of degrees by

Write

.
180

a 2c = 2

=
2

260

Give answer correct to 3 decimal places.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

90

180

= 0.035c

b 1 Multiply the number of degrees by


2

.
180

b 36.35 = 36.35

180

= 0.634c

Simplify.
Note: In this example it is not appropriate to
leave your answer in exact form.

c 1 Multiply the number of degrees by

.
180

c 150 = 150

180

150
180
5 c
=
6
=

Simplify, leaving your answer in exact form.

Special cases (degrees to radians)


Note the following special cases.
180 =

90 =
2

60 =
3

45 =
4

30 =
6

Divide both sides by 2.


Divide both sides by 3.
Divide both sides by 4.
Divide both sides by 6.

Basic definitions of sine, cosine and tangent


Sine and cosine

In the unit circle the vertical distance PR is defined as sine ( ) or


sin ( ) and the horizontal distance OR is defined as cosine ( ) or
cos ( ).
The coordinates of the point P are (cos ( ), sin ( )) where
can be in radians or degrees.
The x-coordinate of P is cos ( ) and the y-coordinate of P is
sin ( ).

Note the following special cases for sin and cos.


sin (0) = 0

sin = 1
2

sin () = 0

sin (2) = 0
sin (0) = 0
sin (90) = 1
sin (180) = 0
sin (270) = 1
sin (360) = 0

sin ()

x
O cos () R

sin ( ) and cos ( )

Special cases (sin, cos)

3
sin = 1
2

P (cos ( ), sin ( ))

cos (0) = 1

cos = 0
2
cos () = 1

sin (2 )
cos ()
cos (0) 0
3
)
sin (
2
3

Special cases

3
cos = 0
2
cos (2) = 1
cos (0) = 1
cos (90) = 0
cos (180) = 1
cos (270) = 0
cos (360) = 1
Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

261

tangent

y
T

Using the unit circle, the vertical distance TS is defined as tan .


TS is the tangent to the circle which intersects with the x-axis
and TOS = .
Using Pythagoras theorem in triangle OPR (figure below),
PR2 + OR2 = OP2.
2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1
So,
sin
From the diagram below, OPR is similar to OTS (angle, angle,
angle).

Special cases (tan)

tan ( )

sin ( )

un

it

sin( )
tan( ) =
cos( )

cos ( ) R
1 unit
Identities

S x

Note the following special cases for tan.


tan (0) = 0
tan (0) = 0

tan is undefined
2
tan (90) is undefined

tan () = 0
tan (180) = 0

It can be seen that tan (90) is undefined because tan (90 ) =

exercise 6a

3
tan is undefined tan (2) = 0
2
tan (270) is undefined tan (360) = 0
sin (90 ) 1
= ,, which is undefined.
cos (90 ) 0

revision of radians and the unit circle

1 We1 Convert the following to degrees, giving answers correct to 2 decimal places.
a 3c
b 5c
c 4.8c
d 2.56c
diGital doC
doc-9201
Spreadsheet
Unit circle

7 c
20

3 c
10

diGital doC
doc-9254
SkillSHEET 6.1
Changing degrees to
radians

5 c
6

correct to 2 decimal places.


b 15
g 235

c 120
h 260

d 130
i 310

3 Evaluate using a calculator. Give answers correct to 3 decimal places.


a sin (0.4)
b sin (0.8)
c cos (1.4)
e tan (2.9)
f tan (2.4)
g sin (75)
i cos (160)
j cos (185)
k tan (265)
4

Evaluate the following.

5 c
4

e 63.9
j 350
d cos (1.7)
h sin (68)
l tan (240)

b sin ()

d cos ()

e tan

tan
2

c cos (2)
g sin (90)

h sin (360)

cos (0)

k tan (270)

a sin (0)

2
cos (180)

Evaluate without using a calculator.


a sin2 (20) + cos2 (20)
b cos2 (50) + sin2 (50)
+ cos 2
d sin2 (2.5) + cos2 (2.5)
e sin 2
2
2
g 2 sin2 () + 2 cos2 ()
h 5 sin2 () + 5 cos2 ()

6 Write the following in order from smallest to largest.


a sin (35), sin (70), sin (120), sin (150), sin (240)
b cos (0.2), cos (1.5), cos (3.34), cos (5.3),
cos (6.3)
262

2 We2 Convert the following to radians. Give exact answers for a, b, c and d. Write other answers
a 5
f 78.82

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

tan ( )

TS PR
=
OS OR
tan( ) sin( )
=
1
cos( )

Therefore:

tan ( )

tan (240)

c sin2 () + cos2 ()
f

sin 2 + cos2
2
2

15

7 If sin ( ) = 17 and cos ( ) = 17, find tan ( ).


8 If sin (A) = 0.6 and cos (A) = 0.8, find tan (A). Draw a triangle marking in the position of angle A and

possible lengths of the sides.

9 mC
radians is equal to:
3
a 0
B 30
10 mC The expression 1

sin2

C 45

() is equal to:

B cos2 ()

a 1

C cos ()

diGital doC
doc-9255
SkillSHEET 6.2
tangent ratios

d 60

e 90

d tan ()

e tan2 ()

11 The temperature T C inside a shop t hours after 2 am is given by

T = 15 3 cos t
12
Calculate the exact temperature after 4 hours and the temperature to the nearest tenth of a degree
at 9.00 am.

6B Symmetry
exact values

and exact values


Units: 3 & 4

Using the equilateral triangle (of side length 2 units) shown at right, the
following exact values can be found.

sin (30) = sin =


6

sin (60) = sin =


3

1
2

cos (30) = cos = 23


6

1
tan (30) = tan = 3 =
6

3
3

cos (60) = cos = 12


3

tan (60) = tan = 3


3

1
1
Exact values of sine,
cosine and tangent of
30 and 60

2nd quadrant
sin ( ) = sin ( )
cos ( ) = cos ( )
tan ( ) = tan ( )

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Units: 3 & 4

1
Exact values of sine,
cosine and tangent
of 45

3rd quadrant
sin ( + ) = sin ( )
cos ( + ) = cos ( )
tan ( + ) = tan ( )

Topic:

45

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

The unit circle is symmetrical so that the magnitude of sine, cosine and
tangent at the angles shown in each quadrant are the same, but the sign varies.
In the first quadrant sin, cos and tan are all positive.
In the second quadrant only sin is positive.
In the third quadrant only tan is positive.
In the fourth quadrant only cos is positive.
This can be remembered as All Students To Class (ASTC).

45

2
2

the unit circle and symmetry


properties

1st quadrant
sin ( )
cos ( )
tan ( )

60

Using the right isosceles triangle shown, the following exact values can be
found.

sin (45) = sin = 12 = 22


4

cos (45) = cos = 12 =


4

tan (45) = tan = 1


4

30

3
2

AOS:

Do more
Interact
with the unit
circle.

Symmetrical properties

4th quadrant
sin (2 ) = sin ( )
cos (2 ) = cos ( )
tan (2 ) = tan ( )
Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

263

Worked example 3

Without using a calculator, find the value of:


a sin (150)

tUtorial
eles-1182
Worked example 3

5
b cos .
4
think

a 1 Find the equivalent first quadrant angle.

Write

a sin (150) = sin (180 30)

As 150 is in the 2nd quadrant, sine is positive.

= sin (30)

Write the exact value.

b 1 Find the equivalent first quadrant angle using

5 4 .
=
+
4
4 4

b cos

1
2

= cos +

4
4

Decide on the sign required. As it is in the 3rd


quadrant, cosine is negative.

= cos
4

Write the exact value.

2
2

Angles are not restricted to values between 0 and 2 ; that is, the domain is not restricted to [0,2]. If an
angle is greater than 2 radians, it is necessary to subtract multiples of 2 so that the angle is within one
turn of the unit circle. Each 2 radians is a complete turn of the circle.
Worked example 4

If sin (x) = 0.6, cos (x) = 0.8, and x is in the first quadrant, find:
a sin (3 x)
b cos (4 + x).
think

a 1 Write 3 as 2 + that is, one complete

cycle and then the angle x.

Write/draW

a sin (3 x) = sin (2 + x)

= sin ( x)

As it is in the 2nd quadrant, sine is positive.

= sin (x)

Substitute the given value.

= 0.6

b 1 4 = 2 2 that is, two complete cycles

b cos (4 + x) = cos (x)

and then the angle x.


x

264

As it is in the 1st quadrant, cosine is positive.

Substitute the given value.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

= 0.8

Worked example 5

If sin ( ) =

12
and < < , calculate cos ( ) and hence find tan ( ).
13
2

think

tUtorial
eles-1183
Worked example 5

Write

Method 1
1

2
3

4
5

Find the length of the third side by using


Pythagoras theorem. Let be the first quadrant
angle corresponding to .
cos ( ) =

adjacent
hypotenuse

132 = 52 + 122
13
5

cos ( ) = 13

is in the second quadrant, therefore cos ( ) is


negative.
opposite
tan ( ) =
adjacent
is in the second quadrant, therefore tan ( ) is
negative.

cos () =
tan ( ) =
tan () =

'

12
5

5
13
12
5
12
5

Method 2
1

Use the rule sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1.

sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1

Rearrange.

Substitute 13 for sin ( ).

= 1 144

Evaluate.

Take the square root of both sides, remembering


that the answer could be positive or negative.

cos is negative in the 2nd quadrant.

sin( )
Use tan( ) =
to find the value of tan ( ).
cos( )

cos2 ( ) = 1 sin2 ( )

12

169

25
169

cos () = 5

13

Take cos( ) = 135 as


tan( )

< <
2

12
= 13
5
13

tan () =

12
5

Method 3
12
< <
solve sin ( ) = ,

13 2

Ensure your CAS calculator is in radians mode.


Use the solve feature.

Write the exact value of in terms of sin 1.

= sin

To find cos ( ), use the answer from step 2.

cos( ) = cos sin

Record this result.

To find tan ( ), use the answer from step 2.

Write your answer in exact form.

()

1 12
13

1 12
13

1 12
13

5
13

tan( ) = tan sin


=

( ))

( ))

12
13

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

265

negative angles

AOS:

For negative angles, move in a clockwise direction.


In the dia
gram,
RQ = PR, and
OR = OR, so
T1S = TS

Topic:

An alternative way to find tan ( ) is :

Concept:

Units: 3 & 4

sin ( )

R S
sin ( )
Q

sin ( ) sin ( )
tan ( ) =
=
= tan ( )
cos ( ) cos ( )

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

T1

Negative angles

sin ( ) = sin ( )
cos ( ) = cos ( )
tan ( ) = tan ( )
The diagram shows 0 < <

; however, these relationships are true for all values of .


2

sin (150) = sin (150)

cos 190)
(
= cos (190)

tan 280)
(
= tan (280)

Worked example 6

Find the exact value of:


a sin (135)
b cos (240)
c tan (330).
think

a 1 sin (135) = sin (135)

a sin (135) = sin (135)

135 is in the 2nd quadrant.

= sin (180 45)

Sine is positive in the 2nd quadrant.

= sin (45)

Give the exact value.

b 1 cos (240) = cos (240)

= cos (180 + 60)

Cosine is negative in the 3rd


quadrant.

= cos (60)

Give the exact value.

Give the exact value.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

135

b cos (240) = cos (240)

240 is in the 3rd quadrant.

135

2
2

c 1 tan (330) = tan (30)

266

Write/draW

240

1
2

c tan (330) = tan (30)

3
3

330

S x

Worked example 7

Find the exact value of:


4
3

a sin

5
.
6

b tan

think

Write

4 4
= sin
3
3

a 1 sin ( ) = sin ( )

a sin

= sin +

4
is in the 3rd quadrant.
3

Sine is negative in the 3rd quadrant.

Give the exact value.

= sin
3

= sin
3
=

3
2

5 5
= tan
6
6

b 1 tan ( ) = tan ( )

b tan

5
is in the 2nd quadrant.
6

= tan

Tangent is negative in the 2nd quadrant.

Give the exact value.

= tan

= tan
6
=

1
3

3
3

Complementary angles

Complementary angles add to 90 or radians. Therefore, 30 and 60 are complementary angles.


2

In other words and are complementary angles, and and are also complementary angles.
2

6
3
The sine of an angle is equal to the cosine of its complement. Therefore, sin (60) = cos (30). We say
that sine and cosine are complementary functions.
The complement of the tangent of an angle is the cotangent or cot that is, tangent and cotangent are
complementary functions (as well as reciprocal functions).
1
cot ( ) =
tan ( )
1st quadrant

2nd quadrant

3rd quadrant

4th quadrant

sin = cos( )
2

sin + = cos( )
2

sin = cos( )

sin + = cos( )

cos = sin ( )
2

cos + = sin( )
2

cos = sin( )

3
cos + = sin( )

tan = cot( )
2

tan + = cot( )
2

3
tan = cot( )

tan + = cot( )

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

267

Worked example 8

If sin ( ) = 0.4 and tan () = 0.6, find:

3
a cos +
b tan
+ .
2

tUtorial
eles-1184
Worked example 8

think

Write

a 1 Cosine and sine are complementary

a cos

functions and cosine is negative in the


second quadrant.
2

= 0.4

Substitute the given value for sin ( ).

b 1 Tangent and cotangent are complementary

functions and tangent is negative in the


4th quadrant.

3 + = ( )
cot
2

b tan

tan ( )
1

Substitute the given value for tan ().

Calculate.

= 1.667, correct to 3decimal


places

exercise 6B

diGital doC
doc-9256
SkillSHEET 6.3
rationalising the
denominator

+ = sin( )
2

0.6

Symmetry and exact values

Note: Give answers as surds with rational denominators.


1 We3a
Without using a calculator, find the exact values of the following.
a sin (120)
b cos (135)
c tan (330)
d cos (225)
e sin (210)
f tan (150)
g sin (315)
h cos (300)
i tan (225)
j cos (390)
k sin (405)
l tan (420)
Find the exact values of the following.
3
5
a sin
b cos
4
6

2 We3b

4
3

e sin

11
6

h cos

9
cos
4

k sin

5
4

d cos

diGital doC
doc-9201
Spreadsheet
Unit circle

g sin
j

c tan

7
tan
6

5
3

7
tan
4

13
6

7
tan
6

If sin (x) = 0.3, cos (a) = 0.5, tan (b) = 2.4 and x, a and b are in the first quadrant, find the
value of the following.
a sin ( x)
b cos ( a)
c tan (2 b)
d cos ( x)
e sin ( a)
f tan ( + b)
g sin (2 x)
h cos (2 a)
i tan ( b)
j cos (2 + x)
k sin (2 + a)
l tan (2 + b)
m sin (3 x)
n cos (3 + a)
o tan (3 b)

3 We4

268

If sin ( ) =

7
25

and cos( ) =

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

24
,
25

find tan () and show that sin2 () + cos2 () = 1.


< x < , find cos (x) and hence find tan (x).
2
1
3
, find sin (x) and tan (x).
, and < x <
b If cos( x ) =
2
2

5a

If sin( x ) = 12, and

We5

3
< x < 2 , find cos (x) and tan (x).
2
2
3
, find sin (x) and cos (x).
d If tan( x ) = 3, and < x <
2
6 We6
Find the exact value of the following.
a sin (30)
b cos (45)
c tan (60)
d cos (150)
e sin (120)
f tan (135)

g sin ( 225)
h cos (210)

i tan ( 240)
j cos (330)

k sin ( 315)
l tan (300)

m sin ( 420)
n cos (390)

o tan ( 405)
c If sin( x ) =

, and

Evaluate (sin + cos )2 + (sin cos )2.

Find the exact values of:


b cos

6
3

8 We7

a sin

d cos
4

g sin
6
j

5
cos
3

c tan
4
f

5
tan
6

h cos
4

4
tan
3

13
6

9
tan
4

e sin
3

k sin



Show that cos 2 + sin 2 = 1.
4
4

If sin ( ) = 0.3, cos (x) = 0.7 and tan () = 0.4, find the value of the following.

+
a sin x
b cos
c tan
2

2
2

10 We8

+
2

e sin

+ x
2

h cos

d cos
g sin
j

cos
+
2

11 mC If x =

3 3
2
1
d
2

B
e

12 mC The expression 1 sin 2

d cos 2

2
3

x
k sin
2

tan +
2

tan

2

tan
+
2

3
2

, 3 sin (2x) is equal to:


12

a cos

x
2

3 2
2

is equal to:
2


B sin
2

C sin 2

e 0

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

269

13

A weight on a spring moves so that its speed, v cm per second, is given by the formula:

t
v = 10 + 2 sin
6

diGital doC
doc-9257
SkillSHEET 6.4
problem solving using
trigonometry

a Find the initial speed.


b Find the speed of the weight after 5 seconds.
c What is the greatest speed that the weight can reach?
14 The height, H, in metres, that sea water reaches up a

particular tree trunk at a Caribbean resort is governed by


the equation:
t
H = 0.4 cos + 0.5,
12
where t is the number of hours past midnight. Find the
height of water up the trunk at:
a midnight
b 8 am
c 8 pm.

6C
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

trigonometric equations

From the general equation sin (x) = a, we can find an infinite number of solutions. An example of this
3
general equation is: sin ( x ) =
.
2
y

sin ( 3 )

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact with
solving equations.

sin ( 3 )
x

.
, because sin =

3
3
2
3

because sine is positive in the second quadrant.


However, we also know that sin =

3
2
2

For this equation there are two solutions between 0 and 2. They are and
.
3
3
(There are no solutions in the third and fourth quadrants because here, sine is negative.)
To find a greater number of solutions we can go around the unit circle as many times as we wish,
finding new solutions each time. Since
One of the solutions is x =

sin 2 + =

3
2

and sin 3 =

3
2

2 7
8
and
, ,
.
3 3 3
3
2

.
We can also go in a negative direction. In the domain [, ] there are only 2 solutions: and
3
3

in the domain [0, 4] there are 4 solutions:

Worked example 9

Find all solutions to the equation cos ( x ) =

2
2

think

270

in the domain [0, 2].


Write/draW
2
2

Write the question.

cos ( x ) =

Find the equivalent angle in the first quadrant,


ignoring the sign.

Basic angle is

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

.
4

In the 2nd and 3rd quadrants cos (x) is negative.


So write the appropriate values of x in these
quadrants.

Simplify.

2nd quadrant:

x =
4
3rd quadrant:

x = +
4
x=

x
5

3 5
,
4 4

Worked example 10

Find all solutions to the equation sin () = 0.7 in the domain [0, 4]. Give your answers correct to
4 decimal places.
think

a 1 Find the equivalent angle in the 1st quadrant,

ignoring the sign.

Write

a = sin 1(0.7)

The basic angle is:


= 0.7754.

Find in which quadrants sin () is positive.

sin () is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants.

Find the values of in the 1st and 2nd


quadrants.

= 0.7754, 0.7754
= 0.7754, 2.3662

Since the domain is [0, 4], we need to go


around the circle twice, so add 2 to each of
the first two solutions.

= 0.7754, 2.3662,
0.7754 + 2, 2.3662 + 2

Simplify giving answers correct to


4 decimal places.

= 0.7754, 2.3662, 7.0586, 8.6494, correct to


4 decimal places.

b 1 Ensure if your CAS calculator is in radians mode.

Use the solve function to find .

Write the answer correct to 4 decimal points.

b Solve (sin () = 0.7, ) | 0 4

= 0.7754 or = 2.3662 or = 7.0586 or


= 8.6494 (correct to 4 decimal points)

Worked example 11

Calculate all solutions to the equation 2 sin (2 ) = 3 in the domain 0 360.


think
1

Since the equation contains 2 rather than ,


multiply both end points of the domain by 2.

Simplify the trigonometric equation.

Write

0 360
0 2 720
2sin(2 ) = 3
sin (2 ) =

3
2

Find the first quadrant (basic) angle, ignoring


the negative sign.

Basic angle = 60

Sine is negative in the 3rd and 4th quadrants.


Find the angles in these quadrants equivalent to
the basic angle.

2 = 180 + 60, 360 60


2 = 240, 300

As the domain has been extended to 720, we


need to go around the circle two times, so add
360 to each of the two initial values.

2 = 240, 300, 240 + 360, 300 + 360


2 = 240, 300, 600, 660

Simplify.

= 120, 150, 300, 330

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

271

Worked example 12

Calculate the sum of the solutions between 0 and 2 for the equation sin (3x) = cos (3x).
think

Write

Adjust the domain as shown.

Divide both sides by cos (3x).

0 x 2
0 3x 6
sin (3x) = cos (3x)
sin (3 x) cos (3 x)
=
cos (3 x) cos (3 x)
tan (3x) = 1

Find the basic angle.

Basic angle =

Solve for x between 0 and 6. Note that tan is


positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants.

3x =

Check that all answers are between 0 and


24 8
2 (2 =
=
). They are.
12
4
Calculate the sum of the solutions.

, + , 2 + , 3 + , 4 + , 5 +
4
4
4
4
4
4
5 9 13 17 21
= ,
,
,
,
,
4 4 4
4
4
4
5 9 13 17 21
x= ,
,
,
,
,
12 12 12 12 12 12

Sum of the solutions


5 9 13 17 21
= +
+
+
+
+
12 12 12 12
12
12
66 11
=
=
12
2

General solutions of trigonometric equations

3
where x [0, 2] is x = and x = .
4
4
2
However, if a domain is not specified, there are an infinite number of solutions as multiples of 2 can be

3
added or subtracted indefinitely to and . In this situation a general solution is obtained where the
4
4
solutions are in terms of a parameter, n, where n is an integer (that is, n Z).

The general solution for the first quadrant solution x = becomes x = 2n + , where n Z.
4
4
3
3
The general solution for the second quadrant solution x =
becomes x = 2n + , where n Z.
4
4
3
can be expressed as:
Note that the general solution x = 2n +
4

x = 2n + = (2n + 1) .
4
4
Substituting different integer values of n will give specific solutions, as shown in the table below.
The solution to the equation sin ( x ) =

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch a
video on finding
general solutions
to trigonometric
equations.

n
1

0
1
2

272

, n Z
4
7
x = 2 + =
4
4

x = 0+ =
4 4
9
x = 2 + =
4
4

17

x = 4 + =
and so on
4
4
x = 2 n +

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

3
, n Z
4
3 5
x = 2 +
=
4
4
3 3
x = 0+
=
4
4
3 11
x = 2 +
=
4
4
3 19
x = 4 +
=
and so on
4
4
x = 2 n +

In general:

If sin (x) = a, then x = 2n + sin 1 (a) and x = (2n + 1) sin 1 (a), where a [1, 1] and n Z.
1

If cos (x) = a, then x = 2n cos (a), where a [ 1, 1] and n Z.

If tan (x) = a, then x = n + tan 1 (a), where a R and n Z.


Worked example 13

Find the general solution of the equation 2 cos ( x ) 1 = 0.


Hence, find all the solutions for x [2, 2].
think

tUtorial
eles-1215
Worked example 13

Write

Write down the general solution for cos (x) = a.

Substitute a =

1
2

into the general


equation and evaluate cos

that it is an exact angle.

recognising

x = 2n cos 1 (a)

x = 2n cos 1

( )
1
2

x = 2n

and x = 2n , n Z.
4
4

Write the two separate solutions and specify


n Z.

x = 2n +

Note the answer from step 2 could be further


simplified by combining the two terms. A CAS
calculator will give the answer in this form.

x=

Substitute n = 1, n = 0 and n = 1 into each of


the general solutions.

n = 1: x =

Write down the solutions for x [2, 2].

x=

8n (8n 1)
=
,nZ
4
4

7
9
and x =
4
4

n = 0: x = and x =
4
4
7
9
and x = 2 + =
n = 1: x = 2 =
4
4
4
4
7

7
, ,
4 4 4

Worked example 14

Find the general solution of the equation 2 sin (2 x ) =


domain 0 x 2.
think

3 and hence find all solutions for x in the

Write

Ensure your CAS calculator is in radian mode.


Use the solve feature of the calculator to find x.

Solve (2 sin (2 x) = 3 , x)

Write the general solution.

x=

Substitute n = 0, n = 1 and n = 2 into each


formula.

6
( 3n + 2 )
x=
3

2
n = 0: x =
or x =
3
6
7
5
n = 1: x =
or x =
6
3
11
8
n = 2: x =
or x =
6
3

State the values of x for 0 x 2 in exact form.

For 0 x 2, x =

( 6n 1) or

2 5 5 11
, , ,
3 6 3 6
Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

273

Alternate methods
5 Using a CAS calculator: specify this domain in
the solve operation.
6

Write your answer in exact form.

Solve (2 sin2 x) =
3 , x)
0 x 2
x=

5
11
2
5
or x =
or x =
or x =
3
6
3
6

Worked example 15

Find the general solution of the equation sin (3x) = cos (3x) and hence find all solutions
for x in the domain 0 x 2.
think
1

Divide both sides by cos (3x).

Write

sin (3 x ) = cos (3 x )
sin (3 x )
=1
cos (3 x )
tan (3x) = 1

Write down the general solution for tan (3x) = a.

3x = n + tan 1 (a)

Substitute a = 1 into the general equation and

evaluate tan 1 (1), recognising that it is an exact


angle.

3x = n + tan 1 (1)

3 x = n +
4
(4 n + 1)
x=
, n Z
12

Divide each side by 3 to solve for x.


4

To find the solutions in the domain


0 x 2, substitute n = 0, 1, 2 . . . into each
of the general solutions.

n = 1:
n = 2:
n = 3:
n = 4:
n = 5:

Write down the simplified solutions for


0 x 2.

12
5
x=
12
9
x=
12
13
x=
12
17
x=
12
21
x=
12

n = 0: x =

x=

5 3 13 17 7
, , ,
,
,
12 12 4 12 12 4

Worked example 16

Find the solutions of the equation cos ( x ) + cos (3 x ) = 12 , x [ 2 , 2 ].


think

274

Ensure your CAS calculator is in radians mode.


Use the solve feature, specifing the domain.

Write the answers in numerical form.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Write

1
solve (cos (x) + cos (3x) = , x)
2
2 x 2
x = 5.6549 or x = 2.0944
or x = 0.6283
or x = 0.6283
or x = 2.0944
or x = 56549

trigonometric equations

exercise 6C
1 We9

Find all solutions to the equations below in the domain [0, 2].

a cos ( ) = 0

b sin( ) =

d sin ( ) = 1

e cos( ) =

1
2

e sin ( ) =

cos( ) =

sin ( ) =

1
2

3
2

Find all the values of between 0 and 360 for which:


1
a sin ( ) = 1
b cos( ) = 2
d cos ( ) = 1

3
2

1
2

3 We10 For each equation below, find all the values of x between 0 and 4. Give answers correct to

4 decimal places.
a cos (x) = 0.6591
c cos (x) = 0.48

b sin (x) = 0.9104


d sin (x) = 0.371

4 Find all the values of x between 0 and 360 for which:


a sin (x) = 0.2686
c sin (x) = 0.5432

diGital doC
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Spreadsheet
trig equations

b cos (x) = 0.7421


d cos (x) = 0.1937

Give answers correct to 2 decimal places.


5

Find the solutions to the following equations in the domain 0 x 2.


b 3 cos (x) = 0

a 2 sin (x) = 1
c 2sin ( x ) =

2 cos( x ) = 1

6 We11 Find the solutions to the following equations in the domain 0 x 360.

Give exact answers where possible, otherwise give answers correct to 2 decimal places.
b 2 sin (2x) = 1

c 2 cos(3 x ) =
2
d 2sin(3 x ) = 3
e sin (3x) = 0.1254
f 3 cos (2x) = 0.5787
1
2 cos( x ) = 0.2751
h
g 4 sin x = 0.913
a cos (2x) = 1

( )
2

7 Find all the solutions between 0 and 2 to the following equations. Give exact answers where possible,

otherwise give answers correct to 4 decimal places.

a 4 sin (x) + 2 = 6

b 3 cos (x) 3 = 0

c cos

x
d sin + 5 = 5.32

e 2 sin (3x) 5 = 4

g 2 cos(2 x ) + 3 = 0

1
3

+ 4 = 4.21

2 cos (3 x ) + 2 = 3

sin 2 x 1 = 0.8039

8 We12 Calculate the sum of the solutions between 0 and 2 for each of the following equations. Give
exact answers for questions a to d. Otherwise give answers correct to 4decimal places.
a sin (x) = cos (x)

3 sin (3 x ) = cos(3 x )

b sin (2x) = cos (2x)

c sin (2 x ) =

e sin (3x) + 2 cos (3x) = 0

3 cos (2 x )

sin (x) + 3 cos (x) = 0

9 A particle moves in a straight line so that its distance, x metres, from a point O is given by the

equation x = 3 + 4 sin (2t), where t is the time in seconds after the particle begins to move.
a Find the distance from O when the particle begins to move.
b Find the time when the particle first reaches O. Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.
Find the general solution of the following equations. Hence, find all solutions for
x 2 for each equation.

10 We13
2

a 2 cos( x ) 3 = 0

b tan ( x ) =

1
3

2 sin ( x ) 1 = 0

11 We14 Find the general solution of the equation 2 sin (2x) 1 = 0. Hence, find all solutions for

x .

12 Find the general solution of the equation 2 cos (3x) 1 = 0. Hence, find all solutions for x .
Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

275

13 We15 Find the general solutions for each of the following equations. Hence, find all solutions for

x [0, 2].

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doc-9203
WorkSHEET 6.1

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

b sin (2x) = cos (2x)

3 sin ( x ) = cos( x )

14 We16 Find the solutions of the equation sin (2 x ) + sin (3 x ) =

c
3
2

3 sin (3 x ) = cos(3 x )

, x [ , ].

6d trigonometric graphs
Graphs of the sine and cosine functions
The graph of the function f (x) = sin (x) is drawn below. It is drawn over the domain [2, 2]. The graph
repeats itself every 2 radians. We say that it has a period of 2. Half the distance between the maximum
and minimum values is 1 so we say that the amplitude is 1.
It is possible to take any value of x for the function f (x) = sin (x), so the domain of the whole
function is R.
The range is [1, 1]. The graph is shown below.
y
1
0.5
3
2 0
22
2
0.5

2 x
y
1

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact with
transformations of
the sine graph.

f(x) = sin (x), 2 x 2

The graph of the function f (x) = cos (x) is the same shape
as the sine graph, but the graph has been translated to a different
position. The period is also 2. The amplitude is 1, the domain is
R and the range is [1, 1]. The graph is shown at right.

