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Units 3&4 Mathematics Methods CAS Maths Quest 12 2nd Edition eBook.

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MATHS QUEST 12

Mathematical

Methods CAS

MATHS QUEST 12

Mathematical

Methods CAS

BRIAN HODGSON | NICOLAOS KARANIKOLAS | BEVERLY LANGSFORD-WILLING

MARK DUNCAN | TRACY HERFT | LIBBY KEMPTON | JENNIFER NOLAN | GEOFF PHILLIPS

CONTRIBUTING AUTHORS

RAYMOND ROZEN | MARGARET SWALE | ROBERT CAHN | RUTH BAKOGIANIS

ANDREW MENTLIKOWSKI | MARK BARNES | KYLIE BOUCHER | JENNY WATSON | CAROLINE DENNEY

SONJA STAMBULIC | ELENA IAMPOLSKY | ROSS ALLEN | RODNEY EBBAGE

2ND EDITION

VCE M AT H EM AT I CS U N I T S 3 & 4

John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd

42 McDougall Street, Milton, Qld 4064

First edition published 2010

Typeset in 10/12 pt Times LT Std

John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd 2010, 2013

The moral rights of the authors have been asserted.

National Library of Australia

Cataloguing-in-Publication data

Author:

Title:

Edition:

Publisher:

ISBN:

Notes:

Target audience:

Subjects:

Dewey number:

Hodgson, Brian

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods

CAS/Brian Hodgson et al.

2nd ed.

Milton, Qld: John Wiley & Sons Australia,

2009.

978 1 118 31068 7 (student pbk)

978 1 118 31081 6 (flexisaver)

978 1 118 31070 0 (student eBook)

Includes index.

For secondary school age.

Mathematics Textbooks.

510

The Australian Copyright Act 1968 (the Act) allows a maximum

of one chapter or 10% of the pages of this work, whichever

is the greater, to be reproduced and/or communicated by any

educational institution for its educational purposes provided that

the educational institution (or the body that administers it) has

given a remuneration notice to Copyright Agency Limited (CAL).

Reproduction and communication for other purposes

Except as permitted under the Act (for example, a fair dealing

for the purposes of study, research, criticism or review), no part

of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,

communicated or transmitted in any form or by any means

without prior written permission. All inquiries should be made to

the publisher.

Cover and internal design images: vic&dd/Shutterstock.com

Illustrated by Aptara and the Wiley Art Studio

Typeset in India by Aptara

Printed in Singapore by

Craft Print International Ltd

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Contents

Introduction viii

About eBookPLUS x

Acknowledgements xi

ExAm PrACtICE 1

Based on chapters 12

Chapter 3

Chapter 1

1A The binomial theorem

4

5

Exercise 1B 7

Division of polynomials 8

Exercise 1C 10

Linear graphs 11

Exercise 1D 14

Quadratic graphs 15

Exercise 1E 20

Cubic graphs 22

Exercise 1F 25

Quartic graphs 29

Exercise 1G 33

Solving systems of equations

Exercise 1H 42

Exercise 1A

1D

1E

1F

1G

1H

3B

3C

3D

3E

3F

3G

3H

34

3I

Summary 44

Chapter review 47

ICT activities 52

Answers 53

Chapter 2

57

2C

2D

2E

2F

2G

2H

2I

2J

57

Exercise 2A 62

The cubic function in power form 63

Exercise 2B 67

The power function (the hyperbola) 68

Exercise 2C 72

The power function (the truncus) 75

Exercise 2D 79

The square root function in power form 81

Exercise 2E 85

The absolute value function 86

Exercise 2F 89

Transformations with matrices 90

Exercise 2G 94

Sum, difference and product functions 95

Exercise 2H 98

Composite functions and functional equations

Exercise 2I 101

Modelling 101

Exercise 2J 106

Summary 109

Chapter review 112

ICT activities 118

Answers 119

129

Exercise 3A 132

Logarithm laws 133

Exercise 3B 136

Exponential equations 137

Exercise 3C 140

Logarithmic equations using any base 141

Exercise 3D 143

Exponential equations (base e) 144

Exercise 3E 146

Equations with natural (base e) logarithms 147

Exercise 3F 147

Inverses 148

Exercise 3G 149

Literal equations 150

Exercise 3H 151

Exponential and logarithmic modelling 152

Exercise 3I 153

Summary 156

Chapter review 157

ICT activities 160

Answers 161

Chapter 4

2B

129

1B Polynomials

1C

127

163

4B

4C

4D

4E

4F

4G

99

4H

163

Exercise 4A 170

Logarithmic graphs to any base 171

Exercise 4B 177

Graphs of exponential functions with base e 178

Exercise 4C 182

Logarithmic graphs to base e 183

Exercise 4D 186

Finding equations for graphs of exponential and

logarithmic functions 187

Exercise 4E 189

Addition of ordinates 190

Exercise 4F 194

Exponential and logarithmic functions with absolute

values 196

Exercise 4G 198

Exponential and logarithmic modelling using

graphs 199

Exercise 4H 200

Summary 203

Chapter review 205

ICT activities 210

Answers 211

7E The derivative of e x

Chapter 5

Inverse functions

223

Exercise 5A

227

Exercise 5B

Exercise 5D

7H

232

235

5D Restricting functions

7G

228

231

5C Inverse functions

Exercise 5C

7F

223

7I

236

241

7J

Summary 244

Chapter review 245

ICT activities 249

Answers 250

Chapter 6

259

6B

6C

6D

6E

6F

6G

6H

6I

259

Exercise 6A 262

Symmetry and exact values 263

Exercise 6B 268

Trigonometric equations 270

Exercise 6C 275

Trigonometric graphs 276

Exercise 6D 280

Graphs of the tangent function 282

Exercise 6E 285

Finding equations of trigonometric graphs 286

Exercise 6F 288

Trigonometric modelling 289

Exercise 6G 290

Further graphs 292

Exercise 6H 297

Trigonometric functions with an increasing

trend 298

Exercise 6I 298

Summary 300

Chapter review 303

ICT activities 306

Answers 307

Applications of differentiation

365

8B

8C

8D

8E

8F

8G

365

Exercise 8A 366

Sketching curves 367

Exercise 8B 373

Maximum and minimum problems when the

function is known 374

Exercise 8C 377

Maximum and minimum problems when the

function is unknown 378

Exercise 8D 382

Rates of change 383

Exercise 8E 385

Related rates 387

Exercise 8F 389

Linear approximation 390

Exercise 8G 391

Summary 393

Chapter review 394

ICT activities 398

Answers 399

9B

317

Exercise 7A 321

7B Limits and differentiation from first

principles 325

Exercise 7B 328

7C The derivative of xn 330

Exercise 7C 331

7D The chain rule 332

Exercise 7D 334

Contents

Chapter 8

403

9A Antidifferentiation

315

vi

Summary 353

Chapter review 355

ICT activities 359

Answers 360

Integration

Chapter 7

Differentiation

341

Chapter 9

ExAm PrACtICE 2

Based on chapters 16

335

Exercise 7E 337

The derivative of loge (x) 338

Exercise 7F 340

The derivatives of sin (x), cos (x) and tan (x)

Exercise 7G 343

The product rule 344

Exercise 7H 345

The quotient rule 346

Exercise 7I 347

Mixed problems on differentiation 348

Exercise 7J 351

9C

317

9D

9E

9F

9G

403

Exercise 9A 409

Integration of e x, sin (x) and cos (x) 411

Exercise 9B 413

Integration by recognition 414

Exercise 9C 417

Approximating areas enclosed by functions 418

Exercise 9D 421

The fundamental theorem of integral calculus 423

Exercise 9E 426

Signed areas 427

Exercise 9F 430

Further areas 432

Exercise 9G 435

437

Exercise 9H 439

9I Average value of a function 441

Exercise 9I 444

9J Further applications of integration

Exercise 9J 447

Exercise 11D 550

445

Summary 449

Chapter review 452

ICT activities 456

Answers 457

Summary 554

Chapter review 555

ICT activities 559

Answers 560

Chapter 12

Continuous distributions

Based on chapters 19

463

12B

Chapter 10

10A Probability revision

465

465

12C

477

479

Exercise 10B 484

10C Measures of centre of discrete random

distributions 487

Exercise 10C 492

10D Measures of variability of discrete random

distributions 494

Exercise 10D 501

563

ExAm PrACtICE 3

Exercise 10A

547

Summary 504

Chapter review 506

ICT activities 511

Answers 512

12D

12E

12F

12G

Chapter 11

515

515

11B Problems involving the binomial distribution for

multiple probabilities 526

Exercise 11B 529

11C Markov chains and transition matrices 532

Exercise 11C 543

563

Exercise 12A 566

Using a probability density function to

find probabilities of continuous random

variables 568

Exercise 12B 572

Measures of central tendency and

spread 575

Exercise 12C 580

Applications to problem solving 581

Exercise 12D 584

The normal distribution 586

Exercise 12E 589

The standard normal distribution 591

Exercise 12F 597

The inverse cumulative normal

distribution 599

Exercise 12G 602

Summary 605

Chapter review 608

ICT activities 612

Answers 613

ExAm PrACtICE 4

617

619

Answers

Index

621

642

645

Contents

vii

Introduction

Maths Quest 12 Mathematical Methods CAS is specifically designed for the VCE Mathematical Methods

CAS course and based on the award-winning Maths Quest series.

The suite of resources for this title include:

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Flexi-saver versions of all print products

teacher support material available on the eGuidePLUS.

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viii

Introduction

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Introduction

ix

About eBookPLUS

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Acknowledgements

xi

Chapter 1

DiGitaL DoC

doc-9159

10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS

1a

1B

1C

1D

1e

1F

1G

1h

Polynomials

Division of polynomials

Linear graphs

Quadratic graphs

Cubic graphs

Quartic graphs

Solving systems of equations

1a

In Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS we learned the following binomial expansions:

(x + a)2 = x2 + 2xa + a2

(x + a)3 = x3 + 3x2a + 3xa2 + a3

These are called binomial expansions because the expressions in the brackets contain two terms,

bi meaning 2.

By continuing to multiply successively by a further (x + a), the following expansions would be

obtained:

(x + a)4 = (x3 + 3x2a + 3xa2 + a3)(x + a)

= x4 + 4x3a + 6x2a2 + 4xa3 + a3

5

(x + a) = (x4 + 4x3a + 6x2a2 + 4xa3 + a3)(x + a)

= x5 + 5x4a + 10x3a2 + 10x2a3 + 5xa4 + a5

The coefficients associated with each term can be arranged in a triangular shape as shown:

(x + a)0

(x + a)1

(x + a)2

(x + a)3

(x + a)4

(x + a)5

1

1

2

3

4

5

1

1

3

6

10

1

4

10

1

5

Notes

1. The first and last numbers of each row are 1.

2. Each other number is the sum of the two numbers immediately above it.

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

This triangle is known as Pascals triangle. Each number can also be obtained using combinations, as

follows.

Row

0

0

1

1

1

0

2

1

2

0

3

1

3

0

3

4

0

4

1

2

2

3

2

4

2

3

3

4

3

4

4

n

n!

Note: = nCr =

( n r )! r !

r

n

Remember that nCr is another way of writing , and is called n-choose-r.

r

For example, the expansion of (x + a)6 can be written using combinations and then evaluated:

6

6

6

6

6

6

6

(x + a)6 = x6a0 + x5a1 + x4a2 + x3a3 + x2a4 + x1a5 + x0a6

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

6

5

4

2

3

3

2

4

4

6

= x + 6x a + 15x a + 20x a + 15x a + 6xa + a

Now the binomial theorem can be formally stated.

n

n

n

n

(ax + b)n = (ax)nb0 + (ax)n 1b1 + . . . +

(ax)1bn 1 + (ax)0bn

0

1

n 1

n

Notes

1. The indices in each term always sum to n, that is, the powers of (ax) and b sum to n.

2. The power of ax decreases from left to right while the power of b increases.

3. The number of terms in the expansion is always n + 1.

n

4. The (r + 1)th term is (ax)n r br.

r

The binomial theorem can also be stated using summation notation:

n

n

(ax + b)n = (ax)n rbr, where

r = 0 r

r= 0

WorkeD exampLe 1

think

1

where ax is the 1st term, b is the 2nd term and

n is the index, using the appropriate row of

Pascals triangle to assist.

Write

4

4

(2x 3)4 = (2x)4(3)0 + (2x)3(3)1

0

1

4

4

+ (2x)2(3)2 + (2x)1(3)3

2

3

4

+ (2x)0(3)4

4

+ 4(2x)(27) + 1(81)

Simplify.

WorkeD exampLe 2

5

2

x

think

1

Write

2

ax = 2 , b = x and n = 5, using row 5 of Pascals

x

triangle to assist.

5

5

4

3

2

2

2

2 2

2 + x = 2 + 5 2 x + 10 2 x

x

x

x

x

2

2

2

+10 2 x 3 + 5 2 x 4 + x 5

x

x

Simplify.

32

16

8

+ 5 8 x + 10 6 x 2

10

x

x

x

2

4

+10 4 x 3 + 5 2 x 4 + x 5

x

x

32 80 80 40

+

+

+

+ 10 x 2 + x 5

x10 x 7 x 4

x

WorkeD exampLe 3

think

Write

i x0, x1, x2

2, . . . Use this to find which term gives a

power of x2.

2

binomial theorem.

tUtoriaL

eles-1173

Worked example 3

8

Third term = 36 (2x)2

2

= 28 729 4x2

= 81 648x2

The coefficient of x2 is 81 648.

ii x0, x1, x2, x3, x4

8

Fifth term = 34 (2x)4

4

= 70 81 16x4

= 90 720x4

WorkeD exampLe 4

think

Write

5

Fourth term = x2(2y)3

3

= 10 x2 8y3

= 80x2y3

WorkeD exampLe 5

1 5

x

think

1

Write

in the expansion from left to right.

1

Powers of x are (x3)5 = x15, (x3)4 2 = x10,

x

2

3

1

1

(x 3)3 2 = x5, (x 3)2 2 = x0 . . .

x

x

Evaluate.

The fourth term is independent of x, as the

power of x = 0.

3

5

1

Fourth term = ( x 3 )2 2

x

3

1

6

= 10 x 6

x

= 10

The term that is independent of x is the fourth

term, 10.

WorkeD exampLe 6

think

1

Write

second brackets respectively: terms 1 and 2, terms

2 and 3, terms 3 and 4 and terms 4 and 5.

Write down the sum of these 4 products, using

y4 terms = y3[5(2)4(y)] + 3y2(3)[10(2)3(y)2]

Pascals triangle to assist.

+ 3y(3)2[10(2)2(y)3] + 33[5(2)(y)4]

Evaluate.

exercise 1a

DiGitaL DoC

doc-9238

SkillSHEET 1.1

Binomial expansions

1 We1

= 170y4

The coefficient of y4 is 170.

b (x + 4)5

c (x 1)8

4

e (7 x)

f (2 3x)5

a (x + 3)2

d (2x + 3)4

1 3

x

2 7

x

a x +

b 3x

5

3

2

x

x2

6

2 3

x +

x

3 We3

a (x 7)3

2

c + 3 x

b (2x + 1)5

3 6

d x2

e 7x +

D 45

e 135

3 6

x2

5 3

x

a 135

B 45

C 75

a (x + 6)8

6 mC If x 3 +

a 15

B 3x 2

1 7

C 6 x +

5 8

D (8 3x)5

1 8

2

x

x2

2 5

e

f

= ax15 + bx10 + cx 5 + d + 5 + 10 , then a + b + c + d + e + f equals:

2

x

x

x

B 31

C 63

D 243

e 127

a (3

2x)4

B (2x 3)(2x

3)3

(2 x 3)6

(3 2 x)2

9

10

11

12

13

x 9

4

2 6

We5

Find and evaluate the term that is independent of x in the expansion of 3 x + 2 .

x

5

2 4

Find and evaluate the term independent of x in the expansion of x 3 .

x

3 4

x

We6 Find the coefficient of p4 in the expansion of (p + 3)5(2p 5).

14 In the expansion of (2a 1)n, the coefficient of the second term is 192. Find the value of n.

1B

Units: 3 & 4

polynomials

A polynomial in x is an expression that consists of terms which have non-negative integer powers

of x only.

P(x) is a polynomial in x if:

P(x) = an xn + an 1 xn 1 + . . . + a2 x2 + a1 x + a0

where n is the degree (or highest power) of the polynomial and is a non-negative integer. The values of

an, an 1, . . ., a2, a1 and a0 are called the coefficients of their respective power of x terms.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

WorkeD exampLe 7

9

a x6 4x4 + 2x3 + 7x

b x 2 + x3 x2 + 6 x 5

2

d 8 + 2x 3x2 + 9x3 x4

e 3 x 2 2

x

think

c 7 3xy + 4x2 x3 +

Write

expressions with non-negative integer powers

of x only.

1 a

which is not an integer.

2 b

( ), which is not an integer, and it also

has one term, 3xy, which is not a power

of x only.

3 c

1

2

2

= 2 x 2 and so

x2

has a power that is not a positive integer.

4 e

WorkeD exampLe 8

Given that P(x) = 6 2x + 3x2 + x4, Q(x) = x5 2x4 + x2 5x 2 and R(x) = x2 4, find:

a P(x) + Q(x)

b P(x) R(x).

think

2

Write

+ x2 5x 2

= x5 x4 + 4x2 7x + 4

Remove brackets.

= 6 2x + 3x2 + x4 x2 + 4

= x4 + 2x2 2x + 10

evaluating polynomials

A value for a polynomial, P(x), can be found for a particular value of x by simply substituting the given

value of x into the polynomial expression and evaluating. That is, polynomial functions are evaluated in

the same way as any function.

WorkeD exampLe 9

a its degree

b P(1)

c P(2).

think

Write

a The degree of the polynomial is the highest power a The degree of P(x) is 4.

of x.

b 1 Substitute the given value of x into the

polynomial expression.

2

Evaluate.

polynomial expression.

2

Evaluate.

=21+56+4=4

c P(2) = 2(2)4 (2)3 + 5(2)2 6(2) + 4

= 32 + 8 + 20 + 12 + 4 = 76

WorkeD exampLe 10

If p(x) = ax5 + x4 3x3 + bx 5, p(1) = 5 and p(2) = 65, find the values of a and b.

think

Write

polynomial and equate it to the given answer.

equation [1].

polynomial and equate it to the given answer.

b=4a

= 65

b = 4 2

=6

Therefore, a = 2 and b = 6.

polynomials

1 We7

i

[2]

32a + 8 2a = 52

30a = 60

a = 2

x3

[1]

Substituting b = 4 a:

32a + 2(4 a) = 52

exercise 1B

+ 1 + 3 b 5 = 5

a + 4 b = 0

32a + 16 24 + 2b 5 = 65

32a + 2b 13 = 65

32a + 2b = 52

10

= 5

2x

ii x4 + 3x2 2x +

2

x

Given that P(x) = 8 3x + 2x2 + x4, Q(x) = x5 3x4 4x2 1 and R(x) = 8x3 + 7x2 4x

iv 3x8 2x5 + x2 7

2 We8

then find:

a P(x) + Q(x)

v 4x6 x3 + 2x 3

b Q(x) R(x)

vi 2 x 5 + x 4 x 3 + x 2 + 3 x

c 3P(x) 2R(x)

3 We9 For each of the following polynomials, find: i its degree ii P(0) iii P(2) and iv P(1).

a P(x) = x6 + 2x5 x3 + x2

c P(x) = 5x6 + 3x4 2x3 6x2 + 3

4 mC If P(x) =

x8

3x6

a 479

5 We10

2x4

x2

+ 3, then

B 95

If P(x) =

2x7

ax5

d P(x) = 7 + 2x 5x2 + 2x3 3x4

P(2)

C 31

3x3

is equal to:

D 481

e 103

DiGitaL DoC

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Spreadsheet

evaluating polynomials

6 Find a and b, given that f (x) = ax4 + bx3 3x2 4x + 7, f (1) = 2 and f (2) = 5.

7 For Q(x) = x5 + 2x4 + ax3 6x + b, Q(2) = 45 and Q(0) = 7. Find a and b.

DiGitaL DoC

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SkillSHEET 1.2

Simultaneous

equations

9 mC

a 1

B 0

C 2

D 3

n

3

2

b If f (x) = x 2x + x 5x and f (2) = 10, then n is equal to:

a 4

B 6

C 7

D 5

a

e 2

e 1

1C

interaCtiVitY

int-0246

Division of polynomials

Division of polynomials

When sketching cubic or higher order graphs, it is necessary to factorise the polynomials in order to find

the x-intercepts. As will be shown later in this section, division of polynomials can be used to factorise

an expression.

When one polynomial, P(x), is divided by another, D(x), the result can be expressed as:

P( x )

R( x )

= Q( x ) +

D( x )

D( x )

where Q(x) is called the quotient,

R(x) is called the remainder, and

D(x) is called the divisor.

WorkeD exampLe 11

Find the quotient, Q(x), and the remainder, R(x), when x4 3x3 + 2x2 8

is divided by the linear expression x + 2.

think

1

polynomial in descending powers of x. If one

of the powers of x is missing, include it with

0 as the coefficient.

Write

x + 2 x4 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

x +2

x4

x3

3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

result underneath.

x3

x + 2 x4 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

x4 + 2x3

to complete the expression.

x3

x + 2 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

(x4 + 2x3)

5x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

division.

x3 5x2 + 12x 24

x + 2 3x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

(x4 + 2x3)

5x3 + 2x2 + 0x 8

(5x3 10x2)

12x2 + 0x 8

(12x2 + 24x)

24x 8

(24x 48)

40

is the quotient.

remainder.

x4

x4

= 16 + 24 + 8 8

= 40

The remainder when P(x) is divided by (x + 2) is P(2).

8

tUtoriaL

eles-1193

Worked example 11

When P(x) is divided by (x a), the remainder is P(a)

or

b

.

a

This leads to the factor theorem, which states:

If P(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of P(x)

or

b

= 0.

Note: If (x a) is a factor of P(x) and a is an integer, then a must be a factor of the term independent

of x. For example, if (x 2) is a factor of P(x), then the term independent of x must be divisible by 2.

Therefore, (x 2) could be a factor of x3 2x2 x + 2, but (x + 3) could not be a factor.

WorkeD exampLe 12

think

Write

Evaluate P(3).

= 54 36 9 8

=1

P(x) 0, (x 3) is not a factor of P(x).

WorkeD exampLe 13

6.

think

numerical term. Try a = 1, 1, 2, 2, 3, 3,

6, 6 until a factor is found.

division.

Write

= 18

0

P(1) = 2(1)3 (1)2 13(1) 6

=4

0

P(2) = 2(2)3 (2)2 13(2) 6

= 20

0

P(2) = 2(2)3 (2)2 13(2) 6

=0

So (x + 2) is a factor.

2x2 5x 3

x +2

x2 13x 6

3

(2x + 4x2)

5x2 13x 6

(5x2 10x)

3x 6

(3x 6)

0

2x3

quadratic factors.

= (x + 2)(2x + 1)(x 3)

using the answer to part a.

2

solutions.

exercise 1C

P(x) = (x + 2)(2x2 5x 3)

b 2x3 x2 13x 6 = 0

(x + 2)(2x + 1)(x 3) = 0

x = 2,

or 3

Division of polynomials

Find the quotient, Q(x), and the remainder, R(x), when each of the following polynomials

are divided by the given linear expression.

a x3 2x2 + 5x 2, x 4

b x5 3x3 + 4x + 3, x + 3

c 6x4 x3 + 2x2 4x, x 3

d 3x4 6x3 + 12x, 3x + 1

1 We11

i P(4)

ii P(3)

iii P(3)

iv P(

1

3)

3 We12

In each of the following determine whether or not D(x) is a factor of P(x).

a P(x) = x3 + 9x2 + 26x 30, D(x) = x 3

b P(x) = x4 x3 5x2 2x 8, D(x) = x + 2

c P(x) = 4 9x + 6x2 13x3 12x4 + 3x5, D(x) = 4 x

d P(x) = 4x6 + 2x5 8x4 4x3 + 6x2 9x 6, D(x) = 2x + 1

4 mC Examine the equation f (x) = x4 4x3 x2 + 16x 12.

a Which one of the following is a factor of f (x)?

DiGitaL DoC

doc-9161

Spreadsheet

Finding factors

of polynomials

a x+1

D x+3

B x

e x4

C x+2

a

B

C

D

e

(x + 1)(x 3)(x + 4)

(x + 2)(x 2)(x 3)(x 1)

(x + 2)(x 4)(x + 3)(x + 1)

(x 1)(x + 1)(x 3)(x 4)

x(x 1)(x + 2)(x + 3)

a P(x) = x3 + 4x2 3x 18

b P(x) = 3x3 13x2 32x + 12

c P(x) = x4 + 2x3 7x2 8x + 12

d P(x) = 4x4 + 12x3 24x2 32x

6 We13b Solve each of the following equations.

a 3x3 + 3x2 18x = 0

b 2x4 + 10x3 4x2 48x = 0

c 2x4 + x3 14x2 4x + 24 = 0

d x4 2x2 + 1 = 0

7 If (x 2) is a factor of x3 + ax2 6x 4, then find a.

8 If (x 1) is a factor of x3 + x2 ax + 3, then find a.

9 Find the value of a if (x + 3) is a factor of 2x4 + ax3 3x + 18.

DiGitaL DoC

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WorkSHEET 1.1

10

10 Find the value of a and b if (x + 1) and (x 2) are factors of ax3 4x2 + bx 12.

11 If (2x 3) and (x + 2) are factors of 2x3 + ax2 + bx + 30, find the values of a and b.

1D

Linear graphs

Linear graphs are polynomials of degree 1. Graphs of linear functions are straight lines and may be

sketched by finding the intercepts.

1. The gradient of a straight line joining two points is:

y2 y1

m=

x 2 x1

B (x2, y2)

y = mx + c

where m is the gradient and c is the value of the y-intercept.

A (x1, y1)

(0, c)

point (x1, y1) and having a gradient of m is:

y y1 = m(x x1)

Gradient = m

A (x1, y1)

x

x y

+ = 1 or

a b

y

(0, b)

bx + ay = ab

(a, 0)

6. The product of the gradients of two lines that are perpendicular equals 1.

1

That is,

m1 m2 = 1 or m1 =

m2

WorkeD exampLe 14

think

Write/DraW

When y = 0, 3x 2 0 = 6

When x = 0, 3 0 2y = 6

y = 3

a line through these points.

x=2

y

0

3x 2y = 6

x

11

WorkeD exampLe 15

Find the equation, in the form ax + by + c = 0, of each straight line described below.

a The line with a gradient of 2 and passing through (3, 2)

b The line passing through (0, 8) and (2, 2)

c The line that passes through (3, 4) and is parallel to the line with equation y 2x 5 = 0

d The line that passes through (1, 3) and is perpendicular to the line with equation y + 2x 3 = 0

think

the coordinates of the point (x1,y1), into the

equation.

Write

y y1 = m(x x1)

y (2) = 2(x 3)

y + 2 = 2x 6

y 2x + 8 = 0

or 2x y 8 = 0

b

m=

2

the rule and evaluate the gradient.

rule for the pointgradient form of the equation

of a straight line. (Coordinates of either point

given may be used.)

28

0

6

=

2

=3

y y1 = m(x x1)

y 8 = 3(x 0)

y 8 = 3x

3x y + 8 = 0

c y 2x 5 = 0 becomes y = 2x + 5.

equation of a straight line.

y y1 = m(x x1)

(x1, y1) = (3, 4).

y 4 = 2(x 3)

12

y2 y1

x 2 x1

y 4 = 2x 6

2x y 2 = 0

d y = 2x + 3

equation of a straight line.

y y1 = m(x x1)

(x1, y1) = (1, 3).

y 3 = 1 (x 1)

2y 6 = (x 1)

x 2y + 5 = 0

The domain of a function, y = f (x), is the set of values of x for which the function is defined (that is, all

x-values that can be substituted into f (x) and an answer found).

The range of f (x) is the set of values of y for which the function is defined.

If the rule and the domain of a function are given, then the function is completely defined.

y = 4x, x 0

For example,

f (x) = 4x, x 0

f : (, 0] R, f (x) = 4x

or

interval notation

Restricted domains or ranges can be represented by interval notation in three forms.

1. The closed interval.

2. The open interval.

3. The half-open interval.

a

[a, b] = {x : a x b}

[a, b) = {x : a x < b}

R+ = (0, )

R+ {0} = [0, )

R = (, 0)

R {0} = (, 0]

WorkeD exampLe 16

Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, stating the domain and range of each.

a 4x 2y = 8, x [3, 3]

b f(x) = 1 2x, x [, 1]

think

equation.

Write/DraW

a When x = 3,

12

2y = 8

2y

= 20

y = 10

the straight line.

equation.

When x = 3,

12 2y = 8

point of the line.

circles (since both points are included).

2y

= 4

y=2

y

2

3

0

4

(3, 10)

10

(3, 2)

2 3

4x 2y = 8,

x [3, 3]

When x = 0, y = 4

When y = 0, x = 2

The x-intercept is 2 and the y-intercept is 4.

10

11

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

13

b When

x = 1,

y = f (1)

=3

into the equation (that is, a value of x < 1,

since x (, 1)) and find y.

When

point (1, 3) with an open circle.

beyond. An arrow should be placed on the other

end to indicate that the line continues.

x = 2,

y = f (2)

=5

f(x) = 1 2x,

x (, 1)

(2, 5)

(1, 3)

y

5

3

21 0

Linear graphs

exercise 1D

1 We14

Sketch the graph of each of the following linear functions by indicating the intercepts.

a 2x + 3y = 12

b 2y 5x 10 = 0

c 2x y = 1

2 We15a Find the equation, in the form ax + by + c = 0, of each straight line described below.

a The line with a gradient of 3 and passing through (2, 1).

b The line with a gradient of 2 and passing through (4, 3).

DiGitaL DoC

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SkillSHEET 1.3

Gradient

DiGitaL DoC

doc-9241

SkillSHEET 1.4

Using gradient to

find the value of a

parameter

3 We15b Find the equation, in the form ax + by + c = 0, of each straight line described below.

a The line passing through (3, 4) and (1, 10).

b The line passing through (7, 5) and (2, 0).

4 mC Which one of the following points does not lie on the straight line with equation 2y 3x 6 = 0?

B (2, 0)

e (4, 9)

a (2, 6)

D (1, 2)

C (0, 3)

a Find b if:

i the gradient of the straight line AB is 2

ii the equation of the straight line AB is y x = 7.

b Find the general equation of the straight line which passes through (4, 5) and is parallel to the line

c

with equation y 3x + 4 = 0.

We15d Find the equation in the form ax + by + c = 0 that passes through (2, 4) and is

perpendicular to the line with equation 2y x + 1 = 0.

a

b

y

y

(2, 4)

2

0

1

14

y

2

4

2

i x + 2y + 4 = 0

iv 3y + 2x = 6

ii y = 3

iii y 2x 2 = 0

v y 2x = 0

vi x = 2

a

x

(5, 2)

DiGitaL DoC

doc-9242

SkillSHEET 1.5

interval notation

(4, 2)

(6, 5)

(5, 2)

(3, 3)

(4, 3)

0

x

(5, 6)

DiGitaL DoC

doc-9243

SkillSHEET 1.6

Domain and range for

linear graphs

8 We16 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, stating i the domain and ii the range

of each.

c 4x 3y 6 = 0, x [2, 5)

b 2x 5y = 10, x < 5

Units: 3 & 4

9 Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point (2, 5) and is:

a parallel to the line with equation y = 3 2x

b perpendicular to the line with equation y = 3x 7.

10 Find the equation of the straight line which passes through the point (3, 1) and is:

a parallel to the line with equation 4x 2y = 13

b perpendicular to the line with equation 4x 2y = 13.

11 mC If the straight lines 3x y = 2 and ax + 2y = 3 are parallel, then a is equal to:

a 6

B 2

C 2

D 3

e 6

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

See more

Watch

a video about

quadratic functions.

a 5

1e

1

5

C 5

1

5

e 3

Quadratic graphs

Quadratic functions are polynomials of degree 2. Graphs of quadratic functions are parabolas and may

be sketched by finding the turning point and intercepts.

1. The general form of the quadratic function is y = ax2 + bx + c, x R.

2. The graph of a quadratic function is called a parabola and:

(a) for a > 0, the graph has a minimum value

(b) for a < 0, the graph has a maximum value

(c) the y-intercept is c

b

(d) the equation of the axis of symmetry and the x-value of the turning point is x =

2a

(e) the x-intercepts are found by solving the equation ax2 + bx + c = 0.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

15

(a) factorising

or

b

b 2 4 ac

.

(b) using the quadratic formula, x =

2a

4. The turning point can be found by completing the square (see next page). The turning point is

located on the axis of symmetry, which is halfway between the x-intercepts.

the discriminant

The value of (b2 4ac), which is the value inside the square root sign in the quadratic formula,

determines the number of solutions to a quadratic equation or the number of x-intercepts on a

quadratic graph.

This value is called the discriminant.

1. If b2 4ac > 0, there are two solutions to the equation and there are two x-intercepts on the graph.

2. If b2 4ac > 0 and is a perfect square, the solutions are rational; otherwise they are irrational.

3. If b2 4ac = 0, the two solutions are equal and there is one x-intercept on the graph; that is, the graph

has a turning point on the x-axis.

4. If b2 4ac < 0, there are no real solutions and there are no x-intercepts on the graph.

WorkeD exampLe 17

quadratic function f(x) = 2x2 + 3x 10.

think

Write

tUtoriaL

eles-1174

Worked example 17

c = 10

b and c using the general quadratic function,

y = ax2 + bx + c.

a = 2, b = 3,

b2 4ac = 32 4(2)(10)

= 9 + 80

= 89

two x-intercepts. If it is not a perfect square,

the solutions are irrational.

b2 4ac > 0

So there are two x-intercepts, which are both

irrational.

WorkeD exampLe 18

Sketch the graph of the function f(x) = 12 5x 2x2, showing all intercepts. Give exact answers.

think

16

Write/DraW

value of c).

= 12

f(x) = 12 5x 2x2 = 0

formula).

(4 + x)(3 2x) = 0

4 + x = 0 or 3 2x = 0

x = 4 or x = 32

the coordinates of the points where the graph

crosses the axes.

12 (0, 12)

f(x) = 12 5x x2

( 32 , 0)

(4, 0)

0 1 2

The x-coordinate of the turning point of a quadratic function is exactly halfway between the two

4 + 3

x-intercepts, so for Worked example 18, x =

4

4

2

4

equation to find the y-coordinate of the turning point.

b

,

The x-coordinate of the turning point can also be found by using the formula x =

2a

where ax2 + bx + c = 0.

Units: 3 & 4

Consider the general quadratic equation:

y = ax2 + bx + c

By completing the square, this equation may be manipulated into the form

y = a(x b)2 + c

where the turning point is (b, c).

This way of writing the function is known as the power form or turning point form. The transformations

associated with this form will be discussed more fully in chapter 2.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

WorkeD exampLe 19

a the coordinates of the turning pointb the domain and range.

think

Write

y = a(x b)2 + c

y = 2(x + 3)2 4

2

2

a a = 2,

b = 3,

c = 4

b The domain is R.

The range is y 4.

WorkeD exampLe 20

Find:

a the ruleb the domainc the range.

Write the answers to b and c in interval notation.

y

(5, 10)

0

think

Write

(1, 6)

a y = a(x b)2 + c

b = 1, c = 6 y = a(x + 1)2 6

10 = a(5 + 1)2 6

a=1

17

Simplify.

So

y = 1(x + 1)2 6

= x2 + 2x + 1 6

= x2 + 2x 5

The rule is y = x2 + 2x 5.

b x 5

2

Domain = [5, )

c 1 Use the graph to find the range. Look at all the values

c y 6

2

Range = [6, )

WorkeD exampLe 21

Sketch the graph of y = 12 ( x 1) 2 + 2 , clearly showing the coordinates of the turning point and the

intercepts with the axes. State its range.