0.5
3
2 0
22
2
0.5

2 x

1
f(x) = cos (x), 2 x 2

dilation
y
If we change the amplitude, the distance between the maximum value
2
and the minimum value also changes.
The graph of f (x) = 2 sin (x) is shown at right. The amplitude is 2. The
1
period is still 2. The domain is R and the range is [2,2].
0
3

This graph is a dilation of the basic graph of f (x) = sin (x) by a factor

2 x
2
2
1
of 2 from the x-axis. It has been stretched vertically. Generally, if
f (x) = a sin (x) or f (x) = a cos (x), a is the dilation factor in the direction
2
of the y-axis. The amplitude of the graph is a.
f(x) = 2 sin (x), 0 x 2
If we change the coefficient of x, the period of the graph changes. The
graph of f (x) = cos (2x) from 0 to 2 is shown at right. The amplitude is 1
and the period is . This can be found by dividing 2 by the coefficient of x.
y
2
1

= . The domain is R. The range is [ 1, 1].


In this case
2
0.5
The x-intercepts can be found by solving the equation cos(2x) = 0.
0
3
5
3
7 2 x
3 5 7
4 2
2
4
4
4
2x = , , ,
0.5
2 2 2 2

so

x=

3 5 7
, , ,
4 4 4 4

1
f(x) = cos (2x), 0 x 2
1

This graph is a dilation of the basic graph of f (x) = cos (x) by a factor of 2 from the y-axis. The period
has been halved or the graph has been squashed up.
The decimal approximation for these solutions can be found using a graphing calculator. The graphics
calculator can also be used to check the number and approximate value of the solutions when solving
trigonometric equations.
276

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Generally, if f (x) = sin (nx) or f (x) = cos (nx), the graph is dilated
1
2
by a factor of from the y-axis. The period of the graph is
.
n
n
The graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x) is shown at right. It is drawn from
2
0 to 2. The amplitude is 4 and the period is
. The domain is R.
3
The range is [4, 4].

y
4
3
2
1
0

1
2
3
4
f (x) = 4 sin (3x), 0 x 2

The x-intercepts are found by solving 4 sin (3x) = 0.


So
sin (3
x) = 0
3x = 0, , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6
2
4 5
x = 0, ,
,,
,
, 2
3 3
3 3

2 x

This is an example of a sine graph dilated in both x and y directions. It has a dilation factor of 4 from
1

the x-axis, and of 3 from the y-axis.


Worked example 17

State the period and the amplitude of the graphs of each of the following functions.
a y = 2sin

( x)
1
4

b y=

1
cos(2x )
3

think

a 1 Write the equation.


2

Find the period of the graph, using the


formula:
2
.
Period =
n
State the amplitude it is the coefficient in
front of the sine function.

b 1 Write the equation.


2

Find the period of the graph.

State the amplitude. Remember that the


amplitude is always positive, so we need
only the magnitude of the coefficient.

Write

a y = 2sin

( x)
1
4

2
Period =
, n = 14
n
2
4
So period = 1 = 2 = 8
1
4
Amplitude = 2
b y=

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

1
cos(2 x )
3

2
, n = 2
n
2
So period =
=
2
Period =

Amplitude =

Units: 3 & 4

Do more
Interact with
transformations of
the cosine graph.

1
3

Worked example 18

Sketch the graph of y = 12 sin (3 ) for one complete cycle stating the amplitude, period and range.
think
1

Write the equation.

Find the period of the graph.

State the amplitude.

Write/draW
1

y = 2 sin (3 )
2
,n=3
n
2
So period =
3
Period =

Amplitude =

1
2

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

277

Sketch the basic sine shape (one full cycle)


2
1
with the period of
and the amplitude of 2 .
3
1
The scale on the x-axis should be 4 of a
period (to reflect the 4 quadrants),
2
2
= .
4 =
so it is
3
12 6
The minimum value of the function is

1
2

y
1
2

1
2

Range:[

and

, 2 ]

the maximum value is 2, so state the range.

reflection
If the coefficient of the function is negative, the graph is turned upside down, that is, reflected in the
x-axis. This does not alter the amplitude, which is always positive.
y = f (x) is the image of f (x) when reflected in the x-axis.
y = f (x) is the image of f (x) when reflected in the y-axis.
The graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x) is shown below. You will notice that it is the graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x)
turned upside down. (The graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x) is shown on page 277.)
y
4
3
2
1
0
1
2
3
4

2

3 3

2 x

f (x) = 4 sin (3x), 0 x 2

2
. The domain is R. The range is [4, 4].
3
2
4 5
,,
,
, 2 .
The x-intercepts are 0, ,
3 3
3 3
1
This graph has a dilation factor of 4 from the x-axis and of 3 from the y-axis.
If the function f (x) = 4 sin (3x) is reflected in the x-axis, the result is f (x) = 4 sin (3x). If we
reflected the graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x) in the y-axis, the result would still be f (x) = 4 sin (3x), since
sin(3x) = sin (3x).
If we reflect f (x) = 2 cos (3x) in the x-axis, the result is f (x) = 2 cos (3x), but if we reflect it in the y-axis,
the graph does not change. This is because f (x) = 2 cos (3x) is symmetrical about the y-axis.
Check this on a CAS calculator.
The amplitude is 4 and the period is

translation
If we add a constant to the function, the graph is moved up or down
and is said to be translated parallel to the y-axis. The number that is
being added becomes the median value of the function.
The graph of f (x) = 3 cos (2x) + 1 is shown at right. Compared to
f (x) = 3 cos (2x), the graph is shifted 1 unit up. The amplitude is 3,
the period is , the domain is R and the range is [2, 4].
The x-intercepts are found by solving 3 cos (2x) + 1 = 0.
So cos2 x =

1
3

(cosine is negative in quadrants 2 and 3).

()

The basic angle is cos 1 3 = 1.231c.


Remember: Cosine is negative in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants.
2x = 1.231, + 1.231, 3 1.231, 3 + 1.231
2x = 1.911, 4.373, 8.194, 10.656 x = 0.955, 2.186, 4.097, 5.328
1

278

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y
4
3
2
1
1

2 x

2
f (x) = 3 cos (2x) + 1, 0 x 2

If we add a constant to x, the graph is translated parallel to the x-axis,


y
that is, left or right.
1

The graph of f ( x ) = sin x is the graph of f (x) = sin (x) translated


0.5

units to the right.


0
5
4

2 x
4
4

0.5
0.5
The graph of f ( x ) = sin x + is the graph of f (x) = sin (x)
4

1
translated units to the left.
4

The graph of f ( x ) = sin x +


is shown at right. It is drawn
f ( x ) = sin x + , x 2

4
4
between [, 2].
The amplitude is 1, the period is 2, the domain is R and the range This graph is a translation of the
is [1, 1]. The y-intercept occurs when x = 0.
basic graph of the function

f ( x ) = sin( x ) units parallel to


.
So y = sin 0 + =
4
4
2

the x-axis in a negative direction.


= 0.
The x-intercepts occur when sin x +

3 7
= 0, , 2 x = ,
,
4
4 4 4
3

Note: The graph of sin (x) is the same as the graph of cos ( x ) or cos ( x + ). That is, the sine
2
2

3
graph can be turned into the cosine graph by a translation of units left or
units right. The cosine
2
2
graph can be turned into the sine graph by the opposite translations.
So x +

If we take a general trigonometric function f (x) = a sin n(x b) + c, it has an amplitude of a,


2
a period of
, a horizontal translation of b units and a vertical translation of cunits.
n

y
The graph of f ( x ) = 2cos3 x 1 is shown at right for 0 x 2.

3
1
2
The amplitude is 2, the period is , the domain is R and the range
3

is [ 3, 1].

0
1

This graph is a dilation of the basic graph of f (x) = cos (x) by a factor
1
of 2 from the x-axis and a factor of 3 from the y-axis, along with a

translation of units to the right and 1 unit down.


3

2 x

2
3

Worked example 19

Sketch the graph of y = 5cos x + + 5 for 0 x 2 ; state the period and amplitude.

4
think

Write/draW

Write the equation.

y = 5cos x + + 5

Determine the period.


(The coefficient of x is 1.)

Period =

State the amplitude.

Amplitude = 5

Using a pencil, sketch a basic cosine shape with


the period and amplitude above.

2
= 2
1

y
5

y = 5 cos (x)

2 x

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

279

Apply the horizontal translation of + (the + sign


means to the left). Again, use pencil. 4

5
3
7

4 2 4 2

Apply the vertical translation of +5 (+ means up).

y = 5 cos (x)

5
6

5 y = 5 cos (x + 4 )

y = 5 cos (x + 4 ) + 5

10

+5

+5

5
+5
+5

y = 5 cos (x + 4 )

+5

3
7

2 4

2 x

5
7

y
10

Erase the pencilled stages.

y = 5 cos (x + 4 ) + 5

2 x

trigonometric graphs

exercise 6d

diGital doC
doc-9258
SkillSHEET 6.5
period and amplitude
of sine and cosine
graphs

1 We17
State the period and amplitude of the graphs of each of the following.
a y = cos (x)
b y = sin (x)
c y = 4 sin (x)
1

d y = 3 cos( x )
g y = 3sin
j

( x)
1
2

e y = 2 cos (3x)
h y = 2cos

( x)
1
3

y = 3 sin (2x)

y=

1
cos(2 x )
3

y = 4 sin (3x)

Sketch the graphs of each of the following for one complete cycle and state the amplitude,
the period and the range.

2 We18
a
diGital doC
doc-9204
Spreadsheet
Sine graphs

diGital doC
doc-9205
Spreadsheet
Cosine graphs

280

y = 3 cos( )

d y = 2 cos (3 )
g y = 4sin

( )
1
2

b y = 4 sin ( )
e y=

1
2

cos(3 )

h y = 3cos

( )

c y = 3 sin (2 )
f

y=

1
3

sin(2 )

1
3

Sketch the graph of the function f:R R where f (x) = 4 cos (3 ) for 0 2. State the
amplitude, period and range.

Sketch the graph of the function f:R R where y = 2 sin (2x) for x . State the amplitude,
period and range.

From the basic graphs of y = sin (x) and y = cos (x), state the horizontal translation and the vertical
translation for each of the following.

+1
+3
a y = sin x +
b y = cos x

3
2

1
c y = 3cos x
d y = 2sin x +
2

3
4

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

6 Sketch the graphs of the following for one complete cycle stating the amplitude, the period and the range.
a y = sin (x) + 1
b y = cos (x) 1
c y = 2 cos (x) 2
d y = 2 sin (x) + 3
e y = sin (3x) 1
f y = cos (2x) + 1
g y = 3 cos (3x) 2
j

y = 2 cos

( x) 1

y = 2 sin(2 x ) + 3

y = 3sin

( x) + 4
1
2

1
3

7 We19 Sketch the graphs of the following for 0 2. State the period and amplitude.

d y = 2sin

+1
g y = cos3

6
j

f y = 3cos3 +

1
i y = 2sin

e y = 2sin 2 +

2
h y = 2sin 2

a y = sin

c y = 3cos

b y = cos +

y = cos 2 ( ) + 1
Write down the amplitude, period and range of the following graphs.

8
a

y
4
2

3
0


4
2 4
4
2

3 x

y
1

0.5

2
y

4
3
2
1

0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x

1
y
3
x

2 1 0
2

x
7
h

y
1.5
1
0.5
0.5
1
1.5

y
1
0.5

2 x

0.5

a y = cos (x)
d y = 2 cos (x)
g y = 4 sin (2x) + 1
j

y = 4 sin (3 (x + )) + 1

3 x

State the maximum and minimum values for each of the following.
b y = sin (x)
e y = 2 cos (3x)
h y = cos (4x) 2

4 x

0.5

0
1

y
2

4
c

y
4

k y = 2 sin (3( x + 2 )) + 2

c y = 3 sin (x)
f y = 3 sin (2x)
i y = 2 cos (x ) 3
l

y = 3 cos (2( x 2 )) 4

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

281

10 Sketch the graphs of the following over the domain [0, 2] and state the period, amplitude and range.
a y = cos (x)
d y=

cos (x)

g y = 1 4 sin (x)
j

b y = sin (x)
e y=

c y = 2 sin (x)

cos (2x)

h y = 2 cos (2x) 2

y = sin (3x)

y=

y = 2 sin (x 2)

1
2

cos3( x + ) + 1

to the left, what is the new equation?


3

12 If the graph of y = 2 cos (3x) 2 is translated to the right and 3 units up, what is the new equation?
4

13 If the graph of y = 3 sin (x ) + 1 is translated to the left and 3 units down, what is the new equation?
3
14 The level of the water in the Banksia River was measured at hourly intervals from midnight and the
results recorded. The graph below right shows the results.
Find:
y
a the amplitude
3
b the period
2
c the maximum height of the river
d the minimum height of the river
1
e at what times the river has maximum height
f at what times the river has a minimum height
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 x
g the equation of the curve which is of the form
Hours
y = A sin (ax) + B.
Water level

11 If the graph of y = sin (x) + 1 is translated

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact with
transformations of
the tangent graph.

6e

Graphs of the tangent function

The graph of the function f (x) = tan (x) is shown at right.


x = 2
2, 2]. The graph repeats itself
It is drawn over the domain [

y
x = 32
x = 2 x = 32
every radians, so its period is . There are vertical asymptotes
3
through half the period,
2

3
that is, at x = and , so the function is not
1
2
2
defined at these points. Generally, the vertical
0 3
2 32 2
2 x
2
2

1
asymptotes are given by the equation x = (2 k + 1) ,
2
2
where k Z (that is, k = 0, 1, 2 ). Hence, the domain
3

of the tangent function is R \ {x : x = (2 k + 1) , k Z}.


2
Unlike sine and cosine functions, the tangent graph does not
have an amplitude; it extends infinitely up and down, so its range is R.

dilation
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

282

Compared to f (x) = tan (x), the graph of f (x) = a tan (x) is dilated by a
factor of a from the x-axis. Vertical dilation does not affect the period,
domain or range, or the position of the asymptotes or the x-intercepts. In
fact, its effect can be seen only when two graphs are sketched on the same
set of axes. The diagram at right shows the graphs of f (x) = tan (x) and
f (x) = 2 tan (x) over the domain [0, 2]. The graph of f (x) = 2 tan (x) is the
dilation of the basic tangent graph by a factor of 2 from the x-axis. It has
been stretched vertically.
Compared to f (x) = tan (x), the graph of f (x) = tan (nx) is dilated by
1
from the y-axis. Horizontal dilation affects the period
a factor of
n
and domain of the graph, as well as the position of the asymptotes and
x-intercepts.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y = 2 tan (x)
y = tan (x)

y
3
2
1
0
1

32

2
3

x = 2 x = 32

The period of f (x) = tan (nx) is

and the general equation of the


n

, where k Z.
2n

The domain changes to R \ {x : x = (2 k + 1) , k Z}


2n
accordingly. (The range is not affected by the value of n.)
At right is the graph of f (x) = tan (2x). This graph is a
1
dilation of the basic f (x) = tan (x) graph by a factor of 2 from

the y-axis; its period is . As the period has been halved, the
2
resultant graph is compressed horizontally.

x = 4

asymptotes is x = (2 k + 1)

x = 34 x = 54 x = 74

2
1
0
1

2 x

3
7

2 4

2
3

reflection

x = 2 x = 32

If the coefficient a in f (x) = a tan (x) is negative, the graph is reflected in


the x-axis. Reflecting the graph does not affect its period, domain or range,
or the position of the asymptotes. At right is the graph of
f (x) = 2 tan (x). This graph is a reflection in the x-axis of the graph
f (x) = 2 tan (x), shown previously.

translation

2
1
0
1

2
3

If a constant is added to the function, the graph is translated vertically, that


y
is, up or down, parallel to the y-axis. Thus, the graph of f (x) = tan (x) + c
x = 2 x = 32
3
represents a translation of the graph f (x) = tan (x) by c units in the y direction.
2
If c > 0, the graph is shifted up, and if c < 0, it is shifted down. Vertical
translation does not affect the period, domain or range, or the position of the
1
asymptotes. The axial intercepts, however, will change. The diagram at right
0 3 2 x
shows the graph of y = tan (x) + 2. It is translated 2 units up, compared to the
2
2
1
basic graph of y = tan (x).
If a constant is added to x, the graph is translated horizontally,
2
that is, right or left, parallel to the x-axis. Thus, the graph of
3
f (x) = tan (x b), represents a translation of the graph
f (x) = tan (x) by b units in the x direction. If b > 0, the graph is shifted to
the right, and if b < 0, it is shifted to the left. Horizontal translation has no effect on the period or
range, but it does affect the domain and the position of the asymptotes and the axial intercepts.

The diagram below shows the graph of y = tan ( x + ) translated units to the left, compared to the basic
4
4
graph of y = tan (x).
y

x = 54

x = 4

3
2
1
0
1

3
7

2 4

2 x

Having considered each transformation individually, we can now summarise them as follows.
Compared to the basic graph of y = tan (x), the graph of y = a tan [n(x b)] + c is:
dilated by a factor of a from the x-axis

1
dilated by a factor of from the y-axis (and hence has a period of n )
n
reflected in the x-axis if a < 0
translated c units vertically (up if c > 0 and down if c < 0)
translated b units horizontally (to the right if b > 0 and to the left if b < 0).
Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

283

Worked example 20

x
State the period and sketch the graph of y = 2 tan , showing one full cycle.
4
think
1

Write the equation.

Find the period.

Write/draW

x
y = 2 tan
4

1
Period = ; n = 4
n
4

So, period = 1 = = 4
1
4

Sketch the tangent shape with a period of 4.


The graph is dilated by a factor of 2 parallel
to the y-axis, so in comparison to the graph of
y = tan (x), each y-coordinate will be doubled.
The vertical asymptote goes through half of the
period, so it is at x = 2.

x = 2

3
2
1

0
1

2
3

Worked example 21

State the period and sketch the graph of y = tan 2 ( x


think
1

Write the equation.

Find the period.

Using pencil, sketch the basic tangent shape

with a period of .
2
(Since 0 x , we need to show two cycles.)
Remember that the asymptotes are at the middle
of each cycle (that is, halfway through the
period).

) + 1 for 0 x .
4

Write/draW

y = tan 2 x + 1

Period = ; n = 2. so period =
n
2
y

x = 4 x = 34

3
2
1
0
1

2
3

Since we need a negative tangent graph, reflect


the graph in the x-axis.

x = 4 x = 34

3
2
1
0
1
2
3

284

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

tUtorial
eles-1216
Worked example 21

Translate the graph

units to the right.


4

y
3

x = 4 x = 2

x = 34

1
0
1

2
3
6

Translate the graph 1 unit up.

x = 2 x =

3
2
1
0
1

2
3
7

Erase the pencilled stages to see the final graph.

x = 2 x =

3
2
1
0
1

2
3

Graphs of the tangent function

exercise 6e

1 We20 State the period and sketch the graphs of each of the following, showing one full cycle.
a y = 4 tan (x)
b y = tan (2x)
c y = tan (3x)
d y = 2 tan (4x)

( x)

x
y = 2 tan
3

x
g y = 3tan

h y = 5 tan (2x)

y=

y=

y = tan

1
4

1
tan(4 x )
2

( x)

1
tan 12
3

2 For each of the following, state:


ii the transformations, compared to the basic graph y = tan (x).

i the period
a y = 2 tan (3x)
d

y = tan

1
2

tan 3 x +

y = 2tan x + + 5

g y=
j

( x) 2

1
4

b y = tan (4x) + 1

e y=
+

2
1
x
h y = 6 2 tan
3
5 tan x

c y = 3 tan (2x) 4
f
i

y = tan 2 x

1
y = tan 4 x 3

12

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

285

3 We21 State the period and sketch the graphs of each of the following for 0 x .
a y = tan (x) + 2

d y = 2tan x
1

g y = 2 tan
j

4
1
x

f y = 3tan + 1 2
6
3

tan 4 x + + 1
i y=
4
12

c y = tan x +

b y = tan (2x) 3

x 1
2

1
y = tan 4 ( x )


h y = 2tan 2 x +
8


1
1
y = 3 tan 2 x 2

Finding equations of
trigonometric graphs
6F

interaCtiVitY
int-0251
Finding equations of
trigonometric graphs

Sometimes it is necessary to be able to find the equation of a trigonometric function from a graph. The
following worked examples illustrate how this can be done.
Worked example 22

The equation of the following graph is in the form y = a sin (nx).


Find the values of a and n. Hence, find the equation of the
function.

y
2
1
0
1

2
think

Write

State the amplitude of the graph.

Amplitude = 2

The coefficient a represents the amplitude. Since


the graph is not reflected in the x-axis,
a is positive.

The graph is not reflected, so a = 2.

State the period of the graph (it is the length of


one full curve).

Period = 4.

Use the formula for the period to find the value


ofn.

Period =

Substitute the values of a and n into


y = a sin (nx) to find the equation of the function.

2
2
, so
= 4 ;
n
n
2 1
n=
=
4 2
1
y = a sin (nx); a = 2, n =
2
1
y = 2sin 2 x

( )

Worked example 23

The graph shown is a trigonometric function of the form


y = a sin (nx) + c. Find the values of a, n and c.
Hence, find the equation of the function.

286

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y
2
1
1 0 4
2
3
4

2 x

think

Write

The amplitude (a) is half the distance between


the maximum and minimum values.

y = a sin (nx) + c
1
Amplitude a = (2 + 4) = 3
2

The period is the interval from one point on the


graph to the next point where the graph begins
2
to repeat itself. The period is .
n

The period is

The line through the centre of the graph


is y = 1, so the graph has been translated
down 1 unit.

c = 1
So the equation is y = 3 sin (2x) 1.

2
= , so n = 2.
n

Worked example 24

This graph is a trigonometric function of the form y = c + a cos (nx). Find the values of a, n and c.
Hence, write the equation of the function.
y
3
2
1
0
1

think
1

The amplitude (a) is half the distance between


the maximum and minimum values.

6 x

Write

y = c + a cos (nx)
1
Amplitude a = 2 (3 + 1)
=2
a = 2

We know that the graph is a cosine graph so it


must be inverted; that is, a is negative.

The period is the amount of time taken to


complete the pattern once.

Period =

c represents the vertical translation. This graph


has been translated up one unit.

c=1

The equation of this trigonometric function is in


the form y = c + a cos (nx).

y = c + a cos(nx )

2
=6
n

2
=n
6

so n =
3

c = 1, a = 2, n =

y = 1 2 cos x
3

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

287

Finding equations of trigonometric graphs

exercise 6F

1 We22 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a sin (nx). Find the values of a and n.

Hence, find the equation of each function.


a
diGital doC
doc-9204
Spreadsheet
Sine graphs

diGital doC
doc-9205
Spreadsheet
Cosine graphs

y
3
2
1

2
1
0

1
2
3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 x
1
2

2 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a cos (nx). Find the values of a and n. Hence,

find the equation of each function.


a

0
1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 x


1

3 We23 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a sin (nx) + c. Find the values of a, n,

and c and hence write the equation of the function.


a

y
1.5

y
1
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8x
1
2

1.0
0.5
0

2 x

3
4
5

4 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a cos [n(x )]. Find the values of a, n and .

Hence, write the equation of the function.


a

y
4

y
5

2
0
2

5 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a sin [n(x + )] + c. Find the values of a, n,

and c. Hence, write the equation of the function.


a

y
1
0
1

2
5

3 2 3 6

2
3

288

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

7
4
3
5 11

6 3 2 3 6

2 x

y
5
4
3
2
1
0
1

6 We24 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = c + a cos (nx). Find the values of a, n

and c. Hence, write the equation of the function.


a

y
4
3
2
1

y
4
3
2
1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 x
1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12x
1

7 mC If the amplitude is 2, the period is 6 and there is a vertical translation of 2, then the equation

of the form y = a sin (nx) + b is:


a y = 2 sin (6x) 2

C y = 2 2sin

B y = 6 sin (2x) 2

x
3

x 2
y = 2sin x 2
e y = 2sin
6
3

8 mC If the period is , the range is [ 2, 4], and the horizontal translation is , the equation for the
4
trigonometric function of the form y = a cos [n(x + )] + b is:


C y = 2cos 3 x + + 1
a y = 3 2cos x + + 1
B y = 3cos 2 x + 1



4
4
4
d

d y = 2cos 3 x + + 1

4

6G

e y = 3cos 2 x


+1
4

trigonometric modelling

In real life there are many examples of periodic behaviour. Sine and cosine functions such as
y = a sin [n(x b)] + c and y = a cos [n(x b)] + c are often used to model this behaviour.

diGital doC
doc-9206
WorkSHEET 6.2

eleSSon
eles-0092
trigonometric
modelling

Worked example 25

While out in his trawler John North, a fisherman,


notes that the height of the tide in the harbour
can be found by using the equation:

h = 5 + 2 cos t ,
6
where h metres is the height of the tide and
t is the number of hours after midnight.
a What is the height of the high tide and
when does it occur in the first 24 hours?
b What is the difference in height between
high and low tides?
c Sketch the graph of h for 0 t 24.
d John North knows that his trawler needs a depth of at least 6 metres to enter the harbour. Between
what hours is he able to bring his boat back into the harbour?
think

a 1 Write the given equation.

For high tide, find the maximum value of h.

Write/draW


t
6

a h = 5 + 2 cos

For maximum h,

cos t = 1
6
So h = 5 + 2 1 = 7
Alternatively, maximum value =
median + amplitude so h = 5 + 2 = 7.
Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

289

cos t = 1, so
6

t = 0, 2 , 4 , . . .
6
t = 0, 12, 24, . . .

Find when high tide occurs.

A high tide of height 7 m occurs at midnight,


noon the next day, and midnight the next night.
b 1 Find the minimum value of h.

b For minimum h,

cos t = 1
6
So h = 5 + 2 1 = 3
Alternatively, min. value =
median amplitude so h = 5 2 = 3.

Find the difference between high and low


tides.

c Use the information on the previous page to

sketch the graph. Amplitude = 2 vertical shift = 5,


Period = 12.

The difference between high and low


tides is 7 3 = 4 metres.
c

h
6
4
2
0 2 4 6 8 1012 14 16 18 202224 t

d 1 Find t using the equation when h = 6.

d When h = 6,

5 + 2cos t = 6
6

2cos t = 1
6

cos t =
6

1
2

5 7 11
t= ,
,
,
....
6
3 3 3
3
t = 2, 10, 14, 22, . . .
3

Write the answer in words.

exercise 6G

From the graph we can see that John North can


bring his boat back into harbour before 2 am,
between 10 am and 2 pm and between 10 pm
and 2 am the next morning.

trigonometric modelling

1 We25 Competition is severe, so Fred Greenseas decides that he will catch more fish in an inlet several
diGital doC
doc-9165
Function grapher

290

kilometres east of the place where John North fishes. There is a sandbar at the entrance to the inlet and
t
the depth of water in metres on the sandbar is modelled by the function d (t ) = 6 + 2.5sin
where t
6
is the number of hours after 12 noon.
a
b
c
d
e

What is the greatest depth of the water on the sandbar and when does it first occur?
How many hours pass before there is once again the maximum depth of water on the sandbar?
What is the least amount of water on the sandbar?
Sketch the graph of d for 0 t 24.
Fred Greenseas needs a depth of 7.25 metres to cross the sandbar. Between what hours is he able
to enter and leave the inlet?

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 A student wanting to catch fish to sell at a local market on Sunday has discovered that more fish are in

the water at the end of the pier when the depth of water is greater than 8.5 metres.

The depth of the water (in metres) is given by d = 7 + 3sin t , where t hours is the number of
6
hours after midnight on Friday.
a
b
c
d
e

What is the maximum and minimum depth of the water at the end of the pier?
Sketch a graph of d against t from midnight on Friday until midday on Sunday.
When does the water first reach maximum depth?
Between what hours should the student be on the pier in order to catch the most fish?
If the student can fish for only two hours at a time, when should she fish in order to sell the
freshest fish at the market from 10.00 am on Sunday morning?

3 The mean daily maximum temperature in Tarabon, an experimental town in a glass dome, is modelled

m
by the function T (m) = 18 + 7cos
, where T is in degrees Celsius and m is the number of
6
months after 1 January 2007.
a What was the mean daily maximum temperature in March 2007, and in August 2007?
b What is the highest mean daily maximum temperature in Tarabon? In which months does it
occur?
c What would the mean daily maximum temperature be in February 2008?
d If the pattern continued, how many months would pass before the mean daily maximum
temperature would be the same again as it was in February 2008?

4 The height above the ground of the middle of a skipping rope as it is being turned in a childs game is

found by using the equation h = a sin (nt) + c, where t is the number of seconds after the rope has begun to
turn. During the game, the maximum height the rope reaches is 1.8metres and it takes 2 seconds for the
rope to complete a full turn.
a Find the values of a, n and c and hence write the equation of h in terms of t.
b Sketch the graph of h against t for 0 t 5.
c After how much time from the beginning of the turn will the rope be 25 cm above the ground?
Give your answer correct to the nearest tenth of a second.
y

5 The graph at right shows the path of a small lizard as

it runs over a hill.


a Calculate the height of the hill, in metres, and
hence find the amplitude of the trigonometric
function.
b If the ground was flat, how far would the lizard
run to reach the same spot on the other side of
the hill? Hence, find the period of the function.
6 When Sloane and Michael were riding on a

Ferris wheel, they realised that as the wheel


turned clockwise, the height of their seat in
metres after t minutes could be modelled by
the function h(t) = a b cos (nt).
The graph of h against t is shown for the whole ride.
a State the values of a, b and n.
b Write down the rule for h(t).
c How many times do Sloane and Michael reach
the highest point during their ride and how far
above the ground is it?
d How high are they when the ride begins to move?
e How many minutes pass before they are at this
point again?
f How far above the ground are they after 1 minute?
g If the ride began when the boys were at the
height found in part f, what would the function
become?
h Draw a graph of the new function for the first
6minutes of the ride.

y = 1 cos ( 4 x)

0
h

h = 34

30
25
20
15
10
5
0

h=2
9 12 15 t

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

291

7 On a summer day the hourly temperature, which can be approximated to a cosine curve, was recorded.

The maximum temperature was 30 C and occurred at 3.00 pm. The minimum temperature was 10 C and
occurred at 3.00 am. The temperature was first recorded at 12midnight, then every hour for 24 hours.
a What is the amplitude of the function?
b What is the period of the function?
c What is the middle value of the function?
d How far has this middle value been translated upwards from the x-axis?
e When do the maximum and minimum temperatures occur?
f Using the above, write an equation that will model this function.
g Check the accuracy of your work by using your equation to find the temperature after 3, 9, 15 and
21 hours.
h What is the temperature at midnight? Give your answer correct to the nearest degree. Check that
your answer makes sense.

6h

Further graphs

Earlier in the book we discussed in detail how to graph the sum and difference offunctions. In this
section we will further apply these techniques to trigonometric functions.

Graphing the sum and difference of functions


The sum (and difference) function is defined over the intersection of the domains of the individual
functions. That is, dom (f (x) g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x).
To sketch the graph of the sum function, the method of addition of ordinates can be used. This method
involves sketching the graphs of the individual functions on the same set of axes and then adding their
y-coordinates. This technique is illustrated in the worked example below.
Worked example 26

Using addition of ordinates, sketch the graph of y = sin (x) + cos (x) for the domain [0, 2].
think
1

Sketch the graphs of y = sin (x) and y = cos (x)


on the same set of axes over the required domain.
(Note that both y = sin (x) and y = cos (x) are
defined over [0, 2], so the sum function is defined
over the same domain.)

draW

y
2
1
0
1

2 x

2
2

Moving from left to right, add the y-coordinates of


the two graphs and plot the resultant points. The
3
5 3 7
,
,
,
keypoints are at x = 0, , ,
4 2 4
4 2 4
and 2.

y
2
1
0
1

2 x

2
3

Join the points with a smooth curve.

y
2
1
0
1
2

292

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Erase y = sin (x) and (y) = cos (x) to see the


final graph.

y
2
1
0
1

2 x

Note that a difference function can be treated as a sum function where the second additive is negative.
For instance, the function y = sin (x) cos (x) can be viewed as y = sin (x) + (cos (x)). So to obtain the
graph of y = sin (x) cos (x), we can sketch the graphs of y = sin (x) and y = cos (x) on the same set of
axes and add their respective y-coordinates.

Graphing modulus (absolute value) functions


As was discussed previously, to sketch the graph of the modulus function y = | f (x)|, sketch the graph of
y = f (x) and then reflect all sections of the graph that are below the x-axis in the x-axis. The technique is
shown in Worked example 27.
Worked example 27

Sketch the graph of y = |3 cos (2x)| over the domain [0, 2].
think
1

First sketch the graph of y = 3 cos (2x). The


amplitude of this graph is 3 and its period is
2
= . Since the domain is [0, 2], we need
2
to sketch two full cycles.

draW

y
3
2
1
0
1

2 x

2
3
2

Reflect all sections of the graph that are below


the x-axis in the x-axis.

y
3
2
1
0
1

2 x

2
3
3

Erase the sections below the x-axis to see the


final graph.

y
3
2
1
0
1

2 x

2
3

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

293

Graphing product functions


The product function is defined over the intersection of the domains of the individual functions. That
is, dom (f (x) g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). Some features of the product function can be established by
using the following rules:
1. The x-intercepts of f (x) g(x) occur where either f (x) or g(x) have their x-intercepts.
2. f (x) g(x) is above the x-axis where f (x) and g(x) are either both positive, or both negative.
3. f (x) g(x) is below the x-axis where one of the functions f (x) or g(x) is positive and the other is negative.
The general shape of the graph and the coordinates of the turning points can be found using a CAS
calculator.
Worked example 28

Find the domain and sketch the graph of the product function y = x sin (x). Use a CAS calculator
for assistance.
think

Write/draW

The required function can be viewed as


a product of two functions: f (x) = x and
g(x) = sin (x). The domain of the product
function is equal to the intersection of the
domains of the two individual functions.

Let f (x) = x, dom f (x) = R


Let g(x) = sin (x), dom g(x) = R
dom (f (x) g(x))
= dom f (x) dom g(x)
=R
So the domain of y = x sin (x) is R.

Ensure your CAS calculator is in radians mode.


Enter the rule for the function into the
calculator.

f1(x) = x sin(x)

Use the graphing feature to obtain the graph


of f1(x).

Of course the graphs of product functions are not limited to those involving trigonometric functions.
Worked example 29

If f(x) = 2x and g ( x ) =

x + 1 , sketch the graph of f ( x ) g ( x ) = 2 x x + 1.

think
1

Sketch the graphs of f (x) and g(x).

Write/draW

y = 2x
y= x+1

(0, 1)
(1, 0) 0

294

Find the domain of f(x) and the domain of g(x).

Dom f = R and dom g = [1, )

Find the domain of f(x)g(x).

Dom fg = [1, )

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Find the x-intercepts of both f and g and hence


find the x-intercepts of the product fg.

x-intercept for f (x) is when x = 0 and f (x) = 0


x-intercept for g(x) is when x = 1 and g(x) = 0
Hence, the x-intercepts for the product are when
x = 0 and x = 1.

Find the values of x for which the product is


negative.

f (x) is negative and g(x) is positive for


x (1, 0), so fg is negative for x (1, 0).

Find the values of x for which the product is


positive.

f(x) and g(x) are both positive for x (0, ), so


fg is positive for x (0, ).

Find the turning point using a graphics


calculator. Round the answer to 2 decimal
places as appropriate.

The turning point is (

Sketch the graph of the product.

, 0.77).

y = 2x x + 1

(1, 0)
(0, 0)
( 32 ,

0.77)

Graphing composite functions


A composite function is formed from two functions in the following way. If f (x) = x + 5 and g(x) = 2x are
two functions, then we combine the two functions to form the composite function g(f (x)) = 2f (x) = 2(x + 5).
That is, f (x) replaces x in the function g(x).
The composite function reads g of f and can be written g f.
Another composite function is f (g(x)) = g(x) + 5 = 2x + 5. In this case, g(x) replaces x in f (x). This
composite function reads f of g and can be written f g.
For the composite function f (g(x)) to be defined, the range of g must be a subset of the domain of f.
Furthermore, if f (g(x)) is defined, the domain of f (g(x)) equals the domain of g(x).
Composite functions can be rather complex to graph by hand, so a CAS calculator can be used for
assistance when sketching.
Worked example 30

For the pair of functions f(x) = cos (x) and g( x ) = x :


a show that f(g(x)) is defined
b find f(g(x)) and state its domain
c sketch the graph of f(g(x)), using a CAS calculator for assistance.
think

a For f(g(x)) to exist, the range of g must be a subset of the

domain of f. So find both the range of g and the domain


of f to show that this condition is observed.
b 1 Form the composite function, f (g(x)), by substituting

g(x) into f (x).


2

The domain of f (g(x)) must be the same as the domain


of g(x). Since the domain of g(x) is R+ {0}, so is the
domain of f (g(x)).

c 1 Enter the composite function f(g(x)) into a CAS

calculator.

tUtorial
eles-1217
Worked example 30

Write/draW

a f (x) = cos (x); domain of f (x) = R

g( x ) = x : range of g(x) = R+ {0}


Range of g(x) domain of f(x)
f (g(x)) is defined

b f ( g( x )) = cos( x )

Domain of f (g(x)) = R+ {0}

c f1(x) = cos( x )

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

295

Use the graphing function of a CAS calculator,


sketch the graphs of f (x) = cos ( x ), x 0.

y
1
61.7

2.4

22.2

The graphs of composite functions are not limited to those involving trigonometric functions. This is
demonstrated in the following example.
Worked example 31

For f(x) = x2 2 and g(x) = x4:


a show that both f(g(x)) and g(f(x)) are defined
b find both f(g(x)) and g(f(x)), stating the domain and range of each one
c on separate axes, sketch the graphs of f(g(x)) and g(f(x)).
think

Write

a Show that ran f dom g and that ran g dom f.

a Dom f = R; ran f = [2, ).

b 1 Write f(x).

b f (x) = x2 2

Dom g = R; ran g = [0, ].


Range of f domain of g, so g(f (x)) exists.
Range of g domain of f, so f (g(x)) exists.

Form the composite function f (g(x)) by


substituting g(x) into f (x). Simplify.

f (g(x)) = (x4)2 2
= x8 2

State the domain and range of f (g(x)).

Domain = R, range = [2, ).

Form the composite function g(f (x)) by


substituting f (x) into g(x).

g(f(x)) = (x2 2)4

State the domain and range of g(f (x)).

Domain = R, range = [0, )

c 1 Sketch f (g(x)), rounding x-intercepts to

2decimal places.

c The y-intercept is 2, and the x-intercepts

are 1.09 and 1.09.


y

y = x8 2
(1.09, 0) 0

Sketch g(f (x)).

(1.09, 0)
x
(0, 2)

The y-intercept is 16, and the turning


point is (2, 0).
y
(0, 16)
y = (x2 2)4
0

296

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

(2, 0) x

Further graphs

exercise 6h

1 We26
Using addition of ordinates, sketch the following graphs for the domain [0, 2].
a y = sin (x) + cos (2x)
b y = cos (x) + sin (2x)
c y = 2 sin (x) + cos (x)
d y = 2 cos (x) + sin (x)
e y = 2 sin (x) + cos (2x)
f y = 2 cos (x) + sin (2x)
g y = 2 sin (2x) + cos (x)
h y = 2 cos (2x) + sin (x)

diGital doC
doc-9259
SkillSHEET 6.6
addition of ordinates

2 Apply the addition of ordinates method to sketch each of the following graphs over the domain [0, 2].

Use a CAS calculator to check your answers.


a y = sin (x) + x
b y = cos (x) x
1 2
1
e y = 2sin (4 x ) 8 x 3
d y = cos(2 x ) + 4 x
20
g y = 4 sin (x) 5 loge (x + 1)
h y = 3cos(2 x )
( x + 2)2

c y = 3 sin (x) 2x
f

y = tan (x) 2x2

3 We27 Sketch each of the following graphs over the domain [0, 2].

1 x
2

a y = |sin (2x)|

b y = |2 sin (4x)|

c y = cos

d y = |3 cos (3x)|

e y = | 2 tan (x)|

g y = |1 2 cos (2x)|

h y = |tan (2x) + 3|

y = | 4 sin (x) + 2|

4 Sketch each of the following graphs over the domain [0, 2]. Remember to observe the appropriate

order of transformations.
a y = 3|sin (x)|

c y = 2 cos + 3
2

b y = |2 cos (2x)| + 1

5 We28 Find the domain and sketch the graph of each of the following product functions. Use a CAS

calculator for assistance.


a y = 0.5x sin (x)

b y = (x 1) cos (x)

c y = 3 sin (x) loge (x)

d y = 2cos( x ) x

e y = 8 cos (x) sin (x)

g y = (1.2)x cos (x)

h y=

x
sin
2

y = (4 2x) sin (2x)

2 x

6 We29 For each of the following functions f (x) and g(x), sketch the graph of f (x)g(x).
a f ( x ) = x , g( x ) =

x+2

b f (x) = x 2, g(x) = ex

c f (x) = x 1, g(x) = loge (x)

d f (x) = | x |, g(x) = x2 1

3
e f ( x ) = x , g( x ) =

g f (x) =

x+2

x , g( x ) = 1 x

f (x) = 1 x2, g(x) = ex

h f (x) = x2, g(x) = loge (x)

7 We30 For each of the following pairs of functions:


i show that f (g(x)) is defined
ii find f (g(x)) and state its domain
iii sketch the graph of f (g(x)), using a CAS calculator for assistance.
b f ( x ) = sin(2 x ) and g( x ) =
a f (x) = cos (x) and g(x) = loge (x)
c

f ( x ) = 2sin( x ) and g( x ) =

e f (x) = x2 and g(x) = sin (x)


g

f ( x ) = cos

x2
4

d f (x) =
f

and g( x ) = 2 x 2

x + 2 and g( x ) = 2 cos ( x )

f (x) = 2x and g(x) = cos (2x)

h f ( x ) = 2sin( x ) + 1 and g( x ) =

x 3

8 We31 For each of the following pairs of functions f (x) and g(x):
i state whether f (g(x)) and g(f (x)) are defined
ii for the composite functions that are defined, find f (g(x)) and g(f (x)), stating the domain and

range of each one


iii on separate axes, sketch the graphs of f (g(x)) and g(f (x)) that are defined.
a f (x) = x 2, g(x) = ex
b f (x) = | x| g(x) = x2 1
c f (x) = 1 x2, g(x) = ex
x
e f (x) = e , g(x) = cos (x)
f f (x) = loge x, g(x) = sin (x)
d f ( x ) = x , g( x ) = sin( x )
Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

297

trigonometric functions with an


increasing trend
6i

Consider a trigonometric function where there is an increasing trend, for example, economic growth
cycles, tidal heights due to global warming or increasing seasonal populations. These situations can be
modelled by a function of the form:
y = ax + b + m sin (nx)
where ax + b represents the increasing trend line and m sin (nx) represents the seasonal variation.
Worked example 32

Consider a remote island where global warming has caused the temperature to increase by
0.1degree each month. The mean daily temperature is modelled by the function

T ( m) = 16 + 0.1 m + 6 cos m , where T is the temperature in degrees Celsius and m is the number
6
of months after January 2008.
a Sketch a graph of the function for a five year period from January 2008, using a CAS calculator
for assistance.
b Find the mean daily temperature for March 2009.
c When will the mean daily temperature first reach 23 degrees?
think

a 1 Ensure that your CAS calculator is in radian mode.

Define the function.


2

Set the graphing window to display 5 years,


i.e. 0 x 60 (months). Use the graphing feature to
help sketch the graph.

Write/draW

x
6

a f1 ( x ) = 16 + 0.1x + 6 cos
y

f1(x) = 16 + 0.1x + 6cos .x


6

0
b March 2009 occurs when m = 14. Use a CAS calculator

to determine f 1(14).
c 1 Use a CAS calculator to determine when f 1(x) = 23.

Define f 2(x) = 23.

b f1 (14) =

102
= 20.4
5

c f 2(x) = 23

Determine when f 1(x) = f 2(x).

The first intersection point is


(11.5631, 23).

State the answer.

The first time the temperature reaches


23C will be during the 12th month
after January 2008, that is; during
January 2009. (m = 11.5631).

trigonometric functions with an


increasing trend
exercise 6i

1 We32 A fisherman finds himself stranded on an island, where the mean daily temperature is

increasing as a result of global warming. He finds that the temperature can be modelled by the function

T (m) = 12 + 0.2m + 5cos m , where T is the temperature in degrees Celsius and m is the number
6
of months after January 2008.
a Sketch a graph of the function for a 2-year period beginning with January 2008.
b Find the mean daily temperature for December 2009.
c When will the temperature first reach 18 degrees?
298

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 In a region of country Victoria, a study shows that increased wheat production causes the mouse


population to increase according to the function M = 15000 + 100t 4000 cos t , where M is the
6
number of mice and t is the number of months after July 2008.
a How many mice are being added to the average population per month?
b Draw a graph of this situation for a 5-year period beginning with July 2008.
c How many mice would you expect to be in the region in December 2008?
d When would the mice population first reach 20 000?

3 The value of a particular stock on the market follows a trigonometric model, and inflation causes

the stocks value to have an overall upward trend. The value of the stock can be represented by the

equation V (t ) = 20 + 0.02t + 5sin t , where V is the value of the stock in dollars and t is the
6
number of months after January 2006.
a What is the inflation rate per month?
b What was the initial value of the stock?
c What will be the stocks value after 6 months?
d When will its value first reach $25.50?

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

299

Summary
revision of radians
and the unit circle

1c = the size of the angle formed where the length of an arc is equal to the radius of the circle.
c = 180
Angles are in radians unless a degree symbol is shown.
180
.
To change radians to degrees, multiply by

.
To change degrees to radians, multiply by
180
Identities
1. sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1
sin ( )
2. tan ( ) =
cos( )

Symmetry and exact


values

Exact values can be determined by using the equilateral triangle and the right isosceles triangle
shown below.
3 30

45

45

60
1

180 ()

360 (2)

270

0 (0)

30 6

45 4

60 3

sin ( )

1
2

2
2

3
2

cos ( )

3
2

2
2

1
2

tan ( )

3
3

Undef.

Undef.

90

The unit circle is symmetrical so that the magnitude of sine, cosine and tangent are the same in
each quadrant but the sign varies. All functions (sine, cosine and tangent) are positive in the 1st
quadrant, sine is positive in the 2nd quadrant, tangent is positive in the 3rd quadrant and cosine is
positive in the 4th quadrant.
sin ( ) = sin ( )

sin ( + ) = sin ( )

sin (2 ) = sin ( )

cos ( ) = cos ( )

cos ( + ) = cos ( )

cos (2 ) = cos ( )

tan ( + ) = tan ( )

tan (2 ) = tan ( )

tan ( ) =

tan

( )

Negative angles
sin ( ) = sin ( ), cos ( ) = cos ( ), tan ( ) = tan ( )

Complementary angles add to 90o or radians.


2
The sine of an angle is equal to the cosine of its complement.
The complement of the tangent of an angle is the cotangent.
sin

(
tan (

cos

300

= cos( )

)
) = cot ( )

= sin ( )

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

sin

(
tan (

cos

+ = cos( )

)
+) =

+ = sin ( )
cot ( )

)
cos ( ) = sin ( )
tan ( ) = cot ( )
sin

3
2

3
2

3
2

= cos( )

sin

3
2

(
tan (
cos

3
2

3
2

+ = cos( )

+ = sin ( )

+ = cot ( )

trigonometric
equations

Given a general equation such as sin x = a, there can be an infinite number of solutions. The
domain is usually restricted and it is important to find all values for x within this domain.
If the domain is given in radians, then the solution(s) to x should be in radians. If the domain is
given in degrees, then the solution(s) to x should be in degrees.
Adjust the domain to match what has been done to the angle in the question.
Sine is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants, cosine is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants and
tangent is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants.

If sin (x) = a then the general solution is x = sin 1 (a) + 2n and x = sin 1 (a) + (2n + 1), n Z.
1
If cos (x) = a then the general solution is x = cos (a) + 2n, n Z.

If tan (x) = a then the general solution is x = tan 1 (a) + n, n Z.


Find all the solutions within the specified domain by substituting integer values for n into the
general solution.
If the equation is of the form sin (ax) = k cos (ax), divide both sides by cos (ax) to change the
equation to tan (ax) = k.

trigonometric graphs

Sine and cosine graphs


Graphs of the form y = a sin [n(x b)] + c and y = a cos [n(x b)] + c are transformations of
y = sin (x) and y = cos (x).
The amplitude a is a dilation from the x-axis. If a is negative, the amplitude is still positive but the
graph is a reflection in the x-axis.
The vertical translation c is a translation parallel to the y-axis. If c is positive, the graph is
translated c units up, and if c is negative, the graph is translated c units down.
c represents the median value of the function.
The range is [c | a |, c + | a |].
2
The period is .
n
1
The factor n is the horizontal dilation where the graph has been dilated by a factor of from the y-axis.
n
The value b is the horizontal translation or a translation parallel to the x-axis. If b is positive, the
graph is translated b units to the right and if b is negative, the graph is translated b units to the left.
Tangent graphs
The graph of y = tan (x) has the following properties.
y

x = 32 x = 2
x = 2 x = 32
It has no amplitude.
3
The period is .
2
There are x-intercepts at x = . . ., 2, , 0, , 2, . . .
3 3
1
There are vertical asymptotes at x = . . .,
, , ,
,...
2 2 2 2
0 3
2 32 2
2 x
The range is R.
2
2
1
The graph of y = tan (nx) has the following properties.
It has no amplitude.
2

The period is .
3
n
k
There are x-intercepts at x =
where k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
n
(2 k + 1)
where k = 0, 1, 2, . . .
There are vertical asymptotes at x =
2n
The range is R.
Compared to the basic graph of y = tan (x), the graph of y = a tan [n(x b)] + c is:
dilated by the factor of a from the x-axis
1

dilated by the factor of from the y-axis (and hence has period of )
n
n
reflected in the x-axis if a < 0
translated b units horizontally (to the right if b > 0 and to the left if b < 0)
translated c units vertically (up if c > 0 and down if c < 0).

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

301

Finding equations of
trigonometric graphs

Trigonometric functions can be expressed in the form of y = a sin [n(x b)] + c or


y=a cos [n(x b)] + c.
The amplitude a can be found by halving the distance between the maximum and minimum values.
The period is the interval from one point on the graph to the next point where the graph begins to
2
repeat itself. The period is n .
The vertical shift is c.
The horizontal shift is b.

Further graphs

For the graph of the sum/difference function, dom(f (x) g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). The graph
of the sum/difference function can be obtained by using the addition of ordinates method.
The graph of the modulus function y = | f (x)| can be obtained by sketching the graph of y = f (x) and
then reflecting all of the sections of the graph that are below the x-axis in the x-axis.
For the product function, dom(f (x)g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). Some features of the graph of the
product function are as follows:
the x-intercepts of f (x)g(x) occur where either f (x) or g(x) have their x-intercepts
f (x)g(x) is above the x-axis where f (x) and g(x) are either both positive or both negative
f (x)g(x) is below the x-axis where one of the functions f (x) or g(x) is positive and the other is
negative.
For the composite function f (g(x)) to be defined, the range of g must be a subset of the domain of f.
Furthermore, if f (g(x)) is defined, the domain of f (g(x)) equals the domain of g(x).

trigonometric
functions with an
increasing trend

These situations can be modelled by a function of the form y = ax + b + m sin (nx), where ax + b
represents the increasing trend line and m sin (nx) is the seasonal variation.

302

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Chapter review
1 Convert the following into radians.
a 60
b 30
e 360
f 270
i 225
j 120

c 45
g 150
k 210

S ho rt
a n S W er

d 90
h 300
l 315

2 Find the value of:

2

b sin

4
3
e tan (2)
f sin (120)
i cos (315)
j tan (225)
3 If sin (x) = 0.85 and x is in the first quadrant, find:
a sin ( x)
b sin ( + x)
a cos

6
g cos (135)

4
h tan (30)

c tan

d sin

c sin (2 + x)

d sin (4 x)

4 Find the general solution to the equation 2 cos( x ) 2 = 0 .


5 Find the general solution for 3 sin (2 x ) = cos(2 x ) and hence all solutions for x between 0 and 2.

+ 2 .

4
a State the translations required to form this graph from y = sin (x).
b State the amplitude and period of the transformed trigonometric function.
c Sketch the graph of the transformed function over the domain 0 x 2.

6 Consider the graph of y = 3sin x

7 State the period and sketch the graph of y = tan (2x) + 2.


8 The equation of the graph at right is of the form

y = a sin (nx) + b. Find the values of a, n and b, and hence find


the equation of the function.

9 The depth, d metres, of water in a shallow bay at thours

t
after 9 am is given by d = 5 + 3sin , for 0 t 24 hours.
6
a Sketch the graph of d for 0 t 24 hours.
b At what times will the depth of water in
the bay be 6.5 metres?
c Particular water sports cannot run in the
bay when the depth of water is less than
6.5 metres. At what times of the day (not
night) will the water sports be able to run?
10 Sketch the graph of y = | 2 sin (2x) | over the
domain [0, 2].

y
3
2
1
1
2
3
4

11 On the same set of axes and over the domain

[0, 2], sketch the graphs of:


a y = 2x
b y = sin (x)
c y = sin (x) + 2x.

12 On the same set of axes and over the domain

[0, 2], sketch the graphs of:


a y=x
b y = sin (x)
c y = x sin (x).

13 For the pair of functions f (x) = sin (x) and

g(x) = x2 + 2:
a show that f (g(x)) is defined
b find f (g(x))
c state the domain and range of f (g(x)).

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

303

m U lt ip l e
C h oiCe

1 What is 320 expressed in radians?


a

2
9

5
18

13 c
expressed in degrees?
6
a 390
B 420
5

equals:
3 The expression sin
3

8
9

4
9

16
9

2 What is

1
2

C 150

d 120

3
2

3
2

e 330

e 1

4 A trigonometric function is given by f : R R, f (x) = 3 cos (2x + ) 1

The amplitude, period, and range of f are respectively:

B 2, , R
C 3, , [4, 2]
a 3, , [ 4, 2]
2

d 2,


, [ 1,3]
2

e 3,

5 When f (x) = 0 the following function f : [0, 2] R, f (x) = 2 sin ( x + ) + 1 has:


1

a 0 solutions

10

11

C 2 solutions

e 4 solutions

[,

] R, f (x) = sin (2x) + cos (2x) has the following x-intercepts:


5 3 7
3
3
,
, ,
,
,
a
B
C
4
4 4 4
2 4
8 8
5 3 7

,
, ,
,
d
e
8
8 8 8
4 4
3
The solution of the equation 4 sin ( x ) = 2 3 between and
is:
2

4
7
2
a
B
C
d
e
6
3
3
3
3
The domain and range of the function

f : [0, ] R, f ( x ) = 4 sin 3 x + 2 is:

, 2 ] [ 4, 4]
a [0, ], R
B [0, ], [2, 6]
C R, R
d [
e [0, ], [2, 4]
3
Using addition of ordinates for the graph of the difference function y = 2 cos (x) 3 sin (x), the value of y

at x = is:
3
1
1+ 3 3
2+3 3
a
B
C
2
2
3
1 3 3
23 3
d
e
2
2
x

The period of the graph of y = tan


is:
3

a
B
C 2
d 3
e 6
3
The graph of the function f : [1.5, 1.5] R, f (x) = a + b cos ( nx) is shown below. The values of a, b,
and n are respectively:

6 The function f :

B 1 solution

d 3 solutions

Max = 3.5

3
2
1
1.5

1.0

0.5

0
1

0.5

x
1.0
1.5
Min = 1.5

2
5

a 1, 2 , 3

304

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

1, 3 , 2

C 1, 5, 3

d 1, 3 , 3

1,

5
3

,2

12 If 0 c , the x-intercepts of the function f : [0, 2] R, f (x) = b sin (x c) are:

c, 2 c
B , 2
C c, c
+ c, 2 c
e c, + c
13 The position of a particle from a fixed point O is given by the equation x = 2 2 sin ( t). If 0 t 2,
the particle is at the point O when t equals:
a 0
B 2
C 0.5
e 6
e 6
a
d

1 At the South Pole in midsummer on the planet Marus, the red sun of its solar system does not set.

It dips towards the horizon until its lower rim just touches it, then rises until its lowest point is at an
angle of D(t) to the horizontal before sinking again. It continues in this pattern. The angle above the
horizontal can be modelled by the following relation:
D(t) = a b sin n(t + c) where t is the time in hours after midnight and a, b, c and n are positive
constants.
The graph of D(t) for 24 hours is shown on the axes in the figure below.

ex ten d ed
r eS p o n S e

D(t)
10
8
6
4
2
0

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

a State the values of a, b, c and n and hence write the rule for D(t).
b What would be the angle above the horizon at 6.00 am and at 9.00 pm? Give an exact answer

where possible, otherwise give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.


c Use your graph to find at what times the angle to the horizontal is 8. When does the rim of the sun

reach this angle again?


d By using an appropriate equation, check your answer and account for any difference in your two

solutions.
e If a spot on the surface of the sun is 5 above the horizon at midnight, what would be the relation

G(t) that models its path?


2 Nathan and Rachel are competing in the National Ballroom Dancing Championships. The judges are

evenly spaced around the circular dance floor, standing just outside the edge. As Nathan and Rachel
waltz around the circular floor, their distance (in metres) from judge Maya can be described by the
function

d = 10.5 9 cos t , where t is time (in seconds) from the beginning of the dance.
30
a How far is the couple from judge Maya when they start dancing?
b What is the couples maximum distance from the judge?
c Assuming that, while dancing, Rachel and Nathan trace a perfect circle, what is its diameter?
d How long does it take for the couple to complete one full circle around the dance floor?
e What is the couples average speed (in m/s)? Give your answer i in exact form and ii correct
to 2decimal places.
t
f If the duration of the waltz is 2.5 minutes, draw the graph of d = 10.5 9 cos
over the
30
domain, showing the full length of this dance.
g Judge Joseph is positioned further down the dance floor, so that Nathan and Rachel are closest to
him 6seconds after the waltz begins. Write the equation describing the couples distance from
judge Joseph at any time, t, from the beginning of the dance.
h How far is the couple from judge Joseph when they finish the waltz?