Units: 3 & 4

think

Write/DraW

AOS:

y = a(x b)2 + c

Topic:

a = 12 ,

Concept:

of the basic parabola.

factor of 12 (that is, it is wider than the basic curve); it

is translated 1 unit to the right and 2 units up.

or negative).

y-intercept needs to be determined. Find the

y-intercept by making x = 0.

y-intercept: x = 0

y = 12 (0 1)2 + 2

Do more

Interact

with quadratic

functions in

turning point

form.

b = 1,

c=2

= 12 (1)2 + 2

= 12 + 2 = 2 12

Draw a set of axes and label them. Plot the

turning point and the y-intercept. Sketch the

graph of the positive parabola, so that it passes

through the points previously marked.

2 2

2

0

x

1

y = 12 (x 1)2 + 2

WorkeD exampLe 22

Sketch the graph of y = 3 + 8x 2x2, showing the turning point and all intercepts, rounding

answers to 2 decimal places where appropriate.

think

18

Write/DraW

Find y when x = 0.

When x = 0, y = 3

The y-intercept is 3.

When y = 0,

3 + 8x 2x2 = 0

x=

x=

b2

4 ac

2a

where a = 2

b=8

c=3

82 4( 2)(3)

2( 2)

8

88

=

4

8 2 22

=

4

22

2

=2

22

2

2+

or

22

2

places.

b

point, x = .

2a

x=

2( 2)

x=2

point, substitute x = 2 into the function.

y = 2(2)2 + 8(2) + 3

y = 11

of the turning point and the points where the

graph crosses the axes.

10

y

12

(2, 11)

9

f(x) = 3 + 8x

2x2

3 (0, 3)

(0.35, 0)

(4.35, 0)

x

0

1

4 5

Note: Function notation includes the rule, the domain and the co-domain. For example, f (x): [2, 1] R,

where f (x) = x2 3, is a parabola with rule f (x) = x2 3 and domain [2, 1]. The range is a subset of the

co-domain, R.

WorkeD exampLe 23

gymnasium program is started is given by the

t2

function: W ( t ) = 3 t + 80 , where t [0, 8]

2

and W is in kilograms. Find:

a the minimum weight of the person

b the maximum weight of the person.

19

Write/DraW

think

1

t2

3t + 80

2

1

= 2 [t 2 6t + 160]

W=

= 2 [t 2 6t + 9 + 160 9]

1

1

= 2 (t 3)2 + 75.5

2

When t = 0,

W = 80

When t = 8,

W = 88

turning point.

of W on the graph.

W (kg)

Maximum (8, 88)

90

80 (0, 80)

70

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 t (months)

a State the minimum weight from the graph.

exercise 1e

DiGitaL DoC

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Spreadsheet

Discriminant

Quadratic graphs

Use the discriminant to determine the number of x-intercepts for each of the following

quadratic functions.

a f (x) = x2 3x + 4

b f (x) = x2 + 5x 8

2

c f (x) = 3x 5x + 9

d f (x) = 2x2 + 7x 11

2

e f (x) = 1 6x x

f f (x) = 3 + 6x + 3x2

1 We17

Sketch the graphs of each of the following functions, showing all intercepts. Give

exact answers.

a f (x) = x2 6x + 8

b f (x) = x2 5x + 4

2

c f (x) = 10 + 3x x

d f (x) = 6x2 x 12

2 We18

DiGitaL DoC

doc-9164

Spreadsheet

Quadratic graphs

DiGitaL DoC

doc-9244

SkillSHEET 1.7

Domain

and range for

quadratic graphs

20

4 We19 For each of the following functions find:

i the coordinates of the turning point

ii the domain

iii the ra nge.

a y = 2 x2

c y = (x + 2)2

b y = (x 6)2

d y = 2(x + 3)2 6

Each of the functions graphed on the following page is of the form y = ax2 + bx + c,

ii the domain

iii the range.

where a = 1 or 1. For each function, give: i the rule

5 We20

a

(1, 6)

0

(1, 9)

(1, 2)

(2, 3)

x

(4, 16)

Sketch the graphs of the following, clearly showing the coordinates of the turning point and

the intercepts with the axes.

a y = 2x2 + 3

b y = (2x 5)(2x 3)

c y = (2x 3)2 8

6 We21

7 mC

Consider the function with the rule y = x2 2x 3.

a It has x-intercepts:

a (1, 0) and (3, 0)

D (2, 0) and (1, 0)

e (0, 1) and (0, 3)

a (1, 0)

B (2, 3)

C (1, 4)

a (3, )

B (, 3]

C [4, )

a [0, 16]

B [4, 16]

C [0, 4]

D (1, 4)

e (1, 0)

D (, 4]

e R

D (4, 12]

e [0, 16)

10 We22 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing the turning point and all

a f (x) = (x 2)2 4

b f (x) = (x + 4)2 + 9

2

c y = x + 4x + 3

d y = 2x2 4x 6

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Function grapher

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Spreadsheet

Quadratic graphs

turning point form

11 Sketch the graph of each of the functions below and state i the domain and ii the range of each

function.

a y = x2 2x + 2, x [2, 2]

c f (x) = x2 3x 2, x [10, 6]

b y = x2 + x 1, x R+

d f (x) = 5 + 6x 3x2, x [5, 3)

12 We23 The volume of water in a tank, V m3, over a 10 month period is given by the function

Find:

a the minimum volume of water in the tank

b the maximum volume of water in the tank.

Maximum height

Tower

Ball

h(t) = 12t 3t2 + 36, where t is the time in seconds

and h is in metres.

Find:

a the maximum height above the ground that the ball

reaches

b the time taken for the ball to reach the ground

c the domain and range of the function.

Ground

parabola. The function h(t) = t2 12t + 48, t [0, 11], models the height

above the ground of the front of one of the carriages, where t is the time in

seconds and h is the height in metres.

a Find the lowest point of this section of the ride.

b Find the time taken for the carriage to reach the lowest point.

c Find the highest point above the ground.

d Find the domain and the range of the function.

e Sketch the function.

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WorkSHEET 1.2

21

1F

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Do more

Interact

with sketching

cubic functions.

Cubic graphs

Cubic functions are polynomials of degree 3. In this section, we will look at how graphs of cubic

functions may be sketched by finding intercepts and recognising basic shapes.

Cubic functions may take several forms. The three main forms are described below.

General form

The general form of a cubic function is:

y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

If a is positive (that is, a > 0), the function is called a positive cubic. Several positive cubics appear

below.

y

If a is negative (that is, a < 0), the function is called a negative cubic. Several negative cubics appear

below.

y

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

x

x

Basic form

Some (but certainly not all) cubic functions are transformations of the form y = x3, which has a

stationary point, a point of inflection at the origin. These may be expressed in the power form:

y = a(x b)3 + c

where (b, c) is the point of inflection.

For example, y = 2(x 3)3 + 5 is the graph of y = x3 translated +3 from the y-axis, +5 in the y direction

and dilated by a factor of 2 from the x-axis.

This form, called basic form or power form, works in the same way as a quadratic equation expressed

in turning point form or power form:

y = a(x b)2 + c

where (b, c) is the turning point and a is the dilation factor.

The power form and its transformations will be discussed in more detail in chapter 2.

y

y = x3

y = a(x b)3 + c

(b, c)

x

22

Factor form

Cubic functions of the type:

y = a(x b)(x c)(x d)

are said to be in factor form, where b, c and d are the x-intercepts. Often a cubic function in general form

may be factorised to express it in factor form.

y

y = (x + 2)(x 1)(x 3)

y

where a > 0

2

b

c d

3 x

repeated factors

indicates a turning point that just touches the x-axis.

y = (x a)2 (x b)

WorkeD exampLe 24

For each of the following graphs, find the rule and express it in factorised

form. Assume that a = 1 or a = 1.

a

f(x)

f(x)

tUtoriaL

eles-1194

Worked example 24

x

2 0

think

or negative cubic.

Write

Simplify.

or negative cubic.

point, to find the repeated factor.

(x + 2)2 is a factor.

(x 3) is also a factor.

Simplify.

23

WorkeD exampLe 25

think

Write/DraW

x = 0, y = 8

Find y when x = 0.

When

The y-intercept is 8.

Let P(x) = y.

Let

cubic P(x) = x3 x2 10x 8.

P(1) = 13 12 10(1) 8

= 18

0

P(1) = (1)3 (1)2 10(1) 8

=0

so (x + 1) is a factor.

quadratic factor.

By long division:

x2 2x 8

3

x + 1 x x2 10x 8

(x3 + x2)

2x2 10x 8

(2x2 2x)

8x 8

(8x 8)

0

y = (x + 1)(x2 2x 8)

equal 0 to find the x-intercepts.

If (x + 1)(x 4)(x + 2) = 0

x = 1, 4 or 2

10

P(x) = x3 x2 10x 8

= (x + 1)(x 4)(x + 2)

y = x3 x2 10x 8

2 1 0

1. If the domain is R then the range is also R.

2. To find the range if the domain is restricted, it is necessary to look

at the end points and turning points, then find the highest and

lowest y-values.

For example:

The range can not be stated for the diagram at right because the

y-coordinate of the local minimum is not known.

Recall that cubic functions that do not have any turning points can

have only one x-intercept.

24

(6, 8)

(4, 3)

Coordinate of local

minimum required

WorkeD exampLe 26

Sketch the graph of y = x3 5x, where x (2, 1), using the unrestricted function as a guide.

State the domain and range, without the use of technology.

think

Write/DraW

cubic by looking at the coefficient of x3.

Negative cubic

When

y = 0,

x3 5x = 0

x(x2 + 5) = 0

x = 0 (x2 + 5 0)

The x-intercept is 0.

When

point of the domain.

When

decide whether it is open or closed.

point.

=6

decide whether it is open or closed.

points.

10

x = 0,

y = (0)3 5(0)

=0

The y-intercept is 0.

x = 2,

= 18

(2, 18)

y = (2)3 5(2)

(1, 6)

x

0

11

12

intercept is not included in the domain.

Cubic graphs

exercise 1F

For each of the following graphs, find the rule and express it in factorised form.

Assume that a = 1 or a = 1.

1 We24

a

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Cubic graphs factor

form

25

Match each of the following graphs to the most appropriate rule below.

2

a

0 1

2 0

ii y = (x + 3)(1 x)(x 4)

iv y = (x + 2)2(5 x)

v y = (x + 3)(x 1)(x 4)

vi y = (x + 4)(x + 2)(x 1)

vii y = (3

i y = (x 3)3

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Cubic graphs

4

0

y

2

viii y = (x + 2)2(x 5)

x)3

3 We25 Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing all intercepts.

a y = x3 + x2 4x 4

b y = 2x3 8x2 + 2x + 12

c y = 24 + 26x 2x3

d y = 18 21x + 8x2 x3

4 mC

a Fully factorised, x3 + 6x2 + 12x + 8 is equal to:

a (x + 3)3

D (x 3)3

B (x + 2)3

e (x + 2)(x 2)2

C (x 2)3

a

2

2

26

5 mC The function graphed in the figure could have the following rule:

a

B

C

D

e

y = (x 2)3 + 2

y = (x + 2)3 + 2

y = (2 x)3 + 2

y = (x + 2)3 2

y = (x 2)3

10

(2, 2)

x

0

6 mC The graph of f (x) = 5(x + 1)3 3 is best represented by:

a

B

y

y

(1, 3)

(1, 3)

x

(1, 3)

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Cubic graphs

3

y = a( x b) + c

form

y

(1, 3)

(1, 3)

x

7 mC

(0, 6)

(1, 0) 0

C

(0, 6)

(3, 0)

(3, 0)

D

(1, 0)

y

(1, 0)

x

(3, 0) 0

(1, 0)

(0, 6)

(0, 6)

e

(3, 0) 0

y

(3, 0)

(1, 0)

(0, 6)

27

y = (x a)3 + b

y = (x a)3 + b

y = (a x)3 + b

y = (x + a)3 + b

y = (x + a)3 + b

8 mC

a

B

C

D

e

(a, b)

(0, c)

x

If a < 0 and b, c > 0 then the graph shown is best represented by the equation:

b

y

y = 2 ( x + a ) 2 ( x c)

a c

b

y = 2 ( x + a)2 (c x )

b

a c

b

y = 2 ( x a ) 2 ( x + c)

a c

b

a

0

y = 2 ( x + a)2 ( x b)(c x )

a c

b

y = 2 ( x a ) 2 ( x c)

a c

9 mC

a

B

C

D

e

10 We26 Sketch the graph of each of the following restricted functions, using the unrestricted function as

a guide. State i the domain and ii the range in each case.

a f (x) = x3 + x2 10x + 8, x [2, )

b f (x) = 3x3 5x2 4x + 4, x [2, 1]

c f (x) = 3x3 + 4x2 + 27x 36, x (0, 1]

d f (x) = 3x x3, x [1, 2)

e f (x) = x3 + 2x, x [2, 1) (0, 3]

f f (x) = 2x3 x, x (1, 1) [2, 3)

11 The function f (x) = x3 + ax2 + bx 64 has x-intercepts (2, 0) and (4, 0). Find the values of a and b.

12 The functions y = x3 2x2 + ax + 10 and y = 6 + (a + b)x 4x2 x3 both have (1, 0) as an x-intercept.

13 The cross-section of a glass vessel that is 6 cm high can be modelled by the cubic function f (x) and its

a Find the values of a, b and c, and hence state the rule of f (x).

b Find the rule for g(x) and state its domain and range.

c What is the width of the vessel when the height is 3.375 cm?

y

g(x)

(4, 6)

(3, 3)

(2, 0)

14 The distance of a group of hikers, d km, from their starting point t hours after setting off on a hike can

d(t) = at2(b t)

The hikers are 3 km from the start after 2 hours and return to the starting point after 5hours.

a Find the values of a and b.

b Hence, give the rule for d(t) stating its domain and range.

c Sketch the graph of d(t).

d Find to the nearest 100 metres the maximum distance of the hikers from their starting point and

the time, to the nearest minute, that it occurs.

28

Quartic graphs

1G

Quartic functions are polynomials of degree 4. The general form of a quartic is:

Units: 3 & 4

When sketching the graphs of quartic functions, all axes intercepts can be found by factorisation and

a sign diagram used to check the shape. If a sign diagram is not sufficient and the basic shape is not

recognised, then a graphics calculator could be used to establish the shape of the graph.

2. y = ax4 + cx2, c 0

y

3. y = ax2(x b)(x c)

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Do more

Interact

with sketching

quartic functions.

x

b

(x b)2 and (x c)2 indicate

the graph touches the x-axis

at x = b and x = c.

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Units: 3 & 4

means there is a turning

point at the origin. The

factors (x b) (x c)

indicate x-intercepts at

x = b and x = c.

4. y = a(x b)2(x c)2

Topic:

b

0

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

1. y = ax4

AOS:

means the graph has a

point of inflection at x = c.

ex

intercepts at

x = b, c, d and e.

y

If a < 0, that is, each of the above rules is multiplied by 1, then the

graphs are reflected through the x-axis.

For example, the graph of y = x4 (at right) is a reflection, through the

x-axis, of the graph of y = x4.

Similarly, the graph of y = x4 + x2 = (x4 x2) is a reflection through the

x-axis of the graph of y = x4 x2.

Note: The above graphs can be translated horizontally or vertically but

this is considered in Chapter 2.

To find the x-intercepts of a quartic function, let y = 0 and solve the

equation for x.

Repeated factors touch the x-axis as they do for cubic and quadratic

functions.

y = x 4

y

y = x 4 + x2

29

WorkeD exampLe 27

think

Write/DraW

tUtoriaL

eles-1195

Worked example 27

When x = 0, y = 10

The y-intercept is 10.

Let y = P(x).

expression, if possible, using the factor

theorem.

=8

0

P(1) = (1)4 (1)3 7(1)2 + 5(1) + 10

=0

(x + 1) is a factor.

P(2) = (2)4 (2)3 7(2)2 + 5(2) + 10

=0

(x 2) is a factor.

(x + 1)(x 2) = x2 x 2

quadratic factor x2 x 2 (or use another

method).

x2

y = (x + 1)(x 2)(x2 5)

difference of perfect squares.

10

11

x2

5

x 1 7x2 + 5x + 10

(x4 x3 2x2)

0 5x2 + 5x + 10

(5x2 + 5x + 10)

0

x4

x3

x = 1, 2, 5

The x-intercepts are 1, 2, 5 and 5.

y

(0, 10)

(1, 0)

( 5, 0)

3 2 1 0

(2, 0)

1

( 5, 0)

x

3

WorkeD exampLe 28

Sketch the graphs of each of the following equations, showing the coordinates

of all intercepts. Use a CAS calculator to find the coordinates of the turning

points, rounding to 2 decimal places as appropriate.

a y = x2 (x 1)(x + 2)

b y = (x + 3)2(x 1)2

30

tUtoriaL

eles-1196

Worked example 28

think

Write/DraW

a y = x2(x 1)(x + 2)

When x = 0, y = 0

The y-intercept is 0.

When y = 0,

0 = x2(x 1)(x + 2)

x = 2, 0, 1

touches and where it cuts the x-axis.

The other x-intercepts are 2 and 1.

using a CAS calculator to assist.

and (0.69, 0.40).

The maximum turning point is (0, 0).

CAS calculator to assist.

(2, 0)

(0, 0)

0

(1, 0)

(0.69, 0.40)

(1.44, 2.83)

b 1 State the function.

b y = (x + 3)2(x 1)2

When x = 0,

y = (3)2(1)2

= 9

The y-intercept is 9.

When y = 0,

0 = (x + 3)2(x 1)2

x = 3, 1

x-axis from the repeated factors.

using a CAS calculator to assist.

(1, 0), and the minimum turning point is (1, 16).

graphics calculator to assist.

y

(3, 0)

(1, 0)

0

(0, 9)

(1, 16)

31

WorkeD exampLe 29

y

3

3

1 0

1 2

think

Write

dilation factor of a.

The y-intercept is 3.

into the equation.

3=a6

a = 12

y = 12 ( x 1)( x 2)( x + 3)( x + 1)

WorkeD exampLe 30

Sketch the graph of y = x4 2x2, x (1, 1], using the unrestricted function as a guide. State the

domain and the range in each case.

think

32

Write/DraW

y = x4 2x2, x (1, 1]

When

The y-intercept is 0.

When

x = 0,

y = (0)4 2(0)2

=0

x4

y=0

2x4 = 0

x2(x2

+ 2) = 0

Solve for x.

(as x2 + 2 0).

When

or closed point.

x = 1,

y = (1)4 2(1)2

= 3

x = 1,

y = (1)4 2(1)2

= 3

10

domain.

When

11

or closed point.

12

knowledge of basic shapes over the domain.

y

(0, 0)

0

(1, 3)

(1, 3)

y = x 4 2x2

13

the rule.

14

Quartic graphs

exercise 1G

1 We27 Sketch the graph of each of the following, showing all intercepts.

a y = (x 2)(x + 3)(x 4)(x + 1)

b y = 2x4 + 6x3 16x2 24x + 32

4

2

c y = x 4x + 4

d y = 30x 37x2 + 15x3 2x4

4

3

2

e y = 6x + 11x 37x 36x + 36

2 We28 Sketch the graph of each of the following equations, showing the coordinates of all intercepts.

Use a calculator to find the coordinates of the turning points, rounding to 2 decimal places as

appropriate.

a y = x2 (x 2)(x 3)

b y = (x + 1)2 (x 1)2

2

c y = (x 1) (x + 1)(x + 3)

d y = (x + 2)3 (1 x)

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SkillSHEET 1.8

Solving quartic

equations

a When factorised, f (x) is equal to:

a (x + 2)(x 2)(x 1)(x + 4)

C (x + 3)(x 2)(x 1)(x + 1)

e (x 2)2 (x + 2)2

B (x 1)(x 4)(x + 4)

D (x 2)3 (x + 2)

a

y

2

16

D

2

e

y

16

y

16

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Quartic graphs

factor form

y

16

y

4

33

c If the domain of f (x) is restricted to [2, 2], then the range is:

a [0, 16]

C [2, 12]

B [0, 10]

D R+

e [0, )

d If the range of f (x) is restricted to (0, 25) then the maximal domain is:

a [2, 3)

B (2, 3)

(1,

C (3, 2)

D (3, 3)

e (3, 4)

D (9, 16)

C (1, 9)

f If the domain of f (x) is restricted to [0, ), then the range is:

a R

D [0, 16)

B R+

C [0, )

a (0, 16)

e [9, )

B (0, 4)

e [2, )

a

2 1 0

1 0

5 We30 Sketch the graph of each of the following restricted functions, using the unrestricted function as

a guide. State i the domain and ii the range in each case.

a y = (2 x)(x2 4)(x + 3), x [2, 3]

b y = 9x4 30x3 + 13x2 + 20x + 4, x (2,1]

c y = (x 2)2(x + 1)2, x (, 2]

d y = 4x2 x4, x [3, 2]

6 The function f (x) = x4 + ax3 4x2 + bx + 6 has x-intercepts (2, 0) and (3, 0). Find the values

of a and b.

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Investigation

Quartics and

beyond

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

7 The function f (x) = x4 + ax3 + bx2 x + 6 has x-intercepts (1, 0) and (3, 0). Find the values

of a and b.

8 The functions y = (a 2b)x4 3x 2 and y = x4 x3 + (a + 5b)x2 5x + 7 both have an x-intercept of 1.

Simultaneous linear equations

Previously we learned that simultaneous equations are two or more independent equations containing

two or more variables.

Three possible scenarios exist when we are dealing with two linear simultaneous equations. They are

represented graphically below.

One unique solution

y

No solutions

y

Intersecting lines

34

Parallel lines

Co-incident (overlapping)

WorkeD exampLe 31

ax 7y = 0

2x + (a 9)y = 0

Find the value(s) of a, where a is a real constant.

think

1

be co-incident nor parallel. Parallel and

co-incident lines have gradients that are

the same.

Write

ax 7y = 0

2x + (a 9)y = 0

[1]

[2]

for either infinitely many solutions or no

solutions.

Begin by writing the equations.

2

the form y = mx + c.

ax 7y = 0

7y = ax

a

y= x

7

2x + (a 9)y = 0

(a 9)y = 2x

2

y=

x

a9

[1]

[3]

[2]

[4]

2

a

=

7 a9

a(a 9) = 14

a2 9a + 14 = 0

(a 2)(a 7) = 0

a = 2 or a = 7

values of a into equations [1] and [2].

When a = 2,

ax 7y = 0

2x 7y = 0

the result.

2x + (a 9)y = 0

[2]

2x + (2 9)y = 0

2x 7y = 0

When a = 2 the lines are co-incident.

the result.

When a = 7,

ax 7y = 0

7x 7y = 0

xy=0

[1]

[1]

2x + (a 9)y = 0

[2]

2x + (7 9)y = 0

2x 2y = 0

xy=0

When a = 7 the lines are co-incident.

5

So, for a unique solution a R\{2, 7}.

35

WorkeD exampLe 32

a determine the values of t for which there are i infinitely many solutions and ii no solutions

b determine the unique solution for the equations in terms of t, specifying the restrictions on t.

tx 3y = 6

2x + (t 5)y = 3t

think

y = mx + c.

Write

tx 3y = 6

2x + (t 5)y = 3t

tx 3y = 6

3y = tx + 6

t

y= x2

3

2x + (t 5)y = 3t

(t 5)y = 2x + 3t

2

3t

y=

x+

t 5

t 5

many solutions, the two lines have the same

gradients, therefore they should be equated.

Equate the gradients.

[1]

[2]

[1]

[3]

[2]

[4]

2

t

=

3 t 5

t(t 5) = 6

t2 5t + 6 = 0

(t 2)(t 3) = 0

t = 2 or t = 3

values of t into equations [1] and [2].

When t = 2,

tx 3y = 6

2x 3y = 6

2x + (t 5)y = 3t

[2]

2x + (2 5)y = 3(2)

2x 3y = 6

When t = 2, the lines are co-incident and have

infinitely many solutions.

When t = 3,

tx 3y = 6

3x 3y = 6

xy=2

y=x2

[1]

[1]

2x + (t 5)y = 3t

[2]

2x + (3 5)y = 3(3)

2x 2y = 9

9

xy=

2

9

y=x

2

When t = 3, the lines are parallel lines and there

are no solutions.

b 1 To find the unique intersection point between

Write equations [2] and [3].

36

2x + (t 5)y = 3t

t

y= x2

3

[2]

[3]

find x in terms of t.

t

2 x + (t 5) x 2 = 3t

3

t2x

5tx

2t

+10 = 3t

3

3

6 x + t 2 x 6t 5tx + 30 = 9t

2x +

t 2 x 5tx + 6 x = 15t 30

x (t 2 5t + 6) = 15t 30

15t 30

t 2 5t + 6

15(t 2)

x=

(t 2)(t 3)

15

, t3

x=

t3

x=

equation [3].

t

y= x2

3

t 15

y=

2

3 t 3

5t

y=

2

t 3

5t 2(t 3)

y=

t 3

3t + 6

y=

t 3

[3]

15

3t + 6

, where t R\{2, 3}.

x=

and y =

t 3

t 3

Simultaneous equations with three variables are systems of planes. The system of planes can have no

solution, one unique solution or infinite solutions.

No solution

Infinite solutions

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

all three planes intersect.

at which all three planes

intersect.

and therefore have an infinite number of

points at which they intersect.

Alternatively the planes might be co-incident.

37

So, the solution of simultaneous equation with 3 (or more) variables can be:

no solution

a point

a line

a plane.

WorkeD exampLe 33

x + 2y 3z = 11

4x 3y + z = 12

3x y z = 14

think

1

variable to eliminate first. In this case, eliminate z.

Write

x + 2y 3z = 11

4x 3y + z = 12

3x y z = 14

[1]

[2]

[3]

4x 3y + z = 12

12x 9y + 3z = 36

[2] 3

[4]

12x 9y + 3z = 36

x + 2y 3z = 11

[4]

+

[1]

13x 7y

[5]

equation [4].

3

variable z to give equation [5].

3x y z = 14

9x 3y 3z = 42

[3] 3

[6]

to give equation [7].

9x 3y 3z = 42

x + 2y 3z = 11

[6]

[1]

8x 5y

[7]

equations [8] and [9] respectively.

eliminate y and solve for x.

10

= 31

13x 7y = 47

65x 35y = 235

[5] 5

[8]

8x 5y = 31

56x 35y = 217

[7] 7

[9]

56x 35y = 217

[8]

[9]

9x

x

38

= 47

= 18

=2

8x 5y = 31

8(2) 5y = 31

16 5y = 31

5y = 15

y = 3

[7]

find z.

x + 2y 3z = 11

2 + 2(3) 3z = 11

2 6 3z = 11

3z = 15

z = 5

[1]

x = 2, y = 3 and z = 5.

WorkeD exampLe 34

kx y + z = 8

3x + ky + 2z = 2

x + 3y + z = 6

For what values of k, is there:

i a unique solution?

ii no solution?

iii an infinite number of solutions?

think

Write

kx y + z = 8

3x + ky + 2z = 2

x + 3y + z = 6

to each.

2

[1]

[2]

[3]

the variable z.

kx y + z = 8

x + 3y + z = 6

from equation [1] to give equation [4].

[1]

[3]

kx x 4y = 14

x(k 1) 4y = 14

[4]

equation [5].

x + 3y + z = 6

2x + 6y + 2z = 12

[3] 2

[5]

equation [2] to give equation [6].

3x + ky + 2z = 2

2x + 6y + 2z = 12

[2]

[5]

x + ky 6y = 14

x + y(k 6) = 14

[6]

x(k 1) 4y = 14

x + y(k 6) = 14

[4]

[6]

other.

equation [6] by (k 1) to give equation [7]

and then subtract the result from

equation [4].

x ( k 1) 4 y = 14

x + y( k 6) = 14

[4]

[6] (k 1)

x ( k 1) 4 y = 14

x ( k 1) + y( k + 6)( k 1) = 14( k 1)

[4]

[7]

4y

y( k + 6)( k 1) = 14 14( k 1)

+ 6)( k 1)) = 14 k + 28

y( k 2 + 7 k 10) = 14 k + 28

14 k + 28

y= 2

k + 7 k 10

14( k 2)

y=

, k 5, k 2

( k 5)( k 2)

y( 4 ( k

from step 6 above.

14

into equation [4] to

( k 5)

determine the value of x in terms of k.

Substitute y =

when k 5 or k 2.

14( k 2)

( k 5)( k 2)

14

=

( k 5)

y=

x ( k 1) 4 y = 14

[4]

14

x ( k 1) 4

= 14

k 5

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

39

x ( k 1)( k 5) 56 = 14( k 5)

14( k 5) + 56

( k 1)( k 5)

14 k 14

=

( k 1)( k 5)

14( k 1)

=

( k 1)( k 5)

14

x=

k 5

x=

14

14

and y =

into

( k 5)

( k 5)

equation [3] to determine the value of z in

terms of k.

Substitute x =

x + 3y + z = 6

[3]

14

14

+ 3

+z= 6

x 5 x 5

14 + 42 + z ( k 5) = 6( k 5)

6( k

5) 56

k 5

6 k 26

=

k 5

z=

will be no solution.

14

14

and y =

and

( k 5)

( k 5)

6 k 26

z=

, we know that x, y and z will all

k 5

be undefined when k = 5.

Given, x =

iii Deduce when there will be an infinite number

of solutions.

when k 5 or k 2.

We know from ii that there is no solution

when k = 5.

So, there are an infinite number of solutions

when k = 2.

when explored using a CAS calculator. The

solution process is shown in the Calculator

companion.

Solving simultaneous equations with three variables can be applied in a number of situations. One

such example is outlined in Worked example 35.

WorkeD exampLe 35

The cubic function with the general equation y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 8 passes through the points

(1, 2) (2, 4) and (4, 8). Find the values of a, b and c.

think

1

40

into the equation y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + 8 to form

three linear simultaneous equations.

Write

(1, 2)

2 = a(1)3 + b(1)2 + c(1) + 8

6 = a + b + c

[1]

(2, 4)

4 = a(2)3 + b(2)2 + c(2) + 8

12 = 8a + 4b 2c

6 = 4a + 2b c

[2]

(4, 8)

8 = a(4)3 + b(4)2 + c(4) + 8

0 = 64a + 16b + 4c

0 = 16a + 4b + c

[3]

other.

eliminate the variable c first.

To do this, add equations [1] and [2] to give

equation [4].

equation [5].

=a+b+c

= 4a + 2b c

0 = 16a + 4b + c

6

12

4

[1]+

[2]

= 3a + 3b

= a + b

[4]

= 4a + 2b c

0 = 16a + 4b + c

determine the value of a.

=a+b+c

= 4a + 2b c

6

6

[1]

[2]

[3]

1

4

[2]+

[3]

= 12a + 6b

= 2a + b

[5]

= 2a + b

= a + b

[5]

[4]

3 = 3a

1=a

6

value of b.

= a + b

= 1 + b

3 = b

[4]

=13+c

6 = 2 + c

4 = c

6

find the value of c.

of the cubic function is y = x3 3x2 4x + 8.

=a+b+c

=13+c

4 = c

6

[1]

Units: 3 & 4

more variables

Simultaneous equations with any number of variables could also be solved using a CAS calculator and

matrix theory.

This method is certainly preferred when solving simultaneous equations where there are more than

three variables to be solved.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

41

WorkeD exampLe 36

Solve these five linear simultaneous equations using matrices and a CAS calculator.

2v + w 3x + 2y z = 12

v + 3w + 4x y + 2z = 13

v 2w + 5x 2y 3z = 32

3v w + 2x y 3z = 18

3v + 3w 4x + 3y 2z = 9

think

1

Write

a and b as shown opposite.

1

1

3

1

3

1

3

2

1

1

3

1

3

2

1

3

12

13

32

18

9

2

4

1

3

5

4

5

2

4

3

4

5

2

1

3

2

1

2

1

3

2

3

2

3

3

v

w

x

y

z

v = 2, w = 4, x = 1, y = 3 and z = 5.

exercise 1h

12

13

32

18

9

1 We31 Find the value(s) of a where a R, when the following equations below have a unique

solution.

ax + 9y = 0

3x + (a 6)y = 0

mx 5y = 10

3x (m 2)y = 6

a Find the values of m, where m R, for which there are infinitely many or no solutions.

b Find the unique solution for the equations in terms of m, specifying the restrictions on m.

3 We33 Solve:

x+y+z=9

+ 2y 3z = 15

x + 5y + 3z = 29

a algebraically

b using matrices and a CAS calculator.

42

4 Solve:

x y z = 5

6x + 2y 5z = 2

3x + y + 4z = 13

a algebraically

b using matrices and a CAS calculator.

5 We34 Consider the following system of simultaneous equations.

6x + 2y z = 1

x+y+z=2

kx + y z = 1

For what values of k, is there:

i a unique solution?

ii no solution?

6 An amateur drama company were selling tickets for their latest production. The opening night was a

sell out with all 200 tickets being sold. Tickets were priced as follows:

Adults

Children

Senior citizens

10

$9.50 each

$4.50 each

$3.50 each

The takings for the opening night amounted to $1375. Also, there were three times as many

childrens tickets sold as there were senior citizens tickets.

a Construct a system of linear simultaneous equations to represent this purchase of tickets for the

opening night. Determine algebraically the number of each type of ticket sold for the opening night.

b Use matrices and a CAS calculator to solve the problem.

As an experiment, the manager of a seafood outlet at a large food court has decided to offer a lunch

special for the purchase of cooked seafood. It would involve selling only fish (medium sized pieces

of flake), F, medium portions of chips, C, and potato cakes, P, over a luncheon period from 12 noon to

2.30 pm. The portions were priced as follows:

1 medium piece of flake

$6.00

1 medium serve of chips

$4.50

1 potato cake

$1.00

On the first occasion the lunch special was trialled, 255 portions of food were sold. The total

takings for the luncheon special were $1067.50. It was also known that there were 50 more portions

of chips sold than there were pieces of flake.

a Construct a system of linear simultaneous equations to represent this luncheon special.

Determine algebraically the number of each type of ticket sold for the opening night.

b Use matrices and a CAS calculator to solve the problem.

We35 The general equation of a cubic function is given by y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d where a, b, c and

d are real constants. If it is known that the cubic function passes through the points (2, 62), (0, 4),

(2, 26) and (5, 64), find the values of a, b, c and d a algebraically and b using matrices and

a CAS calculator.

The general equation of a circle is given by x2 + y2 + ax + by + c = 0 where a, b and c are real

constants. If it is known that the circle passes through the points (3, 1), (6, 2) and (0, 2), find the values

of a, b and c a algebraically and b using matrices and a CAS calculator.

We36 Solve the following five linear simultaneous equations using matrices and a CAS calculator.

a + 2b c + d e = 24

2a + 3b 2c d 3e = 34

2a + b + 3c 2d + e = 31

3a + 5b 2c 2d + 3e = 18

4a 2b c 3d + e = 5

43

Summary

1

pascals triangle

1

1

1

1

1

1

2

3

4

1

3

6

10

1

4

10

1

5

Binomial theorem

n

n

n

n

(ax + b)n = (ax)nb0 + (ax)n 1b + +

(ax)bn 1 + (ax)0bn

0

1

n 1

n

Notes

1. Indices add to n.

2. There are n + 1 terms in the expansion.

n

3. The (r + 1)th term is (ax)n rbr.

r

polynomials

polynomial of degree n and an, an 1, . . . , a2, a1 are called coefficients and a R.

Remainder theorem:

If P(x) is divided by (x a), then the remainder is P(a). If P(x) is divided by (ax + b) then the

b

remainder is P .

a

Factor theorem:

1. If P(a) = 0, then (x a) is a factor of P(x) or if (ax + b) is a factor of P(x), then:

b

P = 0.

a

2. If (x a) is a factor of P(x) then a must be a factor of the term independent of x.

Linear graphs

General equation is

ax + by + c = 0

or

y = mx + c

where m = gradient

c = y-intercept

y y

m= 2 1

The gradient

x 2 x1

Equation if a point and the gradient is known:

y y1 = m(x x1)

Parallel lines have the same gradient.