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

diGital doC
doc-9207
Test Yourself
Chapter 6

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

305

ICT activities
Chapter opener
diGital doC
10 Quick Questions doc-9200: Warm up with ten quick questions on
circular functions. (page 259)

6a

revision of radians and the unit circle

diGital doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9201: Investigate the unit circle. (page 262)
SkillSHEET 6.1 doc-9254: Practise changing degrees to radians.
(page 262)
SkillSHEET 6.2 doc-9255: Practise working with tangent ratios.
(page 263)

6B

Symmetry and exact values

tUtorialS
We3 eles-1182: Watch a worked example on exact values using
degrees and radians. (page 264)
We5 eles-1183: Watch a worked example on determining
trigonometric ratios. (page 265)
We8 eles-1184: Watch a worked example on complementary
angle formulas. (page 268)
diGital doCS
SkillSHEET 6.3 doc-9256: Practise rationalising the denominator.
(page 268)
Spreadsheet doc-9201: Investigate the unit circle. (page 268)
SkillSHEET 6.4 doc-9257: Practise problem solving using
trigonometry. (page 270)

6C

trigonometric equations

tUtorial
We13 eles-1215: Watch a worked example on determining the
general solution to a trigonometric equation. (page 273)
diGital doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9202: Practise solving trigonometric equations.
(page 275)
WorkSHEET 6.1 doc-9203: Use exact values, solve trigonometric
equations and application questions. (page 276)

6d

trigonometric graphs

diGital doCS
SkillSHEET 6.5 doc-9258: Practise identifying the period and
amplitude of sine and cosine graphs. (page 280)
Spreadsheet doc-9204: Investigate sine graphs. (page 280)
Spreadsheet doc-9205: Investigate cosine graphs. (page 280)

306

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

6e

Graphs of the tangent function

tUtorial
We 21 eles-1216: Watch a worked example on calculating the
period of trigonometric functions. (page 284)

6F

Finding equations of trigonometric graphs

interaCtiVitY int-0251
Finding equations of trigonometric graphs: Use the interactivity to
consolidate your understanding of trigonometric graphs.
(page 286)
diGital doCS
Spreadsheet doc-9204: Investigate sine graphs. (page 288)
Spreadsheet doc-9205: Investigate cosine graphs. (page 288)
WorkSHEET 6.2 doc-9206: Sketch trigonometric graphs over given
domains, including composite and absolute value graphs, and
determine the equations of trigonometric graphs. (page 289)

6G

trigonometric modelling

eleSSon eles-0092
Trigonometric modelling: Learn how trigonometry can be used to
model sinusoidal patterns. (page 289)
diGital doC
Spreadsheet doc-9165: Investigate graphs of functions.
(page 290)

6h

Further graphs

tUtorial
We30 eles-1217: Watch how to sketch a composite function using
a CAS calculator. (page 295)
diGital doC
SkillSHEET 6.6 doc-9259: Practise using addition of ordinates to
sketch graphs. (page 297)

Chapter review
diGital doC
Test Yourself doc-9207: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 305)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

Answers CHAPTER 6
CirCUlar (triGonometriC)
FUnCtionS
exercise 6a

unit circle
1 a 171.89
c 275.02
e 63
g 150

revision of radians and the

286.48
146.68
54
225
c

b
12

36

c
e
g
i
3 a
c
e
g
i
k
4 a
c
e
g
i
k
5 a
c
e
g
6 a
b
8

6 a

3
1 a
2

3
2
2
g
2
3
j
2

3
m
2
7 2

8 a

2
2

2
g
2
3
j
2
2
2
1
d
2
1
g
2
2
j
2

2 a

2
1
h
2
k

2
2

1
2
1
k
2

3
2
2
2

3
3

3
3
3

i 1
l

3
3

2 a
c
e
3 a
b
c
d
4 a
b

3
2

h
k

exercise 6C

2
2

3
2

3
2
2
2
3
2

1
+
2

10 a 0.7
d 0.3
g 0.7
j 0.3
11 C
12 D
13 a 10 cm/s
14 a 0.9 m

1 a

2
2
1
g
2
1
j
2

i 1
l

3
2

Symmetry and exact values

2
3
b
c
2
3

11 13.5 C, 15.8 C

exercise 6B

9 D

10 B

i 2.4

8 3

f 2.4

c 2 ,

3
e
2
h 0.5

3
3
,
2
3

5 a

7 15
3

91
d
10
g 0.3

c 2.4

c 212.90, 327.10
d 78.83, 281.17

3
2
2
2

1
or
2

2
,1
2

3 1
, 2
2
c

f1
i

3
3

o 1

c 1

3
3

f
i

10

l 1

1 1
1
= + =1
2 2
2
b 0.3
c 2.5
e 0.7
f 2.5
i 2.5
h 0.3
k 0.7
l 2.5
b 11 cm/s

c 12 cm/s

b 0.3 m

c 0.7 m

11
12
13

trigonometric equations

3
5 7
7
,
b
,
c ,
2 2
4 4
4 4
3
5 7
e
,
2
6 6
90
b 60, 300
60, 120
d 180
45, 135
2.2904, 3.9928, 8.5736, 10.2760
1.1442, 1.9973, 7.4274, 8.2805
1.0701, 5.2130, 7.3533, 11.4962
3.5217, 5.9031, 9.8049, 12.1863
15.58, 164.42
137.91, 222.09

5
3
,
b ,
6 6
2 2
7
4 5
c
,
d ,
4 4
3 3
a 0, 180, 360
b 105, 165, 285, 345
c 45, 75, 165, 195, 285, 315
d 20, 40, 140, 160, 260, 280
e 62.40, 117.60, 182.40, 237.60,
302.40, 357.60
f 39.44, 140.56, 219.44, 320.56
g 26.39, 333.61
h 101.22, 258.78

a
b 0, 2
2
c 2.7184
d 0.9772
5 13 17 25 29
e
, ,
,
,
,
18 18 18 18 18 18
7 9 15 17 23
f
,
,
,
,
,
12 12 12 12 12 12
5 7 17 19
g
,
,
,
12 12 12 12
h 1.2579, 5.0253
3
7
a
b
2
2
16
11
c
d
3
3
e 19.7766
f 6.9266
a The particle is 3 metres from O.
b It takes the particle 1.99 seconds to
reach O for the first time.
11 11
,
, ,
a x=
6 6 6 6
11 5 7
b x=
,
, ,
6
6 6 6
7 5 3
,
, ,
c x=
4
4 4 4
11 7 5
x=
,
, ,
12
12 12 12
7 5 5 7
x=
,
,
, ,
,
9
9
9 9 9 9
7
a x= ,
6 6
5 9 13
, ,
b x= ,
8 8 8 8
5 11 17 25 29 35
c x=
,
,
,
,
,
18 18 18 18 18 18
x = 6.1033, 5.2360, 2.0944,1.5116,
0.1799, 1.0472, 4.1888, 4.7716

5 a

13
2
d

8
3
c
1.12
f 1.38c
4.10c
h 4.54c
5.41c
j 6.11c
0.389
b 0.717
0.170
d 0.129
0.246
f 0.916
0.966
h 0.927
0.940
j 0.996
11.430
l 1.732
0
b 0
1
d 1
Undefined
f Undefined
1
h 0
1
j 1
Undefined
l 0
1
b 1
1
d 1
1
f 1
2
h 5
sin( 240), sin (150), sin (35),
sin (120), sin (70)
cos (3.34), cos (1.5), cos (5.3),
cos (0.2), cos (6.3)
c

3
91
k
l 2.4
2
10

m 0.3
n 0.5
o 2.4
2
2
7 7
49 576 625
24
4
=1
, + =
=
+
25
24 24
625 625 625

b
d
f
h

2 a

b 0.5

3 a 0.3

14

exercise 6d

1 a 2, 1
d 2 ,

1
3

g 4, 3
j

2
,4
3

trigonometric graphs
b 2, 1

2
e
,2
3
h 6, 2

c 2, 4
f , 3
i , 1

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

307

2 a

h 3, 6, 3 to 3

2
2 2
, 2,
to
3
3 3

y
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8

e 1,

y
3
2
1

0
1
2
3

y
0.5
2 3 4 5 6

2
3 4, 3 , 4 to 4

0
2
4
2

4 2, ,

3

2

to 2
g 3,

y
2

c 3, , 3 to 3
y
3
2
1

0

2 1
2

b
2

c
4

d
3

to the left, up 3

5 a

2
d 2,
, 2 to 2
3
y
2
1
0
1

2 1 1
e 12
, 2 to 2

0
0.2
0.4
0.6

to the left, down 1

43

2 x

43

g 4, 4, 4 to 4

2
0
2
4

308

2 x

3
2
1
3

2 x

0
1
2
3
4

4 x

0 2 3 4 5 6 x
1
2
3

7 a 2, 1

2 x

y
1.5
1
0.5
0.5
1
1.5

0
3
5
3
7 2
4 2 4
4 2 4

b 2, 1

y
5
4
3
2
1

j 2, 6, 3 to 1
1

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

0.5

d 2, 2, 1 to 5

y
4

1
2
3
4
5

c 2, 2, 4 to 0

y
0

6
4

0
0.5
1
1.5
2

f 13 , , 13 to 1

i 3, 4, 1 to 7

b 1, 2, 2 to 0

2
, 5 to 1
3

6 a 1, 2, 0 to 2

to the right, down 2

0
1

y
0.6
0.4
0.2

2 x

h 2 , , 2.5 to 3.5

to the right, up 1

y
2

0
1
2
3

y
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0.5

f 1, , 0 to 2

4
2

y
4

0
2

0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5

b 4, 2, 4 to 4

2
, 2 to 0
3

2 x

y
1.5
1
0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5

8 a 4, , 4 to 4

c 2, 3
y
3
2
1

0
1
2
3

4
5
7
4
9
511

2
6 3 2 6 6
6 3 6 3 6

y
3
2
1
0

y
2

y = 2 sin 2 ( + )
2

3
2

0
1
2
3

0.5
1
1.5

2 x

1 0
1.5
2
2.5

1
2
3

h , 2
y
1

0 3 5 3 7 2

4 2 4
4 2 4

11
12
13
14

0
1
2

2 x

y
1

4
2

2 x

0
2
4

y
3
2
1

b Period =

0 3
5
3
7 2 x
1 4 2
4
4 2 4
2
3

2
f
, 1, 1 to 1
3

c Period =

d Period =

g 2, 4, 3 to 5

2.5
2
1.5
1

e Period = 4

4
2
0
2

2 x

y
2
1
0
1
2

1 0
1.5
2
2.5

y
2
1
0
1
2

0
3
5
3
7 2
4 2 4
4 2 4

y
2
1
0
1
2

j 4, 1

2 x

exercise 6e Graphs of the tangent


function
1 a Period =
y

e , 3, 3 to 3

y = sin (x + ) + 1
3
y = 2 cos 3 (x ) + 1
4
2
y = 3 sin (x
)2
3
a 1
b 12
c 3 metres
d 1 metre
e 3.00 am and 3.00 pm
f 9.00 am and 9.00 pm
x
g y = sin
6 + 2

i 2, 2

4
5 2 x

3 3

y
3
2
1

2

3 3

j 2, 1, 1 to 3

b 2, 1, 1 to 1

2 x

2 x

y
1.5
1
0.5

2 1 1
, , to 1 12
3 2 2

0
0.5
0

1.5
1
0.5

y
1.5
1
0.5

y
3
2
1

2.5
2
1.5
1

2
1
l 3 3 , 4 3

d 2, 3, 3 to 3

2
,1
3

1
2
3

y
2
1

3
2
1

1
2
3
4

c 2, 2, 2 to 2

0
1
2
3
4

f 5,

k 22, 1 2

0
0.5
1
1.5

2
,3
3

d 1, 6, 1 to 1

10 a 2, 1, 1 to 1

h , 2, 4 to 0


, 7 to 3
2
1, 2, 1 to 1
h 1, 2, 1 to 1
1, 1
b 1, 1
c 3, 3
2, 2
e 2, 2
f 3, 3
5, 3
h 1, 3
i 1, 5

j 5, 3

e , 2

9 a
d
g

d 2, 2

1
2
3

b 3, 4, 3 to 3

2
c 2,
, 2 to 2
3

e 3, , 2 to 4

y
2
1
0
1
2

4 x

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

309

f Period = 3

h i Period = 3
ii Dilated by factor of 12 from the x-axis

y
2
1
0
1
2

g Period = 2

h Period =

0
1
2
3

2 x

y
5

and by factor of 3 from the y-axis;


reflected in the x-axis; translated
6 units up

i i Period =
4
ii Dilated by factor of 14 from the y-axis;

units to the right and


translated
12
1
units
down
3
j i Period =
ii Dilated by factor of 2 from the x-axis;

translated units to the left and


3
5 units up
y
3 a Period =

2 x

2
1

b Period =

1
3

13

ii
b i
ii

c i
ii

d i
ii

e i
ii

f i
ii

g i
ii

310

j Period = 2

2 x

c Period =

Period =
3
Dilated by factor of 2 from the x-axis
and by factor of 13 from the y-axis

Period =
4
Dilated by factor of 14 from the y-axis;
reflected in the x-axis; translated 1 unit
up

Period =
2
Dilated by factor of 3 from the x-axis
and by factor of 12 from the y-axis;
translated 4 units down
Period = 2
Dilated by factor of 2 from the y-axis;
reflected in the x-axis; translated
2 units down
Period =
Dilated by factor of 5 from the x-axis;
reflected in the x-axis; translated

units to the left


2

Period =
2
Dilated by factor of 12 from the y-axis;

translated units to the right


4

Period =
3
Dilated by factor of 14 from the x-axis
and by factor of 13 from the y-axis;

translated units to the left


6

d Period =

3
4

3
4

x =

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

y
4
3
2
1

trigonometric modelling
b 12 hours

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 t

e 1.00 pm and 5.00 pm, 1.00 am and

5.00 am

h Period =

2.78 x

0
1

8
6
4
2

g Period = 2

1 a 8.5 m, 3.00 pm
c 3.5 m
d d(t)

y
3
2
1

, y = 2 sin ( x)
6
6
a 2, 4, y = 2 cos (4x)

b 2, , y = 2 cos ( x)
3
3
a 12 , 1, 1, y = 12 sin (x) + 1

b 3, , 2, y = 3 sin ( x) 2
4
4

a 4, 2, , y = 4 cos 2(x )
2
2

b 5, 2, , y = 5 cos 2(x )
4
4

a 2, 1,
, 1, y = 2 sin (x + ) 1
3
3

b 3, 1,
, 2, y = 3 sin (x + ) + 2
2
2

a 1, , 3, y = 3 cos ( x)
6
6

b 1, , 2, y = 2 cos ( x)
4
4
D
8 E

exercise 6G

f Period = 6

0
1
2

19

24

b 2,

y
2
1

e Period = 4

13

24

exercise 6F Finding equations of


trigonometric graphs

y
2
1
0
1
2

7
24

0
1
2
3

4
0

2 a i

y
3
2
1
0
1 24
2
3

y
2
1
0
1
2
3

y
1

1 a 3, 2, y = 3 sin (2x)

0
1
2

y
2
1
0
1
2

j Period = 2

y
3
2
1

i Period =

i Period =

2.21 x
x =

0
5 3
7 x
1 8 4 3
8 2
8 4
8
2
3
4

2 a 10 m, 4 m
b d
10
7
4

6 12 18 24 30 36 t

c 3.00 am

d 1.00 am to 5.00 am Saturday, 1.00 pm to

e
3 a
b
c
4 a
b

5.00 pm Saturday, 1.00 am to 5.00 am


Sunday morning
3.00 am to 5.00 am Sunday
18 C, 14.5 C
25 C, December
21.5 C
d 8 months
0.9, , 0.9, h = 0.9 sin ( t) + 0.9
h
2
1.5
1
0.5
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 t
0.5

c 1.3 seconds
5 a 2, 1
6 a
b
c
e
g
h

b 8 m, 8
2
18, 16,
3
2
h(t) = 18 16 cos ( t)
3
5, 34 m
d 2m
3 minutes
f 26 m
2

h(t) = 18 16 cos
(t + 1)
3

y
0

exercise 6h

Further graphs

0
0.5
1
1.5

2 x

1.5
1
0.5
0.5
1
1.5

10
2
3
4
5

0
2

3 2 x

3 a

3
2

2 x

3
2

2 x

3

2

0
1

2 x

y
2
1

y
2
1
0

3 2 x
2

3 2 x

y
1

y
2

0
1
2
3
4
5
y
0
2
4
6
8
10
12

3
2

3
2

3 2 x
2

3
2

2 x

y
0
5
15
20
25
30
35

y
3
2
1
0
1

y
10
8
6
4
2
0

3
2

x
2
2 x

3
2

2 x

y
6
4
2
0

2 x

0
2 x

y
1

y
3
2
1

1
2

x
2

3
2

2
1

y
1.5
1
0.5

2 x

10

1
2

2 a

g 10 C, 20 C, 30 C, 20 C
h 13C

2 x

2
1

f T = 20 10 cos
(t 3) or
12

T = 20 10 cos (t + 21)
12

(t 15)
or T = 20 + 10 cos
12

or T = 20 + 10 cos
(t + 9)
12

0
1
2
2

g
0

1
2

7 a 10
b 24
c 20
d 20
e 3.00 am, 3.00 pm

y
2
1

1
2
e
y
2
1

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 x

0
1
2

y
30
25
20
15
10
5

1 a

y
2
1

3
2

2 x

3
2

2 x

y
3
2
1
0

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

311

e Domain: R

y
5
4
3
2
1
4

0
1

(2, 0)

2 x

3
2

y
(5.57, 7.07)
8
6
4 (.61, 2.61)
(2.67, 1.08)
2

2 x

0
2
4
6

3
2

3
2

3
2

(0, 1)

2 x

3
2

0
2 1
2
(3.5, 2.3)

2 x

3
2

2 x

6 a

(1, 0)
0 (0.61, 0.18) x

7 a ii f (g(x)) = cos (loge (x)); domain

f (g(x)) = R+

iii

0
(113 , 1.09)

3
2

2 x

iii

0
1
2
3
4
5

312

2 x

(1, 2.7)

c ii f (g(x)) = 2 sin (

{0}

3
2

(3.29, 3.59)

d ii f (g(x)) =

f (g(x)) = R

(0.65, 1.28)

x=0

iii

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

0
1
2

(5.6, 2)

3
2

2 x

(4.34, 2)

2cos( x ) + 2 ; domain
y
2
1

2 x
(1, 0)
0 (1, 0)
x
(0.58, 0.38) (0.58, 0.38)

x2
); domain
4

y
2 (2.51, 2)
1

iii

0 (1, 0)

R+

2 x

3
2

(5.55, 1)

f (g(x)) = R

(4.84, 4.69)

d Domain:
y
3
2
1

3
2

(0, 2)

y
2 (0.62, 1)
1
0
1
2

(2, 0) x

2 x

3
2

= R+ {0}

c Domain: R+
(2.13, 1.92)

b ii f (g(x)) = sin (2 x); domain f (g(x))

y (1, 1)
1
0
1

(2, 0)

(3.52, 2.34)

0
1
2
3
4
5

(1, 0) x

(3.32, 1.8)

2 3
2

y
5
4
3
2 (2.03, 0.91)
1

y
3
2
1

1
(0.5, 0.5)

2 x

b Domain: R

y
1 (1.27, .51)

(4.91, 2.41)

h Domain: R (, 2]

(4.05, 3.98)

0
1
2

y
3
2 (2.03, 0.91)
1

y
(2, 3.14)
3
2 (.18, 1.02)
1

2 x

5 a Domain: R

0
1

g Domain: R

c y
3
2
1

0
1
2

3
2

f Domain: R

y
3
2
1

4 2 4

y
3
2
1
0

y
(1.7, 2.7)

0
2
4

0 3 5 3 7 2 x
4 2

4 a

y
4
2

0
1

3
2

2 x

e ii f (g(x)) = (sin (x))2; domain f (g(x)) = R


iii

y
2
1

1 a T(m)

0
1

3
2

(1, 0) 0

y
2
1

g ii f (g(x)) = cos (

(0, 1)

c i Both f (g(x)) and g( f (x)) are

defined.

0
1

(1, 0)

3
2

2 x

x2
); domain f (g(x)) = R
8

Domain is R
Range is ( , 1)

iii

3
2

(5.01, 1)

f(g(x))

g( f (x)) = ex 2
Domain is R
Range is (0, )

ii f (g(x)) = ex 2

Domain is R
Range is (2, )

iii

d
2
5
g
6
2
j
3

Domain is [0, ), Range is [1, 1]

iii y

(0, 1)
y = 2

g(f(x))

e i Both f (g(x)) and g( f (x)) are

defined.
ii f (g(x)) = ecos (x)
Domain is R
1
Range is [ , e]
e

g( f (x)) = cos
Domain is R
Range is [

1,

( , 1 )
e
2

ii f (g(x)) = x 2 1

g( f(x)) = x 2 1
Domain is R
Range is [1, )

Domain is R
Range is [0, )
y
f(g(x))

0
1

(0, 1)
(1, 0) 0

(1, 0)

0
1

(4.8, 1)

g(f(x))

5 10 15 20

2
2

2
2

e 0

2
2

3
3
3
f
2

3
3

2
2

b 0.85
d 0.85

y
5
4

Domain is (0, ), Range is [1, 1]


y

5
3
7
k
6

x-axis, and translated units to the right


4
and 2 units up.
b Amplitude = 3, period = 2

f i Only g( f (x)) is defined.

iii

e 2

3 a 0.85
c 0.85

ii g( f (x)) = sin (loge (x))

4
3
f
2
5
i
4
7
l
4

6 a y = sin (x) is dilated 3 units from the

y
g(f(x))

1]

j 1

(8n + 1) (8n 1)
,
4
4
7 13 19
(6n + 1)
5
,
,
, x =, ,
12 12 12 12
12

b i Both f (g(x)) and g( f (x)) are defined.

60 t

50

(0, e) (2 , e)
f(g(x))
( , 1 )
e
x
0
2

(ex)

iii

(0, 0.14)
0

2 a

(2.47, 1) g(f(x))
( 2, 0)
0

(0.69, 0)

40

d December 2009
b $20
d April 2008

1 a

d i Only g( f (x)) is defined.


ii g( f (x)) = sin ( x )

f(g(x))

30

Short anSWer

8 a i Both f (g(x)) and g( f (x)) are defined.

20

Chapter reVieW

(0, 2.7)

2 x

3
2

10

c 18 964
3 a 0.1%
c $20.12

g(f(x))

c December 2008

25000
20000
15000
10000
5000

iii y
2
1
(2.04, 1)

b 20.9 C
2 a 100
b
M

y=1

2 x

domain f (g(x)) = R+ {0}

iii

h ii f (g(x)) = 2 sin ( x 3) + 1;

0
1

(0, 0) x

0
1

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 m

g( f (x)) = e(1 x
Domain is R
Range is (0, e)

ii f (g(x)) = 1 e2x

y
2
1

iii

T(m) = 12 + 0.2m + 5 cos (6 m)

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6

2 x

f ii f (g(x)) = 2cos (2x); domain f (g(x)) = R


iii

exercise 6i trigonometric functions with


an increasing trend

g(f(x))

3
2
1
0
1

3
2

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

313

y
4

extended reSponSe

11

12

0
2

2
x
8 a = 3, n = 12 , b = 1; y = 3 sin 1
2
y

12

Period =

9 a

0
2

2
18

24

and 2 pm.

314

2 a 1.5 m
b 19.5 m
c 18 m

y = sin x

d 60 s

3
m/s
10
ii 0.94 m/s

e i
y = x sin x

13 a Teacher to check. Show that range

g domain f .
b f (g(x)) = sin (x2 + 2)
c Domain f(g(x)) = R, range f(g(x)) = [1, 1]

mUltiple ChoiCe

2
1
0

y=x

4
12

b 10 am, 2 pm, 10 pm, 2 am


c Water sports may run between 10 am
10

y
6

and 3.32 pm or 15.54 hours after


midnight.
Differences occur due to inaccuracy of
graphical methods.

e D(t) = 10 5 sin (t + 6)
12

y = sin (x)

day.

d 8.27 am or 8.46 hours after midnight

3
2

1 E

2A

3 D

4 C

5 B

6 D

7C

8 B

9 E

10 D

11 A

12 E

13 C

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

, D(t) = 5 5 sin (t + 6)
12
12

b 5, 1.46
c 8.30 am and 3.30 pm. 8.30 am the next

y = sin (x) + 2x

6
0 3

4 2 4

1 a 5, 5, 6 and

y = 2x

10

f f (m)
19.5
10.5
1.5

0
1
2

30

60

90 120 150 t (sec)

g d = 10.5 9 cos (
(t 6))
30
h 17.78 m

Exam practice 2 CHAPTERS 16


1 Solve the equation log2 (2x 3) log2 (3) = 1 for x.
2 Solve the equation

32x + 3

33

1 mark

= 9 for x.

1 mark

3 The graph of the function f : [2,0] R where f (x) = ex is reflected in the y-axis, translated

S ho rt
a n S W er
30 minutes

2 units to the left then translated 3 units up. (Note the change to the domain.)
a Specify the rule of the transformed graph.
b Determine its exact range.

2 marks

4 The diagram at right shows the graph of y = sin (x)

and a second graph formed by transforming sin (x)


by carrying out dilation(s) followed by
translation(s).
a Write down the transformations (type,
direction and quantity) necessary to create the
second graph.
b Write down the equation of the second graph.

0 /6

y = sin (x)

4 marks

5 Find the exact solutions of the equation sin (3x) cos (3x) = 0 for 0 x .

2 marks

6 Specify the range of the function:

f :[

) R, f ( x ) = 2 tan(2 x ) + 1.
4

2 marks

7 Solve the equation e2x ex = 2 exactly for x.

2 marks

1,

8 For f : [
3] R, where f (x) = x sin (x):
a sketch f
b determine the minimum value of f (x)
c estimate the maximum value of f (x) to 1 decimal place.
1 If y = 2abx 1 + 5, then x is equal to:

y
loga ( 5) + 1
2
a
b
d

y5
+b
2b

y5
a 2

+1

b
loga (

y5
) +1
2
b

2 The solution set of the equation e2x 3ex = 4 over R is:


a {1, 4}
d {loge (1), loge (4)}

B {4}
e {loge (1), loge (4)}

4 marks

m U ltip l e
C ho iC e

y5
+1
2
C
b

12 minutes

each question is worth


one mark.

C {loge (4)}

3 The graph of the function f :[2, 5] R, f (x) = loge (x) is reflected in the y-axis, translated 2 units to the

left then translated 3 units up. The domain of the new graph is:
B [4, 1]
e not defined

a [7, 1]
d [loge (7), loge ( 4)]

C [7, 4]

4 The function f : [1, ) R, where f (x) = x2 + 1 has as its inverse function:

a f 1: R R, where f 1( x ) = x 1

B f 1: [2, ] R, where f 1( x ) =

1
x2 + 1
1
1

e f 1: [ , ) R, where f 1( x ) =
2
x2 + 1

d f 1: R+ {0} R, where f ( x ) =

C f 1: [1, ] R, where f 1 ( x ) =

x 1
x 1

5 The equation a sin (3 ) b = 0 has = 2 as one solution. Which of the following could also be a solution?
a 3 + 6

2
+2
d
3

+2
2
+6
e
3
B

C 2

Exam practice 2

315

6 The graph shown could be the graph of:


y
3a

0
a

a 2a cos

2
B 2a cos

T + a
2

d 2a sin(

( )) + a
T
2

2 + 1)
T

+ a
T
T ( ) + 1)
e a (sin
2
2

C a (cos

7 The graph of y = 3 cos (2x) 1 is shown below. If a and b are two adjacent x-intercepts, b a is equal to:
y

20 minutes

C 3a

1 An extensive study has been made of the population of

316

2a

500
silver-banded lorikeets in an area proposed for a wind farm.
400
The variation in estimated numbers over a number of months is
300
recorded in the graph below. It is suggested that the relationship
200
could be modelled by a sine function of the form
100
P(t) = a sin (b(t + c)) + d, where P is the bird population and
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
t is the time in months since estimates commenced.
Months
a What is the amplitude of the sine model (to the nearest
10 birds)?
b What is the period (to the nearest month)?
c What is the mean population (to the nearest 10 birds)?
d After how many months is the population a minimum?
e Determine the values of a, b, c and d in the model P(t) = a sin b(t + c) + d.
f What was the initial bird population when the observations commenced?
g A second researcher conducts observations over a 10-year period at the same time each
year and records the following estimates for the population.

Time (months)
0
60
120

diGital doC
doc-1609
Solutions
exam practice 2

d 2 a

Bird population

e xt ended
r e S p onS e

9 x
1 mark
1 mark
1 mark
1 mark

4 marks
1 mark

Population
500
370
274

She believes that the population can be modelled by an exponential function of the

form Q(t) = Ae kt, where t is the time in months since the first estimate was calculated.
Determine the values of A and k.
h Explain how both researchers results are consistent with the model:
P( x )Q( x )
Population =
.
500

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2 marks

3 marks

Chapter 7

Differentiation
DIGItaL DOC
doc-9208
10 Quick Questions

Chapter CONteNtS
7a
7B
7C
7D
7e
7F
7G
7h
7I
7J

Review gradient and rates of change


Limits and differentiation from first principles
The derivative of xn
The chain rule
The derivative of ex
The derivative of loge (x)
The derivatives of sin (x), cos (x) and tan (x)
The product rule
The quotient rule
Mixed problems on differentiation

review gradient and rates


of change
7a

The gradient is a measure of how one quantity changes with respect to another quantity; in other words,
the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another quantity. The gradient (or slope) is the measure
of how the vertical distance (the rise) changes with respect to the horizontal distance (the run). Speed is
the measure of how distance travelled changes with respect to the time taken; another way of saying this
is that speed is the rate of change of distance with respect to time.
y

Constant rates

(1, 15)

When the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another quantity does not
change, the rate is constant. If the rate of pay for babysitting is fixed at $15 an hour,
this is a constant rate. This means that a babysitter would be paid $15 for 1 hour
and $150 for 10 hours. A constant rate can be represented graphically by a straight
line.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

(0, 0) x

average rates
An average rate of change is the rate of change over a period of time. A car travelling at 60 km/h is
probably not actually registering that speed at every moment of the distance travelled; more likely,
its speed varies above and below 60 km/h. The average rate of change between two points can be
represented by the gradient of a straight line joining the two points.
y

(0, 0)

(1, 0) x
(1_2, 33_4)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

317

Instantaneous rates

(2, 3)

If the police want to find how fast a car is travelling, they measure the
speed at a particular instant. This is known as instantaneous rate of change.
(1, 0) (1, 0)
Graphically, thisis found by drawing a tangent to the curve at a particular
x
0
(3, 0)
point and finding the gradient of the tangent. If a section of the graph shows
the function is increasing, the gradient of the tangent is positive, and if a
(0.15, 3.08)
section of the graph shows the function is decreasing, the gradient of the
tangent is negative.
For example, for the curve y = (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 3), the gradient is positive when x<2 and when
x > 0.15; the gradient is negative when 2 < x < 0.15; and the gradient is zero when x = 2 and x = 0.15.