If m1 and m2 are the gradients of perpendicular lines, then:

m1 m2 = 1

1

m1 =

or

m2

Quadratic graphs

General equation is

y = ax2 + bx + c

The general quadratic equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, can be solved for x using the

Quadratic formula:

44

x=

b 2 4 ac

2a

1. if b2 4ac > 0, there are 2 x-intercepts (and if b2 4ac is a perfect square, the intercepts

are rational)

2. if b2 4ac = 0, there is 1 x-intercept

3. if b2 4ac < 0, there are no x-intercepts.

The power form or turning point form of the quadratic is:

y = a(x b)2 + c

and the turning point is (b, c).

b

The equation of the axis of symmetry and the x-value of the turning point of a parabola is

.

2a

The axis of symmetry is halfway between the x-intercepts.

Cubic graphs

General equation is y = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d

Basic shapes of cubic graphs:

1. If a > 0:

Positive cubic

Power form

y

y = a(x b)3 + c

(b, c)

Factor form

y

Repeated factor

y

where a > 0

c d

y = (x a)2 (x b)

2. If a < 0, then the reflections through the x-axis of the types of graph in the above figures are

obtained.

Quartic graphs

General equation is y = ax4 + bx3 + cx2 + dx + e

Basic shapes of quartic graphs:

1. If a > 0:

y

b

0

y = ax4

Chapter 1 Graphs and polynomials

45

b

x

y=

ax4

cx2,

c0

y

y = ax2(x b)(x c)

e x

2. If a < 0, then reflection through the x-axis of the types of graph above is obtained.

Note: It is possible to translate the cubic and quartic graphs shown in the cubic graphs and

quartic graphs sections above.

Functions

Solving systems of

equations

Simultaneous equations with two variables can have no solution (if lines are parallel), one solution

(if lines intersect) or infinitely many solutions (if the lines overlap).

Simultaneous equations with three variables can have no solution (if there is no point in which

all three planes intersect), one solution (one unique point at which all three planes intersect)

or infinitely many solutions (if the three planes have a line of intersection, or if the planes are

coincident).

Simultaneous equations with any number of equations can be solved using a CAS calculator and

matrix theory.

46

The domain of a function is the set of values of x for which the function is defined.

The range of a function is the set of values of y for which the function is fully defined.

Restricted domains can be represented by interval notation:

[a, b] = {x: a x b}

(a, b) = {x: a < x < b}

[a, b) = {x: a x < b}

Chapter review

1 Expand each of the following.

a (2y

x 2

b

2 x

3x)5

S ho rt

a n S W er

2 If a factor of P(x) = 7 + ax + 5x2 + 15x3 + bx4 is (x2 1), find the values of a and b.

3 Factorise each of the following expressions.

a x3 12x2 + 17x + 90

a The line which passes through the points (5, 6) and (1, 1).

b The line which is perpendicular to the line with equation 2x y + 10 = 0 and passes through the

5 Sketch the graph of y = 8 2x x2, by labelling the turning point and all intercepts. State its domain

and range.

6 Sketch the graph of y = 3x2 + 8x 3, x [3, 0). State the range of this function.

7 a If (x + 3) is a factor of f (x) = x3 + bx2 + ax 18 and g(x) = ax2 + bx 75, then find the values of a

and b.

b Sketch the graph of f (x) by labelling all intercepts.

8 Sketch the graph of f (x) = x4 7x3 + 12x2 + 4x 16.

9 Solve the following five linear simultaneous equations using matrices and a CAS calculator.

3a

5b + c 7d + e = 17

+ 4b c + 3d 5e = 20

2a + 3b + 3c 3d 2e = 11

6a b c d + e = 20

5a + 2b 3c + 4d 4e = 53

2a

a 1 + 2x

+

+

C 5 10x + 20x2 40x3 + 80x4 160x5

e 1 10x + 40x2 80x3 + 80x4 32x5

4x2

8x3

16x4

32x5

B 1 2x +

4x2

8x3

16x4

32x5

m U Ltip L e

C ho iC e

1 8

x

a 4096

D 16 384

B 131 072

e 16 384

C 4096

a 153 090 x2

B 243x4

1 10

81

x5

4 Which of the following expressions is not a polynomial?

a x3 + 3x 1

B x4 5x3 + 3x2 6x

D 729x2

81

x2

x 4 + 5x 3 2 x 2 + 5x 3

C x21 x11 + x 3

e x6 x5 + 2x4 x3 + 4x 2

5 The value of P(3) in the polynomial, P(x) = x5 4x3 3x2 + 10x + 1, is:

a 31

D 6

B 139

e 1

C 191

6 The degree of the polynomial (5 6x + x3 + 7x6) (x2 3x4 + 2) when expanded is:

a 24

D 16

B 8

e 21

a 271

D 3

B 51

e 108

C 10

C 171

47

a x3 + 3x2 4x 12

D x3 + x2 10x + 8

B x4 2x3 6x2 8x + 2

e 2x3 + 3x2 9x 10

C x4 + 2x3 7x2 8x + 12

a (x 2)

D (x 4)

B (x + 3)

e (x 3)

a 2x + y + 4 = 0

C 2y x 4 = 0

e 4x + 2y = 0

C (x + 1)

y

2

B x 2y 4 = 0

D x + 2y 4 = 0

0

y

11 The value of b must be:

a 5

D 1

B 3

e 4

(2, b)

C 1

(3, 5)

12 The y-intercept is:

a (0, 3)

B (0, 2)

D (0, 1)

C (0, 2 )

e ( 2 , 0)

44

B 44

C

D 23

e 76

76

2

Questions 14 and 15 refer to the function with the rule: y = 2x + 8x 10 where x ( 6, 2).

a

(6, 14)

65

(2, 14)

65

10

(6, 22)

(6, 14)

(2, 14)

0 12

10

(2, 14)

(6, 14)

2 1 0

10

56

(2, 10)

(6, 6)

1 0 2

2

10

x

(2, 3.6)

a (18, 14)

D [18, 14]

B (10, 14)

e (14, 10)

a

B

y

y

48

0 12

65

C [18, 14)

17 Which of the following intercepts does the graph of f (x) = 6 + 11x + 3x2 2x3 have?

a ( , 0), (2, 0), (3, 0) and (0, 6)

1

2

1

2

a

B

C

D

e

f (x) = (x

+ 3)

f (x) = (x + 1)(x 3)2

f (x) = (x + 1)2(3 x)

f (x) = (x2 1)(x + 3)

f (x) = (x 3)(x + 1)2

1 0

a

B

C

D

e

f(x)

1)2(x

f (x) = x(x +

f (x) = x(x 2)2

f (x) = x2(x 2)2

f (x) = x(x 2)3

f (x) = x(2 x)2

f(x)

2)3

a

3

3

x

3

0 1

function of time, t days after launch. After 1 day

it reaches a maximum distance from Earth

of 4000kilometres, then after 2 days it is

2000 kilometres away. It effectively returns to

Earth after 3 days, then moves further and

further away.

a What is the satellites initial distance from

Earth?

b Sketch the graph of d versus t for the first

6 days of travel.

c Express d as a function of t.

d The moon is approximately 240 000 kilometres from Earth. Which is closer to Earth after 8 days,

the satellite or the moon? By how far?

ex ten D eD

r eS p o n S e

49

e The satellite is programmed to self-destruct. This happens when it is 490 000 kilometres

State the domain and range of d(t).

y

A bridge spans a narrow canal as shown in the diagram at right.

a Find the equation of a parabola that models the shape of the

3

archway.

2

b Show that a barge 3 m wide and carrying cargo with a total height of

1.7 m (with a rectangular cross-section) cannot fit under the arch.

1

c How much cargo (in height, correct to 1 decimal place) must be

Barge

x

removed for the barge to fit under the bridge?

2 1 0 1 2

In the town of Newtonia there is an annual 10 m race (for the

Surface of canal

Polynomial Cup) for mini robots that have been programmed with

mathematical formulas by Professor Liebnitz. There is a lot of betting

on the race as the professor keeps the formulas secret and is known to

favour surprise winners.

The three contestants were programmed as follows, where x is the distance from the start line in

metres and t is the time in minutes:

Liney

x = 2.4 + 0.75t

Quadder

x = 0.2t(t 5.1)

Cubric

x = 0.2t(t 5.1)(t 9.1)

Using a CAS calculator, describe the motions of the three contestants, specifically:

a the direction they travelled in and how fast they were moving

b where and when they changed direction

c where and when they passed or met each other

d who won the race and by how much.

Sketch the graphs of their movements on the same set of axes, labelling all relevant points. You will

need an extra graph to get a close-up of the finish.

The diagram at right shows a main road passing through O, A, C and E. The road crosses a river at

point O and 3 kilometres further along the road at point C. Between O and C, the furthest the river is

from the road is 8.54 kilometres, at a point D, 2.25 kilometres east of a northsouth line through O.

Point A is 1 kilometre east of point O. If point O is taken as the origin

N

and the road as the x-axis, then the path of the river can be modelled

River

W

E

by a quartic function, as shown in blue.

S

a Give the coordinates of C and D.

O A

b Find the rule for the quartic function, f (x).

C Main road

E

c How far is the river from the main road along the track AB?

d A canoeing race, of at least 17 kilometres in length, along

B

the river is being organised. It is suggested that the race

D

could start at O and finish at C. Is this course satisfactory?

Why?

y

Willie Wonkie, of Willie Wonkies Construction

Company, makes a sketch of the symmetrical W

for a large neon sign as shown at right. The x- and

y-axes represent the supporting crosspieces. The

width of the W along the x-axis is 6 metres and the

point on the vertical support is 2 1 metres above

4

the horizontal support. The W can be modelled

x

by a quartic function, with all x-intercepts exactly

evenly spaced.

a Find the rule for the letter W.

b If the top of the W is 8 metres wide, find the

coordinates of the highest points of the letter.

c State the domain of the function.

f

50

d Use a graphics calculator to find the coordinates of the lowest points of the W, giving values

e In order to test the strength of his design, Willie Wonkie moves the horizontal crosspiece so that it

just touches the lowest points of the W. Find the new rule that describes the W now.

State the domain and range of the new function.

Note: The following questions use differentiation of polynomials.

6 A plane cruising at 10 000 m is coming in to land at an airport at sea level, as can be seen in the diagram

below.

f

y

Planes

10 km

flight path

10 000 m

x

50 km

Airport

If the plane descends smoothly and makes no changes in direction, show that a possible model would

be y = ax2(x b).

a Find the equation if the plane begins its descent when 50 km horizontally from the airport.

b What is the altitude of the plane when it is 2 km horizontally from the airport?

c How accurate do you think this model is?

7 The diagram below shows a symmetrical skateboard ramp with horizontal platforms at A and B, and

vertical supporting struts at C and D.

y

A

B

E

G

2m

4m

x

3m

D

2m

4m

a Write an equation for a quartic function that models the ramp, assuming a smooth connection at

A and B.

b Show that the right half of the ramp can be modelled by a cubic equation y = a(x b)(x 4)2 and

DiGitaL DoC

doc-9173

Test Yourself

Chapter 1

c The right-hand side can also be modelled by two smoothly connected parabolas.

i If the strut DF is 1 m long, find the equation of the lower parabola passing through F.

ii Find the equation of the upper parabola if it meets the lower one at F, and show that the

connection is not smooth (that is, their gradients are not equal at the point where they meet).

iii Show that the two parabolas meet smoothly at (3, 0.75) provided the lower parabola passes

through F.

d Which model is the closest to the actual ramp if the strut is really 1.6 m long?

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Practice

VCE exam

questions

Use StudyON to

access all exam

questions on this

topic since 2002.

51

ICT activities

Chapter opener

DiGitaL DoC

10 Quick Questions doc-9159: Warm up with ten quick questions on

graphs and polynomials. (page 1)

1a

tUtoriaL

We3 eles-1173: Watch a worked example on binomial expansion.

(page 3)

DiGitaL DoC

SkillSHEET 1.1 doc-9238: Practise binomial expansions using Pascals

triangle. (page 4)

1B

polynomials

DiGitaL DoCS

Spreadsheet doc-9160: Investigate evaluating polynomials. (page 7)

SkillSHEET 1.2 doc-9239: Practise solving simultaneous equations.

(page 7)

1C

Division of polynomials

interaCtiVitY

Division of polynomials int-0246: Consolidate your understanding of

the division of polynomials and rational functions. (page 8)

tUtoriaL

We11 eles-1193: Watch a worked example on the division of

polynomials. (page 8)

DiGitaL DoCS

Spreadsheet doc-9161: Investigate finding factors of polynomials.

(page 10)

WorkSHEET 1.1 doc-9162: Binomial expansion, division of polynomials

and solving and factorising polynomial equations (page 10)

1D

Linear graphs

DiGitaL DoCS

SkillSHEET 1.3 doc-9240: Practise calculating the gradient of parallel

and perpendicular lines. (page 14)

SkillSHEET 1.4 doc-9241: Practise using the gradient to find the value

of a parameter. (page 14)

SkillSHEET 1.5 doc-9242: Practise using interval notation. (page 15)

SkillSHEET 1.6 doc-9243: Practise finding the domain and range for

linear graphs. (page 15)

1e

Quadratic graphs

tUtoriaL

We17 eles-1174: Watch a worked example on using the

discriminant. (page 16)

52

DiGitaL DoCS

Spreadsheet doc-9163: Investigate the value of the disciminant.

(page 20)

Spreadsheet doc-9164: Investigate quadratic graphs.

(page 20)

SkillSHEET 1.7 doc-9244: Practise recognising domain and range for

quadratic graphs. (page 20)

Spreadsheet doc-9165: Investigate graphs of functions.

(page 21)

Spreadsheet doc-9166: Investigate quadratic graphs in turning point

form. (page 21)

WorkSHEET 1.2 doc-9167: Calculate gradients, axial intercepts

and values of the discriminant, sketch graphs of polynomials, and

determine equations for graphs. (page 21)

1F

Cubic graphs

tUtoriaL

We24 eles-1194: Watch a worked example on determining the

rule of a cubic. (page 23)

DiGitaL DoCS

Spreadsheet doc-9168: Investigate cubic graphs in factor form.

(page 25)

Spreadsheet doc-9169: Investigate cubic graphs. (page 26)

Spreadsheet doc-9170: Investigate cubic graphs of the form

y = a(x b)3 + c. (page 27)

1G

Quartic graphs

tUtoriaLS

We27 eles-1195: Watch a worked example on sketching the

graph of a quartic. (page 30)

We28 eles-1196: Watch a worked example on finding the turning

points of a quartic using a CAS calculator. (page 30)

DiGitaL DoCS

SkillSHEET 1.8 doc-9245: Practise solving quartic equations.

(page 33)

Spreadsheet doc-9171: Investigate quartic graphs in factor form.

(page 33)

Investigation doc-9172: Quartics and beyond (page 34)

Chapter review

DiGitaL DoC

Test Yourself Chapter 1 doc-9173: Take the end-of-chapter test to test

your progress. (page 51)

Answers CHAPTER 1

GraphS anD poLYnomiaLS

exercise 1a

3 a No

4 a C

1 a x2 + 6x + 9

b x5 + 20x4 + 160x3 + 640x2 + 1280x + 1024

c x8 8x7 + 28x6 56x5 + 70x4 56x3

d

e

f

2 a

b

+ 28x2 8x + 1

16x4 + 96x3 + 216x2 + 216x + 81

2401 1372x + 294x2 28x3 + x4

32 240x + 720x2 1080x3

+ 810x4 243x5

3 1

x3 + 3x + + 3

x x

2187x7 10 206x5 + 20 412x3 22 680x

15 120 6048 1344 128

+

3 + 5 7

x

x

x

x

4

8

9

10

12

14

exercise 1D

1 a

exercise 1C

Division of polynomials

1 a Q(x) = x2 + 2x + 13

R(x) = 50

b Q(x) = x4 3x3 + 6x2 18x + 58

R(x) = 171

c Q(x) = 6x3 + 17x2 + 53x + 155

R(x) = 465

d Q(x) =

R(x) =

x3

3 20

27

7

3

x2

7

9

+ x+

iv

iv

iv

iv

1

14

7

19

9

10

11

12

a 2x + y 9 = 0

a y 2x 7 = 0

E

B

exercise 1e

1 a 0

d 2

2 a

Quadratic graphs

b 2

c 0

e 2

f 1

y

8

Linear graphs

b x + 3y 17 = 0

b x + 2y + 1 = 0

y

4

0

5 x

0

y

d

x

1

2

1 13

a y 3x + 5 = 0

a 3x + y + 13 = 0

a

c

6 a

d

7 a

d

8 a

i 1

1 12

12

10

1

y

y

5

b 2x + y + 5 = 0

b yx+2=0

b y 3x + 7 = 0

ii 8

2x + y = 0

iii

vi

b v

e i

[2, )

[2, 3]

b (5, )

e R

c iv

f ii

(12, 15) y

c [2, 3)

f (, 6)

5 9

)

2 4

1)

3 a (3,

1

2

b( ,

1

4

1

12

c (1 , 12 )

4 a

b

c

d

5 a

b

c

i

i

i

i

i

i

i

d ( , 12

(0, 2)

(6, 0)

(2, 0)

(3, 6)

y = x2 2x 1

y = x2 4x + 1

y = 8 + 2x x2

ii

ii

ii

ii

ii

ii

ii

R

R

R

R

R

[1, )

[4, 4)

1

)

24

iii

iii

iii

iii

iii

iii

iii

y2

y0

y0

y 6

[2, )

[3, )

[16, 9]

6 a

6

3

8 x

(12, 3)

i [12, 12]

b

ii [3, 15]

x

y

(0, 15)

y

5 x

0

2

i (, 5)

c

ii (, 0)

)

(5, 14

3

101

27

2 a i 50

ii 171

20

iii 465

iv 3 27

b The result is the same.

d Yes

2

3

4

5

polynomials

1 ii, iii, vi

2 a x5 2x4 2x2 3x + 7

b x5 3x4 8x3 11x2 + 4x 1

c 3x4 16x3 8x2 x + 24

d 17 18x + 29x2 + 24x3 + 5x4 x5

3 a i 6

ii 0

iii 124

b i 7

iii 280

ii 8

c i 6

ii 3

iii 331

d i 4

ii 7

iii 55

4 B

5 a = 4, b = 8

6 a = 3, b = 5

7 a = 0, b = 7

8 a = 2, b = 5

9 a C

bD

c No

5 a (x 2)(x + 3)2

b (3x 1)(x + 2)(x 6)

c (x + 2)(x 2)(x + 3)(x 1)

d 4x(x + 1)(x + 4)(x 2)

6 a x = 3, 0 or 2

b x = 4, 3, 0 or 2

3

c x = 2, 2 or 2

d x = 1

7 a=2

8 a=5

9 a=7

10 a = 10, b = 26

11 a = 9, b = 11

1458 + 729

x3

x6

243 810 1080 720

2

5

d 10 7 + 4 x + 240 x 32 x

x

x

x

ii 1

iii 0

a i 21

b i 40

ii 80

iii 80

c i 0

ii 810

iii 0

d i 0

iii 0

ii 540

e i 0

ii 302 526

iii 0

A

5C

6 D

7 D

540x3y3

19 683 x 2

4

4860

11 160

54

13 105

6

exercise 1B

b Yes

b B

(2, 23 )

0

2

i [2, 5)

3

2

2 14

ii [ 3 , 3 )

(2, 1)

1 0.09

1.5

2.91 x

53

7 a B

8 D

10 a

bC

9A

h

48 (0, 48)

(1, 4)

36

0

i

ii

11 t

1 a

b

2 a

e

3 a

Cubic graphs

y = x(x + 6)(x 5)

y = (x + 2)2(x 1)

v

vi

b iv

f viii

c ii

g vii

(1, 3)

2 1 0

1 0

1 0

1 3

4 (2 , 4 )

6

18

5t

c d (km) d(t) = t2

4

4 x

y = x2 + x 1, x R

R+

ii

4 a B

5 C

3

(, 4]

i [2, )

2 4 6 x

ii

y

1

[4 4 ,

128]

m3

3 1 0

32

(2, 32)

c

ii [100, 8]

b 80 m3

b6s

12 a 8

13 a 48 m

c Domain = [0, 6], range = [0, 48]

14 a 12 m

b 6 s

c 48 m

d Domain = [0, 11], range = [12, 48]

54

2

3

i [2, 1]

(5, 100)

100

f(x) = 5 + 6x 3x2

ii [0, )

(1, 0)

1 0

(1, 8)

1 2

Quartic graphs

y

24

1 a

y

4

x

5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3

(3, 4)

50

i [5, 3)

exercise 1G

9 E

6]

y

100

f(x) = x2 3x 2

108 64 2 0

bE

8 D

7 B

10 a

1

1

50 (12 , 4 4 )

(6, 16)

[10,

6 A

5

4

3

(2, 3)

2

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 t (h)

2 3

i

c (10, 128)

14

y

ii [1, 10]

(1, 1) [2, 3)

(57, 18] (3, 3)

a = 6, b = 24

a = 7, b = 4

a a = 3, b = 3, c = 3 and f (x) = 3(x 3)3 + 3

b g(x) = 3(x + 3)3 + 3, domain = [4, 2],

range = [0, 6]

c 7 cm

1

a a = 4, b = 5

2 (5 t )

b d (t ) = t

, domain = [0, 5]

4

i

ii

11

12

13

10

i [2, 2]

1

2

24

2

5 y = x 2x + 2

(2, 2)

2 (1, 1)

y

10

2 1 0

(1, 3)

(2, 18)

(3, 57)

(1, 8)

(2, 10)

11 a

(1, 3)

12

i [2, 1) (0, 3]

ii [12, 3) (0, 33]

4

1 0

(3, 33)

(2, 12)

3

(2, 1)

d i

h iii

[1, 2)

(14, 4]

exercise 1F

1 0

(2, 14)

(6, 12)

(2, 4)

(4, 9)

24

12

(11, 37)

y

3

ii

4

3

(1, 8)

[32, 0]

3 x

2 0 1 2

36 (0, 36)

i (0, 1]

ii (36, 8]

b y = 12 (x 2)2(x + 1)(x 4)

5

2

5 a

+ 810yx4 243x5

x8 x 6 7x 4

224

b

+

14 x 2 + 70 2

256 8

4

x

448 512 256

+ 4 6 + 8

x

x

x

2 a = 15, b = 2

3 a (x 9)(x + 2)(x 5)

b (2x 3)(x + 1)(x + 6)(x 2)

4 a 7x + 6y 1 = 0

b x + 2y 9 = 0

24

36

(3, 30)

i [2, 3]

3

32 0

2

3

ii [30, 0]

y

400

b (2, 400)

300

y

2 a

Short anSWer

3 2

Chapter reVieW

0 1

2 1

(1.15, 2.08)

100

(1, 36)

(2, 1]

i

ii [36, 400)

(2, 0)

0

1

4

7 a a = 9, b = 2

y

b

i (, 2]

ii (, 16]

(0, 1)

x

y

(3, 45)

[3, 2]

[45, 0]

6 a = 4, b = 19

7 a = 1, b = 7

8 a = 3, b = 1

0 (1, 0)

exercise 1h

1 a R\{3, 9}

2 a m = 5 infinitely many solutions, m = 3

(2.28, 9.91)

y

3

4

(0.25, 8.54)

5

6

(2, 0)

(1, 0)

3 a E

c A

e D

1 0

i

ii

(3, 0)

bB

dD

f C

8

9

10

18

2 3

Range = [ 25

, 0]

3

(2, 16)

(1, 0)

0

(1, 0)

1

3

)

( 43 , 25

3

(1, 0)

(2.59, 1.62)

Domain = R, range = (, 9]

(3, 0) x

c

(0, 0)

(1, 9)

200

no solutions

6

10

b x=

, m R\{3, 0, 5}

, y=

m+3

m+3

x = 1, y = 2, z = 6

x = 2, y = 3, z = 4

5

5

Unique solution k , no solution k =

3

3

100 adult tickets, 75 childrens tickets,

25 senior citizen tickets sold on opening

night.

75 portions of flake, 125 portions of chips

and 55 potato cakes sold during the lunch

special period.

a = 3, b = 12, c = 3, d = 4

a = 6, b = 4, c = 4, d = 2

a = 7, b = 3, c = 2, d = 5, e = 4

16

9 a = 3, b = 2, c = 6, d = 1, e = 5

mULtipLe ChoiCe

1

5

9

13

17

E

C

E

E

A

2

6

10

14

18

B

C

D

B

E

3

7

11

15

19

A

C

A

C

D

4

8

12

16

20

D

B

D

B

A

extenDeD reSponSe

1 a 0 km

b d (1000 km)

c

d

e

f

(1, 4)

(3, 0)

t (days)

d = t 3 6t 2 + 9t

The satellite by 40 000 km

10 days

Domain = [0, 10], range = [0, 490]

55

2 a y = 3 0.75x2

b y = 1.3125, so cannot fit.

c Reduce the height by 0.4 m.

back towards the start. Meets Liney

at (3.8, 5.24) and Quadder at the start

line at 5.1 min. Slows down, stopping

at (7.37, 5.8) and then speeding for

the finish.

3

x (m)

(2.1, 8.8)

10

(3.8, 5.24)

5

(0, 2.4) (0.3, 2.6)

0

5

Finishing

line

(5.1, 0)

L

Q

10.1

4

10 t (min)

(2.55, 1.3)

(7.37, 5.8)

10

line moving forwards at a constant

0.75 m/min. Passed by Cubric after

0.3 min and 2.6 m from the start line,

meets Cubric coming back towards

Liney at 3.8 min and 5.24 m from the

start line.

Quadder: Starts at start line, travelling

1.3m the wrong way for 2.55 min,

stopping momentarily then moving

forward with increasing speed. Meets

Cubric at the start line after 5.1 min.

Cubric: Starts at start line moving very

fast towards the finish passing Liney

at (0.3, 2.6), then slowing, stopping

56

x (m)

10.2

10

9.9

(10.1, 10.1)

(10.07, 10)

(10.092, 10)

(10.0899, 9.97)

(10.04, 9.9)

10

L

(10.13, 10)

C

10.15 t (min)

(10.04, 9.9).

Cubric overtakes Limey at (10.0899,

9.97).

Quadder finishes the race in 10.07 min,

Cubric in 10.09 min, Liney in 10.13 min.

Quadder wins by 1.2 s, Cubric second

by 2.4 s to Liney.

4 a C is (3, 0) and D is (2.25, 8.54)

b y = x4 3x3

c 2 km

d Yes, because a straight route from O to

D to C is approximately 17.4 km and the

river course is longer than this.

1

[4,

c Domain

4]

d (2.236, 4) and (2.236, 4);

1

range [4, 26 4 ]

1

e y = 4 (x 2.236)2(x + 2.236)2

1

f Domain [4, 4], range = [0, 30 4 ]

6 Teacher to check the model

x 2 ( x 75)

a y=

6250

b 46.72 m

c Seems to be extremely low 2 km from

touchdown. Not very accurate.

3( x 4) 2 ( x + 4)2

7 a y=

256

b y=

3( x 4)2 ( x + 2)

32

x2

3

c i

4

( x 4)2

y=

ii

; the gradients are 1 and 2,

2

respectively, so not smooth.

iii Teacher to check

d Quartic is the closest, 1.6875 m.

ChapTer 2

diGiTal doC

doc-9174

10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS

2a

2b

2C

2d

2e

2F

2G

2h

2i

2J

The cubic function in power form

The power function (the hyperbola)

The power function (the truncus)

The square root function in power form

The absolute value function

Transformations with matrices

Sum, difference and product functions

Composite functions and functional equations

Modelling

2a Transformations

Transformations

In this chapter we consider the basic graphs of the quadratic and cubic functions, the hyperbola and

truncus, square root and absolute value functions.

The following transformations of the above graphs are discussed: dilation, reflection and translation.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

dilation

Concept:

Let the basic graph be y = f (x).

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

2. Each y-value of the basic graph is multiplied by a factor of a, that is (x, y) (x, ay).

3. When | a | > 1, the graph of f (x) is stretched and becomes narrower.

4. When 0 < | a | < 1, the graph of f (x) is compressed and becomes wider.

dilation away from the y-axis: y = f (nx)

1

from the y-axis.

n

x

1

2. Each x-value of the basic graph is multiplied by a factor of , that is (x, y) ( , y).

n

n

3. When |n| > 1, the graph of f (x) is compressed from the y-axis and becomes narrower.

4. When 0 < |n| < 1, the graph of f (x) is stretched from the y-axis and becomes wider.

Note: For the graphs we will be looking at in this chapter a horizontal dilation can be expressed as

a vertical dilation. For example, (2x + 1)3 can be written as 23 ( x + 12 )3 = 8( x + 12 )3. So in this case a

1

horizontal dilation from the y-axis by a factor of 2 is the same as a vertical dilation from the

x-axis by a factor of 8. This can simplify the process of describing transformations for these

particular graphs.

1. Stretches or compresses the graph f (x) by a factor of

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

57

y

from the x-axis

from the y-axis

Original graph

ref lection

Reflection provides a mirror image of a graph.

Reflection can take place in one or both axes.

Let the basic graph again be y = f (x).

ref lection in the x-axis: y = f (x)

1. The mirror image of the original graph appears across the x-axis (the mirror line).

2. Each y-value is the negative of the original, the x-value is unchanged, that is (x, y) (x, y).

reflection in the y-axis: y = f ( x)

1. The mirror image of the original graph appears across the y-axis (the mirror line).

2. Each x-value is the negative of the original, the y-value is unchanged, that is (x, y) (x, y).

reflection in both axes: y = f ( x)

1. The basic graph is reflected in the x-axis and then the y-axis (or vice versa).

2. Both the x- and y-values are the negatives of the original, that is (x, y) (x, y).

The concept of reflection is shown in the diagrams below. The red star is the original graph.

y

x

Reflection in the y-axis

y

Translation: y = f (x b) + c

A translation slides the graph. Translation can be horizontal (to the right or left along the x-axis), or

vertical (up or down along the y-axis).

Consider our basic graph y = f (x).

1. If y = f (x b) the basic graph is translated b units parallel to the x-axis:

(a) in the positive direction (i.e. to the right) when b > 0

(b) in the negative direction (i.e. to the left) when b < 0.

Each x-value has b added to it, that is (x, y) (x + b, y).

2. If y = f (x) + c, the basic graph is translated c units parallel to the y-axis:

(a) in the positive direction (i.e. up) when c > 0

(b) in the negative direction (i.e. down) when c < 0.

Each y-value has c added to it, that is (x, y) (x, y + c).

58

y

x

x

Original graph

x

Vertical translation up

y

Horizontal translation

to the left

Horizontal translation

to the right

Combination of transformations

diGiTal doC

doc-9175

Spreadsheet

Transformations

When describing transformations that have been applied to a basic graph f (x), it is best to put the graph

into the format y = af (x b) + c. The order of transformations is important as dilations and reflections

are applied before translations, so ensure that you describe the transformations in this order (remember

D-R-T).

In this chapter we shall consider graphs, derived from basic curves, using single transformations

dilations, reflections or translations as well as combinations of those.

Modelling of data will also be considered.

Units: 3 & 4

The graph of y = x2 is a parabola with the turning point at the origin. The

domain of the function is R and the range is R+ {0}.

Throughout this section we refer to the graph of y = x2 as the basic parabola.

Let us now consider the effect of various transformations on the graph of this

basic parabola.

Quadratic functions are also power functions. Power functions are functions

of the form f (x) = xn, n R. The value of the power, n, determines the type of

function. When n = 1, f (x) = x, and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2

and the function is quadratic. Other power functions will be discussed later.

Under a sequence of transformations of f (x) = xn, n R, the general form

of a power function, is f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c and n R). All linear

and quadratic polynomials are also linear and quadratic power functions,

because all linear and quadratic functions are transformations of f (x) = x and

f (x) = x2, respectively.

When a quadratic function is written in turning point form it is written in

power form. For example, the quadratic function y = x2 + 4x + 6 can also be

represented as the power function y = (x + 2)2 + 2.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

a=2

a=1 1

a = 2

y = ax2

dilation

In power form, a is the dilation factor. It dilates the graph in the y direction. The larger | a | is, the thinner

the graph of the parabola. If | a | is a proper fraction, that is, 0 < | a | < 1, the graph is wider than the basic

parabola.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

59

reflection

If a is negative, the graph of the basic parabola is reflected in the x-axis,

that is, the graph is flipped upside down.

If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic parabola is reflected in

the y-axis, that is, the graph is flipped sideways. Due to its symmetry,

this effect cannot be seen on the basic parabola, but it is more obvious

with a parabola that has already been translated. For example, the graphs

of y = (x 3)2 and y = (x 3)2 are reflections of each other across the

y-axis.

y = ( x 3)2 y

y = (x 3)2

(0, 9)

Translation

horizontal translation

If b > 0, the graph of the basic parabola is translated horizontally to the right,

and if b < 0, the graph of the basic parabola is translated horizontally to the left.

For example, a graph with the equation y = (x 2)2 is a basic parabola that has

been translated 2 units to the right, and a graph with the equation y = (x + 3)2 is

a basic parabola that has been translated 3 units to the left.

If the coefficient of x is not 1, the equation must be rewritten in the form

y = a(x b)2 + c in order to be able to work out the value of b.

For example, y = (4x + 3)2 is translated 43 of a unit to the left, since

y

b=

0

3

2

y = (x b)

y = (4 x + 3)2

3

= [4( x + 4 )]2

3

= 16( x + 4 )2

c=2

c = 1

Vertical translation

If c > 0, the graph is translated vertically upward, and if c < 0, the graph is

translated vertically downward. For example, the graph with equation

y = x2 + 2 is a basic parabola that has been translated 2 units up, and the graph

with equation y = x2 1 is a basic parabola that has been translated 1 unit down.

Combination of transformations

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The quadratic function

in power form

b=2

The graph of y = a(x b)2 + c shows the combination of the transformations shown

above.

The turning point of the graph is (b, c).

The domain of the parabola is R and the range is [c, ) if a > 0 or [, c) if a < 0.

x

0

1 y = x2 + c

y y = a(x b)2 + c

(b, c)

0

Worked example 1

State the changes required to transform the graph of y = x2 into the graph of y = 2(x + 3)2 4.

Think

60

WriTe

y = a(x b)2 + c

a=2

of 2 from the x-axis.

b = 3

c = 4

We can use transformations to find the equation of the function from its graph by first examining the

new position of the turning point.

Worked example 2

(4, 2)

0

Think

WriTe

y = a(x b)2 + c

and hence the value of b.

hence the value of c.

formula.

y = a(x 4)2 + 2

The graph of the parabola passes through the origin. Using (0, 0):

Substitute x = 0 and y = 0 into the formula.

0 = a(0 4)2 + 2

0 = 16a + 2

16a = 2

2

16

= 81

a=

and write your answer.

y = 81 ( x 4)2 + 2

Worked example 3

Given the equation y = kx2, determine the effect on the graph y = x2, when k = {2, 3, 4}.

Sketch the graphs.

Think

1

WriTe/draW

y

30

20

10

3 2 1 0

sketch the graphs of y = 2x2, 3x2, 4x2

y

30

20

10

3 2 1 0

in words.

y = x2

1 2 3 x

y = 4x2

y = 3x2

y = 2x2

y = x2

1 2 3 x

thinner and stretches away from the x-axis.

61

exercise 2a

State the changes required to transform the graph of y = x2 into the graph of each of the

following.