Graphing the gradient function from the graph


of a function
Differentiation is the process of calculating the gradient
y
f(x)
function from a given function. It can be used to find the
There is a break in the
gradient of a curve at a particular point and to find the
graph at x = 1(discontinuous),
maximum and minimum values of a function.
so gradient does not exist
Derivatives can be found at a given point if:
at x = 1. That is, gradient
exists for R\{1}.
1. the function is continuous at that point
x
0
2. the function is smooth at that point.
1
A function is continuous if there are no breaks,
jumps or asymptotes on its graph. The gradient
does not exist where the function is not continuous. An
example is shown at right.
A function is smooth if there are no sharp points on its graph.
The gradient does not exist where the function is not smooth. An example is shown below.
y
f (x) is not smooth at x = 2
so gradient does not exist
at x = 2. That is, gradient
exists for R\{2}.
0

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

2
f(x)

The gradient of a function exists wherever the function is smooth and continuous. That is, the gradient
of a function exists at a point providing only one tangent can be drawn at that point. An example is
shown below.
y

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

f(x)

See more
Watch
a video about
differentiable
functions.

The gradient of f(x)


exists for x R as
f(x) is smooth and
continuous.
x

A function is not differentiable where there is a gap, hole or asymptote, a sharp corner or an end point.

Gradient function of straight lines


In general, for straight lines in the form f (x) = mx + c (or y = mx + c), the rule for the gradient is
f (x) = m, that is, a horizontal straight line through y = m.
318

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 1

For the straight line function shown, sketch the graph


of its gradient function.

f(x)

2
thINK

WrIte/DraW

Find the gradient of f (x) using m =

Sketch the graph of y =


gradient.

1
2

rise
.
run

m=

1
2

to represent the

y
1
2

f'(x)
x

Note: The domain of f (x) is R as f (x) is smooth and continuous.

Gradient function of quadratic functions


The gradient function of a polynomial function is also a polynomial function but the degree is reduced
by 1. That is, the gradient function of f (x) = ax2 + bx + c is of the form y = mx + c. So the gradient of a
quadratic function is a linear function.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 2

Sketch the graph of the gradient function for the quadratic


function shown and state its domain.

0
thINK

Find when f (x) = 0.

f (x) = 0 when x = 1.

Find when f (x) > 0.

f (x) > 0 when x > 1.

Find when f (x) < 0.

f (x) < 0 when x < 1.

Sketch f (x).

Find where f (x) is smooth and continuous and


hence find the domain of f (x).

WrIte/DraW

f(x)

f'(x)

The domain is R.

Chapter 7 Differentiation

319

Gradient function of cubic functions


The gradient function of a cubic is a quadratic function.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 3

For the cubic function shown, sketch the gradient function and state its domain.
tUtOrIaL
eles-1175
Worked example 3

y
f(x)

thINK

WrIte/DraW

Find when f (x) = 0.

f (x) = 0 when x = 3 and x = 1.

Find when f (x) > 0.

f (x) > 0 when x < 3 and x > 1.

Find when f (x) < 0.

f (x) < 0 when 3 < x < 1.

Sketch the graph of the gradient function.

Find the domain by determining where f (x) is


smooth and continuous.

f'(x)

The domain is R.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 4

For the function f (x) shown, state the domain of the gradient function f (x).
y

1 0 2

x
f(x)

thINK

The function is smooth and continuous everywhere


except at x = 1 (discontinuous) and x = 2 (not
smooth).

320

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WrIte

The domain = R \{1, 2}.

review gradient and rates of change

exercise 7a

1 We1 For each straight line function shown below, sketch the graph of its gradient function.
y

f(x)
3

1
x

f(x)
2

0
1

DIGItaL DOC
doc-9260
SkillSHEET 7.1
Gradient
positive, negative and
zero

f(x)

y
0

f(x)

y
f(x)

DIGItaL DOC
doc-9261
SkillSHEET 7.2
Gradient function

3
x

0
5

2 MC a The gradient of the line in the graph below is:


a 1
D

B 2

1
2

C 0

y
f(x)
2

0 1

b The graph of the gradient function in the graph above is represented by which of the diagrams

below?
a

f'(x)

f'(x)

y
1
2

0 1

f'(x)

x
0

y
x

f'(x)

f'(x)
0

Chapter 7 Differentiation

321

3 We2

Sketch the graph of the gradient function for each quadratic function shown below.

g(x)

g(x)

g(x)

g(x)

0
1

g(x)

4 MC a The gradient of the function shown in the graph below is:


a always increasing
B always decreasing
C decreasing then increasing
D increasing then decreasing
e constant
y

f(x)
b The gradient function for the graph in question 4a is shown by which of the graphs shown below?
a

f'(x)

f'(x)
D

f'(x)

0
f'(x)
5 We3

For each cubic function f (x) graphed below, sketch the gradient function.

x
f(x)

322

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

f(x)

f'(x)

y
Gradient = 0

f(x)

f(x)

Gradient = 0

f (x)

f(x)

f (x)

y
Gradient = 0
2

6 MC a The figure at right has a positive gradient where:

a 1 < x < 2

B x < 1 only

f(x)

C x > 2 only

D x < 1 and x > 2

e x>0

b The figure above has a negative gradient where:


a x > 1
B x<2

C 1 < x < 2

D x < 1 and x > 2


e x<0

c The graph of the gradient function for the figure above is:
y
y
a
B
f '(x)

y
f '(x)

1 0

1 0

f '(x)

2x

1 0

f '(x)

f '(x)
1 0

1 0

Chapter 7 Differentiation

323

7 For each the functions graphed below, state the domain (where applicable) where the gradient:
i is equal to zero
ii is positive
iii is negative
iv does not exist.
a

y
f(x)
1

0
e

g(x)

1 0

f(x)
f

g(x) y
0

1
0

x
f(x)

f(x)

g(x)

Gradient = 0
x

2 0

f(x)

g(x)

x
Gradient = 0

4
g

y
5

1 0

0
y

4
2
2 0

4
f(x)

8 Sketch the gradient function for each function in question 7.


9 We 4 For each function f (x) graphed below and on the top of the opposite page, state the domain of

the gradient function f (x). (Do not sketch the graph of f (x).)
a

y
f(x)

f(x)
2
0

8 x

4
e

3
d

f(x)
f

f(x)

f(x)
1

f(x)

324

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

f(x)

f(x)

f(x)
2

f(x)
5

Limits and differentiation


from first principles
7B

The limit of a function, f(x), is the value that the function approaches as x approaches a given value.
If the function is continuous at the point in question then the limit exists and can be found by direct substitution.
y

f(x)

Continuous

Units: 3 & 4

1
0

eLeSSON
eles-0093
Limits and
differentiation
from first principles

For example, the limit of f (x) = 3x + 1 as x approaches 1 is denoted as:


lim (33 x + 1).
x 1

In this example f (x) is a continuous function at x = 1. (In fact, it is continuous for all values of x.)
Therefore, the limit is found by direct substitution, that is:

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

lim (33 x + 1)
1) = 33(1)) + 1 = 4.

x 1

If the function is discontinuous at the point in question, then the limit exists if the function is
approaching the same value from the left as it is from the right.
For example:
For example:
y

f(x)

Discontinuous
3

Discontinuous
at x = 2

f(x)
5
3

2 0
0

The limit exists at x = 2, as the function is


approaching 3 from the left and from the right.
Therefore:
lim f ( x ) = 3
x2

The limit does not exist at x = 2, as the function


is approaching 3 from the left and 5 from the right.
That is, if the left-hand limit is not equal to the
right-hand limit, then the limit does not exist.

Chapter 7 Differentiation

325

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 5

x2 + 5 x + 6
x 0
x+3

x)
a lim(( x 2 3 x

Evaluate the following limits.

b lim

x 5

thINK

WrIte

a x2 3x is continuous for all values of x.

a 1 Decide whether f (x) is continuous at x=5.

lim ( x 2 3 x)
x ) = 52 3(5)

If so, substitute x = 5 into f (x).


2

x 5

= 10

Evaluate.

b f(x) is continuous except at x = 3 (asymptote).

b 1 Decide whether f (x) is continuous at x=0.

x 2 + 5 x + 6 0 2 + 5(0
55(0)
(0)) + 6
=
x0
x+3
0+3

If so, substitute x = 0 into f (x).

tUtOrIaL
eles-1218
Worked example 5

lim

Evaluate.

6
3

=2
If direct substitution makes the denominator zero, the limit of a rational expression can be evaluated by
first simplifying the expressions and then using direct substitution.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 6

Evaluate lim

x 3

x2 + 5 x + 6
.
x+3

thINK

WrIte

x 2 + 5x + 6
( x + 3)( x + 2)
= lim
3
x

3
x+3
x+3

If the limit cant be found because the denominator


becomes zero, factorise the numerator.

Simplify by cancelling.

= lim ( x + 2), x 3

Substitute x = 3.

= 3 + 2

Evaluate.

= 1

lim

x 3

Note: f(x) does not exist for x = 3, but its limit as x 3 does exist.

Differentiation using first principles


Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

The gradient function is the rule for the instantaneous rate of change of a given function at any point. It
also gives the gradient of the tangent drawn at any point of the given function.
Consider the chord (straight line) PQ to the curve below.
f(x)
Q

y
f(x + h)

f(x + h) f(x)

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

f(x)

Do more
Interact with
first principles.

P
h
x

The gradient of PQ =

x+h

rise f ( x + h) f ( x )
=
run
h

As Q moves along the curve towards P, the value of h gets smaller and smaller. Or as Q gets as close
as possible to P, h 0, and PQ becomes a tangent at P. The gradient of the curve at a point P is the
gradient of the tangent at that point.
326

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

f ( x + h) f ( x )
, h 0.
h
Finding the gradient this way is known as differentiation from first principles.
Differentiating f (x) gives f (x) or f (x) is the derivative of f (x).
dy
dy
is the derivative of y with respect to x.
Differentiating y gives , or
dx
dx
That is, gradient at point P is f ( x ) = lim

h0

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 7

Find the gradient of the chord PQ drawn to the curve f (x) = x2 + 2 in the diagram.
y
Q [1 + h, f(1 + h)]

P [1, f(1)]
x

0
thINK

Find the gradient and simplify.


rise
Gradient =
.
run

WrIte

f ( x + h) f ( x )
,h0
h
f (1 + h)
h) f (1)
=
h
2
(1 + h)
h) + 2 (12 + 2)
=
h
3 + 2h + h 2 3
=
h
2
2h + h
=
h
h(2 + hh)
=
h
=2+h
The gradient is 2 + h.

Gradient =

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 8

Find the gradient of f (x) = x2 1 at the point where x = 2 by:


a sketching a graph and finding the gradient of the tangent at x = 2
b differentiating using first principles.
thINK

a 1 Sketch the graph of f (x) over a domain which


2

includes the given value of x.


Construct a tangent at the given point on the
curve. (It is difficult to be accurate.)

WrIte/DraW

y
8
7
(3, 6)
6
5
4
3
2
11
1
0 12345
2
3
4
5
(0, 5)
3

Chapter 7 Differentiation

327

Find the gradient of this tangent by


rise
evaluating run .

b 1 Find f (x) using first principles.

Gradient of tangent at x = 2 is
11
approximately = 3 23 .
3
f ( x + h) f ( x )
b f ( x ) = lim
,h0
h0
h
( x + h)2 1 ( x 2 1)
h0
h

= lim

x 2 + 2 xh
xh + h 2 1 x 2 + 1
h0
h
2 xh + h 2
= lim
h0
h
h(2 x + h)
= lim
h0
h
= lim
lim (2
(2 x + h)
= lim

h0

= 2x
2

Evaluate f (2) to find the gradient at x = 2.

f (2) = 2(2)
=4

Note: Answer a (3 23 ) is very close to


answer b (4).

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 9

Use first principles to differentiate g(x) = x2 x.


thINK

WrIte

Find g(x + h) and simplify.

g(x + h) = (x + h)2 (x + h)
= x2 + 2xh + h2 x h

Find g (x) using first principles.

g ( x ) = lim

g( x + h) gg(( x )
, h 0,
h0
h
x 2 + 2 xh
xh + h 2 x h ( x 2 x )
= lim
h0
h
2
2
x + 2 xxhh + h x h x 2 + x
= lim
h0
h
2 xh + h 2 h
h0
h
h(2 x + h 1)
= lim
h0
h
= lim

= lim
lim (2
(2 x + h 1)
h0

= 2x 1

Limits and differentiation from


first principles
exercise 7B
1 We 5

Evaluate the following limits.

a lim ( x + 4)

c lim (8 3h)

d lim ( x 2 5)

x2

h0

328

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

lim (2 p 3)

p 2
x 3

e
g
i

lim ( x 2 + 4 x 3)

lim (10 x + x 2 x 3 )

x 1

x 2

lim ( x 3 5 x + 2)

x 3

x 2 + 5x + 6
x0
x+2
lim

x 2 2x 3
x 1
x3
lim

2 We 6 By first simplifying the rational expression, evaluate the following limits.

3x 2 3x
x 1 x 1

x 2 + 3x
x0
x

b lim

a lim
c

2x 2 + 2x
1 x +1

x2 4
x2 x 2

lim

d lim

x 2 + 3x + 2
x 1
x +1
3
h 8
g lim
h2 h 2
x2 + 4x 5
i lim
x 5
x+5
e

lim

x 2 5x 6
x 6
x6

lim

lim

x 3 + 27
3 x+3

3 Evaluate the following.


a lim (3 x 4)

x 3

d lim

x 1

+4
x+2

x2 9
3 x+3

x2 + x 6
x2
x2

lim

c lim

h3 64
h4 h 4
x3 + 1
h lim
x 1 x 1

x3

e lim

x 2 + 3x
x 3 x 1

g lim

f
i

lim ( x 3 + x 2 6)

x 2

x 2 + 7 x + 12
4
x+4

lim

Questions 4 and 5 refer to the following diagram. Consider the chord PQ drawn to the curve
f (x) as shown.
4 We 7 Find the gradient of the chord PQ drawn to the curve f (x)=x2+ 1 in the diagram below.
y
f(x) = x2+1
Q (2+h, f(2+h))

P (2, f(2))

1
0

5 MC The gradient of the tangent at P in the diagram is:


a h

B 4+h

C 4h

D 4 + h2

e 4

6 a Find the gradient of the chord PQ to the function

f (x) = x(x + 2) if the x-coordinates of P and Q are 1 and 1 + h respectively.


b Hence, find the gradient of the function at P.

7 If the gradient of the chord joining two points on the curve f (x) = x2 + 2x + 3 is

find the gradient of the curve at the point where x = 1.

f (1 + h)
h) f (1)
,
h

8 We 8 Find the gradient of g (x) = 4 x2 at the point where x = 2 by:


a sketching a graph and finding the gradient of the tangent at x = 2
b differentiating using first principles.
9 Find the gradient of h (x) = 2x2 6x at x = 1 by:
a sketching a graph to find the gradient of the tangent at x = 1
b differentiation from first principles.
Chapter 7 Differentiation

329

10 MC The gradient of a function f (x) at the point where x = 3 is:

f ( x + h) f ( x )
f (3 + h)
h) f ( x)
x
B lim
h0
h0
h
h
f (3 + h)
h) f (3)
f ( x + h) f ( x )
D
e
h
h
11 We 9 Use first principles to differentiate f (x) if:
a f (x) = 3x + 5
b f (x) = x2 3
d f (x) = (x 4)(x + 2)
e f (x) = 8 3x2
dy
12 Use first principles to find
if:
dx
a y = 9 4x
b y = x2 + 3x
3
d y = x 4x
e y = 5x 2x3
a

lim

7C
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

lim

h0

f (3 + h)
h) f (3)
h

c
f

f (x) = x2 + 6x
f (x) = x3 + 2

c
f

y = 3x2 + 8x 5
y = x2 2x

the derivative of xn

Instead of using the procedure of differentiating from first principles, rules can be applied to find
derivatives. These rules can be derived from first principles and have been looked at in detail in
Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS.
If f (x) = axn then f (x) = naxn 1, where a and n are constants and n is real.
If f (x) = c then f (x) = 0, where c is a constant. (This is because c = x0 and, using the rule, the
derivative of x0 is 0 x 1 or 0.)
dy
= 7 x 6 . If f (x) = 5x4 then f (x) = 20x3.
For example, if y = x7 then
dx
If f (x) = g(x) + h(x) then f (x) = g(x) + h(x), that is, differentiate each term of a function separately.
If f (x) = a g(x), where a is a constant, then f (x) = a g(x).
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 10

Differentiate y = x 4

3 2
x + 7.
2

thINK

WrIte

y = x 4 32 x 2 + 7

Write the equation.

Differentiate each of the three terms separately.

dy
= 4 x 4 1 32 ((2)
2) x 2 1 + 0
dx
= 4x3 3x

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 11

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Find the derivative of:


1
1
a f ( x) = +
x
x

b f ( x) =

thINK

x+ x
.
x2
WrIte

a 1 Write the equation.

1
1
and
using negative indices.
x
x

Rewrite

Differentiate each term.

a f (x) =

f ( x ) = x 1 + x
f ( x ) = x
=

330

Write the function in the form originally given.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

1 1
+
x
x

1 1

x 2
1

x2

1
2

12 x
x

3
2

2
1

2 x3

1
1
2

b 1 Write the equation.

f (x) =

x+ x
x2
x + x2
x2

Rewrite x using indices.

Separate the function into two terms expressed in


index form.

x x2
= 2+ 2
x
x

Simplify each term.

=x

Differentiate each term.

Simplify f ( x ) .

+x

3
2

3 3 1
x 2
2

3 5

= x 2 x 2
2

1
3
= 2 5
x
2x 2

f ( x ) = 1x

1 1

1
3

x2 2 x5

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 12

If f ( x ) = x 3 2 x 2 +
a f '(x)

8
, use a CAS calculator to find:
x
b f '(2).

thINK

WrIte

a f1(x) = x3 2x2

a 1 Define the function that is to be differentiated.


2

d
8
f1(x) = 3x2 4x 2
x
dx

Use the differentiation feature of a CAS calculator


to find the derivative of the function.

b If f1(x) = 3x2 4x

find f1(2).

exercise 7C

8
x

8
,
x2

b f1(2) = 2

the derivative of xn

Find the derivative of each of the following.


a y = x6
b y = 3x2
20
d y=x
e y = 4x3
x4
g y = 12 x 3
h y=
3
j y = 8x5
2 We10
Differentiate each of the following.
1

a f (x) = 4x3 + 5x

c y = 5x4
f y = 5x
i

b g(x) = 5x2 + 6x + 1

c h( x ) = 9 +

d h(x) = 4 3x + 6x2 + x3

e g(x) = 7x11 + 6x5 8

g f (x) = 6x + 3x2 4x3

h g( x ) = 7 x 2 4 x +

f (x) =

(x2

2
3

y = 10

f (x) =

x3
5

2x5

x3

+ + 10
5
3
h (x) = (x + 4)(x 1)

DIGItaL DOC
doc-9262
SkillSHEET 7.3
Index laws

+ 2x)(3x 6)
Chapter 7 Differentiation

331

Find the derivative of each of the following.

3 We11
a

2
x3
5

d 4x 4
g x

1
2

3
4x

1
3

c x3

b 3 x

x3

x+3
x
2
k
5x 2

+ x3

4x +

x 2x 2

i
l

1
+ x2
x
x2 + x3
x
2

+ 3x 2
x

4
n x+x

x 3

4 We12 If f (x) =
10x + 5 find:
a f (x)
5 MC If f (x) = x2 6x then f (4) is equal to:

2x5

B 12

a 8

b f (2).

C 12

D 2

e 16

D 8

e 0

6 MC The value of f (9) if f ( x ) = x 2 + x 2 10 x is:


1

C 12 12

B 18

a 2

1
+ 3 x 8.
x2
5
8 Find the gradient of the curve y = 4 at the point where a x = 2 and b x = 0.
x
1
3
2x x 2 +
9 Find the gradient of f ( x ) = 2x
at the point where x equals:
x
a 1
b 4
c 9.
7 Find g (2) if g( x ) =

10 If g (x) =

x + 4 x , find:

a g (x)

b g(1)

c g (8)

d g (8).

11 Show that the derivative of y = k, where k is a constant, is zero.


12 For each of the following:
i expand the brackets
a (x + 1)2
d (2x + 1)3

ii differentiate the expanded expression


b (x + 1)3
e (3x + 1)2

iii factorise the derivative.


c (2x + 1)2
f (3x + 1)3

13 Using the results of question 12 give the derivative of (ax + b)n in factorised form. (a, b, n are constants.)

7D
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

332

the chain rule

A function which can be expressed as a composition of two simpler functions is called a composite
function. For example, y = (x + 3)2 can be expressed as y = u2 where u=x+ 3.
That is, to obtain y from x, the first function to be performed is to add 3 to x(u=x+3), then this
function has to be squared ( y = u2).
Composite functions can be differentiated using the chain rule. For example, using the previous
function, y = (x + 3)2:
Let u = x + 3, so y = u2.
du
dy
Then
= 1 and
= 2u.
dx
du
dy
and dy = dy du . This is known as the chain rule. It is known as the
dx
dx du dx
chain rule because u provides the link between y and x.
dy
Now
= 2u 1
dx
= 2(x + 3) 1 (replacing u with x + 3)
= 2(x + 3)
The chain rule is used when it is necessary to differentiate a function of a function as above.
But we require

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 13

If y = (3x 2)3 is expressed as y = un, find:


du
dy
a
b
and hence
dx
du

thINK

Express y as a function of u.

Differentiate y with respect to u.

b 1 Express u as a function of x.

dy
using the chain rule.
dx

Replace u as a function of x.

y = (3x 2)3
Let y = u3 where u = 3x 2
dy
= 3u 2
du

u = 3x 2
du
=3
dx

Differentiate u with respect to x.

c 1 Find

tUtOrIaL
eles-1176
Worked example 13

WrIte

a 1 Write the equation.

dy
.
dx

dy dy du
=

= 3u2 3 = 9u2
dx du dx
= 9(3x 2)2

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 14

If f ( x ) =

1
2 x2

3x

, find f (x). Check your answer using a CAS calculator.

thINK

WrIte

f (x) =

Write the equation.

Express f (x) in index form.

Express y as a function of u.

Differentiate y with respect to u.

Express u as a function of x.

Differentiate u with respect to x.

du
= 4x 3
dx

Find f (x) using the chain rule.

3
dy

= f ( x ) = 12 u 2 (4 x 3)
dx

Replace u as a function of x and simplify.

3x

y = (2 x 2 3 x )

1
2

Let y = u 2 where u = 2x2 3x


dy 1 32
= 2u
du
u = 2x2 3x

=
=
=

Define the function to be differentiated using a CAS


calculator.

f1 ( x ) =

10

Use the differentiation feature of the CAS calculator


to find the derivative of the above function.

f1 ( x ) =

11

Note the answer from a CAS calculator is not


expressed in the same format obtained previously.

2x 2

f ( x ) =

1
2 (4 x

3) (2 x 2 3 x )

(4 x

2(22 x 2

3
2

3)
3

3 xx) 2

3 4x
2 (2
(2 x 2 3 xx))3
1
2 x 2 3x
(4 x

3)
2 x (2 x 33)) x (2 x 3)
(4 x

3)
2 x (2 x 3) x (2 x 3)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

333

A quicker way to apply the chain rule when a function can be expressed in index form is as follows.
If f (x) = [g(x)]n then f (x) = n[g(x)]n 1 g (x). That is, differentiate the bracket and then what is
inside the bracket; outside then inside.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 15

Find the derivative of f (x) = (x2 2 x)3.


thINK

WrIte

Write the equation.

f (x) = (x2 2x)3

Let g(x) equal what is inside the bracket.

g(x) = x2 2x

Find g (x).

g(x) = 2x 2

Use the rule f (x) = n[g(x)]n 1 g(x) to


differentiate f (x).

f (x) = 3(x2 2x)3 1 (2x 2)


= 3(x2 2x)2 [2(x 1)]
= 6(x 1)(x2 2x)2

Simplify f (x) as far as possible.

f (x) = 6(x 1)[x(x 2)x(x 2)]


= 6x2(x 1)(x 2)2

the chain rule

exercise 7D

1 If each of the following functions are expressed in the form y = un, state i u and ii n.
b y=

a y = (5x 4)3
d y=

1
7 4x

3x + 1

c y=

e y = (5x + 3)

1
(2 x + 3)4
4

y = (4 3 x ) 3

2 MC If y = (x + 3)5 is expressed as y = u5 then:


a u = (x + 3)5

B u=x+3

D u=3

If each of the following composite functions are expressed as y = un, find:

3 We13
i

dy
du

du
nd
a
dx

ii

a y = (3x + 2)2
d y=

he
nce

iii

dy
.
dx
1
2x 5
3
f y=
3x 2

b y = (7 x)3

1
(4 2 x )4

e y=

g y = 3(2x2 + 5x)5
j

C u=x

e u = x5

c y=

5x + 2
2

h y = (4x 3x2)

1
y = x +

y = 4(5 6x)

For questions 4, 5 and 6 below, y = x 2 3 x + 2 is expressed as y = un.


dy
4 MC
is equal to:
du
1

a 12 u
D

B u 2

3
1 u2
2

du
is equal to:
dx
a 2x 3

1
1 u2
2

1
2 u

5 MC

334

1
2

x2

3
2

x +1

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

B x2 3x + 2
e x3

C x2 3x

6 MC Using the chain rule, dy is equal to:

dx

2x 3
a
u

D 2 (2 x 3)

2x 3
x2

1 (2 x
2

3x + 2

x 2 3x + 2
2 u

3)( x 2 3 x + 2) 2

Use the chain rule to find the derivative of the following.


b y = (2x 5)3
c f (x) = (4 3x)5
d y = 3x 2 4
a y = (8x + 3)4

e f ( x ) = ( x 2 4 xx) 3

1
g g( x ) = x

g(x) = (2x3 + x)
1

h y = (x2 3x)

x
1
, find f (x).
4x + 7

8 We 14 If f ( x ) =

9 Use the chain rule to find the derivative of the following.

(Hint: Simplify first using index notation and the laws of indices.)
6x 5

a y=

b f (x) =

6x 5

10 We 15 Find the derivative of:


a f (x) = (x2 + 5x)8
c f (x) =

( x 2 + 22))2
x2 + 2

b y = (x3 2x)2
3

1
( x 3 + 2 x 2 7) 5

d y = (2 x 4 3 x 2 + 1) 2

11 If f (x) = (2x 1)6, find f (3).

12 If g (x) = (x2 3x) 2, find g(2).


13 If f ( x ) =

x 2 2 x + 1,
1 find:
b f (x)
d f (x) when x = 2.

a f (3)
c f (3)
14 Find the gradient of the function h( x ) =
15 Find the value of f (1) if f ( x ) =

3 x 2 + 2 x at the point where x = 2.

3
.
5 4x

16 If f (x) = (2x 1)5 and f (x) = 10 (2x 1)n, find the value of n.
17 If f (x) = (3x + 2)7 and f (x) = a (3x + 2)6 3, find the value of a.
18 If f (x) = (5x 3)10 and f (x) = 10m (5x 3)9, find the value of m.

7e

DIGItaL DOC
doc-9209
WorkSHEET 7.1

the derivative of e x

If f (x) = ex then using first principles:


f ( x + h) f ( x )
f ( x ) = lim
,h0
h0
h
= lim

x+h

h0

ex

e xeh e x
= lim
h0
h
e x (e h 1)
h0
h

= lim

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

eh 1
h0 h

= e x lim

Chapter 7 Differentiation

335

eh 1
can be deduced by using a calculator and substituting values of h close to zero.
h0 h

Note that lim

eh 1
h

0.01
0.0001
0.000 001

1.0050
1.000 05
1.000 000

eh 1
= 1.
h0 h
Therefore, f (x) = ex 1
= ex

That is, lim

If f (x) = ex then f (x) = ex.

Note: ex is the only function which has itself as a derivative.


WOrKeD eXaMpLe 16

Differentiate y = e

5x

thINK

WrIte
5x

Write the equation.

y=e

Express u as a function of x and find

du
.
dx
dy
Express y as a function of u and find .
du

Let u = 5x so

dy
using the chain rule.
dx

Find

Replace u as a function of x.

du
= 5
dx

dy
= eu
du

y = eu so

dy u
= 5e
dx
5x

= 5e

Worked example 16 shows that if f (x) = ekx then f (x) = kekx.


WOrKeD eXaMpLe 17

Find the derivative of y = e2x + 1.


thINK

WrIte

y = e2x + 1

Write the equation.

Express u as a function of x and find

du
.
dx

Let u = 2x + 1 so

Express y as a function of u and find

dy
.
du

y = eu so

Find

dy
using the chain rule.
dx

dy
= eu 2
dx
= 2eu

Replace u as a function of x.

= 2e2x + 1

du
=2
dx

dy
= eu
du

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 18

Differentiate:

a f (x) = ex(ex 2)

thINK

a 1 Write the equation.


2

336

Expand.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

b f ( x) =

e 2 x 2 e x
.
ex
WrIte

a f (x) = ex(ex 2)

= e2x 2ex

f (x) = 2e2x 2ex

Differentiate.

Factorise in order to leave the answer in the form it


was given.

b 1 Write the equation.

= 2ex(ex 1)
b f (x) =

e 2 x 2e x
ex
e 2 x 2e x
x
ex
e

Write each term in the numerator over each term in


the denominator.

Divide the numerator of each term by its


denominator using the laws of indices.

= e2x x 2e

= ex 2e 2x

Differentiate each term.

Write your answer in the form it was given.

x x

f (x) = ex + 4e 2x
4
= ex + 2x
e

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 19
3

Find the derivative of y = ex

x.

thINK

WrIte
3

Write the equation.

y = ex

Express u as a function of x and find

du
.
dx
dy
Express y as a function of u and find .
du

Let u = x3 x so

y = eu so

dy
using the chain rule.
dx

Find

Replace u as a function of x.

du
= 3x 2 1
dx

dy
= eu
du

dy
= eu (3 x 2 1)
dx
= (3x2 1)eu
3

= (3x2 1)ex

This example shows that if f (x) = eg(x) then f (x) = g (x) e g (x).

exercise 7e

the derivative of ex

Differentiate each of the following.