1 We1

a y = 2x2

b y = 13 x 2

c y = 3x2

d y = x2 6

y = (x 2)2

e y = 1 x2

2

g y = (x + 3)2

h y = 2(3 x)2

y = (x + 2)2 1

k y = 1 2(3 + x)2

y = (x 0.5)2 + 2

y = 3(2 x 3)2 4

being:

a translated further to the left

C thinner

e reflected in the y-axis

1

(2 x)

x )2 + 3. Increasing m will result in the graph

m

b translated further up

d wider

iii

a y = x2 + 2

b y = 2(x 2)2

c y = 2 (x + 2)2

ii

y = x2

d y = (2 xx)2

2

e y = (2 + x)2 + 2

0

2

a

(2, 2)

y

0

(1, 2)

c

(1, 3)

y

4

2 x

(2, 4)

5 mC The equation of the graph shown opposite is best given by:

y

d

b

a y = (x c)2 + d

b y = c (x b)2

C y = (x + c)2 + b

d y = (c x)2 + d

a0

e y = d (x c)2

6 Find the equation of the image of y = x2 under each of the following transformations:

a dilation by the factor of

b

c

d

e

62

1

2

a translation by 2 units to the right and 1 unit down

a dilation by the factor of 3 from the x-axis, followed by translation of 2 units down

a reflection in the x-axis, followed by translation of 3 units to the left.

iv

a

b

y

0

1

x

1 0

4

d

y

2

x

0 2

y

8

9

6

0

2 2

0 x

8 We3 Find the equation of y = x2 under the following sequential transformations (in order):

a dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis

b reflection in the x-axis

c translation of 1 parallel to the x-axis

d translation of 3 parallel to the y-axis.

9 Find the image of the point (x, y) under each of the following transformations:

a reflection in the y-axis

b reflection in the x-axis

c dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis

d dilation by a factor of 2 from the y-axis

1

e dilation by a factor of 3 from the y-axis

f translation of 2 units horizontally in the positive direction

g translation of 1 unit parallel to the y-axis.

10

The parabola has a turning point at (z, 8); it intersects the y-axis at y = 10 and one of the

x-intercepts is x = 5. Find:

a the value of z

b the equation of the parabola.

Units: 3 & 4

11 For the parabola whose range is y 3, whose x-coordinate of the turning point is 4 and whose

1

y-intercept is y = 2 3 , find:

a the y-coordinate of the turning point

b the equation of the parabola

c the coordinates of the x-intercepts.

12 The design shown in the diagram at right can be obtained by taking the red

3

3

4

2 0

1

2

2

Topic:

Concept:

The graph of the function y = x3 is shown at right: Both the domain and range of

the function are R. The function is constantly increasing and has a stationary point

of inflection (where the gradient is 0) at the origin (0, 0).

Throughout this section we shall refer to the shape of the graph of y = x3 as a

positive cubic, or a basic cubic curve.

Cubic functions are also power functions. Power functions are functions of the

form f (x) = xn, n R. The value of the power, n, determines the type of function.

When n = 1, f (x) = x and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2 and the

function is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3 and the function is cubic. When n = 4,

f (x) = x4 and the function is quartic. Other power functions will be discussed later.

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

9 fragments. (One or more transformations may be used to form each

fragment.) If the highlighted fragment is given by f (x), 2 x 2, define the

other 9 fragments in terms of f (x) and specify their domains.

2b

AOS:

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

63

f (x) = a(x b)n + c (where a, b, c and n R). All linear and quadratic polynomials are also linear

and quadratic power functions, but this is not the case for cubic functions (or quartic functions). For

example, a cubic power function in the form f (x) = a(x b)3 + c has exactly one x-intercept and one

stationary point of inflection. A cubic polynomial in the form f (x) = ax3 + bx2 + cx + d can have one,

two or three x-intercepts and is therefore not a power function.

All cubic power functions are also cubic polynomials, but not all cubic polynomials are cubic power

functions. For example, the cubic function y = 2(x 3)3 + 1 is a polynomial and a power function. It is

the graph of y = x3 under a sequence of transformations.

a=2

y

a=1

a = 12

dilation

The value a is the dilation factor; it dilates the graph from the x-axis. The

larger a is, the thinner the graph.

y = ax3

reflection

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Cubic function

y = a(x b)3 + c

y = (x 1)3 y

that is, the graph is flipped upside down.

If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic cubic is reflected in the

y-axis, that is, the graph is flipped sideways. For example, the graphs

y = (x 1)3 and y = (x 1)3 are reflections of each other across the

y-axis.

(1, 0) 0

y = (x 1)3

(1, 0)

(0, 1)

Translation

horizontal translation

If b > 0, the graph of the basic cubic is translated horizontally to the right, and

if b < 0, the graph of the basic cubic is translated horizontally to the left. For

example, the graph with equation y = (x 2)3 is a basic cubic translated 2 units

to the right, and the graph of y = (x + 3)3 is a basic cubic, translated 3 units to

the left, that is, parallel to the x-axis in the negative direction.

If the coefficient of x is not 1, the equation must be rewritten in the form

y = a(x b)3 + c in order to be able to work out the value of b. For example,

the graph of y = (2x 5)3 is translated 52 units to the right, since y = (2x 5)3

b = 3

b=2

y = (x b)3

= [2(

[2( x 52 )]3

= 8( x 52 )3

Vertical translation

The value of c translates the graph vertically or along the y-axis. If c > 0, the

graph is translated vertically up, and if c < 0, the graph is translated vertically

down.

The coordinates of the stationary point of inflection are (b, c).

For example, if y = x3 is translated 1 unit up, the equation of the resulting

graph is y = x3 + 1 and the point of inflection is (0, 1); if it is translated

2 units down, the equation of the resulting graph is y = x3 2 and the point of

inflection is (0, 2).

Combination of transformations

The graph of y = a(x b)3 + c shows the combination of the transformations

described above.

Finally, the domain and range of y = a(x b)3 + c are R (all real numbers).

64

c=1

c = 2

x

0

2

y = x3 + c

y = a(x b)3 + c

(b, c)

0

Worked example 4

State the changes necessary to transform the graph of y = x3 into the graph of y = 2(x + 1)3 4.

Think

WriTe

y = a(x b)3 + c

a=2

2 in the y direction.

b = 1

c = 4

Worked example 5

i state the coordinates of the stationary point of inflection

ii find the x- and y-intercepts

iii sketch the graph

iv state the transformations that the graph of y = x3 has undergone to form each new equation.

a y = (x + 3)3 1

b y = (4 x)3 + 6

Think

i Since the rule is of the form y = a(x b)3 + c,

coordinates of the stationary point of inflection (b, c).

WriTe/draW

y = (x + 3)3 1

i b = 3, c = 1

Stationary point of inflection:

(3, 1)

ii y-intercept: x = 0,

iii

then sketch the positive cubic passing through the points

marked.

horizontal translations.

y = (0 + 3)3 1

= 27 1

= 28

x-intercept: y = 0

(x + 3)3 1 = 0

(x + 3)3 = 1

x + 3 = 1

x = 4

y

(4, 0)

0

(3, 1)

of 3 units to the left and a vertical

translation of 1 unit down.

65

y = (4 x)3 + 6

i b = 4, c = 6

the coordinates of the stationary point of

inflection (b, c).

ii y-intercept: x = 0,

Note: Do not round off until the very last step;

for graphing purposes, round off your final

answer to 1 decimal place.

y = (4 0)3 + 6

= 64 + 6 = 70

x-intercept: y = 0

(4 x)3 + 6 = 0

(4 x)3 = 6

4 x = 3 6

4 3 6 = x

x 5.8

iii To sketch the graph on a set of labelled axes,

iii

x- and y-intercepts, then sketch the positive

cubic passing through the points marked.

y

(4, 6)

0

iv State the kind of reflection and the vertical

(5.8, 0)

and a vertical translation of 6 units up.

To find the equation of the curve from a given graph, we need to establish exactly what transformations

were applied to the basic cubic curve. This is best done by observing the shape of the graph and the

position of the stationary point of inflection.

Worked example 6

y

5

3

0

Think

66

WriTe

y = a(x b)3 + c

inflection (b, c) and hence state the values of b and c.

(1, 3). So b = 1, c = 3.

y = a(x 1)3 + 3

Substitute the coordinates of this point into the equation.

5 = a(0 1)3 + 3

2 = a (1)

=a

a = 2

y = 2(x 1)3 + 3

exercise 2b

State the changes necessary to transform the graph of y = x3 into the graph of each of the

following.

a y = 7x3

b y = 2 x3

c y = x3 + 4

1 We4

d y = 6 x3

g y = 4(2 x)3

j

2

y = 6 2 ( x 1)3

e y = (x 1)3

h y = 6(7 x)3

f

i

y = (x + 3)3

y = 3(x + 3)3 2

k y = 1 (2 x + 5)3

4

y = 3 2(4 + 2 xx)3

Which of these transformations were applied to the graph of y = x3 to obtain each of the graphs

below?

i reflection in the x-axis

ii translation to the left

iii translation to the right

iv translation up

v translation down

a

0

x

0

d

0

e

i find the stationary point of inflection

ii find the x- and y-intercepts

iii state the transformation(s) that the graph y = x3 has undergone to produce the given graph

iv sketch the graph.

3

y = 1 2x3

y = 3 x3 6

y = 2(x 4)3

y=

y = 4(1 x)3

y = (x 1)3 + 2

y = 3 (x + 2)3

y = 2(x + 1)3 6

y = 4 x3

( x 2)3

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4 mC The coordinates of the stationary point of inflection are:

4

,3

m

4

d , 3m 3

m

(4m, 3)

4 , 3

4 3

,

m m

a

2

m

2m

2

m3

2m3

a wider

67

7 Find the equation of the graph resulting from each of the following transformations of the graph of y = x3:

a a dilation by the factor of 12 from the x-axis

b a reflection in the x-axis and a translation by 5 units to the left

c a translation by 3 units to the right and 1 unit down

d a dilation from the x-axis by the factor of 2, followed by the vertical translation of 3 units

e a reflection in the x-axis, then a translation of 1 unit to the left and 1 unit down.

8 Find the equation of the graph resulting from the following sequential transformations of the graph

of y = x3:

a dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis

b reflection in the y-axis

c translation of 2 in the positive direction parallel to the x-axis

d translation of 1 in the negative direction parallel to the y-axis.

9 We6 Find the equations of these curves, if they are of the form y = a(x b)3 + c.

a

(1, 2)

(1, 1)

1

0

d

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Do more

Interact with

transformations of

the hyperbola.

x

e

12

1 1 0

2

10 mC The graph of y = 2(x + 3)3 + 1 has been reflected in the x-axis, shifted 3 units to the right and

a y = 2(3 x)3 + 2

b y = 2(x + 2)3 + 2

C y = 2(2 x)3

d y = 2(x 3)3 + 1

e y = 2x3

11 The graph of a cubic function of the form y = a(x b)3 + c has a stationary point of inflection at

(1, 4) and cuts the y-axis at y = 2. Find the equation of the function.

12

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Do more

Interact with

transformations of

the truncus.

68

The graph of y = a(b x)3 + c has a stationary point of inflection at (2, 1) and passes through the

)

point (1,, 12 ).

a Find the equation of the curve.

b State the shape of the curve (that is, whether it is positive or negative cubic).

2C

1

y

The graph shown at right is called a hyperbola and is given by the equation y = .

x

n, n R. The value of

Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = x

the power, n, determines the type of function. We saw earlier that when

y=0

n = 1, f (x) = x and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2 and the function

x

0

is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3 and the function is cubic. When n = 4,

4 and the function is quartic.

f (x) = x

The power function that produces the graph of a hyperbola has a value of

1

x=0

n = 1. Thus, the function f ( x ) = can also be expressed as the power function

1

x

f (x) = x .

The graph exhibits asymptotic behaviour. That is, as x becomes very large positive or negative,

the graph approaches the x-axis, but never touches it, and as x becomes very small positive or negative

(i.e. approaches 0), the graph approaches the y-axis, but never touches it. So the line x = 0 (the y-axis) is

a vertical asymptote and the line y = 0 (the x-axis) is the horizontal asymptote. Both the domain and the

range of the function are all real numbers, except 0; that is, R\{0}.

1

The graph of y = can be subject to a number of transformations.

y

x

a

+ c or y = a(x b)1 + c.

Consider y =

a=2

xb

a=1

a = 12

x

y=0

dilation

The value a is a dilation factor. It dilates the graph from the x-axis.

x=0

y = ax

reflection

x = 3

in the x-axis. If x is replaced with x, the graph of the basic

hyperbola is reflected in the y-axis.

1

1

and y =

For example, the graphs of y =

x3

x3

are reflections of each other across the y-axis.

y=

x=3

y = x 1 3

1

3

x

y=0

(0, 13 )

Translation

horizontal translation

The value b translates the graph b units horizontally, that is, parallel to the x-axis. If b > 0, the graph is

translated to the right, and if b < 0, the graph is translated to the left. For example, the graph with

1

is a basic hyperbola translated 3 units to the right. This graph has a vertical asymptote

equation y =

x3

of x = 3 and domain R\{3} (and a horizontal asymptote y = 0). If a basic hyperbola is translated 3 units

1

, with a vertical asymptote of x = 3 and domain R\{3}. Hence, the

to the left, it becomes y =

x+3

equation of the vertical asymptote is x = b and the domain is R\{b}. The horizontal asymptote and the

range remain the same, x = 0 and R\{0}, respectively.

Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph c units vertically, that is, parallel to the y-axis. If c > 0, the graph is

translated upward, and if c < 0, the graph is translated c units downward. The graph with equation

1

y = + 3 is a basic hyperbola translated 3 units up. This graph has a horizontal asymptote of y = 3 and

x

a range of R\{3} (and a vertical asymptote x = 0). If a basic hyperbola istranslated 3 units down, it

1

becomes y = 3, with a horizontal asymptote of y = 3 and a range of R\{3} (and a vertical asymptote

x

x = 0). Hence the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = c and the range is R\{c}.

Always draw the asymptote as a dotted line and label it with its equation (for example, y = 3) at the

end of the asymptote. Ensure that the graph continues to approach the asymptote getting closer but not

touching or crossing the asymptote or bouncing away from the asymptote.

Combination of transformations

The graph of y =

a

+ c shows the combination of these transformations.

xb

y

y = x

c

b+

y=c

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The hyperbola

c

0

x=b

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

69

Finally, if the coefficient of x is a number other than 1, to obtain the value of h the equation should be

rearranged first. For example,

4

4

.

y=

=

3 x + 6 3( x + 2)

Therefore, b = 2 (not 6 as it may seem at first); that is, the graph is translated 2 units to the left.

Worked example 7

1

State the changes that should be made to the graph of y = in order to obtain the graph of

x

4

y=

1.

x+2

Think

WriTe

a

+c

xb

y=

a = 4

1

State the changes to y = x , caused by a.

1

The graph of y = x is dilated by the

factor of 4 from the x-axis and reflected in

the x-axis.

b = 2

c = 1

Worked example 8

2

+ 2, state:

x3

a the quations

e

of theas

ymptotes

c the range.

For the graph of y =

b the domain

Think

2

equations of the asymptotes:

Horizontal asymptote: y = c

Vertical asymptote: x = b

WriTe

a y=

a

+c

xb

b = 3, c = 2

Horizontal asymptote: y = 2

Vertical asymptote: x = 3

b Domain: R\{3}

c Range: R\{2}

Sketching the graph of the hyperbola by hand can be easily done by following these steps:

1. Find the position of the asymptotes.

2. Find the values of the x- and y-intercepts.

3. Decide which quadrants the hyperbola is in depending on whether a > 0 or a < 0.

4. On the set of axes draw the asymptotes (using dotted lines) and mark the intercepts.

5. Treating the asymptotes as the new set of axes, sketch either the positive or negative hyperbola,

making sure it passes through the intercepts that have been previously marked.

70

Worked example 9

2 4

, clearly showing the intercepts with the axes

x+2

and the position of the asymptotes.

Sketch the graph of y =

Think

1

TUTorial

eles-1197

Worked example 9

WriTe/draW

a

+ c and state

Compare the given equation with y =

xb

the values of a, b and c.

a = 2, b = 2,

c = 4

1

is dilated by the

x

factor of 2 from the x-axis, translated

2 units to the left and 4 units

down.

1

of a, b and c on the graph of y = .

x

The graph of y =

The horizontal asymptote is at y = c.

The vertical asymptote is at x = b.

Asymptotes: x = 2; y = 4

y-intercept: x = 0

2

y=

4

0+2

= 1 4

= 3

Point (0, 3)

x-intercept: y = 0

2

0=

4

x+2

2

=4

x+2

2 = 4(

4( x + 2)

= 4x + 8

4x = 2 8

= 6

x=

=

Point

6

6

4

3

2

3

2,0

(a) Draw the set of axes and label them.

(b) Use dotted lines to draw the asymptotes. The

asymptotes are x = 2 and y = 4.

(c) Mark the intercepts with the axes. The intercepts are

y = 3 and x = 3 .

y

( 32 ,

0)

0

(0, 3)

sketch the graph of the hyperbola (as a is positive, the

graph is not reflected); make sure the upper branch

passes through the x- and y-intercepts previously

marked.

x

y = 4

x = 2

The next example shows how to find the equation of the hyperbola from its graph.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

71

Worked example 10

6

3

0 2

Think

WriTe

a

+c

xb

y=

Remember that the equation of the horizontal

asymptote is y = c and of the vertical asymptote is

x = b.

b = 2,

y=

points of intersection with the axes into the formula

(say, the x-intercept).

a

0=

+3

42

Solve for a.

0=

c=3

a

+3

x2

a

+3

2

a

= 3

2

a = 6

6

exercise 2C

a

+ 3.

x2

y=

x2

y = 3

+3

6

x2

1

State the changes that should be made to the graph of y = in order to obtain the graph of

x

each of the following.

1 We 7

a y=

2

x

b y=

c y=

1

x6

d y=

2

x+4

e y=

1

+7

x

y=

2

5

x

g y=

1

3

4+x

h y=

72

y=

x 1

2

+6

x3

1

Which of the following transformations were applied to the graph of y = to obtain each

x

of the graphs shown below?

i translation to the right

ii translation to the left

iii translation up

iv translation down

v reflection in the x-axis

a

i the equations of the asymptotes

2

ii the domain

1

x

x+6

2

3

d y=

e y= +4

3 x

x

4

5

g y=

2

h y=

+1

x+6

2 x

4 For each of the following graphs, state:

i the equations of the asymptotes

ii the dom

ain

a y=

b y=

c y=

x2

1

f y=

5

x

1

i y=

m

n+x

c

y

2

y

1

0

2

0

n

0

a

m

73

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Spreadsheet

Function grapher

4

1

2

3

, y=

, y = and y =

.

x

3x

x

3x

6 We9 Sketch each of the following, clearly showing the position of the asymptotes and the intercepts

1

1

a y=

b y=

1

x+3

x+2

2

6

d y=

e y=

3

1 x

x+5

1

2

4

g y = 1

h y= +

2 x

5 1+ x

x+3

2

j y=

1

k y=

3 4x

x2

y=

y=

i

l

3

3

x 1 4

3

+6

x2

1

y=

+4

2x + 3

4x + 3

y=

x 1

1

x4

1

C y = 3

4x

a

1

+4

x3

1

d y=

3

4x

y = 3+

y=

3

0

1

y = 3

x4

a

b

C

d

e

The range is R\{3}.

The equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 3.

The equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 2.

None of the above.

2

3?

x +1

9 We10 Find the equation for each of the following hyperbolas, if they are of the form y =

a

4

1

10

diGiTal doCS

doc-9178

WorkSHEET 2.1

History of mathematics

doc-9179

The history of some

major curves

74

If a function is given by f ( x ) =

and the intercepts with the axes.

a f (x + 2)

d f (1 x) + 2

y

2

112

0

34

y

5

3 4

1

1

1

, sketch each of the following, labelling the asymptotes

x

b f (x) 1

e f (x 1) 1

a

+ c.

xb

c f (x) 2

f 1 f (x 2)

2d

graph is given by:

Units: 3 & 4

y = 12

x

Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R. The value

y=0

x

0

of the power, n, determines the type of function. We saw earlier that when

2 and the

n = 1, f (x) = x and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x

x=0

function is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3 and the function is cubic.

4 and the function is quartic. When n = 1, f (x) = x1

When n = 4, f (x) = x

and the power function produces the graph of a hyperbola.

The power function that produces the graph of a truncus has a value of n = 2. Thus, the function

f ( x ) = 12 can also be expressed as the power function f (x) = x2.

x

The function is undefined for x = 0. Hence, the equation of the vertical asymptote is x = 0 and the

domain of the function is R\{0}.

We can also observe that the graph approaches the x-axis very closely, but never touches it. So y = 0 is

the horizontal asymptote.

Since the whole graph of the truncus is above the x-axis, its range is R+ (that is, all positive real

numbers).

Similar to the graphs of the functions, discussed in the previous sections, the graph of y = 12 can

x

undergo various transformations.

a

+ c , or y = a(x b)2 + c.

Consider the general formula y =

( x b) 2

dilation

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

The value a is the dilation factor. It dilates the graph from the x-axis.

The dilation factor does not affect the domain, range or asymptotes.

y=0

a=3

a=2

x

x=0

reflection

the x-axis. The range becomes R (that is, all negative real

numbers).

a

y = 2

x

y = 12

x

y=0

y = 12

x=0

y

x,

If x is replaced with

reflected in the y-axis. The effect of this reflection

1

1

, but

cannot be seen in the basic graph, since 2 =

x

( x )2

it becomes more obvious if the graph has been translated

1

horizontally first. For example, the graphs of y =

(

x

3)2

1

are reflections across the y-axis.

and y =

( x 3)2

The vertical asymptote changes from x = 3 to x = 3 and

the domain changes from R \{3} to R \{3}.

1

( x 3)2

1

y=

( x 3)2

y=

y=0

x = 3

x=3

75

Translation

horizontal translation

y

The value b translates the graph b units horizontally. If b > 0, the

graph is translated to the right, and if b < 0, the graph is translated

1

b = 2

b=3

left. For example, the graph of the equation y =

results from

2

( x 3)

y=0

translating a basic truncus 3 units to the right. The vertical asymptote

x

2 0

3

is x = 3 and the domain is R \{3}. If a basic truncus is translated

1

y =

1

(x b)2

2 units to the left, it becomes y =

,

where

the

vertical

( x + 2)2

asymptote is x = 2 and the domain is R \{2}. Hence, the equation of the vertical asymptote is x = b and

the domain is R \{b}. The range is still R+ and the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = 0.

Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph c units vertically. If c > 0 the graph is translated upward, and if c < 0,

1

the graph is translated c units downward. For example, the graph with equation y =

+ 1 results when

x2

a basic truncus is translated 1 unit upward. The horizontal asymptote is y = 1 and the range is (1, ). If

1

a basic truncus is translated 1 unit down, it becomes y =

1, with y = 1 as the horizontal asymptote

2

x

and (1, ) as the range. Hence the equation of the horizontal asymptote is y = c and the range

is (c, ).

y

y =

+c

x2

c=1

y=1

c = 1 x

1

x=0

y = 1

Note: If a is positive (see graph below), the whole graph of the truncus is above the line y = c (the

horizontal asymptote) and hence its range is y > c, (c, ).

If a is negative, the whole graph is below its horizontal asymptote and therefore the range is y < 0,

or (, c).

y

y

y=c

y=c

x

x

The graph of y =

a

+ c shows the combination of these transformations.

( x b) 2

y

y=

a

+ c

(x b)2

y=c

c

0

b

x=b

76

Worked example 11

Think

1

1

1.

into the graph of y =

2

x

( x 2) 2

WriTe

a

+c

( x b) 2

y=

a = 1

1

The graph of y = 2 is reflected in the

x

x-axis.

b=2

c = 1

Worked example 12

2

4 , state:

(3 + x) 2

a the equations of the asymptotes

For the function y =

b the

dom

ain

Think

c the range.

WriTe

a y=

a

+c

( x b) 2

Vertical asymptote: x = b

Horizontal asymptote: y = c

b = 3, c = 4

substituting the values of b and c into

corresponding formulas.

Asymptotes: x = 3 and y = 4

b Domain: R\{3}

c a>0

Range: y > 4

a

+ c, then compare the given equation

( x b) 2

1

with the general formula to see what changes should be made to the basic curve (the graph of y = 2 ) to

x

transform it to the one you want. This should give you an idea of how the graph will look.

The following algorithm can then be used:

1. Find the position of the asymptotes.

2. Find the intercepts with the axes.

3. On the set of axes, draw the asymptotes (using

dotted lines), label with the equation and mark the

x- and y-intercepts.

4. Treating the asymptotes as the new set of axes,

a>0

a<0

sketch the basic truncus curve.

5. Make sure the curve passes through the points marked on the axes.

To sketch the graph of a truncus, first put it in the form y =

77

Worked example 13

1

, clearly showing the position of the asymptotes and the

( x + 1) 2

Think

WriTe/draW

a

+c

( x b) 2

y=

a = 1,

1

the graph of y = 2 should undergo in order to be

x

changed into the one in question.

1

is reflected in the

x2

x-axis, translated 1 unit to the left and

2 units up.

(y = c and x = b).

Asymptotes: x = 1 and y = 2

x-intercept: y = 0

b = 1,

c=2

The graph of y =

0 = 2

1

( x + 1)2

1

=2

( x + 1)2

( x + 1)

1)2 = 12

x +1 =

x=

1

2

1

2

1

x = 12 1 or x =

2 1

0.3

1.7

y-intercept: x = 0

1

(0 + 1)2

= 2 1

=1

y = 2

them; use dotted lines to draw asymptotes; mark the

x- and y-intercepts; treating the asymptotes as the

new set of axes, draw the basic truncus curve upside

down (since a is negative); make sure it intersects

the axes in the right places.

y=2

(0, 1)

0

(1.7, 0)

(0.3, 0)

x = 1

In the above example we have considered sketching the graph from the given equation. Sometimes

the opposite task is required; that is, the equation of the function should be established from its

graph.

78

Worked example 14

x=2

12

Think

WriTe

a

+c

( x b) 2

y=

1

Compared to y = 2 , the graph is shifted 2 units to the

x

right. (There is no shift along the y-axis.)

b = 2 and c = 0

y=

formula.

Using (0,, 2 ) :

a

+0

( x 2)2

a

=

( x 2)2

a

2 (00 2)2

a

=

4

1

a = 4 ( 2)

=

Solve for a.

a = 2

y=

exercise 2d

2

( x 2)2

1

State the transformations required to change the graph of y = 2 into the graph of

x

each of the following:

2

3

a y= 2

b y=

x

x2

1

2

c y=

d y=

( x + 2)2

( x 3)2

1 We11

y=

2

+6

x2

e y=

1

x2

h y=

g y = 3

i

y = 5

1

( x + 2)2

(4 + x )2

4

+1

( x 3)2

1

2 mC To obtain the graph shown, the graph of y = 2 was:

x

a reflected in the x-axis and translated 2 units down

b translated 2 units to the left

C reflected in the x-axis and translated 2 units to the left

d reflected in the x-axis and translated 2 units to the right

e reflected in the x-axis and translated 2 units up

x=2

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

79

1

was changed into the one shown at right?

x2

m units to the left and p units up

m units to the right and p units up

m units to the left and n units up

m units to the right and n units up

m units to the left and n units down

y=

a

b

C

d

e

p

y=n

x

x=m

i the equations of the asymptotes

ii the domain

iii the range.

a y=

d

y=

g y=

2

x2

b y=

2

( x + 1)2

e y=

4 1

+

5 x2

h y=

c y = ( x 2)2

3x 2

5

(4 + x )2

1 3

2 x2

y=

2

3

x2

y=

2

+4

( x 1)2

i

ii

iii

3

0

iv

3

v

vi

3

3

3

0

a ii only

d ii, iii and vi

b iii only

e v and vi

C ii and iii

a i, ii and iv

d v only

b iii, v and vi

e iii and vi

a i

b ii

d iv

e v

C iv only

C iii

8 We13 Sketch each of the following, clearly showing the position of the asymptotes and the intercepts

diGiTal doC

doc-9176

Spreadsheet

Function grapher

80

2

1

a y=

b y=

2

( x 3)2

5x

d y=

(x

1)2

e y = 1

4

x2

c y=

2

(4 + x )2

y=

1

3

2x 2

g y=

j

y=

2

(3 + x )2

y=

2

1

+

3 ( x 2)2

1

+3

(2 x )2

y=

4

1

(2 x 4)2

2

2

( x 1)2

h y = 4

3

1

2

4( x + 1)

4

k y=

a

y

1

0

34

y = 2

x=0

c

x=2

d

y

1

2

y=1

0

x=

x=

f

2.5

y = 2

x=1

x=4

10

y = 3

y

0

2

y=4

4

1 0

x y=0

Units: 3 & 4

The domain of a truncus is R\{2}; its range is y > 3 and its graph cuts the x-axis at x = 1 and

x = 3. Find the equation of the function.

11 The domain of a truncus is R\{1}; its range is (2, ) and its graph cuts the y-axis at y = 5. Find the

in power form

2e

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

y

Power functions are functions of the form f (x) = xn, n R. The value of

the power, n, determines the type of function. We saw earlier that when n = 1,

f (x) = x and the function is linear. When n = 2, f (x) = x2 and the function

is quadratic. When n = 3, f (x) = x3 and the function is cubic. When n = 4,

0

f (x) = x4 and the function is quartic. When n = 1, f (x) = x1 and the power

2, f (x) = x2 and the

function produces the graph of a hyperbola. When n =

power function produces the graph of a truncus.

1

The power function that produces the graph of the square root function has a value of n = 2 .

1

x 2.

The function is defined for x 0; that is, the domain is R+ {0}, or [0, ). As can be seen from the

graph, the range of the square root function is also R+ {0}, or [0, ). Throughout this section we

will refer to the graph of y = x as the basic square root curve. Let us now investigate the effects

of various transformations on the basic square root curve. Consider the function y = a x b + c, or

y = a( x b) + c.

1

2

AOS:

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

81

dilation

The value a is a dilation factor; it dilates the graph from the x-axis. The domain is still [0, ).

y

a=3

a=2

a=1

a = 12

y=a x

reflection

the x-axis. The range becomes (, 0]. The domain is still [0, ).

y = x

(1, 1)

(0, 0)

(1, 1)

y = x

For example, the graphs with equations y = x and y = x are

reflected across the y-axis. The domain becomes (, 0] and the

range is [0, ).

y

y = x

y = x

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

x

(0, 0)

Translation

horizontal translation

The value b translates the graph horizontally. If b > 0, the graph is translated

to the right, and if b < 0, the graph is translated to the left. The graph

with the equation y = x 3 results when the basic curve is translated 3

units to the right. This translated graph has domain [3, ) and range [0, ).

If the basic curve is translated 2 units to the left, it becomes y = x + 2 and

has domain [2, ) and range [0, ). The domain of a square root function

after a translation is given by [b, ).

Vertical translation

The value c translates the graph vertically. If c > 0, the graph is translated

vertically up, and if c < 0, the graph is translated vertically down. If y = x

is translated 2 units vertically up, the graph obtained is y = x + 2, with

domain [0, ) and range [2, ). If the basic curve is translated 4 units

down, it becomes y = x 4, with domain [0, ) and range [4, ).

The range of the square root function is [c, ) for a > 0.

b = 2

(2, 0) 0

y

(0, 2)

0

c=2

c = 4

(0, 4)

Combination of transformations

82

b=3

x

y= xb

The point (b, c) is the end point of the square root curve. For example, the

end point of y = x 2 + 1 is (2, 1).

(3, 0)

y= x+c

y=a xb+c

(b, c)

0

It is always good practice to label the end point with its coordinates. Make sure it is an open circle if

the x-value is not in the required domain and a closed circle if its x-value is within the functions domain.

Consider the function y = a b x + c.

y

The graph of y = a x + b + c has (b, c) as its end point. If this

y=a bx +c y=a x+b +c

function is reflected in the y-axis, it

becomes y = a

x

y=a

(b, c)

y=

(b, c)

x

left. The domain is (, 2] and the range is [1, ). The equation y = x + 2 + 1 results in y =

when it is reflected in the y-axis. The domain changes from [2, ) to (, 2]

+ 2 +1

1 the

and the range remains [1, ). The equation y = 2 x + 3 1 can be rewritten as y = 2( x + 32 ) 1;

Worked example 15

Think

WriTe

y = a x b +c

a = 3

the x-axis and reflected in the x-axis.

b = 5

c=3

Worked example 16

For each of the following functions find the domain and range.

a y = 2 x 3 +1

b y = 4 3x + 2 4

Think

c y=

TUTorial

eles-1198

Worked example 16

4 x+2

WriTe

y = a xb +c

a y = 2 x 3 +1

b = 3, c = 1

b y = 4 3x + 2 4

y = 4 3( x + 23 ) 4

The domain is [ 3 , ).

83

negative.

c = 4, a < 0

b = 4, c = 2

domain is x b.

c y=

4 x +2

a>0

a>0

compare the given formula with y = a x b + c. This will give

y=a bx+c

y=a xb+c

us an idea of the changes required to transform the basic square

(b, c)

a<0

a<0

root curve into the one we want. It will also let us know the way

the curve will look. The diagram at right illustrates the idea.

Once the coordinates of the end point and the direction of the curve are known, the intercepts with the

axes (if any) should be found before sketching.

Worked example 17

Sketch the graph of y = 2 x 3 + 1, clearly marking intercepts and the end points.

Think

WriTe/draW

y = 2 x 3 + 1

Shape:

x-intercept: y = 0

0 = 2 x 3 +1

2 x3 =1

x3 =

x3=

=

x=

1

2

1

( 2 )2

1

4

1

34

y-intercept: x = 0

y = 2 0 3 + 1

= 2

3 +1

y-intercept.

6

x-intercept, and drawing the curve so that it starts at the end point

and passes through the x-intercept.

y

1

0

84

(3, 1)

(3 14 , 0)

x

3

Worked example 18

Given f : [0, ) R, where f ( x) = x and g(x) = af (x) + b, where a and b are positive real

constants, consider the effect on g(x) as a and b increase individually.

Think

1

WriTe/draW

using a suitable domain.

y

y = f (x)

0

2

in step 1 for:

i a = 2, b = 0

y

y = g(x) = 2 f(x)

y = f (x)

x

0

ii a = 2, b = 1

ii

y = 2 f(x) +1

y = 2 f(x)

y = f (x)

y

(0, 1)

0

3

description in words.

exercise 2e

from the x-axis.

As b in increases, the graph is

translated up parallel to the y-axis.

1 We15

1

3

a y=2 x

b y =

c y = 3 x 1

d y= 2 4+x

e y = x 1

g y = x 4 +3

h y = 62 3+ x

y =

1

2

y = 23 x

2 x + 3

2 For each of the functions in question 1 write the coordinates of the end point.

3 mC The graph shown at right was obtained by translating the graph of y = x : y

a

b

C

d

e

3 units down and 9 units to the right

9 units up and 3 units to the right

3 units down and 9 units to the right

none of the above

a

b

C

d

e

translated 4 units to the right and 2 units up

translated 2 units to the right, 4 units up and reflected in the x-axis

reflected in the y-axis, translated 4 units up and 2 units to the right

reflected in the x-axis, translated 4 units up and 2 units to the left.

3

0

(2, 4)

0

85

5 We16 Find the domain and range for each of the following functions.

c y = x 3

d y = 4+2 x

y = x 1+3

g y = 2 + x 1

h y = 4 2 2x + 1

y= 3 x 7

k y = 6 + 4 2x

a y = x +1

b y= x3

e y = 5 x

f

j

= 35

3x 4 + 2

6 mC The equation of the graph is of the form:

a y = a x b + c, a > 0

b y = a x b + c, a < 0

C y = a b x + c, a > 0

d y = a b x + c, a < 0

e could be either B or C

7 mC The domain and range (in that order) of the function are:

a (, 2] and (, 2]

b (, 2) and (, 2)

d ( , 2] and ( , 2]

e (, 2] and (, 2]

diGiTal doC

doc-9176

Spreadsheet

Function grapher

y

(2, 2)

0

8 We17 Sketch the graph of each of the following, clearly marking intercepts and end points.

a y= x+2

b y=

d y = x 6 +1

e y= 3+ x +2

y = 12 4 + x

g y = 2x 3

h y = 6 + 3x + 2

y = 2 x 1

1

3

x +3

c y = 2 x

y

=

2

x 1

a

b y = 22 1 x

C y = x 1 2

Units: 3 & 4

1

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

See more

Watch

a video on the

modulus function.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

86

(1, 2)

d y = x 2 +1

e y = 22 x 1

The graph of y = x was dilated by the factor of 2 from the x-axis and

translated m units to the right and 4 units down. It intersects with the

x-axis at x = 5. Find:

a the value of m

b the equation of the curve.

11 The end point of the square root curve is at (4, 3) and its y-intercept is 9. Sketch the graph of the curve

and hence establish its equation.

10

12 The graph of y = x was dilated by the factor of 4 from the x-axis, reflected in the x-axis, translated

b the equation of the curve

a the value of p, if the graph cuts the y-axis at y = 4

c the x-intercept

d the domain

e the range.

f Hence, sketch the graph, showing the coordinates of the end points and the intercepts with the axes.

2F

Units: 3 & 4

C (, 2} and {2, +)

9 We18

AOS:

y = 1 2 x

The domain of this function is R and its range is R+ {0}. Its graph is

symmetrical in the y-axis and has a cusp (a sharp point) at the origin.

The symbol | x | represents the magnitude of x, (that is, the size of x),

regardless of its sign.

x , if x 0

Therefore,

|x| =

x , if x < 0

Compare the graphs of y = x and y = | x |.

For x 0, the graphs of the two functions are

y

identical, while for x < 0 the graph of y = | x | is the

reflection of y = x in the x-axis.

In general, any graph of the form y = |f (x)| is

x

0

called an absolute value function. To sketch the

graph of y = |f (x)|, we need to sketch the graph of

y=x

y = f (x) first and then reflect in the x-axis the portion

of the graph which is below the x-axis.

0

y = |x|

0

y = |x|

Worked example 19

Think

WriTe/draW

State the shape of this graph.

Let y = x2 1

Shape: positive parabola, translated 1 unit down

that it is also the y-intercept).

x-intercept: y = 0

x2 1 = 0

x2 = 1

x= 1

= +1 or 1

1 < x < 1 in the x-axis; mark the new y-intercept

(Figure B).

y

(0, 1)

(1, 0)

(1, 0) x

(1, 0) 0 (1, 0)

(0, 1)

y=

Figure A

|x2

1|

Figure B

Similar to the graphs discussed in the previous sections, the graph of the absolute

value function can be transformed through dilations, translations and

reflections. If y = a| f (x)| + c, a is the dilation factor. It dilates the graph from

the x-axis. The larger a is, the thinner the graph. If a < 0, the graph is reflected

in the x-axis.

The value c translates the graph along the y-axis. If c > 0, the graph

is moved c units up and if c < 0, it is moved c units down.

a=2

a=1

a = 1

c=1

c = 2

1

0

2

x

y = |x| + c

Worked example 20

Think

WriTe/draW

and write a short comment.

The graph of y = |x 2|

is translated 1 unit up.

to sketch y = x 2 (a straight line). Find the

y-intercept by letting x = 0.

Let y = x 2.

y-intercept: x = 0

y=02

= 2

TUTorial

eles-1199

Worked example 20

87

x-intercept: y = 0

x2=0

x=2

y

(2, 0) x

0

(0, 2)

mark the new y-intercept.

y

(0, 2)

0

and the coordinates of the cusp.

(2, 0)

y

(0, 3)

(2, 1)

0

An absolute value expression can be thought of as two separate expressions, depending on whether it is

negative or positive.

|2x + 3| can be written as (2x + 3) or (2x + 3) depending upon the value that x takes.

To determine these particular values of x, we need to solve the two inequalities 2x + 3 0 and

3

3

and x < , respectively.

2x + 3 < 0, giving x

2

2

This gives us a domain for the two expressions above, so we can write a representation for the

absolute value expression as:

3

2 x + 3, where x

2

|2x + 3| =

This is a useful process when used to rewrite an absolute value function that is to be graphed, because

it gives us a rule for each part of the graph in the form of a hybrid function. It is also important when

needing to differentiate a function of this type in a later chapter.

Worked example 21

Express f (x) = |5x 4| as a hybrid function, defining the domain of each part

and graphing the function.

Think

1

positive part.

WriTe/draW

TUTorial

eles-1200

Worked example 21

5 x 4, where 5 x 4 0

f ( x ) = | 5x 4 | =

(5 x 4), where 5 x 4 < 0

First function: 5x 4

First domain: 5x 4 0

4

x5

Second domain: 5 x 4 < 0 x <

88

4

5

with their respective domains.

4

5 x 4, where x

5

f (x) =

5 x + 4, where x < 4

5

y

5

4 (0, 4)

3

2

1

2

exercise 2F

f(x) = | 5x 4 |

1

( 45 , 0)

a y = |(x 1)3|

C y = |x3 + 1|

e y = |(x + 1)3 + 1|

b y = |(x + 1)3|

d y = |x3 1|

1

1 0

2 For each of the following functions state the domain and range.

a y = 2|x|

b y = |x| + 1

1

+1

x +1

3 We19 Sketch the graphs of each of the following.

a y = 2|x|

b y = |x + 5| 6

d y = |x2 1| + 1

e y = 2 |x2 2|

d y = |x2 3| 2

1 3

g y=

x 4

y=

2

h y=

+3

6 x

c y = 4 3|x|

f

y= 2

y=

1

x2

c y = 2|3 x| + 1

f y = |(x + 1)2 1| 2

i

diGiTal doC

doc-9181

Spreadsheet

absolute value function

1 1

y=

4

4 x2

1

k y = 2 x 2 + 3

l y = 2 x +1 8

1

x2

4 We21 Given the function f (x) = | 3x 1|:

a rewrite the function as a hybrid function with appropriate domains

b find f (0) a nd f (2)

c sketch the graph, labelling any significant points.

5 Given the function f (x) = | x2 3x |+ 2:

a rewrite the function as a hybrid function with appropriate domains

b find f (1) and f (2)

c sketch the graph, labelling any significant points.

6 The design shown at right is to be embroidered on the outer side of a pair of

childrens socks. The total length of the design is 12 cm and its width is

8 cm. If we draw the set of axes through the centre of the design, the red

section can be thought of as the absolute value function on a restricted

domain.

a Find the rule for the red section and specify the domain.

b Using your knowledge of the transformations, and the rule for the red

section, find the rules for the blue, green and yellow sections of the

design.

c Using a graphics calculator, sketch the 4 functions that were obtained

in a and b. Have you obtained the right design?

j

y

6

4x

diGiTal doC

doc-9180

WorkSHEET 2.2

89

2G

inTeraCTiViTY

int-0247

Transformations

with matrices

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

See more

Watch

a video on

transformations

using matrices.

The transformations that have been considered so far (dilations, reflections and translations) can be

represented in matrix form. This describes how a particular point on a graph will be moved (or mapped)

to a resultant location by the application of a dilation, reflection or translation, or a combination of the

three. Remember the definition of a transformation is a rule that links each point in the Cartesian plane

to another point. So the matrix can be used for any point on a curve, or in fact used to determine the new

rule for a function that has undergone one or a series of transformations. The new points or rules are

termed images of the original.

x

We can summarise the use of matrices to map these transformations, T , of points on a curve as

y

follows:

(Let x be the transformed value of x, and y be the transformed value of y.)

x x' 1 0 x x

T =

=

represents a reflection in the y-axis.

=

y y' 0 1 y y

x x' 1

T =

=

y y' 0

0 x

=

1 y

x

represents a reflection in the x-axis.

y

x x' a 0 x ax

T =

=

represents a dilation of a factor of a from the y-axis.

=

y y' 0 1 y y

x x' 1 0 x x

T =

=

represents a dilation of a factor of a from the x-axis.

=

y y' 0 a y ay

These operations can be combined to represent more than one transformation, for example

x x' 2 0 x 2 x

T =

=

=

y y' 0 3 y 3 y

represents a reflection in the y-axis, a dilation of a factor of 2 from the y-axis, and a dilation of a factor

of 3 from the x-axis.

Worked example 22

Using matrices, find the location of the point (x, y) under the following transformations of the

point (1, 3):

dilation by a factor of 2 from the y-axis

reflection in the x-axis.

Think

1

transformations described.

x x' 2

T =

=

y y' 0

WriTe

0 x

y

answer the question.

0 1

=

1

3

Matrix

operations can be done using a CAS calculator, but as the matrix multiplication required here is simple, it

is recommended it be done by hand.

90

The difficult part is to correctly identify the transformation matrix. Once you have done that it is a matter

of performing a matrix multiplication.

Translations

Translations require a slightly different process. The transformation matrix is a 2 1 matrix, and finding

the new image requires addition of the matrices rather than multiplication.

b

Matrices describing translations are of the form .

c

This represents:

a translation of b units in the positive direction of the x-axis

a translation of c units in the positive direction of the y-axis.

Note b > 0 and c > 0:

If either of the terms is negative, the translation is in the negative direction.

A zero entry indicates there is no translation in a particular direction.

So a translation of a point (x, y) can be described as follows:

x x' x b

T =

= +

y y' y c

x+b

=

y + c

Worked example 23

Find the location of the point (x', y') under the following transformations of the point (2, 4):

translation of 3 units in the x direction

translation of 5 units in the y direction.

Think

WriTe

transformations described.

x x' x 3

T =

= +

y y' y 5

x x'

T =

=

y y'

+

4

+

4

3 1

=

2 3 1

+

=

4 5 1

Matrix operations can be done using a CAS calculator, but as the matrix addition required here is simple,

it is recommended it be done by hand.

Note it is very important to use the correct mathematical language, both for the size and the direction of

the transformation. For example, dilations are by a factor of, in other words a multiple of the original

value, as distinct from translations, which are described as of n units, which is a set distance. In terms

of direction, the expression from the y-axis can also be expressed as parallel to the x-axis, in the

x direction or even horizontally. The same applies for from the x-axis.

The formal notation often used to describe a transformation begins as T : R2 R2, which is saying

the transformation that maps a point (x, y) to another point (x, y) is and then the transformation is

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

91

described. For example, a transformation involving a dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis followed

by a translation of 2 in the x direction and 1 in the y direction could be defined as T : R2 R2,

T(x, y) = (x 2, 3y + 1), or simply (x, y) (x 2, 3y + 1).

When more than one transformation is described, it is known as a composition of the transformations.

When a series of transformations are described, they need to be done in the correct order as stated in

the question.

Worked example 24

Find the location of the point (x', y') under the following transformation of the point (3,2):

dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis

reflection in the x-axis

translation of 3 units in the x direction.

Think

1

WriTe

Construct the correct matrix that represents these

transformations described.

x x' 12

T =

=

y y' 0

0 x

y

3

1

2

0

0 3 3

= 2

3 2

6

0 3

x x' 12

T =

=

y

y'

3 2

0

1

2

0

the appropriate matrix equation. Note we are using

the product matrix from step 2.

3 9

2 + 3 = 2

6 0 6

x x' 1

T =

= 2

y y' 0

4

3 3

+

2

0

( ,6).

9

2

Remember that a transformation maps any point on a curve to another by the same rule. Rather

than mapping a series of individual points on the same curve, we can simply find a new rule under a

transformation (or a series of them) and use this new rule to determine the location of any points from

the curve described by the original rule.

Worked example 25

Write the resultant equation from the following transformations of the curve

described by y = x3:

dilation by a factor of 2 from the y-axis

reflection in the x-axis

translation of 2 units in the negative y direction.

Think

1

92

Construct the correct matrix that represents these

transformations described.

x x' 2 0 x

T =

=

y y' 0 1 y

WriTe

TUTorial

eles-1201

Worked example 25

that represents this transformation described.

x x' 2

T =

=

y y' 0

0 x 0

+

1

y 2

0 x 2x

=

y y

we are using the product matrix from our first equation in

step 2.

x' 2 x 0

y' = y + =

2

x'

and

2

y = y' + 2

y = y' 2

2x

y 2

x=

x

y= 2

2

So for any point on the graph of the original function, y = x3, we can map the corresponding point under

the transformations above by substituting the values into this transformed equation.

Lets have a look at another example. This time we will complete reflections/dilations and translations

in the one step.

Worked example 26

Find the image of the curve with equation y = x after a reflection in the x-axis, followed by a

dilation of a factor of 2 from the x-axis, and then a translation by +3 in the x direction.

Think

WriTe

transformations described.

x x' 1 0 x 3

+

T =

=

y y' 0 2 y 0

x' 1

y' =

x = x' 3 and y =

x and drop

Substitute new y- and x-terms for y = x,

the primes.

0

3

and

2

0 x 3 x +3

+ =

2

y 0 2 y

y'

= x3

2

y = 2 x 3

y = 2 x 3

transformations.

y = 2 x 3

93

exercise 2G

0 4

1 0

0 2

ii

0 3

iii

2 We22

We24

1

2

iv

Find the image of the point (3, 5) under the above transformations in question 1.

3 Find the image of the graphs of the following equations under the transformations in 1 i and 1 ii.

1

c y= x

b y = x3 5

x2

4 Identify the translations described by the following matrices.

a y=

1

2

iii 5

0

2

Find the image of the point (1, 2) under the transformations given in question 4.

3

2

5 We23

ii

6 Find the image of the following equations under each of the transformations defined in questions 4 i

and 4 ii.

a y = |x|

b y = x2 3x

7 The transformation T : R2 R2 which maps the curve with the equation y = x3 to the curve with the

x

1 0 x 6

+

3 y 1

a T

=

y 0

1

C T

= 3

y 0

e

8

0 x 2

+

1 y 1

1 0 x 3

+

3 y 1

b T

= 3

y 0

0 x 6

+

1 y 1

d T

=

y 0

x 3 0 x 6

T =

+

y 0 1 y 1

For the following transformations, where T : R2 R2, state what the transformation T represents

1

and determine the image of the equation f ( x ) = .

x

Note: Brackets on RHS means perform that transformation first.

x

y

a T

1 0 x 6

= 0 2 y +

1

x

y

b T

2

=

0

0 x 3

+

y 1

x 1 0 x 1

+

T = 3

y 0 1 y 2

9 A function g(x) is mapped to the curve h(x) = g(4(x + 1)) + 3. Create a matrix equation that will

map g(x) to h(x).

c

10 We25 The following transformations are applied, in order, to the graph of y = x3 4x:

reflection in the y-axis

translation of 1 unit in the y direction.

a Use matrices to determine the image equation under these transformations.

b Find the image of the point (2, 0) and check whether this point lies on the curve of the equation

from a.

94

3

1

and g( x ) =

+ 1, describe, in order, the transformations performed to

( x 2)2

x2

the graph of f (x) to give g(x) and create a matrix equation which would map f (x) to g(x).

11 We26

If f ( x ) =

a an algebraic method without the use of a CAS calculator

b matrices and a CAS calculator.

13 If f (x) = 2g(x 1) 2 and g(x) = x2 3x, find f (x) in terms of x only, using:

a an algebraic method without the use of a CAS calculator

b matrices and a CAS calculator.

14 If

h( x + 2)

2) + 1 =

x3

1

3 x 2 6 x , find h(x) using matrix methods.

2

2

functions

2h

Sum functions

y

4

3

2

1

Units: 3 & 4

y = x2

Many functions include two or more terms added (or

y = 1x

1

2

subtracted) together. For example the function y = x + can be thought

x

4 3 2 110 1 2 3 4 x

1

of as the sum of the functions y = x2 and y = .

2

x

These graphs can be drawn by sketching the two individual functions on

the same set of axes then adding the y-values (ordinates) for each x-value

and plotting the resulting points.

This is a useful method when we know the basic shape of the individual functions but do not

recognise the whole function. We would not use this method for a familiar function such as y = x2 + 3x,

as we have learnt ways of sketching this without breaking it up into parts.

1

Using the example in the first paragraph, y = x 2 + , we do not

y

x

4

recognise the shape of this function, but we know the two individual

y = x2

3

functions are the basic positive parabola and the hyperbola. We could

2

therefore sketch the graph of the parabola and the hyperbola and add

y = x2 + 1x 1

y = 1x

the y-values together for corresponding x-values to obtain points on the

curve of the sum function which can be joined together to obtain the

4 3 2 110 1 2 3 4 x

graph of the sum function.

2

Note that the domain of the hyperbola is restricted to R\{0} so the

y-value at x = 0 is undefined. As you cannot add an undefined number,

this x-value is also undefined for the sum function. A general rule is that the sum function is only defined

for the domain over which both of the individual functions are defined. The domain of the sum function

is, therefore, the intersection of the domains of the individual functions.

If h(x) = f (x) + g(x), then the domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).

difference functions

A difference function is of the form y = f (x) g(x), or alternatively

y = (f g)(x).

). It is essentially the same as a sum function except that one

1

of the individual functions is subtracted from the other. So y = x 2

x

could be sketched by the same method as described above but instead of

adding the y-ordinates, we would subtract one from the other.

The domain of a difference function is determined in the same way as a

sum function. We could extend our rule above to include difference

functions.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Do more

Interact

with the sums of

functions.

Units: 3 & 4

y = x2

y=

1

x

y

4

3

2

1

4 3 2 110

2

y = x2 1x

1 2 3 4x

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

95

If h(x) = f (x) g(x), then the domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).

We can also think of a difference function as adding a negative and it could be written

1

y = x 2 + . With this in mind, an alternative method of sketching the graph of a difference function

x

1

is to reflect the graph of the second function (in this example, x ) in the x-axis and then add the ordinates

as for a sum function.

When sketching graphs of sum/difference functions, there are key points that can be found on either

individual function to easily identify the value of the ordinate of the sum or difference function. These

are the x-intercepts and any point of intersection of the individual functions.

The x-intercept is where the ordinate of that particular function is zero, so the graph of the sum or

difference function is actually the ordinate of the other function for that value of x.

At the intersection, the ordinate of the sum function will be double that of the two individual

functions. For a difference function, an intersection of the two individual functions corresponds to on

x-intercept (y = 0) of the difference function.

Another useful y-value to look for is where the graphs of individual functions have y-values that are of

the same magnitude but one is positive and one is negative. This point is an x-intercept of the sum function.

y

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

1.5 1 0.5 0

0.5

0.5

1 1.5 x

Worked example 27

f ( x) = log e ( x + 2) + x , x [ 1, 2 ].

Think

1

TUTorial

eles-1243

Worked example 27

WriTe/draW

y = |x| on the same set of axes over the

required domain x [1, 2].

y

3

2 y = loge (x + 2)

(1, 1)

1.5 1 .5 0

2

96

y-coordinates of the two graphs for the

key points and plot the resultant points.

The key points are the:

end points

y-intercepts

points of intersection.

The new points on the graph are marked

by an asterisk.

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 x

3

(1, 1)

2 y = log (x + 2)

e

1

1.5 1 0.5 0

(2, 2)

(2, 2)

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 x

Left end points (1, 0) and (1, 1), so the new point

will be at (1, 1).

Right end points (2, loge (4)) and (2, 2), so the

new point will be at (2, 2 + loge (4)).

y-intercepts (0, 0) and (0, loge (2)).

Points of intersection (0.44, 0.44) and (1.15, 1.15),

so the new points will be (0.44, 0.88) and (1.15, 2.30).

create f (x).

y f(x) = loge (x + 2) +x

3

(2, 2)

y

=

x

(1, 1)

1

y = loge (x + 2) (2, loge (4))

1.5 1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 x

2

the sum function.

y

3

2

(1, 1)

f(x) = loge (x + 2) +x

1.5 1 0.5 0

0.5

2 2.5 x

1 1.5

product functions

A product function is of the form y = f (x)g(x), or alternatively y = (fg)(x).

When graphing product functions, it is useful to graph the individual functions, f and g, and for any

relevant values of x, to identify the y-values, or ordinates and multiply these together to obtain the

y-value of the product function. If the y-value is undefined at a particular value of x for either of the

individual functions, then the product function is undefined for that value. We cannot multiply by an

undefined number.

If h(x) = f (x)g(x), then the domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).

When examining the graph of the two individual functions, it is useful to look at x-intercepts and

points where the value of either function is 1. The product function will also have an x-intercept at a

point where either individual function has an intercept (as multiplying by zero gives zero). At a point

where a function = 1, the product function will have a value equal to the value of the other function, or

its negative.

It is also useful to observe that where the individual functions are both above the x-axis, or both below

the x-axis, the value of the product function will be positive, that is, above the x-axis. This is because the

product of two positive numbers or two negative numbers is positive. Alternatively, where one function

is above and one below the x-axis, the value of the product function will be negative, that is, below the

x-axis.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Worked example 28

If f (x) = 2x and g( x) =

Think

1

WriTe/draW

y = 2x

y= x+1

(0, 1)

(1, 0) 0

97

Dom fg = [1, )

find the x-intercepts of the product fg.

x-intercept for g(x) is when x = 1 and g(x) = 0

Hence, the x-intercepts for the product are

when x = 0 and x = 1.

negative.

x (1, 0), so fg is negative for x (1, 0).

positive.

so fg is positive for x (0, ).

Round the answer to 2 decimal places as

appropriate.

y = 2x x +1

(1, 0)

(0, 0)

2

(

,

3

exercise 2h

1

0.77)

Sketch the graphs of f (x) = g(x) + h(x) using addition of ordinates, given the following

functions g(x) and h(x). State the domain of f (x) in each case.

a g(x) = x2, h(x) = x

x3

b g( x ) =

, h( x ) = x

2

c g(x) = 3x2, h(x) = | x |

1

, h( x)

x) = x + 2

x

2

Determine the equation of g(x) h(x) in each of the following cases then, using addition of

ordinates, sketch the graph of g(x) h(x).

d g( x ) =

a g( x ) =

x + 1, hh(( x ) = x

b g(x) = | x |, h(x) = | x + 1| 2

3 For each of the following, find the domain of f (x)g(x).

a f ( x ) = x 2 , g( x ) = 3 x

b f (x) = x + 2, g(x) = |2x + 1|

c

f ( x ) = x , g( x ) = 1 x

d f (x) = | x |, g(x) = x2 1

e

f ( x ) = x 3 , g( x ) =

x+2

2

for 4 x 4, by the addition of ordinates, showing the

x

a Sketch the graph of each on the same set of axes for 2 x 2.

b Find the smallest possible value of a given that the domain of the function h, where

h(x) = (f + g)(x), is a x 2.

98

d Find f (1) and g (1), and hence find h (1).

e Find f (2) and g (2), and hence find h (2).

Using this information, sketch the graph of h(x) (on the same set of axes as in a).

Given the functions f (x) = x3, g(x) = | x | and h(x) = f (x) + g(x):

b Find f (2)and g (2), and hence find h (2).

c Find f (0) and g (0), and hence find h (0).

d Find f (1) and g (1), and hence find h (1).

e Find f (2) and g (2), and hence find h (2).

g Using this information, sketch the graph of h(x) (on the same set of axes as in a).

h ( x ) = f ( x ) g( x ) .

7 We 28 Two functions are defined as f (x) = x 3 and g( x ) = x . L et h(

a Find the domain of h.

b Sketch the graph of each on the same set of axes.

c Find f (0) and g (0), and hence find h (0).

d Find f (1) and g (1), and hence find h (1).

e Find f (2) and g (2), and hence find h (2).

f What is the range of the function h (in exact form)?

g Using this information, sketch the graph of h(x) (on the same set of axes as in a).

the function h(x) = f (x) + g (x). On the same axes, sketch the graph of h(x), including the coordinates of

any end points.

x2

9 Use a CAS calculator to view and sketch the graphs of f (x) = | x + 2 | and g( x ) =

4, for

2

2.5 x 2.5. Then, without using the calculator, use these graphs to sketch the graph of h, if

h(x) = (f g)(x) on the same set of axes. Using the calculator, check the shape of the graph you

have drawn and use it to identify any significant points such as intercepts and cusp points to

2 decimal places. (You may need to adjust your window settings in order to clearly identify these

points.)

8 Sketch the graphs of the functions f ( x ) =

equations

2i

Composite functions

A composite function is formed from two functions in the following way. If f (x) = x + 5 and

g(x) = 2x are two functions, then we combine the two functions to form the composite function

g(f (x)) = 2f (x) = 2(x + 5). That is, f (x) replaces x in the function g(x).

The composite function reads g of f and can be written g f.

Another composite function is f (g(x)) = g(x) + 5 = 2x + 5. In this case, g(x) replaces x in f (x). This

composite function reads f of g and can be written f g.

For the composite function f (g(x)) to be defined, the range of g must be a subset of (or equal to) the

domain of f, that is ran g dom f. It is easiest to list the domain and function of both f (x) and g(x) first

when dealing with composite function problems. For example: f (x) = x2 and g( x ) = x :

Domain

Range

f (x)

g(x)

[0, )

[0, )

[0, )

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

See more

Watch a

video on composite

functions.

Composite functions can be rather complex to graph by hand, so a CAS calculator can be used for

assistance when sketching.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

99

Worked example 29

a show that f (g(x)) is defined

1

and g( x ) = x :

x+2

b find f (g(x))

Think

WriTe

both functions.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

c The domain of f (g(x)) must be the same as the domain

domain of f (g(x)).

g(x)

Domain

R \{2}

R+{0}

Range

R \{0}

R+{0}

f (g(x)) is defined.

subset of f.

R +{0},

f (x)

it is the

f ( g( x )) = f ( x )

1

f ( g( x )) =

x +2

Functional equations

Sometimes we are required to solve or analyse equations that are in terms of unknown functions, for

example, f (x) or f (y), rather than being in terms of unknown variables, for example x or y. An example

of the type of problem you might encounter is to find a function that satisfies f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y).

Alternatively, you might be required to determine if a particular function satisfies the rule f (2x) = 2f (x).

Equations such as f (x + y) = f (x) + f (y) are called functional equations.

There are generally two ways to solve these types of problems: algebraically or using a CAS calculator.

Worked example 30

Think

WriTe

of the equation separately.

RHS = f (x) f (y) = 3x 3y

if it equals the RHS of the equation.

LHS = f (x + y) = 3x + y

LHS = f (x + y) = 3x 3y

Worked example 31

Think

100

WriTe

simplify.

g(2x) = 10(2x)

g(2x) = 20x

2 g(x) = 2 10x

2g(x) = 20x

g(2x) = 20x

2g(x) = 20x

Therefore g(2x) = 2g(x).

LHS = RHS

If we consider the same equation f (2x) = 2f (x) for a different function, for example, f ( x ) = x ,

x ) = 2 x , which are not equal.

we obtain two different equations, f (2 x)

x ) = 2 x and 2 f ( x)

However, if we define this function on a CAS calculator and enter the statement f (2x) = 2f (x), the result

is x = 0. This means this equation holds true when x = 0 but not for any other values of x.

functional equations

exercise 2i

1

We 29

is de

fined

a f (x) = 2x 1 and g( x ) =

x+3

e f (x) = (x + 1)(x + 3) and g(x) = x2

1

and g(x) = | x | + 1

x+2

d f (x) = | x | and g(x) = x3

b f (x) =

2

f ( x ) + f ( y)

satisfies the equation

= x + y.

x

f ( xxyy)

Determine which of iv hold for the following functions:

2 We 30 Show that f ( x ) =

3 We 31

i f (x y) = f (x) f (y)

iii f (x) + f (y) = (x2 + y2) f (xy)

ii f ( x y) =

iv

f (x)

f ( y)

x f (x)

f =

y f ( y)

a f (x) =

c

f (x) =

x

1

x

e f (x) = x2

b f (x) = | x |

1

x2

f f (x) = 2x

d f (x) =

1

and g( x ) = x , determine the values of a such that f (g(x)) exists.

( x + a) 2

1

+ 2, determine if f g

5 If f: x 2 y 0, where f ( x ) = x 2 and g:R/{1} R, where g( x ) =

x

+1

and g f exist and, if so, find the composition functions.

6 If f: x 0 y 3, where f ( x ) = 3 x and g:R y 1, where g(x) = x2 1, show that f g is not

defined. By restricting the domain of g, find a function h such that f h is defined.

4 f (x) =

7 Given w(x) = x + 3, x > 3 and v(x) = | x | 2, x R+, state the domain and range of each function.

Hence, find if w v and v w exist and, if so, state their rules including their domains.

8

Show that the equation g(x) = x3 satisfies the equation g(x) = g(x). Show that this statement is true

for all functions of the form g(x) = xn, where n is an odd natural number.

Show that g(x) = x4 satisfies the equation g(xy) = g(x)g(y). Show that this equation is true for all

functions of the form g(x) = xn, where n is a natural number.

10 Consider f : [4, ] R, f ( x ) = x 4 and g: R R, g(x) = 1 x. What transformations are

required to obtain f (g(x)) from f (x)?

9

2J

modelling

People such as scientists, financial advisers, business analysts, economists, statisticians and others often

have to deal with large and small sets of data.

Once the data are collected, we are often interested in finding the rules that link features of the data.

The process of finding such a rule is called modelling and the rule itself is known as the mathematical

model. When finding the model, the best way to start is to plot the data, as the shape of the graph might

suggest the type of relationship between the variables.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

See more

Watch a

video on modelling

with data.

101

Types of graphs

By recognising the shape of a graph, it is possible to find the rule or mathematical model that describes

it. Throughout this chapter, several types of graphs have been investigated. Some of these basic

shapes are:

1

The graph of a cubic function: y = x3

The parabola: y = x2

The hyperbola: y =

x

y

y

y

y=0

x=0

The truncus: y =

y

y= x

1

x2

y=0

0

x=0

Reflections and translations can be applied to each of these graphs, but the basic shape of each graph

remains the same.

Worked example 32

a

a

i y = ax2

ii y = ax3

iii y =

iv y = 2

x

x

a

y

x

Think

summary above.

v y= a x

e

WriTe

ii is a cubic; it matches graph e.

iii is a hyperbola (the graph is in opposite

quadrants); it matches graph c.

iv is a truncus (the graph is in adjacent

quadrants); it matches graph a.

v is a square root function; it matches graph d.

102

Worked example 33

2.5

3.54

4.33

5.59

a

a

, y=

or y = a x .

x

x2

b Select the appropriate rule and state the value of a.

The data in the above table exactly fit one of these rules: y = ax 2 , y = ax 3 , y =

a Plot the values of y against x.

Think

WriTe/draW

y

5

4

3

2

1

0

1 2 3 4 5

b Assume that y = a x .

2

values of x and y. (Since we need to take a square

root, the best to choose is the one where x is a perfect

square.)

2.5 = a 1

=a1

a = 2.5

one. Replace a with 2.5 in the rule.

Verifying:

y = 2.5 x

formula and check if you will obtain the correct

values of y.

y = 2.5 0

=0

(2, 3.54): y = 2.5 2

= 3.54

(3, 4.33): y = 2.5 3

= 4.33

y

=

2.5 4

(4, 5):

=5

y

=

2.5 5

(5, 5.59):

= 5.59

those in the table, the choice of model is correct.

where a = 2.5.

(0, 0):

The process of fitting a straight line to a set of points is often referred to as linear regression. Statistical

data is easiest to deal with in linear form. If the data is not linear, then a linear relationship can still be

found by transforming the x scale. A regression line can then be fitted.

m

For example, y = x + c is a hyperbola. However, if we substitute X for 1x , the rule becomes linear:

y = mX + c. The graph of y versus X will be a straight line with a gradient of m and a y-intercept of c. These

values (m and c) can then be established from the graph and thus the hyperbolic model can be determined.

Note: In a quadratic relationship, X is substituted for x2; in a cubic relationship, X is substituted for x3.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

103

Worked example 34

It is believed that, for the data in the table below, the relationship between x and y can be

modelled by y = ax

ax 2 + bx + c.

x

5.3

8.6

14.8

23

34.4

b Calculate the values of a, b and c (correct to 3 decimal places) and write the equations.

Think

1

to determine if the graph is a parabola, choose

3 points.

Note: The spread of x-values.

WriTe

14.8

5

34.4

y = ax2 + bx + c

4 = a(0) + b(0) + c

14.8 = a(3)2 + b(3) + c

34.4 = a(5)2 + b(5) + c

4=c

14.8 = 9a + 3b + c

34.4 = 25a + 5b + c

[1]

[2]

[3]

10.8 = 9a + 3b

30.4 = 25a + 5b

[4]

[5]

Solve simultaneously.

54 = 45a + 15b

91.2 = 75a + 15b

[4] 5

[5] 3

37.2 = 30a

1.24 = a

30.4 = 25(1.24) + 5b

30.4 = 31 + 5b

0 = 5b

0.12 = b

a = 1.24

b = 0.12

c=4

y = 1.24x2 0.12x + 4

If the relationship between the variables is not given, we have to make an assumption of a model

from the graph of the data. We then have to transform the data according to our assumption. If the

assumption was correct, the transformed data, when plotted, will produce a perfectly straight, or nearly

straight, line.

a

+ b and so

x

on (we will not allow for a horizontal translation), so that the appropriate substitution can be made.

Note: In this section we will consider only the rules of the type y = ax2 + b, y = ax3 + b, y =

104

Worked example 35

35

21

16

12

11

10

Think

1

y against x.

WriTe/draW

y

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

the appropriate formula (remember that we do not

consider horizontal translations in this section).

1

replacing values of x with (leave the values of

x

y unchanged).

1

Plot y against .

x

Assumption: y =

If we replace

1

with X, the rule becomes

x

y = aX + b, which is the equation of the straight

line, where a is the gradient and b is the

y-intercept. These (a and b) can be found from the

graph as follows: draw in the line of best fit.

a

+b

x

0.5

35

21

16

12

11

0.17

10

y

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

1 2 3 4 5 6

1

x

therefore the assumption of a hyperbolic model

is correct.

y

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

y2 y1

x 2 x1

m=

formula and evaluate.

m=

=

35 10

1 0.17

25

0.83

= 30.12

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

105

a=m

= 30.12.

10

11

y = mx + c

12

of the 2 points, say (1, 35) into the equation.

35 = 30.12 1 + c

13

directly from the graph.)

35 = 30.12 + c

c = 35 30.12

= 4.88

14

a

Substitute the values of a and b into y = + b to

x

obtain the rule that fits the given data.

15

y=

30.12

+ 4.88

x

modelling

exercise 2J

i y = ax2 + b

ii y = ax3 + b

a

+b

x

v y= a x +b

iii y =

iv y =

a

+b

x2

x

x

2 We 33 The data in each of the tables below exactly fit one of these rules: y = ax2, y = ax3,

a

a

,y=

or y = a x . For each set of data, plot the values of y against x and draw the graph.

x

x2

Select the most appropriate rule, and find the value of a.

y=

diGiTal doC

doc-9182

Spreadsheet

modelling

x

y

8.1

2.4

0.3

0

0

x

y

0

0

24

24

54

0.5

0.08

x

y

106

0.08

0.5

1

0.3

2

2.4

3

8.1

0.5

1.5

1.13

1.6

1.96

2.26

2.5

1.25

0.5

40.5

12

1.5

1.5

10

i

ii

iii

12

a

+ b?

x2

y

x

iv

y

x

a i only

d i, ii and iv

b i, ii and iii

e i, iv, and v

C iv and v

4 We 34 It is believed that for the data in the table below, the relationship between x and y can be

modelled by y = ax2 + b.

x

3.2

4.9

14.5

29

46.8

b Plot the values of y against x2 and draw the line of best fit.

c Find the values of a and b and hence the equation describing the original data.

5 The table below shows the values of 2 variables, x and y.

28

13.5

12.5

2

10

4.3

41

Establish the mathematical model of the relationship between the variables, if it is known that it is of

the form y = ax3 + b.

6 The table below shows the results, obtained from an experiment, investigating the frequency of a

0.3

1130

0.5

680

10

340

110

70

40

35

a Plot f against .

b From the following relationships select the one which you think is suggested by the plot:

a

, f = a .