1 We 16

1x

a y = e10x

b y = e3

c y = e4

d y=e x

g y = 6e 2x

e y = 2e3x
h y = 5e0.2x

f
i

2 We 17 Find the derivative of each of the following.


a y = e6x 2
b y = e8 6x
7

2x
d y = 4e
e y = 3e8x + 1
6

9x
g y = 10e
h y = 5e3x + 4
j

x +1

y = 2e 2

k y = 3e

2 x
3

The derivative of y = e3x + 2 is equal to:


a
B (3x + 2)e3x + 2
3x
+
2
e 3xe3x
D 3xe

3 MC

3e3x + 2

4 We 18 Differentiate each of the following.


a f (x) = 2(ex + 1)
b f (x) = 3e2x(ex + 1)

y = 4e 5x
y = 2e 11x

c y = 2e5x + 3
f y = 2e6 5x

i y = 6e 7x
l

x +5

y = 4e 4

C 3e3x

4x

c f (x) = 5(e

+ 2x)
Chapter 7 Differentiation

337

d f (x) =

(ex

3e3 x + e
e f (x) =
ex

+ 2)(e + 3)

6 x

h f (x) = 4e5x + 2x2 e

5 We 19 Find the derivative of each of the following.


2
2
a y = ex + 3x
b y = ex 3x + 1
2
2

5x
d f (x) = e
e f (x) = e6 3x + x
2 7x
2
4x

2x

3x
g h(x) = 3e
h y = 5e
k g(x) = e(x + 2)

1
3

n h(x) = e(x

6 MC The derivative of 6ex


a
5
3
D 6(x3 5x)ex 5x

3x2

c y = ex 2x
3
f g(x) = ex +33x 2
(2x
+
1)
i y=e

f (x) = e(4 x)

m f ( x ) = e( x +1)

4e 7 x 2e x

e 2x

g f (x) = ex + e2

f (x) =

5x

y=e

3x + 4

+ 3x)2

is equal to:
3
B 6(3x2 5)ex 5x
2
e 6(3x2 5)e3x 5

2
C (3x2 5)ex 5x

7 If f (x) = 5e9 4x, find the exact value of f (2).


2 3x + 2

8 If g (x) = 2ex

, give the exact value of g(0).


3
9 Find the exact value of h(1) if h(x) = 5ex + 2x.

7F

the derivative of log e (x)

The inverse of the function f (x) = ex is f 1(x) = loge (x).


If y = loge (x) then ey = x, as shown in chapter 4, Exponential and logarithmic equations.
Let
x = ey
dx
= ey
dy
dy
1
But
=
dx
dx
dy
dy 1
=
Therefore,
.
dx x
But
ey = x,
dy 1
=
.
dx x

so

That is, if f (x) = loge (x) then f ' ( x) =

1
.
x

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 20

Differentiate y = loge (7x).


thINK

WrIte

y = loge (7x)

Write the equation.

Express u as a function of x and find

du
.
dx

u = 7x, so

Express y as a function of u and find

dy
.
du

y = loge (u), so

Find dy .
dx

If f (x) = loge (kx), where k is a constant then f ( x ) =

338

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

du
=7
dx

dy 1
=
7
dx 7 x
1
=
x
1
.
x

dy 1
=
du u

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 21

Find the derivative of y = 2 loge (3x 4).


thINK

WrIte

Write the equation.

y = 2 loge (3x 4)

Express u as a function of x.

Let u = 3x 4.

Differentiate u with respect to x.

du
=3
dx

Express y as a function of u.

y = 2 loge (u)

Differentiate y with respect to u.

Find

Replace u with 3x 4.

dy
using the chain rule.
dx

dy
1
= 2
du
u
2
=
u
dy 2
= 3
dx u
6
=
u
6
=
3x 4

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 22

Differentiate y = loge (x2 + 4x 1).


thINK

WrIte

Write the equation.

y = loge (x2 + 4x 1)

Let u equal the section in brackets.

Differentiate u with respect to x.

Let u = x2 + 4x 1
du
= 2x + 4
dx

Express y as a function of u.

Differentiate y with respect to u.

Find

Replace u with what is in the brackets.

dy
using the chain rule.
dx

y = loge (u)
dy 1
=
du u
dy 1
= (2 x + 4)
dx u
2x + 4
= 2
x + 4x 1

This example shows that if f (x) = loge [g(x)] then f ( x ) =

g ( x )
.
g( x )

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 23

Differentiate y = loge (x2 + 5x 2)2.


thINK

WrIte

Write the equation.

y = loge (x2 + 5x 2)2

Simplify the right side by using log laws.

y = 2 loge (x2 + 5x 2)
Chapter 7 Differentiation

339

Express u as a function of x and find du .


dx
dy
Express y as a function of u and find .
du

3
4

Use the chain rule to find

u = x2 + 5x 2, so

du
= 2x + 5
dx

y = 2 loge (u), so dy = 2
du u
dy dy du
dy 2(22 x + 5)
=

=
so
dx du dx
dx
u

dy
.
dx

exercise 7F

2(22 x + 5)
x 2 + 5x 2

the derivative of loge (x)

1 If y = loge (4x) is expressed as y = loge (u), then find:

du
dx
dy
d
using the chain rule.
dx

a u
c

dy
du

Differentiate each of the following.


a y = loge (10x)
b y = loge (5x)
d y = loge (6x)
e y = 3 loge (4x)
x

x
g y = loge
h y = loge
2
3

2 We 20

c y = loge (x)
f y = 6 loge (9x)
i

x
y = 4 loge
5

2x
y = 5loge
3

3 MC The derivative of loge (8x) is:


a 8

B 81 x

8
x

1
x

e loge (8)

4 MC To differentiate y = loge (3x + 7) using the chain rule:


a u would be used to represent:
a 3x + 7

b
a
D

B 3x
dy
du
and
are respectively:
du
dx
1
and 3x + 7
u
1
and 3
u
dy
Hence
is equal to:
dx

a 3
D

1
3x + 7

C loge (x)

D loge (3x)

1
and 3x
u

C 3 and

e x

1
3x

e 1 and 3

1
x
3
e
x
B

3
3x + 7

5 We 21 Find the derivative of each of the following.


a
d
g
j

y = loge (2x + 5)
y = loge (8x 1)
y = loge (4 7x)
y = 4 loge (12x + 5)

b
e
h
k

y = loge (6x + 1)
y = loge (3 5x)
y = 6 loge (5x + 2)
y = 7 loge (8 9x)

6 We 22
Differentiate the following.
a y = loge (3x4)
b y = loge (x2 + 3)
d y = loge (x2 2x3 + x4)
340

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

e y = loge

2x + 1

c y = loge (3x 4)
f y = loge (2 x)
i y = 8 loge (4x 2)

c y = loge (x3 + 2x2 7x)


f

y = loge

3 4x

y = loge (5 x + 2) 3

loge (2
(2 3 x ) 5
h f ( x ) = log

f (x) = loge (3x 2)4

k f (x) = loge (5x + 8)

7 We 23 Differentiate each of the following.


a y = loge (x2 + 1)2
c y = loge (x2 2x + 3)3

1
f ( x ) = loge
x + 3

2
f ( x ) = loge
4 + 3 x

b y = loge (3 x2)2
d y = loge (x2 + 4x + 4)3

8 MC Using the chain rule the derivative of f (x) = loge (x2 5x + 2) would be:
a

x2

1
5x + 2

1
x (2 x 5)

5
5x + 2
2x 5
x 2 5x + 2

C 2x 5

x2

9 Find the gradient of the function f (x) = 6 loge (4 3x) when x = 1.


10 If g(x) = 3 loge (3x + 5) find the value of g(0).
11 Find the exact value of f (2) if f (x) = 3x2 + 4 loge (x2 + x).
12 If y = eloge (x), find:

dy
dx
b the exact gradient when i x = 1 ii x = 2 iii x = 4 iv x = 10. Can you explain this result?
a

13 If f (x) = eloge (x ), find:


a f (x)
b the exact value of:
i f (1)
2

ii f (5)

iii f (2).

the derivatives of sin (x), cos (x)


and tan (x)
7G

The derivatives of sin (x), cos (x) and tan (x) can be found by differentiation from first principles, but are
beyond the requirements of this course.
The derivatives of sin (x) and cos (x) can be shown by drawing the graphs of the gradient functions.
The domain of each of these functions is R, but we will use only part of that domain.
Consider the graph of f (x) = sin (x), domain [0, 2] shown at right.
y
3
f (x) = 0 when x = ,

(
, 1)
2 2
2

3
f (x) < 0 when < x <
0

2 x
2
2

3
( 3
, 1)
2
< x < 2
f (x) > 0 when 0 < x < and
2
2
By sketching the graph of the gradient function, we can see that it is y = cos (x).

y
1

Similarly, by sketching the graph of the gradient function of y = cos (x),


we can see that the derivative of y = cos (x) is y = sin (x).
The derivative of tan (x) can be found using the quotient rule
y
(which appears later in this chapter).
If f (x) = sin (x) then f (x) = cos (x).
1
If f (x) = cos (x) then f (x) = sin (x).
1
0
, which can be written
If f (x) = tan (x) then f ' ( x ) =
2 ( x)
1
cos
s
2 (x).
as sec

0
1

2 x

y = cos (x)
y = sin (x)
2 x

Chapter 7 Differentiation

341

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 24

Find the derivative of y = sin (5x).


thINK

WrIte

Method 1:
1 Write the equation.

y = sin (5x)

Express u as a function of x and find

du
.
dx

Let u = 5x so

du
=5
dx

Express y as a function of u and find

dy
.
du

y = sin (u) so

dy
= cos((u)
du

Find

Replace u with 5x.

dy
using the chain rule.
dx

dy
= 5cos(u)
dx
= 5 cos (5x)

Method 2: Technology assisted


6

Ensure the CAS calculator that your are using is in


radians mode.
Define the function that is to be differentiated.

f 1(x) = sin (5x)

Use the differentiation feature of your CAS calculator


to find the derivative of the function.

f 1(x) = 5 cos (5x)

Worked example 24 shows that if f (x) = sin (ax), then f (x) = a cos (ax). Similarly, if f (x) = cos (ax),
then f (x) = a sin (ax).
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 25

Find the derivative of y = tan (3x).


thINK

WrIte

Write the equation.

y = tan (3x)

du
Express u as a function of x and find .
dx

Let u = 3x so

du
=3
dx

Express y as a function of u and find dy .


du

y = tan (u) so

dy
= secc 2 (u)
du

Find

dy
3
= 3 sec 2 (u) or
dx
coss2 (u)

dy
using the chain rule.
dx

= 3 sec 2 (3 x ) or

This example shows that if f(x) = tan (ax), then f (x) =

3
coss2 ((33 x )

a
or a sec2(ax).
cos2 ax

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 26

Differentiate y = cos (x2 + 2x 3).


thINK

342

Write the equation.

Express u as a function of x and find

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WrIte

y = cos (x2 + 2x 3)
du
.
dx

Let u = x2 + 2x 3 so

tUtOrIaL
eles-1185
Worked example 26

du
= 2x + 2
dx

3
4
5

Express y as a function of u and find dy .


du
dy
Find
using the chain rule.
dx
Replace u with the part in brackets in the rule and
simplify.

y = cos (u) so

dy
= sin(u)
du

dy
= si
sinn u (2 x + 2)
dx

= 2(x + 1) sin (x2 + 2x 3)

This example shows that the chain rule can be applied as follows.
If f (x) = sin [g(x)] then f (x) = g(x) cos [g(x)].
If f (x) = cos [g(x)] then f (x) = g(x) sin [g(x)].
g' ( x )
If f (x) = tan [g(x)] then f ' ( x ) =
coss2 [ g( x )]
= g(x) sec2 [ g(x)].

the derivatives of sin (x), cos (x)


and tan (x)
exercise 7G

1 We 24
Find the derivative of each of the following.
a y = sin (8x)
b y = sin (6x)
d y = sin

c y = sin (x)

x
3

e y = sin

2x
y = sin
3

Differentiate each of the following.

b y = cos (2x)

a y = cos (3x)

c y = cos

x
x
e y = cos
4
8
Differentiate each of the following.

d y = cos
3 We 25

a y = tan (2x)

b y = tan (4x)

c y = tan

x
3

2x
y = cos
5
3x
4

x
5

d y = tan

4 MC a The derivative of sin (6x) is:


a 6 cos (6x)

D 6 cos (6x)

B 6 cos (x)

C 6 sin (x)

1 cos(6 x )
6

b The derivative of cos (4x) is:


a 4 sin (4x)
D 4 cos (4x)

c The derivative of sin (4x) is:


a 4 cos (4x)
D 4 cos (4x)

d The derivative of cos (8x) is:


a 8 cos (8x)
D 8 sin (x)

B 4 sin (x)
e 4 sin (4x)

C 4 sin (x)

B 4 cos (x)
e 4 sin (4x)

C 4 cos (4x)

B 8 sin (8x)
e 8 sin (x)

C 8 sin (8x)

e The derivative of tan (7x) is:

x
7

1
coss2 ((77 x )

D sec2 (7x)

1
7

a 7 tan

C 7 sec2 (7x)

sec(( x )

5 We 26 If y = sin (4x + 3) is expressed as y = sin (u), find:

dy
du
b
du
dx
6 If y = cos (3x + 1) is expressed as y = cos (u), find:
dy
du
a
b
du
dx
a

dy
using the chain rule.
dx

dy
using the chain rule.
dx
Chapter 7 Differentiation

343

Differentiate each of the following.


b y = sin (6 7x)
3x + 2
d y = sin
e y = 5 sin (2 x)
4
a y = sin (2x + 3)

c y = sin (5x 4)
f

8 Differentiate each of the following.


a y = cos (3x 2)
b y = cos (4x + 7)
d

2 x + 3
y = cos
3

c y = cos (6 5x)

e y = 4 cos (10 x)

9 Differentiate each of the following.


a y = tan (2x + 1)
b y = tan (8 x)

y = 6 cos (2x)

c y = tan (5x 2)

e y = 3 tan (x)

d y = tan (2(x + 1))

10 Find the derivative of each of the following.


a cos (x2 4x + 3)
b sin (10 5x + x2)
2
d cos (x + 7x)
e tan (4x x2)

c sin (ex)
f tan (x2 + 3x)

1
cos
x
l 3 cos [loge (10x)]
x
o 2cos
4

h sin (e4x)

g cos [loge (x)]


j

3x
y = 4sin
8

sin [loge (2x 1)]

k cos (2e3x)

m 4 tan (x3 + 2x2)

8 tan

3x

p cos (x2 + 2x) + sin (3x 9)


11 If f (x) = 3 sin (x2 + x), find f (1) (answer correct to 3 decimal places).
12 Find the gradient of the curve g (x) = 2 cos (x3 3x) at the point where x = 0.
13 For each of the following functions find:

i f (x) nd
a
ii the exact value of f .
a f (x) =

7h

esin (x)

b f (x) =

ecos (x)

6
c f (x) = loge [sin (x)]

d f (x) = loge [cos (x)]

the product rule

Any function which is a product of two simpler functions, for example,


Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

f (x) = (x + 2)(x 5)

or

f (x) = (x2 5x + 6) sin (3x + 5)

can be differentiated using the product rule of differentiation.


Although the first example can be expanded and then differentiated, the second example cannot and
therefore can be differentiated only using the product rule.

product rule
If y = uv then

dv
du
d
dy
= u
+v .
dx
dx
dx

Or if f (x) = u(x) v(x) then f (x) = u(x) v(x) + v(x) u(x).


WOrKeD eXaMpLe 27

If y = (3x 1)(x2 + 4x + 3) is expressed as y = uv, find:


du
dv
dy
dy
dv
du
=u +v .
a u and v
b
and
c
using
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
dx
thINK

a 1 Write the equation.


2

344

Identify u and v, two functions of x which are


multiplied together.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WrIte

a y = (3x 1)(x2 + 4x + 3)

Let u = 3x 1

and

v = x2 + 4x + 3.

b 1 Differentiate u with respect to x.


2

du
=3
dx

dv
= 2x + 4
dx

Differentiate v with respect to x.

c 1 Apply the product rule to find

dy
.
dx

dy
dv
du
=u
+v
dx
dx
dx

= (3x 1)(2x + 4) + (x2 + 4x + 3) 3


2

= 6x2 + 10x 4 + 3x2 + 12x + 9


= 9x2 + 22x + 5

Expand and simplify where possible.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 28

Find the derivative of y = loge (4x) sin (3x 2).


thINK

WrIte

Write the equation.

y = loge (4x) sin (3x 2)

Identify u and v.

Let u = loge (4x) and let v = sin (3x 2).

Find

du
dv
and
.
dx
dx

du 1
=
dx x

Find

dy
using the product rule.
dx

Simplify wherever possible.

dy
1
= log
loge ((44 x ) 3cos(3 x 2)
2) + ssin(33 x 2)
2)
dx
x
1
= 3log
3loge (4 x ) cos(3 x 2)
2) + sin(33 x 2)
x

exercise 7h

dv
= 3cos
3cos(3
3c
os(
(33 x 2)
dx

the product rule

1 We 27 If y = (x + 3)(2x2 5x) is expressed as y = u v, find:

du
dv
and
dx
dx
2 We 28
Find the derivative of:
3
a y = 4x loge (6x)
a u and v

3 MC

The derivative of f (x) =

dy
dy
dv
du
=u
+v .
using the product rule,
dx
dx
dx
dx
b g (x) = (3x 2) loge (2x).

x2

a f (x) = 2x cos (2x)


C f (x) = 2x sin (2x) + x2 cos (2x)
e f (x) = 2x sin (x) + 2x2 cos (x)

sin (2x) is:


B f (x) = 4x cos (2x)
D f (x) = 2x sin (2x) + 2x2 cos (2x)

4 Use the product rule to differentiate each of the following.


a y = x cos (x)
b y = 3x sin (x)
c y = (5x 2) ex
d y = e3x (2 11x)
e y = x5 cos (3x + 1)
f y = 2x3 loge (7x)

g y = e 2x loge (2x 5)
h y = 8 tan (5x) loge (5x)

y = 5 cos (2x) sin (x)

k f (x) = e4x 3 loge (6x)

1
cos(6 x )
m f (x) =
x

o f (x) = 2x 3 sin (2x + 3)

2
q f (x) = (x + e3x)(4 e 3x)

4x
y = sin cos(( x )
3

f (x) = 4e 5x sin (2 x)

n f (x) =

xe

3x

p f (x) = e 2x loge (3x2 + 5)


r f (x) = (x2 6)(2 + 3x x2)

5 If f (x) = (2x + 1) loge (x + 3), find the exact value of f (1).


Chapter 7 Differentiation

345

6 Find g(0) if g(x) = 5e2x cos (4x).


7 Find the value of f (2) if f (x) = (x2 + 2) sin (4 3x) (answer correct to 3 decimal places).
DIGItaL DOC
doc-9210
WorkSHEET 7.2

8 If g (x) = (6x + x2) ex 3, find the exact value of g(2).


9 Find the exact value of f () if f (x) = (3 x) tan (2x).

7I
Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

the quotient rule

The quotient rule is used to differentiate functions which are rational expressions (that is, one function
divided by another). For example,
f (x) =

x 2 6x + 3
5x + 2

or

f (x) =

e3 x + 8
.
cos (66 x )

Quotient rule

du
dv
u
dy v dx u dx
If y = then
.
=
v
dx
v2

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Or if f ( x ) =

v ( x )u ( x ) u( x ) v ( x )
u( x )
then f ( x ) =
.
v( x )
[ v ( x)]
x 2

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 29

u
3 x
is expressed as y = , find:
2
v
x + 4x
du
dv
a u and v
b
and
dx
dx
If y =

thINK

a 1 Write the equation.


2

c 1

WrIte

a y=

Differentiate v with respect to x.


dy
Apply the quotient rule to obtain .
dx

3 x
x2 + 4x

Let u = 3 x and v = x2 + 4x.

Identify u and v.

b 1 Differentiate u with respect to x.

dy
.
dx

du
= 1
dx
dv
= 2x + 4
dx

c dy =
dx

=
2

dy
where possible, factorising the
dx
final answer where appropriate.
Simplify

=
=

346

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

du
dv
u
dx
dx
v2

( x 2 + 4 x)
x ) 1 (3 x )(2 x + 4)
( x 2 + 4 xx))2
x2

4 x (12 + 2 x 2 x 2 )
( x 2 + 4 xx))2

x2

4 x 12 22xx + 2 x 2
( x 2 + 4 xx))2

x 2 6 x 12
( x 2 + 4 xx))2

x 2 6 x 12
x 2 ( x + 4) 2

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 30

Find the derivative of f ( x ) =

2 e3 x
.
cos(2 x 3)

thINK

tUtOrIaL
eles-1219
Worked example 30

WrIte

2e3 x
cos (22x 3)

Write the equation.

f (x) =

Identify u(x) and v(x).

Let u(x) = 2e3x.


Let v(x) = cos (2x 3).

Differentiate u(x) and v(x) with respect to x.

u(x) = 6e3x
v(x) = 2 sin (2x 3)

Apply the quotient rule to obtain f (x).

f ( x ) =

Simplify where possible.

exercise 7I
1 We 29 If y =
a u and v
b

v ( x )u ( x ) u( x ) v ( x )
[ v ( x)]
x 2

cos (22x 3) 6e3 x 2e3 x [ 2 sin (2 x 3)]


[cos (2 x 3)]2

6e3 x cos (2x 3) + 4e3 x sin (2 x 3)


[cos (2xx 3)]2

2e3 x [3 cos (2 x 3) + 2 sin (2 x 3)]


coss2 ((22 x 3)

the quotient rule

u
x+3
is expressed as y = , find:
v
x+7

du
dv
and
dx
dx

du
dv
dy
dy v dx u dx
c
using the quotient rule,
.
=
dx
dx
v2
u( x )
x 2 + 2x
2 If f ( x ) =
is expressed as f ( x ) =
, find:
v( x )
5x
a u(x) and v(x)
b u (x) and v (x)
c f (x) using the quotient rule.
sin ( x )
3
f (x) = tan (x) can be written as f ( x ) =
. If u(x) = sin (x) and v(x) = cos (x), use the quotient
cos ( x )
1
rule to show that the derivative of tan (x) is
.
coss2 ( x )
4 We 30
Find the derivative of each of the following.
a

2x
x2 4x

4x 7
10 x

g
j

sin (22 x )
cos (22 x )
4x
2
x + 3x 2

h
k

x 2 + 7x + 6
3x + 2
e2 x
x
logge ( x + 1)
x2 + 2
2x3 + 7x
e5 x

cos ( x )
ex

3x 2
logge ((44 x )

i
l

e3 x + 2
cos (22 x )
x2 5
x
Chapter 7 Differentiation

347

e 3x
3x + 8

4 loge (8 x )
x 2 2x

2 cos (3 2 x )
3e 2 7 x
q
2
x
x+3
2
8 3x
5 MC If h( x ) =
then h(x) equals:
x
9x 2 8
8 9x 2
a
B
2
x
x2
p

3x 2

x2

3x 2

sin( x )
x

e2 x
2x 3

3x 2

+8

x2

+8

sin (44 x )
is:
4x + 1
4(44 x + 1) cos ( x ) 4 sin (4 x )
f ( x ) =
(4 x + 1)2
4(44 x + 1) cos (4x)
x ) 4 sin (44 x )
f ( x ) =
4x + 1
4 sin (4x ) 4(4 x + 1) cos (44x )
f ( x ) =
(4 x + 1)2

6 MC The derivative of f ( x ) =
a
C
e

cos (33 x 2)
then g(x) is equal to:
ex
3e x sin (3 x 2) e x cos (3 x 2)
a
e2 x

(4 x + 1) cos (4 x ) 4 sin (4 x )
(4 x + 1)2
4(44 x + 1) cos (4 x)
x ) 4 sin (44 x )
D f ( x ) =
(4 x + 1)2
B

f ( x ) =

7 MC If g( x ) =

e x cos (3 x 2)
2) + 3e x cos (3 x 2)
e2 x

3e x

8 If y =

dy
cos(2 x )
find
when x = 0.
3
x
dx
e

10 Find the exact value of g(5) if g( x ) =

7J

e x

sin (3 x 2)
2) e x cos (3 x 2)
e2 x

3e x

sin (3 x 2) e x cos (3x 2)


ex

sin (3 x 2) e x cos (3 x 2)
e2 x

9 Find the gradient of the function f ( x ) =

INteraCtIVItY
int-0252
Mixed problems
on differentiation

2 x 3x 2
at the point where x = 1.
logge ((33 x + 4)

4 loge (2 x )
.
3x

Mixed problems on differentiation

Problems on differentiation may involve any combination of chain, product and quotient rules.
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 31

For each of the following decide which rule of differentiation, that is, chain, product or quotient
rule, would be useful to find the derivative.
logg e ( x )
2
a
b (x2 5x)6
c (x2 + 2x 3) cos (2x)
d ex + 3x
sin ( x )
thINK

a 1 Write the equation.


2

348

u
It is of the form , that is, a rational function.
v

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

WrIte

a y=

logge ( x )
sin ( x )

Quotient rule

b y = (x2 5x)6

b 1 Write the equation.


2

It is a composite function of the form u6,


where u = x2 5x.

c y = (x2 + 2x 3) cos (2x)

c 1 Write the equation.


2

It is of the form u v, that is, the product of


two functions.

Product rule
d y = ex2 + 3x

d 1 Write the equation.


2

Chain rule

It is a composite function of the form eu,


where u = x2 + 3x.

Chain rule

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 32

Find the derivative of y = 2x3 cos (x2 + x).


thINK

WrIte

Write the equation.

y = 2x3 cos (x2 + x)

Decide which rule to use and identify u and


v to apply the rule.

Use the product rule.


u = 2x3 and v = cos (x2 + x).

Differentiate u with respect to x.

du
= 6x 2
dx

v is a composite function, so differentiate


v with respect to x using the chain rule.

Apply the product rule to find

v = cos (x2 + x)
Let w = x2 + x.
dw
= 2x + 1
dx
v = cos (w)
dv
= sin( w)
dw
dv dv dw
=

dx dw dx
dv
= ( ssin(
in(w))(2 x + 11)
So
dx
= (2x + 1) sin (x2 + x)
dy
dv
du
=u
+v
dx
dx
dx
= 2x3[(2x + 1)] sin (x2 + x) + cos (x2 + x) 6x2

Simplify where possible.

dy
.
dx

= 2x3(2x + 1) sin (x2 + x) + 6x2 cos (x2 + x)


= 2x2[3 cos (x2 + x) x(2x + 1) sin (x2 + x)]

Derivatives involving the absolute value function

x if x 0
Consider the absolute value function, f ( x ) = x =
.
x if x < 0
As discussed earlier, the graph of f (x) = |x| is continuous for all x and has
a cusp (sharp point) at x = 0.
1 iff x > 0
The derivative of f (x) = x, f (
.
( x ) =
1 iff x < 0

In order for the derivative to be defined at x = 0 for a function f (x), the limit as x approaches 0 from
m f '( x ) , and the limit as x approaches 0 from the right, written as lim
m f ' ( x ), must be
the left, written as lim
x0
x0
equal.

Chapter 7 Differentiation

349

This is not the case, as lim


m f ' ( x ) = 1 and lim
m f ' ( x ) = 1. Thus, the function f (x) = x is not
x0

x0+

differentiable at x = 0 and the graph of y = f (x) has open circles at x = 0 as shown below.
y
1
x

The chain rule is used to differentiate the composite function f (x) = h(g(x)), to give f (x) = g(x) h(g(x)).
x) > 0
1 iff g( x)
Hence, for f (x) = h(g(x)), where h (x) = x, then f '( x ) = g' ( x )
.
x) < 0
1 iff g( x)
Note the derivative is a hybrid function and the domain is obtained by examining the graph of the
function y = g(x).
WOrKeD eXaMpLe 33

For the function: f (x) = x2 4x:


a find the derivative
b sketch the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f (x) on the same set of axes.
thINK

a 1 As f (x) = x2 4x is a composite function,

tUtOrIaL
eles-1220
Worked example 33

WrIte/DraW

apply the chain rule to find the derivative,


f (x) where g(x) = x2 4x and h(x) = x.

f (x) = h(g(x))
f (x) = g (x) h(g(x))
1 iff x 2 4 x > 0
f ( x ) = 2 x 4
2
1 iff x 4 x < 0
2 x 4 if x 2 4 x > 0.
f ( x ) =
2
2 x + 4 if x 4 x < 0

y
4
3
2
1

To determine the domain of the derivative,


consider the graph of the function
g(x) = x2 4x. From the graph, x2 4x > 0
if x < 0 or x > 4 and x2 4x < 0 if 0 < x < 4.

0
1
1
2
3
4
3

350

2 x 4 if x < 0 orr x > 4


f ( x ) =
2 x + 4 if 0 < x < 4

Write the derivative with the correct


domain.

b 1 Sketch the graph of f (x) = x2 4x .

Sketch the graph of the derivative,


2 x 4 if x < 0 orr x > 4
f ( x ) =
2 x + 4 if 0 < x < 4
For the graph of y = f (x), put open circles
at x = 0 and x = 4 as the derivative is not
defined at these points.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

1 2 3 4 5x

f'(x) = 2x 4, x > 4

10
8
6
4
f(x) =x2 4x 2
x
3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
2
4
f '(x) = 2x + 4, 0 < x < 4
6
8
f '(x) = 2x 4, x < 0

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 34

For the function f (x) = sin (x) for x [0, 2]:


a find the derivative
b sketch the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f (x) on the same set of axes.
thINK

WrIte/DraW

As f (x) = |sin (x)| is a composite


function, apply the chain rule to find
the derivative, f (x) where g(x) = sin
(x) and h(x) = |x|.

f (x) = h(g(x))
f (x) = g (x) h(g(x))

1 if sin( x ) > 0
f ( x ) = cos( x )
1 if sin( x ) < 0
x) > 0
cos(( x ) if sin( x)
f ( x ) =
x) < 0
cos(( x ) if sin( x)

To determine the domain of the


derivative, consider the graph of the
function g(x) = sin (x) for x [0, 2].
From the graph, sin (x) > 0 if
0 < x < and sin (x) < 0 if < x < 2.