1

c Based on your choice in part b, plot f against either 2, or , draw in the line of best fit and

f = a2, f =

107

7 For her science assignment, Rachel had to find the relationship between the intensity of the light, I, and

the distance between the observer and the source of light, d. From the experiments she obtained the

following results.

d

I

1

270

1.5

120

2

68

2.5

43

3

30

3.5

22

4

17

a Use a graphics calculator to plot the values of I against d. What form of relationship does the

graph suggest?

b Nathan (Rachels older brother) is a physics student. He tells Rachel that from his studies he is

a

certain that the relationship is of the type I = 2 . Use this information to help Rachel to find the

d

model for the required relationship.

8 We 35 The table below gives the values of 2 variables, x and y. Establish the rule, connecting x and y,

that fits these data.

x

y

0

4

1

7

3

9

5

11

7

12

9

13

9 Joseph is a financial adviser. He is studying the prices of shares of a particular company over the last

10 months.

Months

Price, $

diGiTal doC

doc-9183

Investigation

Goal accuracy

108

1

6.00

2

6.80

3

7.45

4

8.00

5

8.50

6

8.90

7

9.30

8

9.65

9

10.00

10

10.30

b Establish a suitable mathematical model, which relates the share price, P, and the number of the

month, m.

c Use your model to help Joseph predict the share price for the next 2 months.

Summary

Graphs of the power

functions

Name

Parabola

Equation

y = a(x b)2 + c

Basic shape

Domain

If a > 0

yc

If a < 0

yc

Stationary point of

inflection at (b, c)

R \{b}

R \{c}

Horizontal asymptote

y = c, vertical asymptote

x=b

R \{b}

If a > 0

y>c

If a < 0

y<c

Horizontal asymptote

y = c, vertical asymptote

x=b

xb

If a > 0

yc

If a < 0

yc

(b, c)

0

Cubic

y = a(x b)3 + c

y

(b, c)

x

Hyperbola

y=

a

+c

xb

or

y = a(

a( x b) 1 + c

Truncus

y

c

x

a

y

+c

2

( x b)

or

y = a(

a( x b) 2 + c c

y=

y = a x b +c

or

y = a( x b) 2 + c

Special feature

Square root

Range

(b, c)

The equation for any graph y = f (x) above can be written in the general form:

y = af (x b) + c.

This form can be used to describe transformations of all of the functions considered.

For all of the above functions:

a is the dilation factor: it dilates the graph from the x-axis.

When an equation for these types of graphs is put into its general form of y = af (x b) + c, the

horizontal dilation can be described in terms of a vertical dilation.

If a < 0, the basic graph is reflected in the x-axis.

f (b x) or f (x + b) is the reflection of f (x + b) in the y-axis.

b translates the graph b units along the x-axis (to the right if b > 0, or to the left if b < 0).

c translates the graph c units along the y-axis (up if c > 0, or down if c < 0).

To put equations into general form:

If the coefficient of x is a number other than 1, to find the value of b and a, the equation should

be transposed to make the coefficient of x equal to 1.

For example,

y = (3x + 5)2 + 4

= [3( x + 53 )]2 + 4

= 32 ( x + 53 )2 + 4

= 9( x + 53 )2 + 4

Hence, a = 9, b =

5

3

109

function

y = |x| means

y = x, if x 0

and y = x, if x < 0

y

y = |x|

x

To sketch y = | f (x)|:

1. Sketch the graph of y = f (x).

2. Reflect the portion of the graph that is below the x-axis in the x-axis.

Or:

1. Express the function in hybrid form with specific domains where the absolute value expression

is positive and negative.

2. Sketch each rule for the specified domain.

For functions of the form y = a| f (x)| + c, a and c have the same impact on the graph of the absolute

value function, as on the graphs of all other functions discussed in this section.

Transformations with

matrices

The use of matrices to map transformations of points and equations can be summarised as follows,

where (x, y) is the image of the point (x, y) under the transformation.

x x' 1 0 x

=

T =

=

y y' 0 1 y

x x' 1

T =

=

y y' 0

y

0 x x

=

represents a reflection in the x-axis.

y y

x x' a 0 x ax

T =

=

represents a dilation of a factor of a from the y-axis.

=

y y' 0 1 y y

1

x x' 1 0 x x

T =

represents a dilation of a factor of a from the x-axis.

=

=

y y' 0 a y ay

Transformations can be combined to represent more than one transformation. For example,

4x + 2

x' 4 0 x 2

1

y' =

+ = y

3

0

+

3

2

x = 4x + 2

y

y =

+3

2

1

describes the following: dilation by a factor of 4 from the y-axis, a dilation by a factor of 2 from

+

the x-axis, reflection in the x-axis, a horizontal translation of 2 and a vertical translation of +3.

functions

110

For the graph of the sum/difference function, dom (f (x) g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). The graph

of the sum/difference function can be obtained by using the addition of ordinates method.

For the product function, dom (f (x)g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). Some features of the graph of the

product function are as follows:

the x-intercepts of f (x)g(x) occur where either f (x) or g(x) have their x-intercepts

f (x)g(x) is above the x-axis where f (x) and g(x) are either both positive or both negative

f (x)g(x) is below the x-axis where one of the functions f (x) or g(x) is positive and the other is

negative.

Composite functions

and functional

equations

For the composite function f (g(x)) to be defined, the range of g must be a subset of the domain of f.

Furthermore, if f (g(x)) is defined, the domain of f (g(x)) equals the domain of g(x).

Equations involving algebra of functions, for example f (2x) = 2f (x), are generally tested to

determine if they are true for particular functions.

To determine if an equation is true for a particular function, consider the LHS and RHS of the

equation separately to determine if the equation holds true for all values of x.

Alternatively, you may find a particular x-value for which the equation does not work; that is, a

counterexample.

These types of equations can be investigated by defining the functions on a CAS calculator and

then testing the algebraic function equation.

modelling

Modelling is the process of finding the rule (mathematical model) that fits the given data.

To model:

1. Plot the original data on graph paper or use a CAS calculator.

2. Make an assumption of the model.

3. Transform the data in accordance with your assumption.

4. Check the assumption by plotting the transformed data (if correct, the graph will be a straight or

nearly straight line).

5. Draw in a line of best fit.

6. Find the equation of the line (y = mx + c).

1

7. Replace x in the equation with the transformed variable (for example, x2, ).

x

111

Chapter review

S h orT

anS Wer

a state the coordinates of the turning point

b state the domain and range

c sketch the graph.

b

6x 5

in the form a +

. Hence describe the transformations required

3x + 1

x+c

1

to produce this curve from the graph of y = .

x

3 The graph of a cubic function has a stationary point of inflection at (1, 1). It cuts the y-axis at y = 4.

Find the equation of the graph.

1

4 The graph of y = was dilated by the factor of 4 from the x-axis, reflected in the x-axis and then

x

translated 2 units to the left and 1 unit down.

a State the equation of the asymptotes.

b State the domain and range.

c State the equation of the new graph.

y

d Sketch the graph.

1

2

5 a State the changes necessary to transform the graph of y =

into the

2

x

1

x

one shown.

2 Express the function f ( x ) =

23

6 The domain of a truncus is R \{1}, the range is (, 2) and the graph cuts the

7 The basic square root curve was reflected in both axes and then translated so that its intercepts at the

9

10

11

axes were (0, 1) and (5, 0). Find the size and the direction of the translations; hence, find the equation

of the new graph.

2

2 , clearly showing the coordinates of the cusps, the

a Sketch the graph of y = 2

( x + 2)2

intercepts with the axes and the position of the asymptotes.

b State the domain and range of the graph in a.

a

The point (1, 3) undergoes a translation given by the matrix to (2, 0). Find a and b and

b

describe the transformations involved.

a 0

The point (1, 2) undergoes a series of transformations given by the matrices

and then

0 b

2 to ( 7, 4).

a Find the values of a and b.

b Find the image under the transformations of:

i y=2 x

ii y = x3 + x

a 0

A point on a curve (x, y) undergoes a transformation descibed by

to (x, y), where a is a

0 2

real constant such that a > 0.

y

b If the point is on the curve y = 2x2 x, find the image of

c If the point (3, 6) is on the transformed curve, find the

value(s) of a and hence the rule of this image.

12 The graph of the function f : (2, 1) R, f (x) = x3 + 2x2 is

3

f(x) = x3 + 2x2

(2, 0)

a f (x) f (y) = f (x) f (y)

c

112

f (x)

f (y)

= f (x) + f (y)

f (x)

2

1

2 1.5 1 0.5 0

1

shown at right.

Let g(x) = f (x) + 1, and sketch this graph on the same set of

axes. Hence, sketch (f + g)(x).

f ( y) = f (x) + f (y)

(1, 3)

0.5

14 The data in the table below exactly fit one of these models: y = ax3, y =

x

y

2

25

4

6.25

5

4

10

1

a

or y = a x .

x2

20

25

0.25 0.16

a Plot the values of y against x and use the scatterplot to choose a suitable model.

1

or x (depending on your choice in part a). Did you

x2

choose the right model? Explain your answer.

c Find the value of a.

b Plot the values of y against either x3,

1 The equation of a parabola is given by y = m 2(x + 3)2, where m > 0. The increase in m will result in:

a the graph being thinner

m U lTip l e

C ho iC e

C the increase of the domain

d the increase of the range

e the graph being shifted further to the right

2 The coordinates of the turning point of the parabola y = 2(3x + 6)2 3 are:

a (6, 3)

d

(2,

b (6, 3)

3)

3 The graph of y =

2 (b

bxx

3

3)3

C (2, 3)

(2, 3)

2

b 3b

a 3

2b 3

3

2

3b3

3

4 The graph of y = 2 (3 + 4x) has a stationary point of inflection at:

d b3

a ( 43 , 2)

b ( 4 , 2)

d (

3

4

C (3, 2)

e (3, 2)

, 2)

2

+ 1 , then f (x) + 2 will have:

x

a the horizontal asymptote y = 2

5 If f ( x ) =

6 The equation of the graph shown is likely to be:

a y=

C y=

e

y=

x2

2

x +1

2

x+2

y =1

d y=

x+2

2

1

x+2

x

resulting graph would have the equation:

d y=

a y=

1

3

+

x2 4

1

4x 3

+2

b y = 4x + 2

e y=

3

4

1

C y = 2 3 4x

1

+2

3 4x

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

113

a

b

C

d

e

The horizontal asymptote is y = 4.

The domain is R\{2}.

The range is R\{4}.

The value of the y-intercept is greater than 4.

a translate the graph of y =

b translate the graph of y =

C translate the graph of y =

d translate the graph of y =

e none of the above

1

x2

1

x2

1

x2

1

x2

1

y

a y = a x m + n, a > 0

b y = a m x + n, a > 0

C y = a x m + n, a < 0

d y = a m x + n, a < 0

e y = a x + m + n, a < 0

11 The equation of this graph could be:

a y=d ax

e y=

xa

(m, n)

x

y

b y=

x a +d

d y = c a x

b a

a x c

a [1, )

2 x 1 + 3 is:

b [3, )

d [2, )

C [0.5, )

e [1, )

d (, 2)

1

2 is:

x2

b (, 5]

e (, 2]

C [3, )

x

y

1

d y = 2 | x 1| + 3

b y = | 2x + 1| 3

e y=

1

2

y

2

14 The equation of the graph shown in the diagram at right is best described by:

a y = |x + 2| + 2

b y = 2 |x + 2|

C y = |2 x| + 2

d y = 2 |2 x|

e y = |x + 2| 2

a y = 2 x 1 + 3

a (1, )

C y=d

2 0 x 1

=

y + ,

0 1 3

the

C y = 2 | x + 1| 3

x 1 3

16 If g:[2, 4] R, where g(x) = x2(x 3), and h:(0, 3] R, where h(x) = 3 x, then the function f (x)

a f: R R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)2

b f: (0, 3] R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)2

C f: [2, 3] R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)2

d f: (0, 4] R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)2

e f: [2, 3] R, where f (x) = x2(x 3)(3 + x)

114

a h(x) = x + 2

d h(x) =

x2

b h(x) = x2 3

e h( x ) =

+3

C h(x) = x3

x 2

18 Which of the following would be the best fit to model the data in the table below: y = ax2, y = ax3 or

y= a x.

x

y

1

0.3

2

2.4

3

8.1

4

19.2

a 2.4

b 1.2

C 2.7

d 0.9

e 0.3

1

19 Certain data the values of y were plotted against and the line of best fit was drawn as seen on the

x

y

diagram at right. The model that relates the variables x and y is:

a y = 20x 1

C y = 20 1

e

y=

(1, 19)

b y = 19x + 1

d y=

19

1

x

20

1

x

(0.1, 1)

1

a Sketch the graph of each of the following functions on the same set of axes

with the original graph and give the coordinates of the points A, B, C and D.

i y = f (x)

ii y = f (x)

iii y = f (x 2)

iv y = f (x) + 3

v y = 2f (x)

vi y = 1 f (x + 1)

(0.5, 4)

D(4, 6)

ex Ten d ed

r eS p o n S e

B

C(2, 3)

A 2

3 2

7 x

2 units

apart

wants the waves to be 2 units apart vertically, suggest the best way

she could alter the equation of y = f (x). (Remember a fabric has a

fixed width!)

1

2 The graph of the function f: (2, 0.5) (0.5, 2) R, f ( x ) = 2 is

x

shown below.

y

4

(0.5, 4)

3

f(x) = 12

2

(2, 0.25)

(2, 0.25)

0.5

1 1.5

2 2.5 x

a Describe these two transformations.

b Create matrices to represent these transformations.

c Use these matrices to find the images of the points (1, 1) and (2, 0.25) under these

transformations, and use these values to deduce the images of the points (1, 1) and (2, 0.25).

d On the same axes, sketch this transformed function, showing the coordinates of the four points

from c above.

e Using any method, find a rule for this transformed function.

ChapTer 2 Functions and transformations

115

y=

1

(600 x

500

+ 25 x 2 x 3 ), where y is the height (in metres) of the ride above ground level and x

is the horizontal distance (in metres). The x-axis represents ground level. It will travel through a

tunnel from A to C; B is the lowest point in the tunnel and D is the highest point on the ride.

y

A

15

Ex

40

0C

B

b Find the greatest depth below ground level and the maximum height above ground level that the

c Describe the impact that a dilation by a factor greater than 1 from the x-axis would have on:

i the maximum depth and maximum height from b

ii the point at which the rollercoaster would emerge from the tunnel

iii the gradient of the slope at this point.

4 Lena and Alex are planning to buy a new house. Theyve been watching the prices of 3-bedroom

houses in a specific area, where they want to live, for the whole year. During each month they collected

the data and then, at the end of the month, they calculated the average price for that month. The results

of their calculations are shown in the table below. (The prices given are in thousands of dollars.)

Month

Price

10

11

12

240

248

255

261

266

271

273

274

275

274

272

270

a Plot the prices against the months. What model does the graph suggest?

b If the model of the form y = a(x h)2 + k is to be used for these data, what is (judging from the

116

c Plot the values of y (the prices) against (x h)2, where h is the value youve selected in part b.

d Draw a line of best fit and find its equation. Hence, state the values of a and k in the model.

e Write the equation of the model.

f According to the Real Estate Institute, the property market is on a steady rise (that is, the prices

are going up and are likely to rise further). Do the data collected by Lena and Alex support this

theory?

g Use the model to predict the average price for the next 2 months.

h Lena and Alex were planning to spend no more than 250 000 for their new house. Several months

ago the prices were in their range, but they could not find what they wanted. If the prices are

going to behave according to our model, how long do they have to wait until the prices fall back

into their range?

5 An eagle soars from the top of a cliff that is 48.4 metres above the ground and then descends towards

unsuspecting prey below. The eagles height, h metres above the ground, at time t seconds can be

modelled by the equation h = 50 + a , where 0 t < 25 and a is a constant.

t 25

a Find the value of a.

b Find the eagles height above the ground after i 5 seconds ii 20 seconds.

c After how many seconds will the eagle reach the ground?

d Comment on the changes in speed during the eagles descent.

e Sketch the graph of the equation.

After 24 seconds, the eagle becomes distracted by another bird and reaches the ground exactly

2 seconds later. For this second part of the journey, the relationship between h and t can be modelled by

the equation h = a(t 24)2 + c.

f Find the values of a and c.

g Fully define the hybrid function that describes the descent of the eagle from the top of the cliff to

the ground below.

diGiTal doC

doc-9184

Test Yourself

Chapter 2

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Practice

VCE exam

questions

Use StudyON to

access all exam

questions on this

topic since 2002.

117

ICT activities

Chapter opener

diGiTal doC

10 Quick Questions doc-9174: Warm up with ten quick questions on

functions and transformations. (page 57)

2a

diGiTal doCS

Spreadsheet doc-9175: Investigate transformations. (page 59)

Spreadsheet doc-9166: Investigate the quadratic function in power

form. (page 60)

2b

diGiTal doCS

Spreadsheet doc-9170: Investigate the cubic function in power form.

(page 64)

Spreadsheet doc-9176: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 67)

2C

TUTorial

We9 eles-1197: Watch a worked example on sketching the graph

of a hyperbola. (page 71)

diGiTal doCS

Spreadsheet doc-9177: Investigate the hyperbola. (page 69)

Spreadsheet doc-9176: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 74)

WorkSHEET 2.1 doc-9178: Find the domain, range, coordinates

of turning points and equations of asymptotes of various graphs.

(page 74)

History of Mathematics doc-9179: Investigate the history of major

curves. (page 74)

2d

diGiTal doC

Spreadsheet doc-9176: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 80)

2e

TUTorial

We16 eles-1198: Watch a worked example on implied domain

and range. (page 83)

diGiTal doC

Spreadsheet doc-9176: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 86)

118

2F

TUTorialS

We20 eles-1199: Watch a worked example on sketching the

graph of an absolute value function. (page 87)

We21 eles-1200: Watch a worked example on expressing an

absolute value function as a hybrid function. (page 88)

diGiTal doCS

WorkSHEET 2.2 doc-9180: Identify transformations, state domain

and range, sketch graphs of power functions and absolute value

functions. (page 89)

Spreadsheet doc-9181: Investigate graphs of absolute value

functions. (page 89)

2G

inTeraCTiViTY

Transformations with matrices int-0247: Consolidate your

understanding of using matrices to transform functions.

(page 90)

TUTorial

We25 eles-1201: Watch how to use matrices to determine the

resultant equation after transformations. (page 92)

2h

TUTorial

We27 eles-1243: Watch how to use addition of ordinates to sketch

the sum of two functions. (page 96)

2J

modelling

diGiTal doCS

Spreadsheet doc-9182: Investigate modelling with functions.

(page 106)

Investigation doc-9183: Goal accuracy. (page 108)

Chapter review

diGiTal doC

Test Yourself Chapter 2 doc-9184: Take the end-of-chapter test to test

your progress. (page 117)

Answers CHAPTER 2

FUnCTionS and

TranSFormaTionS

exercise 2a

parabola

1 a Dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis

b Dilation by a factor of 13 from the x-axis

c Dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis,

reflection in the x-axis

d Translation 6 units down

e Dilation by a factor of 12 from the x-axis,

reflection in the x-axis, translation of

1 unit up

f Translation of 2 units to the right

g Reflection in the x-axis, translation of

3 units to the left

h Dilation by a factor of 2 from the x-axis,

translation of 3 units to the right

i Translation of 2 units to the left,

translation of 1 unit down

j Translation of 0.5 unit to the right,

translation of 2 units up

k Dilation by a factor of 2, reflection in

the x-axis, translation of 3 units to the

left, translation of 1 unit up

l Dilation by a factor of 12 from the

x-axis, translation of 1.5 units to the

right, translation of 0.25 units down

2D

3 a (ii)

b (v)

c (i)

d (iv)

e (iii)

4 a y = 1 (x 2)2 + 2

2

b y = 2(x + 1)2 2

c y = 3(x 1) + 3

d y = (x + 2)2 4

2

5E

b y = x2

6 a y = 12 x2

2

c y = (x 2) 1

d y = 3x2 2

e y = (x + 3)2

7 a y = (x 3)2 4

b y = 2(x + 1)2 + 1

c y = 13 (x + 3)2 4

7. f (x 4) + 6, 2 x 6

8. f (x + 2) + 9, 4 x 0

9. f (x 2) + 9, 0 x 4

exercise 2b

3 a

y=

b y=

y = 2(x + 1)2

d y = 2(x + 1)2 + 3

(x, y)

b (x, y)

(x, 3y)

d (2x, y)

x

f (x + 2, y)

e ( , y)

3

g (x, y 1)

10 a z = 3 or z = 15

2 (x 15)2 8

b y = 2(x 3)2 8 or y = 25

11 a 3

b y = 13 (x + 4)2 + 3

c x = 7, x = 1

12 1. f (x + 2) 3, 4 x 0

2. f (x 2) 3, 0 x 4

3. f (x + 4), 6 x 2

4. f (x 4), 2 x 6

5. f (x) + 6, 2 x 2

6. f (x) + 6, 2 x 2

8 a

c

9 a

c

2x2

i

iii

(1, 43 )

x

(1, 34 )

b iv

0.8

x

c iv

d iv

2.08

y

4

128

e iv

y

4

a dilation of 43 .

i (0, 1)

ii (0.8, 0), (0, 1)

iii There is a reflection in the x-axis, a

i

iii

3 a iv

i (0, 0)

ii (0, 0)

iii There are no translations, but there is

c

2x2

i (1, 6)

ii (0.4, 0), (0, 4)

iii There is a translation of 1 left and

power form

1 a Dilation from the x-axis by the factor

of 7

b Dilation from the x-axis by the factor

of 23 , reflection in the x-axis

c Translation by 4 units up

d Reflection in the x-axis, translation by

6 units up

e Translation by 1 unit to the right

f Reflection in the x-axis, translation by

3 units to the left

g Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of

4, reflection in the y-axis, translation by

2 units to the right

h Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of

6, reflection in the x-axis, reflection in

the y-axis, translation by 7 units to the

right

i Dilation from the x-axis by the factor

of 3, translation by 3 units to the left,

translation by 2units down

j Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of

1 , reflection in the x-axis, translation by

2

1 unit to the right, translation by 6 units

up

k Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of

2, translation by 52 units to the left

l Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of

1 , reflection in the x-axis, translation by

4

8 units to the left, translation by 3 units

up

c ii

2 a i, iv

b iii, v

e ii, v

f iii, iv

d i, ii, iv

d y = 12 (x 2)2 + 2

e y = 3(x 1)2 + 6

f y = 4(x + 2)2 + 8

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

of 2.

(0, 6)

ii (2.08, 0), (0, 6)

There is a translation of 6 down and a

2

dilation of 3 .

(4, 0)

ii (4, 0), (0, 128)

There is a translation of 4 right and a

dilation of 2.

(2, 0)

ii (2, 0), (0, 4)

There is a reflection in the x-axis, a

translation of 2 right, and a dilation

1

of 2 .

(1, 0)

ii (1, 0), (0, 4)

There is a reflection in the y-axis, a

translation of 1 right, and a dilation

of 4.

(1, 2)

ii (0.3, 0), (0, 1)

There is a translation of 1 right and

2 up.

(2, 3)

ii (0.6, 0), (0, 5)

There is a reflection in the x-axis and

a translation of 2 left and 3 up.

f iv

y

4

g iv

y

2

1

0.3

h iv

3

x

2

0.6

119

i iv

4 a

0.4

4

6

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

c

d

4 E

5C

7 a y=

c

e

8 a

c

9 a

6 B

b y = (x + 5)3

1 x3

2

y = (x 3)3 1

y = (x + 1)3 1

y = 2x3

y = 2(x 2)3

y = 12 x3 + 4

c y=

3(x

1)3

d y = 2x3 + 3

10 E

b y = 2x3

d y = 2(x 2)3 1

b y = 2(x 1)3 + 2

+1

e y = 4(x + 1)3 12

d y=

1

3

(x

x = 4, y = 0

Range: R\{0}

x = 0, y = 2

Range: R\{2}

x = 3, y = 2

Range: R\{2}

x = 1, y = 1

Range: R\{1}

x = m, y = n

Range: R\{n}

x = b, y = a

Range: R\{a}

ii Domain: R\{0}

6

2

ii Domain: R\{3}

2 21

2

3

ii Domain: R\{m}

ii Domain: R\{b}

1

2

y

4

2

5

2

5

34 x

b Positive cubic

ii Domain: R\{1}

2 x

3

11 y = 2(x + 1) 4

12 a y = 12 (2 x)3 + 1

y

1

7 2

34 x

3)3

ii Domain: R\{4}

11 1

x

exercise 2C The power function

(the hyperbola)

1 a Dilation from the x-axis by the factor of 2

b Dilation from the x-axis by the factor

of 3, reflection in the x-axis

c Translation by 6 units to the right

d Dilation from the x-axis by the factor

of 2, translation by 4 units to the left

e Translation by 7 units up

f Dilation from the x-axis by the factor

of 2, translation by 5 units down

g Translation by 4 units to the left,

translation by 3units down

h Dilation from the x-axis by the factor

of 2, translation by 3 units to the right,

translation by 6 units up

i Dilation from the x-axis by the factor

of 4, reflection in the x-axis, translation

by 1 unit to the right, translation by

4 units down

2 a v

d v, iii

g v, i, iv

3 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

120

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

iii

i

ii

iii

b iii

e v, ii, iii

h ii, iv

ii

x = 0, y = 0

Range: R\{0}

x = 6, y = 0

ii

Range: R\{0}

ii

x = 2, y = 0

Range: R\{0}

ii

x = 3, y = 0

Range: R\{0}

ii

x = 0, y = 4

Range: R\{4}

ii

x = 0, y = 5

Range: R\{5}

x = 6, y = 2 ii

Range: R\{2}

ii

x = 2, y = 1

Range: R\{1}

x = n, y = m

Domain: R\{n}

Range: R\{m}

4 31

1

3

185

31

21

2 1

1

x

y

y =1

1 5

43

Domain: R\{0}

Domain: R\{3}

y=4

(6, 2)

5

Domain: R\{0}

52

y=

x+3

x2

y

10

8

6

4

2

(2, 11)

0 2 4

6 4 2

(0, 3)

x=1

Domain: R\{0}

Domain: R\{6}

y

10

8

6

4

2

10 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 10 x

(0, 32 ) 4

6

x=2

8

10

3 43

Domain: R\{6}

1 3

4 4

k

c

23

y

c i

f i, iii

Domain: R\{2}

6 a

Domain: R\{2}

7 E

y

3

1

3

8 C

2

9 a y=

x2

1

c y=

x+4

2

e y=

+2

x4

b y=

3

x +1

4

1

x

6

f y=

1

x +1

d y=

10 a

4 units to the left

f Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of

2, translation by 6 units up

g Reflection in the x-axis, translation by

3 units up

h Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of

4, translation by 3 units to the right,

translation by 1 unit up

i Reflection in the x-axis, translation

by 2 units to the left, translation by

5 units up

2 D

3 C

ii Domain R\{0}

4 a i x = 0, y = 0

iii Range: y > 0

ii Domain R\{0}

b i x = 0, y = 0

iii Range: y < 0

ii Domain R\{2}

c i x = 2, y = 0

iii Range: y > 0

d i x = 1, y = 0

ii Domain R\{1}

iii Range: y > 0

e i x = 4, y = 0

ii Domain R\{4}

iii Range: y < 0

ii Domain R\{0}

f i x = 0, y = 3

iii Range: y > 3

1

2

1

x

y

21

x

3

2

1

121

h

i

i x = 0, y

y

0.4

1

1

)

2

(3, 0)

2

1

3.7 3 2.3

y

4

3 97

y

11

12

2

3

i x = 1, y = 4

ii Domain R\{1}

6 B

2.7

7 B

1

2

0.7

41

y

y

3 4

3

x

x=2

l

x

(0,

9 a y=

1

8

exercise 2d

c y=

d

3 )

4

(the truncus)

1 a Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of 2

b Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of 3,

reflection in the x-axis

c Translation by 2 units to the left

d Dilation from the x-axis by a factor of 2,

translation by 3 units to the right

y

1

9

Domain: R\{0},

range: R\{3}

1

3

y=1

0.4

ii Domain R\{0}

= 12

8 a

11

ii Domain R\{0}

i x = 0, y = 5

5 C

(0,

y

1

1 2 3

2

2

x2

9

( x + 2)2

b y=

+1

8

3

( x 4)2

3

10 y =

3

( x + 2)2

e y=

d y=

f y=

( x 2)2

3

+4

( x + 1)2

5

2

( x 1)2

3

11 y =

+2

( x 1)2

121

power form

1 a Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 2

b Dilated from the x-axis by a factor

of 13 , reflected in the x-axis

c Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 3,

translated 1 unit to the right

d Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 2,

reflected in the x-axis, translated 4 units

to the left

e Translated 1 unit down

f Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 3,

reflected in the x-axis, translated 2 units

up

g Translated 4 units to the right, translated

3 units up

h Dilated from the x-axis by a factor of 2,

reflected in the x-axis, translated 3 units

to the left, translated 6 units up

i Dilated from the x-axis by a factor

of 12 , reflected in the x-axis, reflected in

the y-axis, translated 2 units to the right

and 23 units up

2 a (0, 0)

b (0, 0)

c (1, 0)

d (4, 0)

e (0, 1)

f (0, 2)

g (4, 3)

(3,

6)

i (2,

3 E

4 D

5 a Domain: x 1, range: y 0

b Domain: x 3, range: y 0

c Domain: x 0, range: y 3

d Domain: x 0, range: y 4

e Domain: x 0, range: y 5

f Domain: x 1, range: y 3

g Domain: x 2, range: y 1

b

2

1

2

7

1

1 21

y

2

4

(1, 1)

x

y

2

2

x

0.4

2)

3

2 1

2.7

9 E

10 a m = 1

y=3 4x +3

0.7

1

2

b y = 2 x 1 4

11

1 2

4

3

4

3

3

4

(4, 3)

12 a

b

c

d

e

f

p=8

y = 4 x + 1 + 8

x=3

x 1

y8

y

(1, 8)

y

41

1

4

1 C

2 a Domain: R, range: y 0

b Domain: R, range: y 1

c Domain: R, range: y 4

d Domain: R, range: y 2

e Domain: R \ {1}, range: y > 1

f Domain: R \ {0}, range: y 0

3 a

y

y

3 31

3

y

1

3.6

3

(6, 1)

x

122

exercise 2F

(1, 1)

4.4

y

2

3

2

1.4

3 43

i Domain: x 4 , range: y 2

6 D

7 D

8 a

5 1 1

11

x

h Domain: x 1 , range: y 4

j Domain: x 3, range: y 7

k Domain: x 2, range: y 6

l Domain: x 2, range: y 1

3.7

2 x

2

5

ii y = 32 x 3 + 20

35 63

y

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

f(x) = |3x 1|

3 2 1 0

b f (1) = (1)2 3 1 + 2 = 6,

6 a y = 32 x , 2 x 2

b Yellow: y = 6 32 x , 2 x 2;

2

green: y =

3

2

x 6,

blue: y =

3

2

x , 2 x 2

x 2;

c Teacher to check

exercise 2G Transformations with

matrices

1 i Reflection in the y-axis, dilation by a

factor of 2 from the x-axis

ii Dilation by a factor of 12 from the y-axis,

dilation by a factor of 4 from the x-axis,

reflection in the x-axis

iii Reflection in the y-axis, dilation by a

factor of 3 from the x-axis, dilation by a

factor of 2 from the y-axis

iv Dilation by a factor of 1 from the x-axis,

2

reflection in the x-axis

2 i (3, 10)

3

ii ( 2 , 20 )

iii (6, 15)

5

iv (3, 2 )

2

3 a i y= 2

x

1

ii y =

x2

0

1

dom f : R

b f (x) =

x3

+ x

2

y

3

2

1

6 a i y= x3 +2

3

ii y = x 2 2

0

1

dom f : [0, )

7C

8 a Reflection in the y-axis, dilation by a

iii ( 5 , 2)

2

ii y = x 7 x + 8

f(x) = |x 3x| + 2

2

b i y = x 9 x + 20

f (2) = 22 + 3 2 + 2 = 4

x 2 3 x + 2, x 0 x 3

5 a f (x) =

2 units in the positive direction of the

y-axis

ii Translation of 2 units in the positive

direction of the x-axis, translation of

2 units in the negative direction of the

y-axis

iii Translation of 1 units in the negative

5

direction of the x-axis

5 i (4, 0)

ii (3, 4)

y=x

y = x2

ii y = 4 2 x

3 x 1, x 1

3

4 a f (x) =

1

3

x

1,

x

+

<

y

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

y y = x2 + x

c i y=2 x

99

(1, 6)

product functions

1 a f (x) = x2 + x

b i y = 2 x 3 10

2

c f ( x ) = 3x + x

horizontally by +6, translation vertically

by +1

2

f (x) =

+2

( x + 6)

1.5 1 0.5 0

1

2

reflection in the x-axis, horizontal

translation by +3, vertical

1

translation by 1 y =

1

x3

1

x 4

9 T

=

y 0

0 x 1

+

y 3

1

10 a y = 2 x + 8 x 1

b (2, 1); point lies on the curve

11 Dilation by a factor of 3 from the x-axis,

2 units in the positive direction of the

x-axis, translation by 1 unit in the positive

direction of the y-axis

x 1 0 x

+ 2

T =

1

y 0 3 y

2( x + 1) + 1

12 a, b g(2( x + 1)) + 1 =

14 h(x) = x3 5

1.5

dom f : R

1

x

d f (x) = x + 2 +

y

6

4

2

y-axis, reflection in the x-axis

1

+2

y =

3x + 1

0.5

6 4 2 2

dom f : R\{0}

2 a g( x ) h( x ) =

x +1 x

y

4

(1, 1)

6 4 2

2

0

b g( x ) h( x ) = x x + 1 + 2

(1, 3)

y

4

2

6 4 2 0

(1, 2) 2

123

3 a (, 3]

b R

c [0, 1]

d R

e [2, )

e f (2) = 1, g(2) =

(2, 4)

(2, 4)

e f (2) = 4, g(2) =

f

1 1 0

2

3

(2, 4) 4

(2, 8)

(2, 20.5 4)

(2, 2)

3 2 1

(2, 2)

0

2

4

(2, 8)

e f (2) = 8, g(2) = 2, h(2) = 6

10

8

6

4

2

2 1 0

2

4

6

8

124

iii

4 a>0

(2.5, 5.38)

f(x)

5 4 3 2 1 0

2

4

g(x)

2 Teacher to check

3 a i f (x y) f (x) f (y)

ii f (x y) f (x) f (y)

(8, 13)

(2, 2)

1

iv

3

i

ii

x + 3 1, domain [3, )

1

b ii f (g(x)) =

, domain R

|x|+3

2

c ii f (g(x)) = 3(x 2)3, domain R

3

d ii f (g(x)) = x , domain R

(2, 2)

v

f

6 (0, 6)

v

b i

(2, 6)

ii

(2, 8)

iii

x

f (x)

f( ) =

y

f ( y)

f (xy) = f (x) f (y)

f (x y) f (x) f (y)

f (x y) f (x) f (y)

f (x) + f (y) (x2 + y2) f (xy)

x

f (x)

y

f ( y)

f (xy) = f (x)f (y)

f (x y) f (x) f (y)

f (x y) = f (x) f (y)

f (x) + f (y) (x2 + y2)f (xy)

f (x)

x

f( )

f ( y)

y

f (xy) f (x) f (y)

iv f ( ) =

1 a ii f (g(x)) = 2

(2, 10)

(2, 8)

ii f (x y) f (x) f (y)

iii f (x) + f (y) (x2 + y2) f (xy)

functional equations

f (x)

1.5

f (x)g(x)

(2, 2)

iv

(2.5, 1.38)

e i f (x y) f (x) f (y)

6543210 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x

h(x)

0.5

y

5

4

3

2

1

(2, 4)

y

8

ii

8 x + x + 5, x [ 5,8]

(8, 13)

(2, 20.5)

6 a

8 h( x ) =

2 , h(2) = 4 + 2

y

1

g(x)

g(1) = 1, h(1) = 0

iv

1.5 1 0.5 0

2

2 , h(2) =

v

d i

iii

x

f (x)

y

f ( y)

f (xy) = f (x) f (y)

f (x y) f (x) f (y)

f (x y ) f (x) f (y)

f (x) + f (y) = (x2 + y2)f (xy)

x

f (x)

f( ) =

y

f ( y)

iv f ( ) =

y

4

b a=0

d f (1) =

f ran h: [ 2, )

(2, 2 )

0

1

1

2

3

4

1,

ii f (x y) f (x) f (y)

1.5

0.5

1

2

d f (1) = 2, g(1) = 1, h(1) = 2

5 a

0.5

f (x)

(4, 4.5)

1.5 1 0.5 0

2

0

f (x)

f ( y)

c i f (x y) f (x ) f (y)

g(x)

(4, 4.5)

2

4

iv f ( ) =

y

4

2

y

4

x

y

7 a dom h: [0, )

1

+2

x 2 +1

7 dom w: ( 3, ), ran w: (0, ), dom v: R+,

where x R+; v w(x) = x + 3 2, where

x (3, )

8 Teacher to check

9 Teacher to check

10 Reflection in the y-axis, translated +1

parallel to the x-axis

exercise 2J

modelling

b ii

1 a iii

d i

e v

2 a y = ax3, a = 0.3

a

c y= 2,a=2

x

a

e y= ,a=5

x

3 D

4 a

c iv

b y = ax2, a = 6

d y = a x , a = 1.6

f y = ax3, a = 1.5

y

50

40

30

20

10

0

10

1 2 3 4 5

y

50

40

30

20

10

2 f (x) = 2

0

10

5 10 15 20 25

the x-axis by a factor of 7, reflection in the

x-axis, translation 13 parallel to the x-axis

in the negative direction, translation +2

parallel to the y-axis

3 y = 1 3(x 1)3

4 a x = 2, y = 1

b Domain: R\{2}, range: R\{1}

4

c y=

1

x+2

x2

1

5 y = 4 x3 12

6 a

f

500

400

300

200

100

0

10

1

0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5

3

6

9

12

15

18

D(4, 6)

f(x)

B C(2, 3)

A 2

2

A' B'

2

C'(2, 3)

dilation by the factor of 2 along the y-axis

2

b y=

1

( x + 2)2

4d

ii

D'(4, 6)

1.3

Price

8 10 Month

ii y =

b p=2 m +4

11 a x =

c 10.63, 10.93

ChapTer reVieW

ShorT anSWer

1 a (3, 4)

b Domain: R, range: y 4

c

y

C(2, 3)

B2

A

2

1.6

4.4

x

y

,y =

a

2

b y=

4x2

a2

( f + g)( x ) = 2 x 3 + 4 x 2 + 1

y

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

A'(2, 3)

12 g:( 2,1) R, g( x ) = x 3 + 2 x 2 + 1

B'(2, 2)

A'

D'(4, 9)

2x

a

D(4, 6)

C(2, 3)

f(x)

v

2f(x)

D'(4, 12)

(1, 7)

( f + g)(x)

(1, 4)

(1, 3)

f(x)

1

C' (2, 6)

B'

5

f(x) + 3 A

2

c a = 2, y = x2 x

(2, 1)

D'(6, 6)

(1 x )3 1 x

+

+2

512

8

g(x)

f(x)

C'(4, 3)

iv

1 x

+2

8

14

f(x2)

D (4, 6)

10 a a = 8, b = 1

b i y=2

C(2, 3)

A'

x

2

iii

1

2

9 a = 3, b =

(1, 2)

2.7 2

y

f(x)

f(x)

D'(4, 6) D(4, 6)

C'(2, 3)

A

2

y

(3, 2)

8 a

C

E

E

C

E

E

exTended reSponSe

2

( x 1)2

7 4 units to the right and 3 units up;

y=3 4x

8 y=3 x +4

9 a

$

E

C

D

A

B

D

2

5

8

11

14

17

f(x)

6 y=

270

b I= 2

d

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

D

D

D

C

E

C

E

I

250

200

150

100

50

0

1

4

7

10

13

16

19

340

b No

d No

mUlTiple ChoiCe

c f=

13 a Yes

c Yes

14 c 100

1 a i

2 4 6 8 10

f

1000

800

600

400

200

7 a

7

3x + 1

C'(2, 6)

B'4

A 2B

A' 2

f(x)

D(4, 6)

C(2, 3)

x

125

f(x)

vi

A'(3, 1)

A

B

2

C(2, 3)

C'(1, 2)

B'(1, 1)

D'(3, 5)

A( 3, 1), B( 1, 1),

C(1, 2), D(3, 5)

b Add multiples of 2, for example,

f (x) + 2, f (x) + 4, f (x) + 6,

f (x) 2 etc. and keep the domain

fixed at [3, 7].

2 a Dilation from the y-axis by a factor of 12 ,

vertical translation of +1

1 0

, 0

b 2

0 1 1

126

D(4, 6)

1 f(x + 1)

5 a a = 40

b i The eagle is 48 m above the ground.

ii The eagle is 42 m above the ground.

c It takes 24.2 s to reach the ground.

d The speed is slow to start but increases

e y=

1

+1

4x2

3 a 55 m

b Maximum height is 30.01 m above

iii Would be greater

y = a(x b)2 + c

b b=9

Straight line (negative gradient)

a = 0.55, c = 275

y = 0.55(x 9)2 + 275

No, the prices started going down.

$266 000, $261 000

About 4 months

ii No change

4 a

c

d

e

f

g

h

ground.

h

50 (0, 48.4)

(5, 48)

40

(20, 42)

30

20

10

(24.2, 0)

0

10

15

20

25

f a = 2.5, c = 10

40

, 0 t 24

50 +

t 25

g f (t ) =

2.5(t 24)2 + 10, 24 t 26

1 The functions f and g are graphed below. On the same axes sketch a graph of f + g.

f

S ho rT

a n S W er

15 minutes

0

1 mark

x2 3 .

1 mark

3 For y = (2x

1:

a write down the y-coordinate of the turning point

b determine the equation of the axis of symmetry.

3)2

2 marks

b Given x3 7x 6 = (x + 2)Q(x) where Q(x) is a quadratic factor, determine Q(x).

5 For what values of c does the graph of y =

2x

x2

2 marks

+ x 2 at

2 marks

:[1,

4) R, f (x) = | 3(x

3)2

10 |.

2 marks

a y=

1

a

xb

b y=

e y=

10 minutes

+b

ax

1

d y=

a

xb

1

+b

C y=

x+a

m U lTip l e

C ho iC e

y=b

one mark.

x=a

x

1

+a

x+b

y

a y = (x a)(x b)2(x c)2

b y = (x a)(x c)2

C y = (x a)3(x c)2

d y = (x a)(x c)

e y = (x a)(x b)(x c)

3

x

a 240

d 72

b 72

e 720

C 60

a y = 4

d y=

3

4

b y = 3

3x 2

?

4x

C y = 1

e y=3

5 The quadratic function f : D R, f (x) = 2(x + 1)2 5 has a domain, D, of [0, 3]. The range of f is:

a [1, 3]

d [3, 27]

b R

e [5, )

C [5, 27]

6 The simultaneous linear equations 3x + ay = 12 and ax + 3y = 4a have infinitely many solutions for:

a a [3, 3]

d a=9

b a=3

e a=0

C a = 3 or a = 3

Exam practice 1

127

e x T ended

r e S ponS e

40 minutes

1 Severe tropical cyclone Vance devastated the town of Exmouth in northern WA in 1999. It produced a

measured wind gust of 267 km/h, which is the highest wind speed ever recorded on mainland Australia.

In order for it to be first categorised as a cyclone, its wind speed needed to exceed 119 km/h.

Several years later, it is a peaceful day, with no wind detectable at 1 pm. By 3 pm, however, the

wind speed is gusting to 200 km/h, and the residents know they are in trouble.

a Let t be the time in hours after noon and v be the wind speed. Establish a linear model of the form

v = at + b to represent the relationship between the wind speed and time.

2 marks

b Using this model, determine to the nearest minute when the wind speed will be high enough

for classification as a cyclone.

1 mark

c Predict to the nearest minute when the cyclone will break the record for the highest wind

speed ever recorded.

1 mark

d Explain why the linear model is unsatisfactory as a model for the cyclones behaviour.

1 mark

e i The wind speed actually peaks at 256 km/h at 5 pm. Use this data and the wind speed at

1 pm to help to create a quadratic model relating wind speed (v) to hours after noon (t).

How well does this model match all the data provided?

2 marks

ii The wind speed actually returns to zero at 1 am the following morning, 12 hours later.

Discuss how well this result matches the quadratic model.

1 mark

f i Establish a second quadratic model that exactly matches the following data:

1 mark

Time

1 pm

5 pm

1 am

Wind speed

0 km/h

256 km/h

0 km/h

ii Evaluate how well this model represents the relationship between time and wind speed.

g It has been suggested that a cubic function would be a better model for the data. Use all

1 mark

2 marks

h The graph below shows how air pressure in hectopascals (P hPa) and wind speed (v km/h) relate

1

)

x2

could represent the shape of the relationship between speed and distance across the cyclone.

1020

1010

1000

990

980

970

960

950

0 km

diGiTal doC

doc-1608

Solutions

exam practice1

128

Eye

Pressure

Wind speed

175

150

125

100

75

50

25

Pressure (hPa)

to distance (x) across a cyclone. It has been suggested that a truncus (general form v ( x )

500 km

ii Determine a rule for the relationship between speed (v) and distance (x).

iii Determine a rule for the relationship between air pressure (P) and distance (x).

1 mark

2 marks

2 marks

ChapTer 3

Exponential and

logarithmic equations

diGiTal doC

doc-9185

10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS

3a

3B

3C

3d

3e

3F

3G

3h

3i

Logarithm laws

Exponential equations

Logarithmic equations using any base

Exponential equations (base e)

Equations with natural (base e) logarithms

Inverses

Literal equations

Exponential and logarithmic modelling

3a

A number in index form has two parts, the base and the index, power, exponent or logarithm. A number

in index form is represented like this:

Index, power, exponent or logarithm

ax

Base

ax ay = ax + y

ax ay = ax y

(ax)y

axy

a0 = 1 (a 0)

x

1

a = x (a 0)

a

1

ax

(ab)x

a = ax =

(y a )

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

= x a (x 0)

x

y

Units: 3 & 4

(y 0)

axbx

ax

aa

= x , b 0

b

b

Worked example 1

Simplify

(2 x 2 y3 )3 3( xy4 ) 2

.

6 x 4 2 xy4

Think

1

Simplify 23 to 8 and multiply the whole numbers.

WriTe

(2 x 2 y3 )3 3( xy 4 )2 23 x 6 y9 3 x 2 y8

=

6 x 4 2 xxyy 4

12 x 5 y 4

24 x 8 y17

=

12 x 5 y 4

= 2x3y13

129

For negative indices and fractional or decimal indices, the same rules apply.

Worked example 2

2

a 64

0.4

b 32

c 125

3.

Think

WriTe

x

y

ax

a 64

2

3

= 3 64 2

y

Rewrite using a x = ( a ) x .

= ( 3 664)2

= 42

Square 4.

= 16

0.4

Change 0.4 to

b 32

4

.

10

=

x

1

320.4

1

4

3210

1

2

32 5

1

( 5 332)2

1

22

Square 2.

1

4

c 1 Write 125

c 125

125 3

=

1

( 125)2

1

(5)2

1

25

1

25

a x = ( y a ) x.

125

Worked example 3

a a 2 b4 ( a 3 b 4 )

130

12 1 1

a b

b 1 2 .

3 b

Think

WriTe

a a 2b4 (a3b 4)

= a 5b8

fraction.

= a 2b4 a 3b4

1 1

2

b a b

31 b 2

b8

a5

3 1 b2

1

a2b

3

the numerator.

b 2b1

1

3a 2

b3

1

3a 2

4

1 1

a 2 b

31 b 2

b3

1

3a 2

If the expression contains different numbers that do not have the same base, write each number as

a product of prime factors.

Worked example 4

Simplify

3 n 6 n + 1 12 n 1

, showing working.

32n 8n

Think

WriTe

3n 6n + 1 12n 1

32 n 8 n

3n (3

(3 22))n + 1 (2

(22 33))n 1

=

2

n

3

3 ((22 )n

3n 3n + 1 2 n + 1 2 2 n 2 3n 1

32 n 2 3 n

with base 3 and add indices of numbers with

base 2.

33n 23n 1

32 n 2 3 n

= 3n 2

denominator with a positive index.

= 3n

Simplify.

1

2

3n

2

131

Worked example 5

3

3

1

+

a x 2 2

b 1

x

x +2 x 12

Think

WriTe

ax

x 2

1

= 2 3x 2

x

Simplify.

2

1

2 x

3

x

x2

x2

1 3x 4

x2 x2

1 3x 4

=

x2

3

1

+

1

1

+ 2 2

x x

3

x

+

1 + 2x 1 2x

x x

in the brackets and simplify.

(change the division sign to a multiplication

sign and invert the second fraction).

3x

x

+

1 + 2x 1 2x

3 x (1 2 x)

x ) + x (1

(1 + 2 xx)

(1 + 2 x )(1 2 xx)

3x 6 x 2 + x + 2 x 2

(1 + 2 x )(1 2 xx)

4x 4x2

(1 + 2 x )(1 2 xx)

4 x (1 x )

(1 + 2 x )(1 2 xx)

exercise 3a

1 We1

Simplify:

a x3 x4

e

b x7 x2

( x 2 )3 x 5

( x 5 )2

2 We2

132

TUTorial

eles-1202

Worked example 5

2

27 3

c (x2)5

5x 2 y4 4 x 5 y

22 x 3 y 2

d (x 3)2

2 3

4 2

g (2 xy ) 5( x y)

4 x 5 y3 3 x 2 y3

Simplify:

3

b 25

c 810.25

27 3

d

64

243

e

32

3

5

3 Simplify:

x4 x5

a

x3

256

e

81

9 2

d

49

361.5

3

4

4 We3

a

3

16 4

3x 3y2

(x2y)

1

c x 2 y 2

3

2

b

5

3 2

9 x 2 y 2

1 2

2x 2 y 3

3 2

a2b c

d 1

3a 2 bc 2

1 1 2

9 x 5 y 2

2 3

a3b

3 1 2

a c

5 Simplify:

a

x4y 1

1

16 2

(x 2y3) 1

2 1

x 5 y 4

1

2

b

1

1 3

5x 3 y 4

1 2 1

83 x 3 y 2

3 3

a 2b4

d

ab 2

2 1 2

4 x 5 y 2

9a 3b 2

2 3

4a b

6 We4 Simplify:

a 2n 4n + 1 8n 1

b 3n 9n 1 27n + 1

c 2n 3n + 1 9 n

32 2

7 Simplify:

a 2n 1 3n 6n + 1

16

3

92

52 3

125 9

27

5

8 We5 Simplify, writing your answer as a single fraction with positive indices.

a

x 1+

b (x

x

1

1

c

+

x 1 +1 x 1 1

x

9 mC 3

a 1

+ 3x is equal to:

1 + 32 x

B

3x

+ x 2)2

1

d 2x(x2 y2)

C 3

x2

(x y)

d 6

1 + 3x

3x

logarithm laws

3B

For example, an expression in index form can also be rewritten in logarithmic form.

8 = 23 log2 (8) = 3

a0 = 1 loga (1) = 0

a1 = a loga (a) = 1

Let m = ax loga (m) = x and n = ay loga (n) = y.

mn = ax ay loga (mn) = x + y

= ax + y

= loga (m) + loga (n)

x

m

m a

= xy

loga

=

n

n ay

= ax y

= loga (m) loga (n)

p

m = (ax)p loga (mp) = px

= axp

= p loga (m)

ax

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

133

Change-of-base rule

Suppose b = ax, then loga (b) = x.

Consider N = b y, then logb (N) = y.

But N = b y = (ax) y = ax y.

Therefore, loga (N) = xy

= loga (b) logb (N).

Thus, logb ( N ) =

loga ( N )

.

loga (b)

Worked example 6

Evaluate:

a log2 (1)

b log5 (5).

Think

WriTe

a log2 (1) = 0

b log5 (5) = 1

loga (1) = 0.

loga (a) = 1.

Worked example 7

a log2 (8) = 3

b logx (81) = 4.

Think

WriTe

a log2 (8) = 3 23 = 8

b logx (81) = 4 x4 = 81

Worked example 8

Simplify:

a log10 (5) + log10 (2)

c log2 (16)

d log 5

(5 x ) .

Think

WriTe

2

Simplify.

= log10 (10)

=1

a

a

n

20

5

Simplify.

= log4 (4)

=1

134

= 4 log2 (2)

=4

d 1 Rewrite using

a=

1

a y.

g5

d log

(5 x ) = log5 x 5

1

= 5 log5 ( x )

Worked example 9

Think

WriTe

= 3log3 (3)

log3 (27) = 3

= 2log3 (3)

=2

= 4log3 (3)

=4

=3+24

=1

Worked example 10

Simplify:

a 2 + log10 (3)

Think

log 3 (9)

.

log 3 (27)

WriTe

TUTorial

eles-1179

Worked example 10

= log10 (102 3)

= log10 (100 3)

= log10 (300)

Rewrite using

m

loga = loga (m) loga (n).

n

666

= log3

18 18 18

Simplify.

1

= log3 3

3

= log3 (3 3)

= 3 log3 (3)

= 3 1 = 3

63

= log3 3

18

135

c log

=

3

logg3 ((27)

they cannot be separated from the log.

logg3 ((33 )

2 log3 (3)

3log3 (3)

2

3

Worked example 11

Think

WriTe

covered later in the chapter) only, so we need

to change the base using the rule:

logb ( N )

loga ( N ) =

logb (a)

exercise 3B

log2 (18) =

1.2553

0.3010

= 4.170 (to 3 decimal places)

logarithm laws

1 We6

Evaluate the following.

a log3 (1)

b log5 (1)

c log2 (2)

2 We7

Write the following in index form.

a log2 (16) = 4

b logx (25) = 2

d log3 (x) = 5

3

log10 (18)

log10 (2)

log5 1

5

c log5 (125) = x

b 34 = 81

d 5x = 125

e 2 1 = 12

a 23 = 8

4 We8

Simplify:

a log6 (3) + log6 (2)

c 43 = x

f

d log3 (81)

d log6 (6)

log5 1

5

x3 = 27

c log2 (32)

f

log3 1

27

Simplify:

6 We9 Simplify:

a log4 (10) + log4 (2) log4 (5)

c

1

2

x4

y2

b 3log3 ( 3 x )

a log

g2 ( x )

c log2

7 We10

Simplify:

a 4 log2 (12) 4 log2 (6)

log2 (64)

d

log2 (8)

136

e

loga ( x )

loga ( x )

c 1 + log2 (5)

a log10 (3)

b log5 (4)

d log2 (0.8)

e log4 (20)

9

a

c

e

g

c log10 (0.5)

f log3 (60)

Simplify:

5 log3 (x) + log3 (x2) log3 (x7)

3 log4 (x) 5 log4 (x) + 2 log4 (x)

log10 (x2) + 3 log10 (x) 2 log10 (x)

log5 (x + 1) + log5 (x + 1)2

b

d

f

h

4 log6 (x) 5 log6 (x) + log6 (x)

4 log10 (x) log10 (x) + log10 (x2)

log4 (x 2)3 2 log4 (x 2)

a log10 (2)

C 1

B log10 (2)

a 0

B 1

d a

C 2

e log10 (4)

e a2

12 If y = a log10 (x), find x when a = 2 and y = 3. Give your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

3C

exponential equations

example of a more specific exponential equation.

To solve one of these equations it is necessary to write both sides of the equation with the same base if

the unknown is an index or with the same index if the unknown is the base.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Worked example 12

1

a 2x = 32

b 3x =

27

c 2 3x =

Think

WriTe

left-hand side.

2

d 2(1 x) = 16

162

2 on each side of the equation.

1

as a number with base 3.

33

Write

left-hand side.

2

2

Solve for x.

a 2x = 32

2x = 25

x=5

1

27

1

= 3

3

b 3x =

3x = 3

x = 3

c 2 3 x = 162

3x = 81

3x = 34

x=4

d 21 x = 16

21 x = 24

1x=4

x = 3

137

Worked example 13

Think

1

WriTe

5x 252x 3 = 625

5x (52)2x 3 = 54

5x 52(2x 3) = 54

Simplify.

55x 6 = 54

5x 6 = 4

5x 54x 6 = 54

5x = 10

x=2

Sometimes it is possible to use the methods for solving quadratic equations to help solve indicial

equations. Remember that 22x = (2x)2.

Worked example 14

a (2x 16)(2x + 4) = 0

b 32x 12 3x + 27 = 0

c 4x 2x + 3 + 16 = 0

TUTorial

eles-1180

Worked example 14

Think

a (2x 16)(2x + 4) = 0

2x = 16 or 2x = 4

not be written with base 2.

2x = 24 or no real solution

x=4

b 32x 12 3x + 27 = 0

(3x)2 12 3x + 27 = 0

equation to solve.

a2 12a + 27 = 0, where a = 3x

Factorise.

(a 3)(a 9) = 0

bracket equal to zero.

a 3 = 0, a 9 = 0

Solve for a.

3x = 3, 3x = 9

3x = 31, 3x = 32

2

138

WriTe

Rewrite 23 as 8.

a = 3, a = 9

x = 1, x = 2

c

4x 2x + 3 + 16 = 0

(2x)2 2x 23 + 16 = 0

(2x)2 2x 8 + 16 = 0

equation to solve.

precedes the pronumeral.

Factorise.

Solve for a.

a=4

2x = 4

10

a2 a 8 + 16 = 0 where a = 2x

a2 8a + 16 = 0

(a 4)(a 4) = 0

a4=0

= 22

x=2

Remember to always make the right-hand side equal to zero when solving quadratic equations.

It is a good idea to substitute your answer back into the original equation to check the accuracy of

your work.

If the base is not the same and the numbers cannot be written with the same base, then logarithms

can be used. It is possible to take the logarithm of both sides of an equation provided the same base

is used.

Worked example 15

Solve for x in the following. Give your answers in exact form using base 10 and correct to

3 decimal places.

a 5x = 10

b 2(x + 1) = 12

Think

WriTe

5x = 10

log10 (5x) = log10 (10)

x log10 (5) = 1

x=

2

Solve for x.

1

log10 (5)

(exact form)

2(x + 1) = 12

log10 (2(x + 1)) = log10 (12)

(x + 1) log10 (2) = log10 (12)

( x + 1) =

x=

log10 (12)

log10 (2)

log10 (12)

1 (exact form)

log10 (2)

Inequalities are worked in exactly the same way except that there is a change of sign when dividing or

multiplying both sides of the inequality by a negative number.

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

139

Worked example 16

Solve the following equations for x, giving your answers both in exact form and correct

to 3 decimal places.

a 2x > 5

b 0.5x 1.4

Think

WriTe

a 2x = 5

x=

log10 (5)

log10 (2)

(exact form)

x>

log10 (5)

log10 (2)

> 2.322 (3 decimal places)

base 10.

x=

x = 0.485

Note: log10 (0.5) is a negative number,

so change the sign of the inequality.

exercise 3C

0.485

(3 decimal places)

1

2x

= 32

e 243x = 3

1

49

a 3 2x = 48

1

140

log10 (1.4)

log10 (0.5)

b 10x = 1000

c 52x 1 = 125

diGiTal doC

doc-9247

SkillSHEET 3.2

Solving equations

(3 decimal places)

exponential equations

a 3x = 81

d 7x =

log10 (1.4)

log10 (0.5)

1 We12

diGiTal doC

doc-9246

SkillSHEET 3.1

index form

b 0.5x = 1.4

3 We13

Solve for x in each of the following.

a 3x 3x 1 = 243

c 2x 4x 1 = 16

b 6x 2 = 216

d 22x 6 = 1

b 5x 52x + 1 = 625

d

33 x + 1

= 81

9x 2

4 We14

Solve for x in the following.

a (3x 9)(3x 1) = 0

b 22x 6 2x + 8 = 0

x

x

d 4 6 2 16 = 0

e 9x = 2 3x + 3

c 62x 7 6x + 6 = 0

a 25x + 4 5x 5 = 0

b 42x 20 4x = 64

a 2x = 5

b (0.3)x 1 = 10

x

d 3 5 = 27

e 5 7x = 1

c (1.4)2 x = 6

f 2x 3x + 1 = 10

a 3x > 5

b 22x 7

x

d 7 0.5

e (0.4)x > 0.2

c (0.2)x > 3

diGiTal doC

doc-9248

SkillSHEET 3.3

Solving

indicial equations

by equating

the bases

a 7.971

B 897.750

C 897.749

d 7.972

e 2.059

9 mC The solution to the equation 102x = 3 10x + 4 is:

a log10 (1), log10 (4)

B 1, 4

d 0, 0.602

e log10 (4)

C 10x + 1, 10x 1

diGiTal doC

doc-9249

SkillSHEET 3.4

Solving liner

inequations

any base

3d

The equation loga (y) = x is an example of a general logarithmic equation. Laws of logarithms and

indices are used to solve these equations.

Worked example 17

a log2 (x) = 3

b log3 (x4) = 16

c log5 (x 1) = 2

Think

2

2

2

Solve for x.

WriTe

a log2 (x) = 3

23 = x

x=8

b log3 (x4) = 16

4 log3 (x) = 16

log3 (x) = 4

3 4=x

1

34

1

=

81

x=

c log5 (x 1) = 2

52 = x 1

x 1 = 25

x = 26

The base of a logarithmic function and the base of an exponential function must be a positive real

number other than 1. In the expression loga (x), a R+\{1}.

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

141

Worked example 18

a logx (4) =

125

b log x

= 3.

Think

TUTorial

eles-1203

Worked example 18

WriTe

logx (4) = 2

x2 = 4

x2 4 = 0

(x 2)(x + 2) = 0

x 2 = 0 or x + 2 = 0

x=2

This is the only solution. The solution x = 2 is not valid because the base of a logarithmic function must

be a positive real number other than 1.

b log x

125

= 3

1

= 125

x

2

1

= 1

x 3 125

x3 = 125

x = 3 125 = 5

log5

125

= 3

Worked example 19

a log2 (16) = x

b log 3

=x

c log9 (3) = x

Think

WriTe

2

a log2 (16) = x

2x = 16

2x = 24

x=4

b

log3 1

3

=x

3x =

1

2

142

1

3

1

3x = 3

x = 1

c log9 (3) = x

9x = 3

(32)x = 3

32x = 31

2x = 1

Solve.

x=

1

2

Worked example 20

a log2 (4) + log2 (x) log2 (8) =

Think

WriTe

m

loga = loga (m) loga (n).

n

Solve.

4 x

=3

log2

8

x

log2 = 3

2

23 =

x

2

x = 2 23

=28

= 16

x(x 3) = 4

Expand.

x2 3x 4 = 0

(x 4)(x + 1) = 0

x = 4 or x = 1

take the logarithm of a negative number, x > 3.

x2 3x = 4

exercise 3d

a i log5 (x) = 2

iii log10 (x2) = 4

v log4 (2x 3) = 0

vii log5 (1 x) = 4

b i log (x) = 4

3

iii log2 (x3) = 12

v log10 (2x + 1) = 0

vii log10 (5 2x) = 1

ii log2 (x) = 3

iv log3 (x + 1) = 3

vi log2 (x) = 5

ii log4 (x) = 2

iv log5 (x 2) = 3

vi log3 (x) = 2

diGiTal doC

doc-9186

WorkSHEET 3.1

a

i logx (9) = 2

8

g x ((25) =

ii log

2

3

iii log

g x 1 = 3

iv logx (62) = 2

i logx (16) = 4

ii logx (125) =

iv logx (43) = 3

g x 1 = 2

iii log

64

3

4

143

a

i log2 (8) = x

ii log5 1 = x

v log

g 1 ((2) = x

iv log6 (1) = x

16

1

ii log4 = x

b i log3 (9) = x

iii log8 (2) = x

iv log8 (1) = x

v log 1 (9) = x

3

a i log2 (x) + log2 (4) = log2 (20)

iii log3 (x) log3 (2) = log3 (5)

v log4 (8) log4 (x) = log4 (2)

b i log3 (10) log3 (x) = log3 (5)

iii log2 (x) + log2 (5) = 1

v 5 log4 (8) = log4 (x)

5 Solve for x in the following.

a i log2 (x) + log2 (6) log2 (3) = log2 (10)

iii log3 (5) log3 (x) + log3 (2) = log3 (10)

v log5 (x) + log5 (x 2) = log5 (3)

b i log3 (x) + log3 (x + 2) = log3 (8)

iii log5 (x) + log5 (x + 20) = 3

v log6 (x 2) + log6 (x + 3) = 1

iv log10 (x) log10 (4) = log10 (2)

ii log6 (4) + log6 (x) = 2

iv 3 log10 (x) = log10 (2)

iv log5 (4) log5 (x)+ log5 (3) = log5 (6)

ii log4 (x) + log4 (x 6) = 2

iv log5 (x + 1) + log5 (x 3) = 1

a 0.49

B 1.4

d 0.837

e 0

C 0.35

a (log10 (a))2 + log10 (a) 6

B a2 + a + 6

e log10 (106x3)

d (a 2)(a + 3)

C log10 (x3) 6

a (log10 (x))2 + log10 (x) 2 = 0 (Hint: Let a = log10 (x).)

log3

+3=0

4

2

g log2 (x ) = (log2 (x))

i log10 (x2 + 2x 5) = 1

e (log3

9 If

(x))2

(x4)

h log3 (x3) = (log3 (x))2

j log3 (x2 3x 7) = 1

log10 ( x )

= 4, find x.

log10 (2)

3e

Eulers number e, named after an 18th century Swiss mathematician, is a very important number used in

problems involving natural growth and natural decay. Like , it is irrational and has to be approximated:

e = 2.718 281 828 459 . . . The number e can be used to find the value of an investment after a period of

time, or the temperature of a liquid after it has been cooling.

1 n

To find the value of e, take the expression 1 + and evaluate it for increasing values of n.

n

n

1

+ 1 = + 1 =

n=1

1 2

1

n

1

144

n=2

+ 1 = + 1 =

2.25

1

1

n

2

n=3

+ 1 = + 1 =

2.370 37

1

1

n

3

n=5

n

5

+ 1 = + 1 =

2.488 32

1

1

n

5

n = 10

+ 1 = + 1

1

1

n

10

n = 100

n

100

1 + 1 = 1 + 1 = 2.704 81

n

100

n = 1000

n

1000

1 + 1 = 1 + 1

= 2.716 92

n

1000

10

= 2.593 74

10 000

1 n

1

n = 10 000 1 + = 1 +

= 2.718 15

n

10 000

1 n

As n increases, 1 + becomes closer and closer to 2.718 281 or e, or

n

1 n

e = lim 1 + .

n

n

The laws of indices apply in the same way if e is the base, that is:

ex ey = ex + y

ex ey = ex y

(ex)y = exy

e0 = 1

1

e x= x

e

x

e y = ex

Worked example 21

Think

WriTe

e3x = e

e3x = e1

3x = 1

Solve for x.

x=

1

3

CAS calculators have an ex function, which is treated in the same way as any other number.

Worked example 22

Solve for x, showing working. Express your answers in exact form and correct to 3 decimal places.

a ex = 3

b ex 3ex = 2

Think

2

of the equation.

Solve for x.

WriTe

ex = 3

loge (ex) = loge (3)

x loge (e) = loge (3)

x = loge (3)

1.099, correct to 3 decimal places.

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

145

b ex 3e

1

.

ex

ex

=2

3

=2

ex

Write e x as

(ex)2 3 = 2ex

(ex)2 2ex 3 = 0

Let ex = a.

a2 2a 3 = 0 where a = ex

(a 3)(a + 1) = 0

a 3 = 0 or a + 1 = 0

a = 3 or a = 1

Substitute ex for a.

ex = 3 or ex = 1

sides to base e.

ex = 1 has no real solution.

exercise 3e

1

a e2

f

b e4

g ln (4)

c e2

h ln (5)

d e3

i loge (1.5)

b ex = e2

c ex 2 = e4

1

1

e e x +1 =

f ex 2 = 2

g e3 x + 6 = e

e

e

2 We21

a ex = e

e 4e

j loge (3.6)

1

d e2x = e

h e2 x 1 =

e3

3 We22 Solve for x in each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

a ex = 2

b ex = 5

e ex = 1.3

ex = 2.6

c ex =

1

2

g 2ex = 6

d ex =

1

4

h 3ex = 12

4 Solve for x in each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

a (ex 1)(ex + 2) = 0

b (e x 2)(e2x 3) = 0

c (3e x 2)(2ex 1) = 0

d (ex)2 ex = 0

e (ex)2 e ex = 0

f (ex)2 7ex + 10 = 0

g 6 11ex + 3e2x = 0

h 18 23ex + 7e2x = 0

5 Solve for x in each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

a ex 4e x = 0

b ex 15e x 2 = 0

c 5ex 12e x 11 = 0

x

x

x

x

x

x

d 3e + 6e 11 = 0

e 4e + 6e 11 = 0

f e + 2e = 3

6 Solve for x in each of the following, giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places.

a ex > 1

b ex < e

c ex < 2

d e2x 4

e ex + 1 6

f e1 x 10

x

g e > 0.75

places.

8 For a body that has a higher temperature than its surroundings,

where is the difference between the temperature of the body and

its surroundings after t minutes and 0 is the difference between

the original temperature of the body and its surroundings. If the

temperature of a freshly poured cup of coffee is 90 C in a room with a constant temperature of 18 C,

and it cools to 65 C after 10 minutes, find the value of k. Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.

146

logarithms

3F

CAS calculators have an LN function that can be used to find the log to base e in the same way that the

LOG key is used to find the log of a number to base 10. CAS calculators default to base 10 when using

the LOG key.

In general, aloga(x) = x, where a R+\{1}.

The laws of logarithms apply in the same way for base e as they do for base 10.

ex = y loge (y) = x.

Worked example 23

Solve for x, giving your answer both in exact form and correct to 3 decimal places, given that

loge (x) = 3.

Think

WriTe

loge (x) = 3

e3 = x

x = e3

3 decimal places. Enter 3 then press the ex key

(or equivalent).

= 20.086, correct

to 3 decimal places

Worked example 24

Solve for x giving your answer correct to 3 decimal places where appropriate.

a loge (3) = loge (x)

b loge (x) + loge (3) = loge (6)

Think

WriTe

Solve for x.

x=3

3x = 6

x=2

logarithms

exercise 3F

a loge (x) = 1

b loge (x) = 2

c loge (x) = 2

d loge (x) = 1

2 Solve for x, giving exact answers when appropriate, otherwise, correct to 3 decimal places.

a ln (2x) = 2

b ln (3x) = 1

c ln (x3) = 3

2

2

d ln (x ) = 2

e ln (x ) = 0.4

f ln (x3) = 0.9

g ln (x 1) = 1

h ln (2x + 1) = 2

3 We24 Solve for x, giving exact answers when appropriate, otherwise, correct to 3 decimal places.

a loge (x) = loge (2)

b loge (x) = loge (5)

c loge (x) + loge (3) = loge (9)

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

147

a loge (x) + loge (5) loge (10) = loge (3)

c 3 loge (2) + loge (x) loge (4) = loge (5)

e loge (x) + loge (x + 1) = loge (2)

d loge (4) + loge (3) loge (x) = loge (2)

f ln (x + 1) + ln (2x 1) = ln (5)

5 mC If ln (y) = ln (x) + ln (a), then an equation relating x and y that does not involve logarithms is:

a y=x+a

B y = ax

C y=xa

d y=

a 3ea

C 3a

B a

x

a

d loge (6a)

y=

a

x

e no solution

7 Write the following equation without logarithms and with y as the subject.

8 If loge (x) = a and y =

ea,

express y in terms of x.