Write the derivative with the correct


domain.

Sketch the graph of f (x) = |sin(x)| for


x [0, 2].

y
1
0.5
0
0.5
1

3
2

cos(( x ) if 0 < x <


f ( x ) =
cos(( x ) if < x < 2
b

y
f(x) =sin (x)

Sketch the graph of the derivative,


cos ( x ) if 0 < x <
f ( x ) =
cos ( x ) if < x < 2
For the graph of y = f (x), put open circles
at x = 0, x = and x = 2 as the derivative
is not defined at these points.

exercise 7J

0.5
0

0.5
1

3
2

f '(x) = cos (x), 0 < x < f '(x) = cos (x), < x < 2

Mixed problems on differentiation

1 We31 For each function given below, state which rule of differentiation would be used to find the

derivative, that is, chain (C), product (P) or quotient (Q).


a f (x) = loge (8x)

4x
cos ( x )
g h(x) = cos (x2 4x)
d h( x ) =

3x + 7
4x2
x 2 + 9x 8
f g( x ) =
logge ( x )
i g(x) = loge [sin (x)]

b f (x) = 3x sin (x)

c g( x ) =

e g(x) = e5x sin (x)


x

h f (x) = e

loge (5x)
x

2
ge ( x )
j f (x) = sin2 (x)
k h( x ) = x
l f ( x ) = log
e
m g(x) = ecos (x)
n f (x) = tan (x)
2 Using the appropriate rule find the derivative of each function in question 1.

3 We 32 Find the derivative of each of the following. (Note that more than one rule will need to be

applied in some cases.)


5x

a y=e

cos (4x 7)

b y=

x 2
3x + 1

c y = loge (x + 1)3

d y = cos (x2 6x)

e f (x) = ex cos (2x)

f (x) =

sin (22 x )
cos (22 x )
Chapter 7 Differentiation

351

g f (x) =
i

1
sin ( x )

h y = loge [sin (3x)]

y = 4e3x2 5x + 2

f (x) = (x 1)(x2 + 5x + 3)
(2 x + 3)5
l g( x ) =
x3 5
n y = cos2 (3x)
sin ( x 4 )
p f (x) =
x2
j

k g(x) = ex(x2 + 3)
4x

m f (x) = e

cos (4x 3)

o y = loge [cos (3x)]


q f (x) =
s y=

cos (22 x )
sin (22 x )

loge

( x)
x

f (x) = [loge (5x 1)]4

x + 3
y = sin
x 2
3

u f (x) =

3x5

logge ( x 2 )
v g( x ) =
x2

x f (x) = 3 cos2 (x) + e 7x x3

cos (2x + 1)

w y = ex sin (x)
x

y f (x) = 3 sin (6x) + loge (5x2) 4e 2

z h (x) = cos3 (x)

4 We 33 For the following functions:


a f (x) = x2 1
b f (x) = x2 + 2x
i find the derivative
ii sketch the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f (x) on the same set of axes.
5 We 34 For the following functions:
a f (x) = sin (2x) for x [0, ]
b f (x) = cos (x)for x [0, 2]
i find the derivative
ii sketch the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f (x) on the same set of axes.

352

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Summary
review gradient
and rates of change

The gradient of a function exists wherever the graph of the function is smooth and continuous.
If the gradient of a function, f (x), is zero at x = a, then the graph of its gradient function, f (x), will
have an x-intercept at x = a.
When the gradient of a function is positive, the graph of the gradient function is above the x-axis
and when the gradient of a function is negative, the graph of the gradient function is below the
x-axis.
A polynomial function has a gradient function which is also a polynomial function, but its degree
is reduced by one.
A function is smooth if there are no sharp points on its graph.
A function is continuous if the graph can be drawn without lifting pen from paper.
The graph of the gradient function is a graph of the gradients of all the points of the original
function.
The gradient of a horizontal line is 0.
The gradient of a vertical line is undefined.

Limits and
differentiation from
first principles

The gradient of a chord (secant) or the average rate of change is given by:

f ( x + h) f ( x ) .
h
A limit is the value that y approaches as x approaches a given value.
A limit exists if the function is approaching the same value from both left and right.
The gradient of the tangent to a curve at a point P is the gradient of the curve at P and is
f ( x + h) f ( x )
given by lim
.
h0
h
dy
For a function y = f (x), its derivative is expressed as either
or f (x).
dx
The gradient at a point P on a curve is the gradient of the tangent to the curve at that point.

the derivative of xn

If f (x) = axn then f (x) = nax n 1, where a and n are constants.


If f (x) = c then f (x) = 0, where c is a constant.
If f (x) = ag(x) where a is a constant then f (x) = ag(x).
If f (x) = g(x) + h(x) then f (x) = g (x) + h (x). Differentiate each term separately.

the chain rule

The chain rule of differentiation is:

dy dy du
=

dx du dx
A short way of applying the chain rule is:
If f (x) = [g(x)]n then f (x) = n[g(x)]n 1 g(x).
the derivative of ex

the derivative of
loge (x )

If f (x) = ex then f (x) = ex.


If f (x) = ekx then f (x) = kekx.
If f (x) = aekx + c then f (x) = akekx + c.
If f (x) = aeg(x) then f (x) = g (x) ae g(x).

1
If f (x) = loge (x) then f (x) = x .
1
If f (x) = loge (kx) then f (x) = x .
g ( x )
If f (x) = loge [g(x)] then f (x) =
.
g( x )

Chapter 7 Differentiation

353

the derivatives of
sin (x ), cos (x ) and
tan (x )

If f (x) = sin (x) then f (x) = cos (x).


If f (x) = cos (x) then f (x) = sin (x).
1
If f (x) = tan (x) then f (x) =
= sec2 (x).
cos 2 ( x )
If f (x) = sin (ax) then f (x) = a cos (ax).
If f (x) = cos (ax) then f (x) = a sin (ax).
a
If f (x) = tan (ax) then f (x) =
= a sec2 (ax).
2
cos (ax )
If f (x) = sin [g(x)] then f (x) = g (x) cos [g(x)].
If f (x) = cos [g(x)] then f (x) = g (x) sin [g(x)].
g ( x )
If f (x) = tan [g(x)] then f (x) =
= g (x) sec2 [g(x)].
cos2 [ g( x )]

the product rule

The product rule of differentiation states:


dy
dv
du
1. if y = u v, then
=u
+v
dx
dx
dx
2. if f (x) = u(x) v (x) then
f (x) = u(x) v(x) + v(x) u(x).

the quotient rule

The quotient rule of differentiation states:


du
dv
u
dy v dx u dx
1. if y = then
.
=
v
dx
v2
u( x )
2. if f ( x ) =
then
v( x )
f ( x ) =

v ( x )u ( x ) u( x ) v ( x )
[ v ( x)]
x 2

Summary of derivatives:
f (x)

f (x)

axn

naxn 1

[g(x)]n

ng(x)[g(x)]n 1

ex

ex

ekx

kekx

eg(x)

g(x)eg(x)

loge (x)

1
x

loge (kx)

1
x

loge [g(x)]

g ( x )
g( x )

sin (ax)
cos (ax)
tan (ax)

a cos (ax)
a

sin (ax)

a
coss2 (ax )
(= a sec2 (ax))

354

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Chapter review
1 The graph of a cubic function is shown below.

S hO rt
a N S W er

1 0

1 2 3
f(x)

2
3
4

Sketch the graph of its gradient function.


h 3 + 2h 2 + 4 h
Find lim
.
h 0
h
a Find the derivative of f (x) = x3 + 2x using first principles.
b Hence find the gradient at the point where x = 1.
x3
a Find the gradient function if g( x ) =
4x .
3
b Find the gradient of g (x) when x = 3.
3x 4 x 3
If h( x ) =
+ 3 x , find:
2
4
a h (x)
b i h(1)
ii h(2).
3

6 If y = (4 x + 1) 2 , find the gradient when


7 Find the derivative of
8 Differentiate f (x) =

a x = 2 and

b x = 1.

x2 + 4 .

e2x 1.

9 a Find f (x) if f (x) = e x .


2

b What is the value of x when f (x) = 0?

dy
if y = loge (2x3 4).
dx
11 The tangent to the curve f (x) = loge (ax 1) when x = 2, has a gradient of 1. Find the value of a.

10 Find

12 Find f (x) if f (x) = 3 sin (2x) and hence find f (2).


13 Find f (x) if f (x) = tan (5x).
14 Find f (x) if f (x) = tan (2x2 3).
15 If y = 3x2 loge (6x), find

dy
.
dx

cos(( x 2 )
.
x
17 Differentiate esin (2x).
16 Find f (x) if f ( x ) =

18 Find the derivative of y = f (x) where f (x) = x2 2x .


19 Find the derivative of y = f (x) where f (x) = sin (x) for x

, .
2 2
M U LtIp L e
C hO IC e

1 The graph of f (x) is shown below.


y

f(x)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

355

The graph of its gradient function is:


y

x
0

y
4
0

2 For the function g(x) graphed below, the gradient function g(x) is defined over the domain:
y
B R \{1}
D R \{1, 4}

a R
C R \{4}
e [1, 4]

0 1

x 2 2x 8
is:
x4
x4

3 The value of lim


a undefined

B 0

C 1

D 4

e 6

C 6

D undefined

e 6

5x
is:
x +1

x3

4 lim

x 3

B 22

a 22

5 The derivative of f (x) =

+ 3x is:
a
2x + 3
B 4x2 2x + 3
2
D 12x x + 3
e 4x2 2x
1
6 The derivative of g( x ) = 2 2 x is:
x

1 2
2 2
a
B

x
x
x3
x
4x3

x2

12x2

2 2

x
x

7 The derivative of (2x + 5)6 is:


a 6(2x + 5)5
D 12(2x + 5)5

8 The derivative of

1
is:
4x 9
B

D 4 4x 9

6x

then

a 30e 6x

D 30e 6x 1

10 If y = e4x + 7 then
a 4e4x + 6
D 4e4x + 7

dy
is equal to:
dx
dy
is:
dx

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

x3

C 12x2 2x

x3

1
x

1
3

x2

B 12x(2x + 5)5
e 12(2x + 5)4

a 2 4x 9

9 If y = 5e

356

(4 x 9)3

C 6x(2x + 5)5

4
3

(4 x 9) 2

2
4x 9

B 6e 6x
7x
e 5e

C 5e 6x 1

B e4x + 6
e 4e3x + 7

C e4x + 7

11 The derivative of loge (3x 2) is:

1
3x 2
1
D
3(33 x 2)

1
3x
3
e
3x 2

C 1

12 The derivative of 2 loge (x2 + x) is:

2(22 x + 1)
x2 + x
2x
D
x2 + x
a

13 If y = cos (8x) then

dy
is:
dx

a 8 sin (8x)
D 8x sin (8x)

14 If y = 2 sin (2x + 3) then


a 4x cos (2x + 3)
D 4 cos (2x)

2(22 x + 1)
x
4x
e
x2 + x

2x + 1
x2 + x

B sin (8x)
e sin (8x)

C 8 sin (8x)

B 4 cos (2x + 3)
e 2 cos (2x + 3)

C 4 cos (2x + 3)

dy
is equal to:
dx

15 If f (x) = tan (6 5x), then f (x) is equal to:


a

coss2 (6 5 x )

5
coss2 (6 5 x )

C sec2 (6 5x)

e 5 cos2 (6 5x)

D 5 cos2 (6 5x)

16 If f (x) = x2 e2x then f (x) is equal to:


a 2xe2x + 2x2e2x
D 2xe2x 2x2e2x

B 2xe2x
e 2xe2x + x2e2x

C 4xe2x

17 If g (x) = 2x loge (3x) then g(x) must be:


a 2 loge (3 x ) +

2
3

B 2 loge (3x) + 2

D 2 loge (3 x )

2
3

e 2 loge (3x) + 6x loge (3x)

18 The derivative of
a

4x 5
( x 2)2

2x + 1
is:
x2
B

D 4x 5

(x

2)2

C 2 loge (3x) + 6x

4x 3
( x 2)2

2(22 x 1)e 4 x
x3

( x 2)2
e4 x
19 The derivative of 2 is:
x
4
x
2(11 2 x )
( x 2)e
B
a
3
x3
x
2
4
x
4
x
x e 2e
2e 4 x
D
e
4
x
x3
2
5
20 If g(x) = (x + 3x 7) then g(x) is equal to:
a 5(x2 + 3x 7)4
C 5(2x + 3)4
e (x2 + 3x 7)4

B (2x + 3)(x2 + 3x 7)4


D 5(2x + 3)(x2 + 3x 7)4

21 The derivative of sin (x) cos (x) is:


a 2 sin (x) cos (x)

B sin2 (x) cos2 (x)

C sin2 (x) + cos2 (x)

D cos2 (x) sin2 (x)

sin2

(x)

cos2

(x)
Chapter 7 Differentiation

357

e X t eNDeD
r e SpONS e

1 A section of a roller-coaster ride follows part of the curve with the equation y =

shown below.

1
(x3
200

+ 3300 x 2 ),

28 20

12

a For what values of x (domain) is the gradient:


i zero?
ii positive?
iii negative?
b Sketch the gradient function.
c Use the graph of the gradient function to find the value of x where
d
e

f
g

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic: 1 & 2
Practice
VCE exam
questions
Use StudyON to
access all exam
questions on this
topic since 2002.

DIGItaL DOC
doc-9211
Test Yourself
Chapter 7

358

the gradient is steepest over the domain [25, 10].


dy
Find .
dx
Find the gradient where x equals:
i 25
ii 10
iii 10.
Does this verify your answer to part c? Briefly explain.
What is the highest point reached by the roller-coaster? (Give your answer in metres.)

2 Consider the functions f ( x ) = 2 x and g(x) = x2 + 1.


a State the domain and range for each function.
b Find the composite functions:
i f (g(x))
ii g(f (x)).
c State the domain and range for f (g(x)) and g(f (x)).
d Find:

d
( f ( g(
g x )).
dx
d
( g( f ( x ))
ii
dx
e Evaluate:
i f (g(2))
ii g (f (2))
i

4 x 2 , x 2
4

3 Consider the function f ( x ) = 2 x 4, 2 < x < 5 .


x 1, x 5

a Sketch the graph of f (x).


b For what values of x is f (x) discontinuous?
c For what values of x is f (x) not differentiable?
d Find f (x).
e Sketch the graph of f (x).

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

ICT activities
Chapter opener
DIGItaL DOC
10 Quick Questions doc-9208: Warm up with ten quick questions on
differentiation. (page 317)

7a

review gradient and rates of change

tUtOrIaL
We3 eles-1175: Watch how to sketch a gradient function.
(page 320)
DIGItaL DOCS
SkillSHEET 7.1 doc-9260: Practise identifying positive negative and
zero gradients. (page 321)
SkillSHEET 7.2 doc-9261: Practise sketching the gradient function
given the original function. (page 321)

7B

Limits and differentiation from first principles

7G

the derivatives of sin (x), cos (x) and tan (x)

tUtOrIaL
We26 eles-1185: Watch a worked example on using the chain
rule to differentiate trigonometric functions. (page 342)

7h

the product rule

DIGItaL DOC
WorkSHEET 7.2 doc-9210: Differentiation of mixed expression
involving the product, quotient and chain rules. (page 346)

7I

the quotient rule

tUtOrIaL
We30 eles-1219: Watch a worked example on how to use the
quotient rule. (page 347)

7J

Mixed problems on differentiation

eLeSSON eles-0093
Limits and differentiation from first principles. Watch an eLesson on
related rates of change (page 325)

INteraCtIVItY int-0252
Differentiation: Consolidate your understanding of differentiation.
(page 348)

tUtOrIaL
We5 eles-1218: Watch how to evaluate limits. (page 326)

tUtOrIaL
We33 eles-1220: Watch a worked example on how derivatives of
an absolute value function. (page 350)

7C

the derivative of xn

DIGItaL DOC
SkillSHEET 7.3 doc-9262: Practise using index laws. (page 331)

7D

the chain rule

tUtOrIaL
We13 eles-1176: Watch a worked example on using the chain
rule. (page 333)

Chapter review
DIGItaL DOC
Test Yourself doc-9211: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your
progress. (page 358)

To access eBookPLUS activities, log on to www.jacplus.com.au

DIGItaL DOC
WorkSHEET 7.1 doc-9209: Sketch gradient functions, identify where
the derivative exists, evaluate limits, apply first principles and
differentiation rules to determine derivatives. (page 335)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

359

Answers CHAPTER 7
DIFFereNtIatION

exercise 7a review gradient and


rates of change

f '(x)

g'(x)

4 a
5 a

b A

y
0

f '(x)

y
1

f '(x)

f '(x)

f '(x)

y
0

0
1

c
d

f '(x)
5
2

f'(x)

f '(x)
x

f '(x)

f '(x)

g'(x)

y
f '(x)

f '(x)

g'(x)

g'(x)

bC

2 a
3 a

8 a

x = 2 and x = 3
( , 2) (3, )
x=2
n/a
x = 1 and x = 2
ii ( , 1) (2, )
iii (1, 2)
i i n/a
iii (0, )
j i n/a
iii (0, )

i
iii
g i
iii
h i

1 a

g'(x)

f '(x)
x

2 0

f '(x)

g'(x)

360

f '(x)

g'(x)
x

g'(x)
3

f '(x)

6 a D
b C
7 a i Not applicable (n/a)
iii n/a
b i n/a
iii R
c i x = 1
iii (1, )
d i x=4
iii (, 4)
e i x=0
iii R\{0}

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

c E
ii R
iv n/a
ii n/a
iv n/a
ii ( , 1)
iv n/a
ii (4, )
iv n/a
ii n/a
iv n/a

2
y

1 0

g'(x)

ii
iv
ii
iv

(2, 3)
n/a
R\{2}
n/a

iv
ii
iv
ii
iv

n/a
( , 0)
x=0
( , 0)
x=0

0
1

9 a
c
e
g
i

R\{2}
R
R\{3}
R\{2}
R\{5}

R\{0}
R\{1, 2}
R\{0}
R\{2}
R\{5, 4}

exercise 7B

Limits and differentiation


from firstprinciples
1 a 6
c 8
b 7
d 4
f 14
e 6
g 24
h 3
i 2
2 a 3
b3
c 2
d 4
e 1
f 7
g 12
h 27
i 6

3 a 5
c 5
b 6
d 53
e 48
f 10
g 9
h 0
i 1
5 E
4 4+h
6 a h
b 0
74
8 a Approx. 4
b 4
9 a Approx. 10
b 10
10 C
11 a 3
b 2x
c 2x + 6
f 3x2
d 2x 2
e 6x

12 a 4
b 2x + 3
c 6x + 8
d 3x2 4
e 5 6x2
f 2x 2
the derivative of x n
dy
dy
b
= 6x5
= 6x
dx
dx
dy
dy
d
= 20 x 3
= 20 x19
dx
dx
dy
dy
f
= 5
= 12 x 2
dx
dx
dy
dy 3 2
h
= 4 x3
= x
dx 3
dx 2
dy
dy
j
=0
= 40 x 4
dx
dx
f ( x) = 12x2 + 5 b g( x) = 10x + 6
3
h( x) = 5 x2

h( x) = 3 + 12x + 3x2
g( x) = 77x10 + 30x4
f ( x) = 2x4 + x2
f ( x) = 6 + 6x 12x2
g( x) = 14x 4
h( x) = 2x + 3
j f ( x) = 9x2 12

6
b 3
x4
2 x
1
1
d 5x 4
2

exercise 7C

1 a
c
e
g
i
2 a
c
d
e
f
g
h
i
3 a
c

3x 3

1 + 2x

4x
2

2
+ x
3

4
5x 3

8 a

5
8

9 a

32

10 a

2 x

g ( x) =

1
2
3x 3

u2
4

u5
1
e i
2 u
3
f

i
iii
h i
iii
i

4x 4

2
( x 2)( x 2 4 x ) 3
3
2(6x2 + 1)(2x3 + x)3

1
15

61 + 2 x

x
x

h (2x 3)(x2 3x) 2


2
g

b 43

9 a

(4 x + 7)3

3
(6 x

d 412

10 a
b

ii 2x + 2

ii 3x2 + 6x + 3
d

ii 8x + 4
ii 24x2 + 24x + 6
ii 18x + 6
ii

81x2

ii
ii
ii
ii

+ 54x + 9

3x(4x2 3) 2 x 4 3 x 2 + 1

ii 3
ii 1

iii 6(3x + 2)
iii 3(7 x)2

ii 2

iii

ii 2

iii

5)2

8
(4 2 x )5
5
iii
2 5x + 2

9
iii

2(3 x 2) 2

7
12 500
or 0.014

11 37 500

x 1

13 a

d 1

x 2 2x

+1

14 4

1 a
d
g
2 a
d
g

ii 3

ii 3
3
2u 2
15u4
ii 4x + 5
15(4x + 5)(2x2 + 5x)4

2u 3
ii 4 6x
4(2 3x)(4x 3x2)3
x2 1
6u5
ii
x2

15 9
17 7

exercise 7e

1
2
4
1
6

ii 5

8x7(2x + 5)(x + 5)7


2x(3x2 2)(x2 2)
3x 2 + 4 x

16 4

(2 x

b 3x x 2 + 2

3
5) 2

5( x 3 + 2 x 2 7) 5

the chain rule


ii 3

2x + 3
7 4x
5x + 3
4 3x

2 B
3 a i 2u
b i 3u2

c 467 54

+4

i 5x 4
i 3x + 1
i
i
i
i

53

15

b 8716

1
412
11 Teacher to check
12 a i x2 + 2x + 1
iii 2(x + 1)
b i x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1
iii 3(x + 1)2
c i 4x2 + 4x + 1
iii 4(2x + 1)
d i 8x3 + 12x2 + 6x + 1
iii 6(2x + 1)2
e i 9x2 + 6x + 1
iii 6(3x + 1)
f i 27x3 + 27x2 + 9x + 1
iii 9(3x + 1)2
13 na(ax + b)n 1

c
d
e
f

6
x3

b 150
6 C

1 a
b

1
6( x 2 1) x +

x
iii
2
x

j
i 16u 5
ii 6
5
iii 96(5 6x)
4 C
5 A
6 B
7 a 32(8x + 3)3
b 6(2x 5)2
3x
c 15(4 3x)4
d
3x 2 4

b Undefined

exercise 7D

3
x2

4 a 10x4 10
5 D
1
34

1
+ 2x
x2
3

x2
3
j
4x2

l 1

m x 2 4 3x 4

f '(x)

b
d
f
h
j

1
x
2

k
x

2 x

y
1

f '(x)

10e10x
x
e

12e 2x
6x
6e 2
8e7 2x
90e6 9x
x

e2

18 5

the derivative of e x
b
e
h
b
e
h

+1

3 A
4 a 2ex

c 20e 4x + 10

e 6e2x 7e 7x
x
g e

x
1 3
e
3
3x

c
f
i
c
f
i

6e
e0.2x
6e8 6x
24e8x + 1
15e3x + 4
x

22e
10e5x + 3
10e6 5x
42e7x
x

+5
l e 4

2
k e 3

b
d
f
h

x
1 4
e
4

20e 5x
11x

9e3x + 6e2x

3ex 2e x
36e9x 2ex
20e5x + 4x

2
b (2 x 3)e x 3 x 1

2
5 a (2 x + 3)e x +3 x

d 5e 2 5 x
2( x 1)e x 2 x
3
6 3 x + x 2
e (2 x 3)e
f 3( x 2 + 1)e x +3 x 2
2
2
g 3(8 x 7)e 4 x 7 x h 10(1 + 3 x )e1 2 x 3 x
2

i 6(2 x + 1)2 e(2 x +1)


k

2( x

+ 2) 3 e( x + 2)

4
j 4(4 x )3 e(4 x )

e( x +1) 3
3e 3 x + 4
m
2
3( x + 1) 3
2 3x + 4
2
2
n 2x(2x + 3)(x + 3)e( x +3 x )
l

Chapter 7 Differentiation

361

6
7
8
9

20e
2
6e

25e 3

exercise 7F

1 a

4x

1
2 a
x
3
e
x
4
i
x
3 D
4 a A
5 a
c
e
f
h
j
6 a
c
e
g
i
k
7 a
c

the derivative of log e (x)


1
1
b4
c
d
u
x
1
1
1
b
c
d
x
x
x

6
1
1
f
g
h
x
x
x

5
j
x
bD

6
6x + 1
8
d
8x 1

i
k
b
d
f
h
j
l
b
d

or

7
7x 4

4 7x
16
2x 1
63
8 9x
2x
x2 + 3
4 x3 6x 2 + 2x
x 4 2x3 + x 2
2
4x 3
3
5(3 x 2)
12
3x 2
3
4 + 3x
4x
2
x 3
6
x+2

9 18
7

9
5

11

1
15 3

1 loge ( x )
e
12 a
or 1
x
b i 1
ii 1
iii 1
iv 1
The gradient is always 1 since e loge ( x ) = x.
2 loge ( x 2)
e
13 a
or 2x
x
b i 2
ii 10
iii 4
exercise 7G

the derivatives of sin (x),


cos (x) and tan (x)
1 a 8 cos (8x)
b 6 cos (6x)

362

1
3

1
8

x
sin
3

x
sin
8
2

5 a
c
6 a
c
7 a

2 sec (2x)
x
1
sec2
5
5
A
D
C
cos (u)
4 cos (4x + 3)
sin (u)
3 sin (3x + 1)
2 cos (2x + 3)

5 cos (5x 4)

102 cos (2 x)

c
c C

1
2

3 a

cos (x)

cos x
2
2 a 3 sin (3x)

2
2x + 5
3
3x 4
5
5
or
3 5x 5x 3
1
1
or
2 x
x2
30
5x + 2
48
12 x + 5
4
x
3x 2 + 4 x 7
x3 + 2x 2 7x
1
2x + 1
5
3(5 x + 2)
1
x+3
10
5x + 8
4x
2+
x 1
6( x 1)
( x 3)( x + 1)

8 E
10

4 a
c
e

3
2x
cos
3

f 3

b 2 sin (2x)
d

x
sin
4

2x

f 25 sin

9 a
c
e
10 a
b
c
d
e
f

b 4 sec ( 4x)

b E
d B

1
2

i sin (x) ecos (x)

b 4

exercise 7h

b 3

1 a

3x + 2
d 3 cos

3x
f 32 cos

1
2
b
2
cos (8 x )
cos (2 x + 1)
5
2
d
cos2 (5 x 2)
cos2 (2( x + 1))
3
cos2 ( x )
2(2 x) sin (x2 4x + 3)
(2x 5) cos (10 5x + x2)
ex cos (ex)
(2x + 7) sin (x2 + 7x)
4 2x
cos2 (4 x x 2 )
2x + 3
cos2 ( x 2 + 3 x )

3
2

6x2 + 2x 15
4x2 + 12x2 loge (6x) or 4x2 (1 + 3 loge (6x))
3x 2
b
+ 3 loge (2x)
x
3 D
4 a cos (x) x sin (x)
b 3 sin (x) + 3x cos (x)
c 3ex + 5xex
d 5e3x 33xe3x
e 5x4 cos (3x + 1) 3x5 sin (3x + 1)
f 6x2 loge (7x) + 2x2

2e 2 x

g 2e 2x loge (2x 5) +
2x 5
40loge (5 x ) 8 tan (5 x )
h
+
cos2 (5 x )
x
i 5 cos (2x) cos (x) 10 sin (2x) sin (x)
c
2a

4
3

4x
4x
cos cos (x) sin sin (x)
3
3

e4 x 3
x

l 20e 5x sin (2 x) 4e 5x cos (2 x)


cos (6 x )
6 sin (6x )
m

3
x
2 x

4e4x 3 loge (6x) +

e 3x

3 xe 3 x
2 x

1
1
sin
x
x2
2
j
cos (loge (2x 1))
2x 1
k 6e3x sin (2e3x)
3
l sin (loge (10x))
x
4 x (3 x + 4)
m
cos2 ( x 3 + 2 x 2 )

ii

the product rule


u = x + 3, v = 2x2 5x
du
dv
= 4x 5
=1,
b
dx
dx

b 7 cos (6 7x)

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

2
cos ( x )
c i
or cot (x)
ii 3
sin ( x )
1
sin ( x )
d i
or tan (x) ii
cos ( x )
3

3x

d 43 sec2

sin (loge (x))


x
h 4e4x cos (e4x)
g

24
3x
5 cos2
5

x
sin
4
p 2(x + 1) sin (x2 + 2x) + 3 cos (3x 9)

12 0
11 3.745
1
3e
3 2
13 a i cos (x) esin (x)
ii
e or
2
2

sin (4x + 7)
2x + 3
c 5 sin (6 5x)
d 23 sin
3
e 402 sin (10 x) f 12 sin (2x)

8 a

sin (3x 2)

x
d 13 cos

6x4 sin

2e2x

q
r

8x + 12e3x 2xe 3x + 3 x 2e
4x3 + 9x2 + 16x 18

loge (3x2 + 5) +

5 4 + 2 loge (4)
7 17.279

26
e
9 6 2
8

(2x + 3) + 4x 3 cos (2x + 3)

6 10

6 xe 2 x
3x 2 + 5
3 x

exercise 7I

the quotient rule


u = x + 3, v = x + 7
4
du
dv
dy
= 1,
=1
b
c
=
dx
dx
dx ( x + 7)2

1 a

u(x) = x2 + 2x, v(x) = 5 x


u(x) = 2x + 2, v(x) = 1
2 10
x + x + 10
c f ( x ) =
(5 x )2
3 Check with your teacher.
2
4 a
( x 4)2
2 a
b

b
c
d

e
f

3x 2 + 4 x 4
(3 x + 2)2
(sin(

x ) + cos( x ))
ex

33
(10 x )2
e 2 x (2 x

1)

2
g
cos2 (2 x )

j
k
l
m
n

(3 cos (2 x ) + 2 sin (2 x ))
cos2 (2 x )

4( x 2

+ 2)
( x 2 + 3 x 2)2
10 x 3

+ 6 x 2 35 x + 7
e5 x
3x 2 + 5
2 x3
9( x

+ 3)e 3 x
(3 x + 8)2

4[ x 2 2( x 1)loge (8 x )]
x 2 ( x 2)2
x cos ( x ) 2 sin ( x )
2x 2

4[ x sin (3 2 x ) cos (3 2 x )]
x3
3e 2 7 x (7 x + 22)
q
( x + 3)2
p

r
5D
7E

j
k
l

x 2 + 2 2 x ( x + 1)loge ( x + 1)
h
( x + 1)( x 2 + 2)2
i

3 x (2 loge (4 x ) 1)
(loge (4 x ))2

x2

3x + 2

exercise 7J Mixed problems


differentiation
1 a C
b P
d Q
e P
g C
h P
j C
k Q
m C
n Q
1
2 a
x
b 3 (sin (x) + x cos (x))
3 x 14
c
4x3
4 (cos ( x ) + x sin ( x ))
d
cos2 ( x )
5x
e e (5 sin (x) + cos (x))

4( x 2)e 2 x
(2 x 3)2
6 D

8 3

15
9 Does not exist as f ( x) =
0
4 (1 loge (10))
10
75

m
n
3 a
b

on
c
f
i
l

Q
Q
C
C

x (2 x + 9)loge ( x ) x 2 9 x + 8
x (loge ( x ))2
2(2 x) sin (x2 4x)
1
e x ( loge (5x))
x
cos( x )
or cot (x)
sin( x )
2 sin (x) cos (x)
3x
ex
1
2 x loge ( x )

sin (x) ecos (x)


1 or sec2 (x)
cos2 ( x )
5x
e [5 cos (4x 7) + 4 sin (4x 7)]
3x + 8
2 (3 x + 1)3

3
x +1
d 2(3 x) sin (x2 6x)
e ex (cos (2x) 2 sin (2x))
2
f
cos2 (2 x )

cos( x )
g
sin 2 ( x )
c

3cos(3 x )
h
sin(3 x )
i
j
k
l
m
n
o

4(6 x 5) e3 x 5 x + 2
3x2 + 8x 2
ex (x2 + 2x + 3)
(4 x 3 9 x 2 50)(2 x + 3)4
( x 3 5)2
4e4x [cos (4x 3) + sin (4x 3)]
6 cos (3x) sin (3x)
3sin(3 x )
cos(3 x )
2

2(2 x 4 cos ( x 4 ) sin ( x 4 ))


x3
2
q
sin 2 (2 x )
p

20[loge (5 x 1)]3
5x 1
1 2 loge ( x )
s
2x 2
5
x+3
t
cos
( x 2)2
x2
u 3x4 [5 cos (2x + 1) 2x sin (2x + 1)]
r

( )

3 4 loge x 32
2x3
w (sin (x) + x cos (x)) ex sin (x)

x 6 cos (x) sin (x) 7e 7x 3x2


v

2
2e 2
x
z 3 sin (x) cos2 (x)
2 x , x < 1 or x > 1

4 a i

2 x , 1 < x < 1
y 18cos(6x ) +

ii

y
6
5
4
3
2
1

f(x) =x2 1

f '(x) = 2x, x > 1

5 4 3 2 110
f '(x) = 2x, x < 1 2
3
4

f '(x) = 2x, 1< x < 1

2 x + 2, x < 2, x > 0

2 < x < 0

b i

2 x 2,
ii

7
6
f '(x) = 2x + 2,
5
2
f (x) =x + 2x
x>0
4
3
2
1
x
1 2 3
5 4 3 2 1 10
2 f '(x) = 2x 2,
3 2 < x < 0
4
5
f '(x) = 2x + 2, x <2

2cos(2 x ), 0 < x <

2
5 a i
2cos(2 x ), < x <

2
ii

y
2
1
0
1
2

f(x) =sin (2x)

3
4

f '(x) = 2 cos (2x), 0 < x <


2
f '(x) = 2 cos (2x), < x <
2


3
< x <
sin( x ), 0 < x < ,

2 2
b i
3

sin( x ),
<x<

2
2

Chapter 7 Differentiation

363

ii

f '(x) = sin (x), 3 < x 2


2
f(x) =cos (x)

y
1

4x
or 4x sec2 (2x2 3)
cos2 (2 x 2 3)
15 3x + 6x loge (6x)
14 f (x) =

16
0

3
2

f '(x) = sin (x), 0 < x <


2

f '(x) = sin (x), < x 3


2
2

Chapter reVIeW
ShOrt aNSWer

2 x 2 sin( x 2 ) cos( x 2 )

x2

2 a Domain f (x) = [0, ), range f (x) = [0, )

Domain g(x) = R, range g(x) = [1, )

b i 2 x +1
ii 4x + 1
c Domain f (g(x)) = R, range f (g(x))
2

= [2, )
Domain g(f(x)) = [0, ), range g(f (x))
= [1, )
2x

17 2 cos (2x) esin (2x)

2 x 2,

x < 0, x > 2

18 f ( x ) =
2 x + 2, 0 < x < 2

d i

ii 4

cos( x ), 0 < x <

2
19 f ( x ) =

cos( x ),
<x<0

e i
3 a

x
f '(x)

2 4
3 a
4 a

3x2 + 2
x2 4

5 a

6x3 +

8 1
4

6 a
7

3
4

18
x
x2

b5
b5

x2 3
ii 48
b6 5

1
5
9
13
17
21

B
A
A
C
B
D

10

3
7
11
15
19

E
D
E
A
C

4
8
12
16
20

C
B
A
A
D

1 a i
ii
iii
b

x = 20 and x = 0
(28, 20) (0, 12)
(20, 0)
y

dy

dx

2 xe x 2

25

b x=0

3x 2

28 20

c x = 10

0 1012 x

dy 3 x
=
( x + 20)
dx 200
e i 1.875
ii 1.5
iii 4.5
f Yes, the largest absolute value of the
gradient is 4.5, that is, the steepest
section.
g 30.24 m (at x = 12)
d

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

ii 4
y

0
3 2 1
1

1 2 3 4 5 6

b x=5
c x = 2 and x = 5

+4

x3 2
11 a = 1
12 f (x) = 6 cos (2x), f (2) = 6
5
13 f (x) =
or 5 sec2 (5x)
cos2 (5 x )

364

D
C
D
C
E

eXteNDeD reSpONSe

8 2e2x 1
9 a

2
6
10
14
18

4
5
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

MULtIpLe ChOICe
1 0

x2 + 1

2x, x < 2

2<x <5
d f ( x ) = 2,
1,
x >5
e

y
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0
3 2 1
1
2
3
4

1 2 3 4 5 6

Chapter 8

Applications of differentiation
diGital doC
doc-9212
10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS
8a
8B
8C
8d
8e
8F
8G

Equations of tangents and normals


Sketching curves
Maximum and minimum problems when the function is known
Maximum and minimum problems when the function is unknown
Rates of change
Related rates
Linear approximation

8a

Units: 3 & 4

equations of tangents and normals

As we have seen, a tangent to a curve is a straight line that


touches the curve at a given point and whose gradient
represents the gradient of the curve at that point. A normal to
a curve is a straight line passing through the point where the
tangent touches the curve and is perpendicular (at right
angles) to the tangent at that point.

f(x)

Tangent

Point of tangency
Normal
x

1
(as the product
If the gradient of the tangent to a curve is m, then the gradient of the normal is
1).
m
of the gradients of two perpendicular lines equals
The equation of a straight line passing through the point (x1, y1) and having a gradient of m is:

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
tangents and
normals.

y y1 = m(x x1).
The gradient of the tangent at x = a is f (a).
1
.
Therefore the gradient of the normal is
f (a)
The equation of the tangent at x = a is y f (a) = f (a)(x a) and
the equation of the normal is
1
( x a).
y f (a) =
f (a)

f(a)
0

Do more
Interact
with tangents.

f(x)
(a, f(a))
a

Worked example 1

Find the equation of the tangent to y = x3 2x + 3 at the point (1, 2).


think

Write

Write the equation.

Find

dy
.
dx

y = x3 2x + 3
dy
= 3x2 2
dx
Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation

365

dy
where x = 1 to find the gradient of
dx
the tangent where x = 1.
Evaluate

At x = 1,
dy
=32
dx
=1
So gradient of tangent is 1.

Substitute (1, 2) for (x1, y1) and m = 1 into the


rule for the equation of a straight line:
y y1 = m(x x1).

Equation of tangent at the point (1, 2) is


y 2 = 1(x 1)
y2=x1

Rearrange the rule to a simple form.

y=x+1

Worked example 2

Find the equation of:


a the tangent
b the normal to the curve with the equation y = 3 loge (2x) at x = 1.
think

Write

Write the equation.

y = 3 loge (2x)

Evaluate y when x = 1.

At x = 1, y = 3 loge (2)

Find

dy
.
dx

dy 3(2)
=
dx
2x
3
=
x

dy
when x = 1 to obtain the
dx
gradient of the tangent at x = 1.

a 1 Evaluate

Determine the equation of the tangent at


(1, 3 loge (2)).

b 1 Evaluate the gradient of the normal

which is

dy
dx

1 We1

366

dy 3
=
dx 1
=3
So gradient of tangent is 3.

a At x = 1,

Equation of tangent is
y 3 loge (2) = 3(x 1)
= 3x 3
y = 3x 3 + 3 loge (2)
b Gradient of normal is

1
.
3

Determine the equation of the normal at


(1, 3 loge (2)).

exercise 8a
diGital doC
doc-9213
Spreadsheet
tangent and normal

tUtorial
eles-1221
Worked example 2

Equation of normal is
y 3 loge (2) = 31 (x 1)
3y 9 loge (2) = 1(x 1)
= x + 1
x + 3y = 1 + 9 loge (2)
1 + 9 loge (2) x
y=

3
3

equations of tangents and normals

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x2 + x at the point (2, 6).

Find the equations of the tangent to the curve y = x2 + 5x 6 at the points where it crosses the x-axis.

3
4

Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 3x2 5x + 4 at the point where x = 1.
Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 12 x2 + 3x 7 at the point where it crosses the y-axis.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

5 We2 For each of the following functions, find the equation of:
i the ngent
ta
ii the normal at the given value of x.
b y = x3 6x, x = 2

a y = x2 + 1, x = 1
d y = (x 1)(x2 + 2), x = 1
g y = x(x + 2)(x 1), x =
j y = e2x, x = 0

e y=

x, x = 4
h y = 3x2 + 4x, x = 0
k y = e3x + 2, x = 1

n y = sin (2x), x =
3

x3

m y = loge (2x + 3), x = 0

,x=0
4
6 mC If y = (2x + 3)4 then at the point (1, 1)
a the equation of the normal is:
a y + 4x 3 = 0
B 8y + x 7 = 0
d y + 2x + 8 = 0
e 2y x = 0

1
,x=2
x
f y = 2 x + 3, x = 3
i y = 2x3 + x2 6x + 2, x = 1
l y = loge (x), x = 2
x
o y = 3 cos , x =
2
c y=

p y = sin 2 x +

C y 4x + 5 = 0

b the value of x where the gradient of the tangent is parallel to the x-axis is:
a
d

3
1
3

1
3
2
3

3
2

7 Find the equation of the tangent to f (x) = x2 + 4x + 1 which is parallel to the line y=2x+3.

x2 + 1
at x = 0.
x2 1

9 Find the equation of the normal to y = x sin (x) at x = .


2
10 Find the equation of the normal to y = loge (x + 2) which is parallel to the line with equation
y + 3x 5 = 0.
8 Find the equation of the tangent to y =

11 Find the equations of the tangent and normal for each of the following curves.
a f (x) = x2 + 1 at x = a

c f (x) = e x at x = 2a.
x at x = a
4x
12 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve f (x) = e that is perpendicular to the line x + 8y = 16.
13 The graph of y = x has a normal with equation y = 8x + b, where b is a real constant. Find the value of b.

8B

b f (x) =

diGital doC
doc-9214
WorkSHEET 8.1

Sketching curves

When the graphs of polynomial functions are being sketched, four main characteristics should be featured:
1. the basic shape (whenever possible)
2. the y-intercept
3. the x-intercept(s)
4. the stationary points.

Stationary points
A stationary point is a point on a graph where the function momentarily stops rising or falling; that is, it
is a point where the gradient is zero.
y

x
Function stops falling
and rises after this point.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
Do more
Interact
with stationary
points.

or
0

Units: 3 & 4

x
Gradient = 0 where function
stops rising momentarily,
then continues to rise again
after this point.

Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation

367

The stationary point (or turning point) of a quadratic function can be found by completing a perfect
square in the form y = (x + h)2 + k. In this case the stationary point is (h, k). For cubics, quartics or
higher-degree polynomials there is no similar procedure. Differentiation enables stationary points to be
found for most polynomial functions where the rule is known.
The gradient function of a function f (x) is f (x).
Stationary points occur wherever the gradient is zero.
f (x) has stationary points when f (x) = 0
or
y has stationary points when

dy
= 0.
dx

The solution of f (x) = 0 gives the x-value or values where stationary points occur.
If f (a) = 0, a stationary point occurs when x = a and y = f (a). So the coordinate of the stationary
point is (a, f (a)).

types of stationary points


Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.

There are four types of stationary points.


1. A local minimum turning point at x = a.
If x < a, then f (x) < 0 (immediately to the left of x = a, the gradient
is negative).
If x = a, then f (x) = 0 (at x = a the gradient is zero).
If x > a, then f (x) > 0 (immediately to the right of x=a, the gradient
is positive).
2. A local maximum turning point at x = a.
If x < a, then f (x) > 0.
If x = a, then f (x) = 0.
If x > a, then f (x) < 0.
The two cases (1 and 2) can be called turning points because the
gradients each side of the stationary point are opposite in sign (that is,
the graph turns).
The term local turning point at x = a implies in the vicinity ofx = a,
as polynomials can have more than one stationary point.
3. A positive stationary point of inflection at x = a.
If x < a, then f (x) > 0.
If x = a, then f (x) = 0.
If x > a, then f (x) > 0.
That is, the gradient is positive either side of the stationary point.

f(x)

f '(x) > 0
f '(x) < 0
0

f '(x) = 0
x

y
a

f(x)
y
Gradient = 0

f'(x)

4. A negative stationary point of inflection at x = a.


If x < a, then f (x) < 0.
If x = a, then f (x) = 0.
If x > a, then f (x) < 0.
In cases 3 and 4 above the word stationary implies that the gradient is
zero.

368

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

f(x)

Gradient = 0

Not all points of inflection are stationary points.


y

or
0

Gradient 0

When determining the nature of stationary points it is helpful to complete a gradient table, which
shows the sign of the gradient either side of any stationary points. This is known as the first derivative test.
Gradient tables are demonstrated in the examples that follow.
Worked example 3

a Find the stationary points and their nature for the function

f (x) = x3 + 5x2 8x 12.


b Show that the curve passes through (1, 0).
c Find the coordinates of all other intercepts.
d Hence, sketch the graph of f (x).
think

a 1 Write the rule for f (x).

tUtorial
eles-1222
Worked example 3

Write/draW

a f (x) = x3 + 5x2 8x 12

Differentiate f (x) to find f (x).

f (x) = 3x2 + 10x 8

Find all values of x where f (x) = 0.

For stationary points 3x2 + 10x 8 = 0


(3x 2)(x + 4) = 0
2

x=3
4

Find the value of f (x) for each value of


x where f (x) = 0.

or

x = 4

When x = 23 , f ( 23 ) = (23 )3 + 5( 23 )2 8(23 ) 12


= 14 22
27
so ( 2 , 14 22 ) is one stationary point.
3

77

When x = 4,
f (4) = (4)3 + 5(4)2 8(4) 12
= 36
so (4, 36) is another stationary point.
5

Complete a gradient table to determine the


nature of the stationary points.

State each stationary point and its nature.

Gradient table:
x

2
3

f (x)

Slope

Therefore (4, 36) is a local maximum


stationary point and ( 2 , 14 22 ) is a local
3
27
minimum stationary point.
Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation

369

b Show that f (1) = 0.

b f (1) = (1)3 + 5(1)2 8(1) 12

c 1 To find the x-intercepts, factorise f (x) by long

c As f (1) = 0 then (x + 1) is a factor of f (x)

division, or by another appropriate method,


knowing that (x + 1) is a factor of f (x).

= 1 + 5 + 8 12
=0
Therefore f (x) passes through (1, 0).

and

f (x) = (x + 1)(x2 + 4x 12)


= (x + 1)(x + 6)(x 2)

Solve f (x) = 0.

x-intercepts:
(x + 1)(x + 6)(x 2) = 0
x = 1 or 6 or 2

State the coordinates of the x-intercepts.

The x-intercepts are (1, 0), (6, 0) and (2, 0).

Evaluate f (0) to determine the y-intercept.

State the coordinate of the y-intercept.

d Sketch the graph of f (x) showing all intercepts

f (0) = (0)3 + 5(0)2 8(0) 12


= 12
The y-intercept is (0, 12).
d

and stationary points.

(4, 36)

f(x)

(6, 0)
(2, 0) x

(1, 0)
(0, 12)

)
( 23 , 14 22
27

Worked example 4

Sketch the graph of g(x) = x2(4 x2), clearly indicating all stationary points and intercepts.
think

Write/draW

Write the rule for g(x).

g(x) = x2(4 x2)

Expand g(x) to make it easier to differentiate.

g(x) = 4x2 x4

Differentiate g(x).

g(x) = 8x 4x3

Solve g(x) = 0.

For stationary points,


g(x) = 0
8x 4x3 = 0
4x(2 x2) = 0
x = 0 or x2 = 2
x=0

Find g(x) for each value of x where g(x) = 0.

x = 2 or 2

or

When x = 0, g(0) = 0
When x = 2 , g( 2 ) = 4( 2 )2 ( 2 )4
=4
When x = 2,

g( 2) = 4( 2)2 ( 2)4
=4
Therefore the stationary points are ( 2 , 4), (0, 0)
and ( 2 , 4).
6

370

Complete a gradient table to determine the


nature of the stationary points.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Gradient table:
x

g(x)
Slope

+
/

+
/

2
0

State the stationary points and their nature.

Therefore ( 2 , 4) is a local maximum stationary


point.
(0, 0) is a local minimum stationary point.
( 2, 4) is a local maximum stationary point.

Solve g(x) = 0 to determine the x-intercepts.

x-intercepts: When g(x) = 0,


x2(4 x2) = 0
x2 = 0 or x2 = 4
x = 0 or x = 2 or 2
The x-intercepts are (2, 0), (0, 0) and (2, 0).

Find g(0) to determine the y-intercept.

y-intercept: When x = 0,
g(0) = 02(4 02)
=0
The y-intercept is (0, 0).

10

Sketch the graph of g(x).

( 2, 4)

( 2, 4)

(2, 0)
(0, 0) 0

(2, 0)

x
g(x)

Worked example 5

If f (x) = x3 + 4x2 3x 7:
a sketch the graph of f (x)
b state the values of x where f (x) is i increasing and ii decreasing.
think

a 1 Write the rule for f (x).

Write/draW

f (x) = x3 + 4x2 3x 7

Differentiate f (x) to find f (x).

f (x) = 3x2 + 8x 3

Solve f (x) = 0 to find the x-intercepts


of f (x).

x-intercepts: When f (x) = 0,


3x2 + 8x 3 = 0
(3x 1)(x + 3) = 0
x = 1 or 3
3

The x-intercepts of f (x) are ( 1 , 0) and (3, 0).


3

Evaluate f (0) to find the y-intercept of f (x).

Sketch the graph of f (x) (an upright


parabola).

y-intercept: When x = 0,
f (0) = 3
so the y-intercept of f (x) is (0, 3).
y

f '(x)

1
3

3
b

i f (x) increases where f (x) > 0. Byinspecting

the graph of f (x) deduce where f (x) is


positive (that is, above the x-axis).

ii f (x) decreases where f (x) < 0. Byinspecting

the graph of f (x), deduce where f (x) is


negative (that is, below the x-axis).

b i f (x) > 0 where x < 3 and x >

increasing where x <

ii f (x) < 0 where 3 < x <

where 3 < x <

1
.
3

1
3

so f (x) is
and x > 1 .
3

1
3

so f (x) is decreasing

Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation

371

Worked example 6

Consider the function f ( x ) = ( x + 3)( x a) 2 , where a is a positive real constant.


a Find f (x).
b Find the coordinates of the stationary points.
c Determine the nature of the stationary points.
d Find the value of a in exact form if the straight line with equation y = 5x + 15 intersects y = f (x)
at the maximum turning point.
think

a 1 Using a CAS calculator define f (x).


2

Determine the derivative of f (x) using the


differentiation feature of your CAS calculator.

b 1 To determine the stationary points first find

the x-values by solving for f (x) = 0.

Write the value(s) of x.

Substitute the x-values from step 2 into f (x)


to find the y-coordinates of the stationary
points.

c 1 To determine the nature of the stationary

points, let a = 1 (as a is given as a positive


real constant).
Substitute a = 1 into the answer found
previously to obtain the stationary points.

Complete a gradient table to determine the


nature of the stationary points.

State the stationary points and their nature.

State the stationary points and their nature in


terms of a.

d 1 The maximum turning point lies on the

straight line y = 5x + 15.


Substitute the coordinates of the turning
point into the equation and solve.

372

Determine the values of a.

Select for the appropriate value of a given


that f (x) is a positive function.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Write

a f (x) = (x + 3)(x a)2

d
(f (x)) = (x a)(3x a + 6)
dx
b Solve ((x a)(3x a + 6) = 0, x)

x=

a6
or x = a
3

3
a 6 4(a + 3)
=
f
3
27

f (a) = 0
1 6 4(1 + 3)3
and (1, 0)
27

,
c
3

5 256
and (1, 0) are the stationary points.
,
3 27

f (x)

Slope

(1, 0) is a local minimum turning point.


is a local maximum turning point.

5 , 256
3 27

(a, 0) is a local minimum turning point and


a 6 4(a + 3)3
is a local maximum turning
3 ,
27 point.
a 6
4(a + 3)3

+ 15, a
= 5
3

27

d Solve

3(

5 + 2)
or
2
a = 3 or
a=

a=

3( 5 2)
2

a=

3( 5 2)
2

exercise 8B
1 We3
a
d
g
j
m

Sketching curves

Find the stationary points and their nature for each of the following functions.

y = 8 x2
f (x) = 4x 2x2 x3
y = 5 6x + x2
y = 3x4 8x3 + 6x2 + 5
h(x) = 12 x3

b
e
h
k
n

f (x) = x3 3x
g(x) = 4x3 3x4
f (x) = x3 + 8
g(x) = x(x2 27)
g(x) = x3(x 4)

c
f
i
l

g(x) = 2x2 8x
y = x2(x + 3)
y = x2 x + 6
y = x3 + 4x2 3x 2

2 We3 Sketch the graph of each function in question 1, clearly indicating all stationary points.
3 a We3 Find the stationary points of the function f (x) = x3 2x2 7x 4 and state their nature.
b Show that the graph passes through (4, 0).
c Give the coordinates of all other intercepts and hence sketch the graph of f (x).
4 a Find the stationary points, and their nature, for the curve y = x3 x2 16x + 16.
b
Show that the graph passes through (1, 0) and give the coordinates of all other intercepts.
c Sketch the graph.
5 a We3 Find the stationary points of the function g(x) = x4 4x2 and state their nature.
b Find the coordinates of all the intercepts.
c Sketch the graph of g(x).
6 a
b
c
d

If y = x4 6x2 + 8x 3, find each stationary point and its nature.


Show that the point (1, 0) lies on the curve.
Find all other intercepts.
Sketch the graph.

7 a If y = x4 + x3 5x2 6, find each stationary point and its nature.


b Find the y-intercept.
c Sketch the graph without finding the x-intercepts.
8 We4 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, clearly indicating all stationary points and

intercepts.
a f (x) = x4 x2
c g(x) = x3 + 3x4
e h(x) = x3 4x2 11x + 30
g f (x) = x4 2x2 + 1
i g(x) = x3 + 9x2 + 24x + 20

b
d
f
h
j

f (x) = x3 3x2
g(x) = x3 4x2 + 4x
h(x) = x(x + 3)(x 5)
f (x) = x(x2 + 1)
h(x) = (x2 1)3

9 mC If f (x) < 0 where x > 2 and f (x) > 0 where x < 2, then at x = 2, f (x) has a:
a local minimum
C point of inflection
e gradient of 2

B local maximum
d discontinuous point

10 mC The function f (x) = x3 + x2 8x 3 has stationary points when x is equal to:


4
a 2 and

B 3 only

d 3 and

4
3

11 mC The graph of y =

C 2 only

e 0 and 2

x4

x3

has:

a a local maximum where x = 0


B a local minimum where x = 0

C a local minimum where x = 3


4

d a local maximum where x = 3


4

e a local maximum where x = 4

12 mC A quadratic function has a turning point (2, 1) and a y-intercept of (0, 9).

The equation must be:


a y = (x 2)2 + 9
C y = (x 2)2 + 1
e y = 2(x 2)2 + 1

B y = (x 1)2 + 8
d y = 2(x 2)2 + 9

Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation

373

13 The graphs of f (x) are shown below. Find all values of x for which f (x) has stationary points and state

their nature.
a

f '(x)

f '(x)

f '(x)
y

f '(x)

y
f '(x)

0 1

f'(x)
14 Show that f (x) = x2 4x + 3 is decreasing for x < 2 and increasing for x > 2.
i sketch f (x) and, hence, state the values of x where

15 We5 For each of the following functions


f (x) is ii increasing and iii decreasing.
a f (x) = 1 x3 + 2x2 + 2
3

b g(x) = x3 + 2x2 7x 5

c h(x) = x4 + 4x3 + 4x2

16 If y = f (x) has the following properties then sketch its graph.

f (x) = 0 if x = 2 and x = 3

diGital doC
doc-9263
SkillSHEET 8.1
review of derivatives
other than polynomials

Units: 3 & 4
AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept
summary
Read a summary
of this concept.
See more
Watch
a video about
maximums and
minimums.

374

f (x) < 0 if 2 < x <

f (x) > 0 for all other x

17 If f (x) = x3 + ax2 + bx has stationary points at x = 2 and x =


a the value of a and b
b the nature of the stationary points.

4
3

, find:

18 If f (x) = x4 + ax2 + b has a stationary point (1, 4), find:


a a and b

b the other stationary points

c the nature of each stationary point.

19 We6 Consider the function f ( x ) = (b x )( x +


where b is a positive real constant.
a Find f (x).
b Find the coordinates of the stationary points.
c State the nature of the stationary points when b > 1.
d Find the equation of the tangent at x = 2.
e If the maximum turning point occurs at x = 4, find the value of b.

2)2

20 We6 Consider the function f ( x ) = ( x + b) (2 x 1) where b is a positive real constant.


a Find f (x).
b Find the coordinates of the stationary points.
c Find the equation of the tangent to the curve when x = 2.
d Find the value of b in exact form if the straight line with equation y = 4x 2 intersects
2

y = f (x) at the minimum turning point.

maximum and minimum problems


when the function is known y
Local
8C

In many practical situations the maximum or minimum


value of a quantity is desired. For example it is important
for manufacturers or business operators to minimise the
costs involved in running their businesses. Equally, it is
just as important to maximise their profits.
A graph is always useful and helps us to find
approximately where a maximum or minimum occurs.

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS

Maximum

maximum

Local
minimum

x
Minimum

As we have seen, local maximum and/or minimum stationary points occur where the derivative
is zero.
dP
If P = f (x) then a local maximum and/or minimum may exist where
= 0.
dx
To decide whether a solution is a maximum or a minimum the first derivative test must be applied
(by setting up a gradient table).
A graph of the function could be sketched if it is not difficult, to
y
ensure that the maximum or minimum value is applicable.
The function f (x) has a limited domain of [1, 5].
f(x)
The maximum value occurs at the point where x = 4.
The minimum value, however, is not at x = 2 but at the end point x = 5.
This example shows that the derivative test on its own is not always
x
0 1 2 3 4 5
reliable for finding maximum or minimum values and a graph is
sometimes necessary.

Solving maximum and minimum problems


When finding the maximum/minimum value of f (x) the following steps are taken.
1. Find f (x) (to obtain the gradient function).
2. Solve for x where f (x) = 0 (to find the values of x where the maximum or minimum occur).
3. Apply the first derivative test as a check. Also, sketch the graph of f (x).
4. Check end points if domain is restricted.
5. Substitute the appropriate value of x into f (x) to obtain the maximum or minimum.
Worked example 7

The population of a colony of birds at any time,


t months, after observation began can be modelled
by the function:
t

P(t) = 400 te 5 + 600 ,


where P is the number of birds.
Find:
a the initial population
b when the largest number of birds is reached
c the maximum number of birds.
think

a 1 Write the rule for P(t).


2

The initial value occurs when t = 0 and


is P(0).

b 1 Find P(t) using the product rule.

Write

a P(t) = 400te

b P(t) = 400te

=
Solve P(t) = 0.

+ 600

P(0) = 400(0)e0 + 600


= 0 + 600
= 600
So the initial population of birds is 600.

t
5

t
5

+ 400t (

t
t
400e 5 80te 5
t
80e 5 (5 t)

1
5

)e

t
5

+0

For maximum and/or minimum, P(t) = 0


80e

t
5

(5 t) = 0

t = 5 (as 80e

t
5

cannot equal 0)
Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation

375

Check that it is a maximum using the first


derivative test.

Gradient table:
t

10

P(t)

Slope

Therefore the maximum population occurs


after 5 months.
c Evaluate P(5) to find the maximum number

of birds.

c P(5) = 400(5)e

5
5

+ 600
= 2000e + 600
= 735.8 + 600