10 Five grams of a radioactive substance is decaying so

a Find the value of A when the number of grams

of the radioactive substance has been halved.

b Rewrite the equation with the new value of A.

c Rearrange the equation so that t is the subject

of the equation.

d If k = 0.005, find how long it will take for the

number of grams of the radioactive substance

to be halved. Give your answer correct to the

nearest day.

diGiTal doC

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WorkSHEET 3.2

3G

inTeraCTiViTY

int-0248

inverses

inverses

Inverse operations are opposite operations. Addition and subtraction are inverse operations to each other

and multiplication and division are inverse operations to each other.

Squaring and taking the square root are also inverse operations. The equation of the inverse of the

function y = e x can be found by interchanging the x and y so that y = e x becomes x = e y. Using a x = y

loga (y) = x, x = e y becomes loge (x) = y or y = loge (x). Therefore y = e x and y = loge (x) are the equations

of inverse functions.

Thus two important properties follow:

aloga(x) = x, x R+

and

loga a(x) = x, x R.

Worked example 25

Think

148

equation.

rewriting the equation using

ax = y loga (y) = x.

WriTe

y = 3ex + 1

Inverse is x = 3ey + 1

x

ey + 1 =

3

x

y + 1 = loge

3

x

y = loge 1

3

Worked example 26

Think

WriTe

Let y = 2 log10 (x 1) + 1

Inverse is x = 2 log10 (y 1) + 1

subtracting 1 from both sides.

x 1 = 2 log10 (y 1)

x 1

= log

log10 ( y 1)

2

10

y = 10

exercise 3G

x 1

2

= y 1

x 1

2

+1

( x ) = 10

x 1

2

+1

inverses

a y = 2ex

c y = ex 1

e y = e2 x

b y = ex + 1

d y = e2x 1

f y = e2 3x

a y = 2 + ex

c y = 1 2ex

e y = 3 2ex 2

b y = 2 ex

d y = 2 + ex + 1

f y = 2 3ex + 1

a f (x) = 2 loge (x)

c f (x) = loge (x 1)

e f (x) = loge (2 x)

b f (x) = loge (x + 1)

d f (x) = loge (2x 1)

f f (x) = loge (2 3x)

a y = 2 + loge (x)

c y = 2 + 3 loge (x)

e y = 3 + 2 ln (x 1)

b y = 2 loge (x)

d f (x) = 2 ln (x 1)

f f (x) = 1 3 ln (x + 2)

diGiTal doC

doc-9250

SkillSHEET 3.5

inverses

a

x 1

5

3

e

x 1

5

+2

x 1

5

3

e

x+2

3

x 1

5

+2

a

1 x + 1

ln

+1

2 5

1 x + 1 1

ln

+

2 5 2

(2x)

7 mC If eloge

a x2

d 2x

= y, then y equals:

1 x + 1

ln

1

2 5

1 x + 1 1

ln

e

2 5 2

5ln( x 1) + 1

2

B loge (2x)

e 2ex

C e2x

149

3h

literal equations

An equation such as ekx = a, where k R and a R+, is called a literal equation. It does not have a

numerical solution. The solution will be expressed in terms of the other variables, in this case a and k,

often called parameters.

For this equation, the solution is: kx = ln (a)

x=

1

ln (a), k 0, a R +

k

Worked example 27

kx

Solve ekx = 5 + 2e

Think

WriTe

TUTorial

eles-1204

Worked example 27

2

e kx

e kx = 5 +

(ekx)2 = 5ekx + 2

to obtain a quadratic equation in terms of y.

y2 5y 2 = 0

y=

y=

( 5)

( 5)2 4 1 2

2 1

5 33

2

y =

5 + 33

5 33

or y =

2

2

e kx =

5 + 33

5 33

or e kx =

2

2

e kx =

5 + 333

2

logarithmic form using ax = y loga (y) = x or

take logs of both sides. Divide both sides by k.

for k.

5 + 333

kx = loge

2

x =

5 + 333

1

loge

, k R \ {0}.

k

2

Worked example 28

1

Solve for x, given that 2 log 2 ( x ) 5log 2 ( p) = log 2 (6) where p > 0.

Think

1

150

p loga (m) = loga (mp) and

m

loga (m) loga (n) = loga .

n

WriTe

1

log2 x 2 log2 ( p5 ) = log2 (6)

x

log2 5 = log2 (6)

p

x

=6

p5

x = 6 p5

x = (6p5)2

Some equations can only be solved using a CAS calculator, that is, no algebraic method exists. The

following example demonstrates this.

Worked example 29

Solve the following equations using a CAS calculator. Give your answers correct to

3 decimal places.

a ex = x3

b loge (x) = x 2

Think

WriTe

the algebra and solve functions.

x = 4.536.

x = 3.146.

exercise 3h

literal equations

2 If log3 (D) = cy + log3 (Z), solve for D.

3 Solve emx + n = 3k for x, where m R\{0} and k R+.

4 Solve for q given that 2 log3 (p + 5q) = 4.

x2

y4

z2x5

y

+ log10 3 log10 3 4 log10 4 = 0.

3

2

z x

z x

z

y z

a Find x in terms of a and b, where a R, b R\{0}.

b Hence find the value of x if a = 2 and b = 3.

7 Solve 42x b = 20 for x, where b R.

8 Solve 2x 1 = 3x + a for x, where a R.

9 If y = m + Rebx, solve for x.

10 Solve for a given that (log2 (5a))2 = 16b2.

11 We27 Solve e kx = 3 +

a

for x, where a 0, k R\{0}.

e kx

1

13 Solve for b given that 2 loge (a) 5 loge (b) 2 = 0, where a, b R+.

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

151

14 We29 Solve the following equations using a CAS calculator. Give your answers correct to

3 decimal places.

a ex = 3x

b x+2=e x

2

c x 1 = e2x

15 We29 Solve the following equations using a CAS calculator. Give your answers correct to

3 decimal places.

a ln (x) = 2 x

b ln (x 2) = x 4

c x2 1 = ln (2x)

16 Solve for x given that log7 (x) = log4 (p).

modelling

3I

eleSSon

eles-0091

exponential and

logarithmic modelling

Exponential and logarithmic functions can be used to model many real situations involving natural

growth and decay.

Continuous growth and decay can be modelled by the equation A = A0ekt, where A0 represents the

initial value, t represents the time taken and k represents a constant.

For continuous growth, k is positive, but for continuous decay, k is negative. Logarithms to base 10,

often called common logarithms, are used in scientific formulas for measuring the intensity of

earthquakes, the acidity of solutions and the intensity of sound.

Worked example 30

D, can be modelled by the equation D = D0ekt, where t is the time in years.

TUTorial

Using available medication the number of cases is being reduced

eles-1181

Worked example 30

by 20% each year. There are 10 000 people with the disease today.

a How many people will have the disease after one year?

b Find the value of k correct to 3 decimal places.

c Write the equation substituting values for k and D0.

d Find how long it would take for the number of people with the disease to be halved. Give your

answer correct to the nearest year.

e How long would it take for the number of people with the disease to be reduced to 100? Give

your answer correct to the nearest year.

Think

Write a sentence.

one year.

given equation.

152

WriTe

D = D0 ekt

When t = 0 and D = 10 000

10 000 = D0 ek 0

10 000 = D0 1

10 000 = D0

So

D = 10 000ekt

[1]

and solve for k.

8000 = 10 000ek 1

8000

= ek

10 000

0.8 = ek

loge 0.8 = loge (ek)

0.223 = k log (e)

e

0.223 = k 1

k = 0.223

0.223t

c D = 10 000e

d D = 10 000e

Solve for t.

0.223t

When D = 5000,

0.223t

0.5 = e

t=

loge (0.5)

0.223

5

Write a sentence.

2

Solve for t.

exercise 3i

D = 10 000e0.223t

When D = 100,

100 = 10 000e0.223t

0.01 = e0.223t

loge (0.01) = 0.223t

t 20.651 (3 decimal places)

It would take about 21 years.

0.6t

,

1 We30 Changing -gluconolactone into gluconic acid can be modelled by the equation y = y0e

where y is the number of grams of -gluconolactone present t hours after the process has begun.

Suppose 200 grams of -gluconolactone is to be changed into gluconic acid.

a Find the value of y0.

b Write the equation replacing y0 with your answer.

c How many grams of -gluconolactone will be present after 1 hour? Give your answer correct

to the nearest gram.

d How long will it take to reduce the amount of -gluconolactone to 50 grams? Give your answer

correct to the nearest quarter of an hour.

0.18t

,

remaining after t days. When t = 0, y = 10g. Give all answers to the nearest whole number.

a Find the value of y0.

b Write the equation substituting your value of y0.

c What will be the mass after 1 day?

d How many days will it take for the mass to reach 1 g?

ChapTer 3 Exponential and logarithmic equations

153

3 The equation y = A + B loge (x) relates two variables x and y. The table below shows values of x and y.

x

y

a

b

c

d

1

3

2

4.386

3

m

Write the equation relating x and y substituting values for A and B.

Using your new equation, find the value of m correct to 3 decimal places.

If y = 7.6, find x correct to the nearest whole number.

4 An amount of $1000 is invested in a building society where the 5% p.a. interest paid is compounded

continuously. The amount in the account after t years can be modelled by the equation A = A0ert,

where r is the continuous interest rate.

a Find the value of A0 and r.

b Write the equation substituting values of A0 and r.

c Find the amount in the bank after i 1 year

ii 10 years. Give your answer correct to the

nearest dollar.

d How long will it take for the investment to double in value? Give your answer to the nearest

year.

5 The number of people living in Boomerville at any time, t years, after the first settlers arrived can be

modelled by the equation P = P0ekt. Suppose 500 people arrived on 1 January 1850, and by 1 January

1860 there were 675 people.

a What is the value of P0?

b Find the value of k correct to 2 decimal places.

c Write the equation substituting values for P0 and k.

d What will be the population on 1 January 1900? Give your answer to the nearest 10 people.

e When will the population be 2000?

6 A cup of soup cools to the temperature of the surrounding air. Newtons Law of Cooling can be

written as T TS = (T0 TS)e kt, where T is the temperature of the object after t minutes, and TS is

the temperature of the surrounding air. The soup cooled from 90 C to 70 C after 6 minutes in a room

with an air temperature of 15 C.

a Find the values of TS, T0 and k correct to 2 decimal places.

b Write the equation substituting the values for TS, T0 and k.

c Find the temperature of the soup after 10 minutes. Give your answer to the nearest degree.

d How long would it take for the soup to be 40 C? Give your answer to the nearest minute.

e If the soup is placed in a refrigerator in which the temperature is 2 C, how long will it take for the

soup to reach 40 C? Use the same value of k and give your answer to the nearest minute.

7 The diameter of a tree for a period of its growth can be modelled by the equation D = D0ekt, where t

is the number of years after the beginning of the period. The diameter of the tree grew from 50 cm to

60 cm in the first 2 years that measurements were taken.

a Find the values of D0 and k.

b Write the equation using these values.

c How much will it have grown in the first 5 years? Round to the nearest centimetre.

d How long will it take for the trees diameter to double? Round to the nearest year.

8 The decay of a radioactive substance can be modelled by the equation M = M0e kt, where M grams is

the mass of the substance after t years. After 10 years the mass of the substance is 98 grams and after

20 years the mass is 96 grams.

a What was the mass of the substance initially? Give your answer to the nearest gram.

b Find the value of k. Give your answer to 3 decimal places.

c Write the equation using these values.

d Find the mass of the substance after 50 years.

e How long would it take for the mass to be halved?

9 The number of bacteria present in a culture at any time, t hours, can be modelled by the equation

N = N0ekt.

a If the original number is doubled in 3 hours, find k correct to 2 decimal places.

b Write the equation substituting the value of k.

c Find the original number of bacteria if there were 2500 bacteria after 4 hours. Give the answer

correct to the nearest thousand.

154

d Write the equation substituting your value for the original population.

e Find the number of bacteria present after 8 hours. Give your answer correct to the nearest

thousand.

10 The intensity of light d metres below the surface of the sea can be modelled by the equation

I = I0e kd. Divers in the Sea of Loga have found that the intensity of light is halved when a diver is

5 metres below the surface of the water.

a Find the value of k correct to 4 decimal places.

b Write the equation substituting the value of k.

c Find the percentage of light available at a depth of 10 metres.

d If artificial light is necessary when the intensity of light is less than 0.1 of the intensity at the

surface (I<0.1I0), find how deep a diver can go before artificial light is necessary.

155

Summary

The index laws

For a 0,

ax ay = ax y

ax ay = ax + y

x

y

xy

(a ) = a

a0 = 1

1

1

x

a = x and x = a x

a

a

1

y

a y = y a and a = a x

ax = y loga (y) = x

x

y

logarithm laws

For a > 0

loga (1) = 0

loga (a) = 1

loga (0) is undefined.

loga (mn) = loga (m) + loga (n)

m

loga = loga (m) loga (n)

n

loga (mp) = p loga (m)

loga ( N )

logb ( N ) =

loga (b)

exponential equations

1. write all terms with the same base, write terms with the smallest possible base or take the

logarithm of both sides of the equation

2. then solve the equation.

A negative number cannot be expressed in index form.

If 0 < x < 1, then loga (x) < 0 and if x > 1 then loga (x) > 0.

It is not possible to take the logarithm of a negative number.

If the base is the same, equate the indices.

If the indices are the same, equate the bases.

Use the Null Factor Law to solve quadratic equations.

Change the sign of an inequality when multiplying or dividing by a negative number.

exponential equations

(base e)

1 n

Eulers number e = lim 1 + = 2.718 281828459 ...

h

n

The laws of indices and logarithms apply in the same way when using e.

Evaluate e by using the ex button on the calculator.

The number e is an exact answer. Use the calculator to give an approximation if required.

On a calculator, use the LN button to take the log of a number to base e. The LOG button defaults

to base 10 if not specified.

loge (x) = ln (x).

ex > 0, that is, ex = 1 has no real solution.

(base e) logarithms

inverses

literal equations

156

To find an inverse, interchange x and y, then make y the subject of the new equations.

a log ( x ) = x , x R +

loga (a x ) = x , x R

a

Literal equations do not have numerical solutions.

The solution of a literal equation is expressed in terms of the other variables, in this case a and k,

often called parameters.

Chapter review

2

2 If log2 (5) = 2.321 and log2 (9) = 3.17, find log2 5 .

3 2

1 Simplify 4 x 5 y 3 2 x

S ho rT

a n S W er

3 Solve 3 2x 7 = 17 for x.

log2 (32)

.

log2 (8)

1

5 Solve log x (2) = for x .

3

6 If 4e(2 x) = 128, find x, giving your answer in exact form.

4 Evaluate

7 Solve for x in loge (5) + loge (x) loge (2) = loge (10).

8 Find the rule of the inverse function to y=3e2xa.

9 Find the rule of the inverse function of y = loge (1 x) + 3.

10 Solve 6e3x = k for x, where k R+.

11 Solve 3eax + b 6k = 0 for x and state the necessary restrictions for the parameters a, b and k.

12 Solve for x given that 4 log2 (ax + b) = 12.

13 Solve for x given that log2 (x) = y + log2 (z). State the restrictions for the parameters.

1 If a > 1, the solution of x for the equation x = a2 is:

a

B

C

d

e

m U lTip l e

C ho iC e

1

a negative number less than 1

a positive number less than 1

a negative number greater than 1

a positive number greater than 1

6x

B log3 6

x

a 0

8x

e 6log3 (x x6)

d log3 6

x

a 2.892

d 0.346

B 2.893

e 1.380

C 0.345

a {0, 1}

d {1, 4}

B {0, 2}

e {2, 4}

C {1, 2}

= 4 over R is:

B

2, ex + 6

e loge 6

a loge (2), loge (6)

d loge (2)

a a 2 + 3a

is equal to:

2

a

C 2, 6

ex

2

B x + 3x

2

loge (a)

2

x

d loge ( x 2 ) + 3loge ( x )

2

loge ( x )

e (ea + 2)(e + 1)

a 2ea

B 2ae

ae

2

e e2a

ea

2

157

a

C e5

B 5

d 5

a 2, 4

d 2

B 2, 4

e 4

C 1

x2

, then y is equal to:

y

10 If 2a =

x

2a

x

d

22 a

a

2

x

a

2

x2

4a

x2

2a

a y = loge (x) 1

d y = loge (x + 1)

B y = loge (x 1)

e y=e x1

C y = loge (x) + 1

12 The air pressure P cm of mercury at h km above sea level can be modelled by the equation

P=76e 0.13h. One kilometre above sea level the pressure has:

a increased by approximately 9 cm

B decreased by approximately 9 cm

C increased by approximately 41 cm

d decreased by approximately 41 cm

e neither increased nor decreased significantly

13 If 3log ( x + 4) = y , then y equals:

a log (x + 4)

B x+4

d 3 log (x + 4)

e 4

3

e x Tended

r e S p onS e

1 loge

C (x + 4)3

a = x . If log (a) = 0.6932, find the value of x, giving your answer correct to 2 decimal places.

e

3

x x2 x3

+

+ + ...

1! 2! 3!

a Write the next 3 terms.

b Substitute x = 1 in the equation using the first 7 terms.

c Show that e 2.7182.

2 ex = 1 +

3 The apparent brightness of a star can be found using the formula B = 6 2.5 log10 A, where A is the

actual brightness of that star. Find the apparent brightness of a star with actual brightness of 3.16.

4 Earthquake magnitude is often reported on the Richter scale. The magnitude, M, is given by

a

M = log10 + B , where a is the amplitude of the ground motion in microns at the receiving

T

station, T is the period of the seismic wave in seconds, and B is an empirical factor that allows for the

weakening of the seismic wave with the increasing distance from the epicentre of the earthquake.

Find the magnitude of the earthquake if the amplitude of the ground motion is 10 microns, the

period is 1 second and the empirical factor is 6.8.

5 Five grams of a radioactive substance is decaying so that the amount, A grams, that is left after t days,

a Find the value of A when the number of grams of the radioactive substance has been halved.

b Rewrite the equation with the new value of A.

c Rearrange the equation so that t is the subject of the equation.

d If k = 0.005, find how long it will take for the number of grams of the radioactive substance to

be halved. Give your answer correct to the nearest day.

158

6 A school in the suburb of Bienvenue opened with 30 students in February 1995. It has been found for

the first years after opening that the number of students enrolled in the school tyears after opening can

be modelled by the equation N = N0ekt. There were 45 students enrolled in February 1996.

a Find the values of N0 and k.

b Write the equation substituting the values for N0 and k.

c How many students will there be 5 years after the opening?

d How many years will it take for the school to have 1000 pupils?

Another school in the suburb of Enbaisse has a declining student population. The number of students

enrolled at any one time can be modelled by the equation E = E0e rt. There are 1000 students

enrolled in February 1995 and 900 in February 1996.

e Find the values of E0 and r.

f Write the equation substituting the values for E0 and r.

g How many students will be enrolled after 5 years?

h How many years will it take for the two schools to have approximately the same number of

pupils?

i What will the population be then? Use the calculator value in the working and do not round off

until the final answer.

diGiTal doC

doc-9188

Test Yourself

Chapter 3

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Practice

VCE exam

questions

Use StudyON to

access all exam

questions on this

topic since 2002.

159

ICT activities

Chapter opener

diGiTal doC

10 Quick Questions doc-9185: Warm up with ten quick questions on

exponential and logarithmic equations. (page 129)

3a

TUTorial

We5 eles-1202: Watch a worked example on writing expressions

with positive indices. (page 132)

3B

logarithm laws

TUTorial

We10 eles-1179: Watch a worked example on simplifying

logarithmic expressions. (page 135)

3C

exponential equations

TUTorial

We14 eles-1180: Watch a worked example on solving

exponential equations. (page 138)

diGiTal doCS

SkillSHEET 3.1 doc-9246: Practise writing expressions using index

form. (page 140)

SkillSHEET 3.2 doc-9247: Practise solving equations. (page 140)

SkillSHEET 3.3 doc-9248: Practise solving indicial equations by

equating the bases. (page 141)

SkillSHEET 3.4 doc-9249: Practise solving linear inequations.

(page 141)

3d

TUTorial

We18 eles-1203: Watch a worked example on solving logarithmic

equations using a CAS calculator. (page 142)

diGiTal doC

WorkSHEET 3.1 doc-9186: Simplify exponential and logarithmic

expressions, and solve logarithmic and exponential equations.

(page 143)

160

3F

diGiTal doC

WorkSHEET 3.2 doc-9187: Solve logarithmic and exponential

equations and application questions. (page 148)

3G

inverses

inTeraCTiViTY

Inverses int-0248: Consolidate your understanding of inverses using

the interactivity. (page 148)

diGiTal doC

SkillSHEET 3.5 doc-9250: Practise finding inverses. (page 149)

3h

literal equations

TUTorial

We27 eles-1204: Watch a worked example on solving literal

equations. (page 150)

3i

eleSSon

Exponential and logarithmic modelling eles-0091: Learn about how

exponential and logarithmic modelling is used. (page 152)

TUTorial

We30 eles-1181: Watch a worked example on exponential

modelling. (page 152)

Chapter review

diGiTal doC

Test Yourself Chapter 3 doc-9188: Take the end-of-chapter test to test

your progress. (page 159)

Answers CHAPTER 3

exponenTial and

loGariThmiC eQUaTionS

exercise 3a

1 a x7

e x

2 a 9

d

3 a

1

b x5

c x10

d

x6

4

2

10 x y

f 5x4y3

g

3

b 1

c 3

9

16

x6

b8

d 3

4 a

125

8

27

c 216

27

64

5 5

b 6x 4 y 3

x11 y 2

5

243 x 2

y2

x6

5 a

y4

c

c

6 a

d

b

3

8y8

26n 1

7 a 22n 32n + 1

1 + x2

x

2

x

c

1 x2

9 B

b

d

2

3

iv 127

vii

( )=

1

2

iii

2

6 a 1

d 1

7 a 4

b1

e 9

b3

d 2

e 1

c 5

f 3

x2

c log2

y

c 2

c log2 (10)

8 a 0.477

b 0.861

c 0.301

d 0.322

e 2.161

f 3.727

9 a 0

b log2 (x)

c 0

d 0

e 3 log10 (x)

f 5 log10 (x)

g log5 (x + 1)3 or 3 log5 (x + 1)

h log4 (x 2)

10 C

11 E

12 31.623

c 1

c 2

5

1

2, 1

1

b

b

d

f

b

d 3

d 1

c 1, 0

1, 2

0.912

1.365

0.672

x 1.404

e x < 1.756

1

2

1

v 2

4 a i5

iii 10

v4

b i2

iii

2

5

vi 1

ii 1

iii 16

v 0

vi

32

16

125

6

625

4

1

iv 0

b2

c 6

e 2

f 0

2

11

1

14

3 a 0.693

c 0.693

e 0.262

g 1.099

4 a 0

c 0.405, 0.693

e 1

g 0.405, 1.099

5 a 0.693

c 1.099

e 0.288, 0.693

6 a x>0

c x < 0.693

e x 0.792

g x < 0.288

7 20.00, 0.01

b

d

f

h

b

d

f

h

b

d

f

b

d

f

8 0.04

(base e ) logarithms

1

1

1 a e

b e2

c

d

e2

e

2 a 3.695

b 0.906 c e

d e

e 1.221

f 1.350 g 1.368 h 0.432

3 a 2

b5

c 3

d 4

e 10

f 2.207

2

4 a 6

b

c 2.5

d 6

3

f 1.5

6A

8y=x

B

ex2

2

a 2.5

ln(2)

c t=

k

exercise 3G inverses

x

1 a y = loge

2

5

7

9

10

ii 6

iv 8

c y = loge (x) + 1

ii 9

(base e )

1 a 7.389

d 1.396

g 1.386

j 1.281

(1 2 x )

3 x

e y = 2 + log ( 2 )

2 x

f y = log ( 3 ) 1

c y = loge

1 + loge ( x )

2

2 loge ( x )

3

b y = loge (2 x)

d y = loge (x 2) 1

7 D

1

b 1000,

100

1

4

exercise 3e

b y = loge (x) 1

f y=

2 a y = loge (x 2)

ii 8

iv 4

1

b e kt = 2

d 139 days

d y=

e y = 2 loge (x)

ii 6

iv 2

1.609

1.386

0.956

1.386

0.693, 0.549

0

0.693, 1.609

0.251, 0.693

1.609

0.405, 1.099

0, 0.693

x<1

x 0.693

x 1.303

exercise 3F

e 1

ii 2

iv 0

d 2,

3, 27

1, 16

5, 3

9 16

e

g

i

2 a 1

iv 500

v 128

5 a i5

iii 1

v3

b i2

iii 5

v3

6 B

8 a 10, 1

c 16,

v 2

ii

iv

ii

iv

ii

f logx (27) = 3

b1

e 1

b

b

b

e

1

5

v

b i2

1

iii

b log3 (81) = 4

d log5 (125) = x

2 a i3

iii 2

b i2

iii 8

3 a i3

laws

b 0

d 1

b x2 = 25

d 35 = x

3 a log2 (8) = 3

c log4 (x) = 3

2 a 4

3 a 3

4 a 2, 0

d 3

5 a 0

6 a 2.322

c 3.325

e 0.827

7 a x > 1.465

c x < 0.683

d x 0.356

8 D

9 E

( x + 1)2

x4

1

d

x+y

logarithm

0

1

24 = 16

5x = 125

1

5 1= 5

e log2

15 7

2a 2 b 2

36n + 1

exponential equations

b 3

c 5

e

iv 26

vii 624

b i 81

exercise 3B

4 a 1

d 4

b 1

8 a

1 a 4

d 2

using any base

1

1 a i 25

ii

iii 100 or 100

y4

c 2n 33n + 1

1 a

c

2 a

c

e

3

a9 b3

20 x

exercise 3C

f

h

j

1

16

10

25, 5

1, 27

2, 5

exponential equations

b 54.598

e 1.284

h 1.609

c 1.649

f 1.221

i 0.405

3 a

f (x) = e 2

y = ex 2

y=e

x2

3

f (x) = e x 1

ex + 1

d f (x) =

2

2 ex

f

f (x) =

3

b y = e2 x

d

f (x) = e2 x + 1

x3

= 1+ e 2

f (x) = e

f (x) = e x + 1

f (x) = 2 ex

4 a

c

e

5 C

6E

1 x

3

7D

161

exercise 3h

1 x=

1

loge

2

literal equations

a, a > 0

5

2 D = Z 3cy

loge (3k ) n

m

9 p

4 q=

5

5 Proof:

3 x=

x 2 y4

z2x5

y

log10 3 5 log10 3 4 log10 4

z x

z

y z x

x 2 y4

z 2 x 5

y

= log10

log

log

+

10

10

z 4

z3x 4

y3 z 5 x

x 2 y4

z 2 x 5 y

= log10 3 5 log10 7 4

z x

y z x

xy

xy

= log10 5 log10 5

z

z

= log10 (1)

=0

4 9a

6 a x=

2b

7

b x=

3

loge 20 + 2b loge 2

7 x=

4loge 2

a loge ( 3) + loge ( 2 )

8 x=

2

loge

3

1

y m

9 x = loge

R

b

b

16

1

or a =

10 a =

5

5 16b

3 + 9 + 4a

1

11 x = loge

k

2

12 x = 9 y6

a2

13 b = 5

e2

162

14 a

b

c

15 a

b

c

x = 1.512 or x = 0.691

0.443

1.058

x = 1.557

x = 2.159 and x = 5.146

x = 0.191 and x = 1.433

16 x = 7

modelling

1 a 200

c 110 g

2 a

c

3 a

c

4 a

c

5 a

c

e

6 a

b

c

d

e

7 a

c

8 a

c

e

9 a

c

e

10 a

c

11

b y = 200e

1

d 2 hours

4

b

d

b

d

b

d

b

d

y = 10e 0.18t

13 days

y = 3 + 2 loge (x)

10

A = 1000e0.05t

14

0.03

2240

12 8 b , a 0

x R+,

y R,

z R+,

mUlTiple ChoiCe

1

5

9

13

E

D

E

B

2 A

6 B

10 B

3 B

7 C

11 D

4 A

8 B

12 B

exTended reSponSe

b

d

b

d

D = 50e0.09t

8 years

0.002

90 g

1 0.41

2 a

b I = I0e 0.1386d

d 16.6 metres

x4 x5 x6

+

+

4! 5! 6!

1 1 1

1

1

+ +

+

+

2 6 24 120 720

c Check with teacher.

4.75

4 7.8

a 2.5

b e kt = 0.5

ln(2)

c t=

d 139 days

k

a 30, 0.4055

b N = 30e0.4055t

c 228

d 9 years

e 1000, 0.1054

f E = 1000e 0.1054t

g 590

h 7 years

i 485

1

x = ln 2 + 4 + k

k

b e = 1+1+

b N = N0e0.23t

d N = 1000e0.23t

3

5

2 0.849

4 13

, a R \{0}

bR

k R+

13 x = z 2y,

33

3 3

b + ln(2 k )

0.6t

ShorT anSWer

14

y 15

k

10 1 ln

3

10 g

8g

3, 2

5.197

1000, 0.05

1051, 1649

500

P = 500e0.03t

1896

15 C, 90 C, 0.05

T = 15 + 75e 0.05t

60 C

22

27

50, 0.09

28 cm

100

M = 100e 0.002t

347 years

0.23

1000

6000

0.1386

25%

x5

1

2

ChapTer reVieW

loge x + a

3

9 y = 1 e(x 3)

8 y=

loge ( p )

loge ( 4 )

exercise 3i

6 2 5 ln (2)

5 8

7 4

Chapter 4

Exponential and

logarithmic graphs

Chapter ContentS

4a

4B

4C

4D

4e

4F

4G

4h

Logarithmic graphs to any base

Graphs of exponential functions with base e

Logarithmic graphs to base e

Finding equations for graphs of exponential and logarithmic functions

Addition of ordinates

Exponential and logarithmic functions with absolute values

Exponential and logarithmic modelling using graphs

with any base

DiGital DoC

doc-9189

10 Quick Questions

4a

The function f (x) = ax is an exponential function where a is a positive, real number which is not 1 (that

is, a R+\{1}). In this chapter, a will take the values of 2, 10 and Eulers number e.

An exponential function f (x) can be written f: R R where f (x) = ax and a R+\{1}. In the previous

chapter it was seen that if x has a positive coefficient, f (x) is an increasing function and may be used to

describe physical growth. Examples of this include population and bacterial growth, and increases in

investment values, light intensity and temperature.

If x has a negative coefficient, f (x) is a decreasing function and may be used to describe physical

decay. Examples of this include population and bacterial decline, radioactive decay, temperature cooling

and decreases in light intensity and vehicle values.

Graphs with a positive coefficient of x are considered first.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

The graphs of f (x) = 2x and f (x) = 10 x are shown below.

y

12

10

8

6 (0, 1)

4

Asymptote 2

(1, 2)

y= 0

x

0

3 2 1

1 2 3

y

12

(1, 10)

10

8

6

4

Asymptote 2

(0, 1)

y= 0

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

f (x) = 2x

f (x) = 10x

1. They both cross the y-axis at the point (0, 1) because a0 = 1.

2. The graph does not cross the x-axis; therefore, there are no x-intercepts.

3. There is a horizontal asymptote along the x-axis (y = 0).

4. For f (x) = a x, another point on the graphs is (1, a).

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

163

6. The range is R+.

7. They are both increasing functions. That is, as x , y .

8. It can be seen that the greater the value of a, the steeper the graph.

Dilation

A dilation changes the shape of the graph, making it wider or narrower.

If the coefficient of ax is changed to a positive real number greater than 1, the graph is stretched

vertically and is said to be dilated from the x-axis.

This could be written f (x) = Aax where A is the dilation factor. The graph is stretched vertically (along

the y-axis) away from the x-axis because each y-value is being multiplied by the constant A. In mapping

notation, a dilation factor of A from the x-axis, where A > 0, is given by (x, y) (x, Ay). If A = 3 and

a = 2 the function becomes f (x) = 3 2x.

A comparison can be made more easily if graphs are drawn on the same axes.

The graphs of f (x) = 2x, g(x) = 3 2x and h(x) = 4 2x are shown. The dilation factor, A, is 1, 3 and

4 respectively.

y

h(x) = 4 2x

g(x) = 3 2x

(0, 4)

4

3 (0, 3) f(x) = 2x

2

1 (0, 1)

Asymptote

x y= 0

0

1 2 3

3 2 1

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 3 2x

h(x) = 4 2x

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 3)

(0, 4)

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

y=0

y=0

y=0

(1, 2)

(1, 6)

(1, 8)

Domain

Range

Horizontal asymptote

Dilation factor from the x-axis

A point on the graph

Mapping

If A is a real number between 0 and 1, the y-values are multiplied by a constant which is less than

1 and the graph becomes less steep.

A comparison can be made more easily if the graphs are drawn on the same axes.

The graphs of f (x) = 2x, g(x) = 12 2x and h(x) = 14 2x are drawn below.

y

2

(0, 1)

Asymptote

y= 0

164

(0, 12)

1

(1, 2)

f(x) = 2x

g(x) =

1

2

2x

h(x) = 14 2x

(1, 1)

1

x

0

1

1

2

and

1

4

respectively.

f (x) = 2x

g( x ) = 12 2 x

h( x ) = 14 2 x

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, )

(0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

y=0

y=0

y=0

1

2

1

4

(1, 2)

(1, 1)

Domain

Range

Horizontal asymptote

Dilation factor from the x-axis

A point on the graph

1

2

1

4

1

2

Mapping

(1, )

(x, y) (x , y)

(x, y) x , 12 y

1

4

For any positive real value of A, as A increases, the graph of f (x) = A 2x becomes steeper and closer

to the y-axis. Similarly, as A decreases the graph becomes less steep and further from the y-axis. The

domain, range and horizontal asymptote stay the same as for f (x) = 2x. The mapping is (x, y) (x, Ay).

If the coefficient of x changes, the graph is stretched horizontally and is said

y

g(x) = 22x

1

f(x) = 2x x

to be dilated from the y-axis. This can be written f (x) = a kx where is the

h(x) = 22

k

4

dilation factor. The dilation factor is the reciprocal of the coefficient of x.

1

In mapping notation, a dilation factor of from the y-axis, where k > 0, is

2

Asymptote

k

1

(0, 1)

given by (x, y) ( x, y).

y=0

k

0

1 2 3 x

3 2 1

To show the effect of a dilation

from the y-axis, the three graphs

x

f (x) = 2x, g(x) = 22x and h(x) = 2 2 are drawn at right. The dilation

factors are 1, 12 and 2, respectively.

x

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 22x

h(x) = 2 2

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 1)

(0, 1)

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

y=0

y=0

y=0

1

2

(2, 4)

(1, 4)

(4, 4)

Domain

Range

Horizontal asymptote

Dilation factor from the y-axis

A point on the graph

Mapping

(x, y)

1

2

x, y

(x, y) (2x, y)

For all the graphs discussed so far (that is, of the form f (x) = A akx, a R+\{1}, k > 0), the maximal

domain is R, the range is R+, the x-axis is the horizontal asymptote and they are all increasing

functions. The dilations have affected the steepness of the graphs. The mapping is (x, y) ( 1k x, Ay).

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

165

WorkeD exaMple 1

x

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 2 2 , showing the intercepts and the asymptote, and stating the

domain and the range.

think

Write/DraW

x

f (x) = 2 2 2

Dilation of 2 units from the x-axis and 2 units

from the y-axis.

fact that the y-intercept is A in the function

If x = 0, then

f (x) = A a k .

y = 2 22

= 2 20

=21

=2

so the y-intercept is 2.

no x-intercepts.

If x = 2, y = 2 2 2 = 4.

y

4

(2, 4)

(0, 2)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

f (x) = 2 2 2

Asymptote

y=0

x

translation

Vertical translation

If a constant is added to the function, the graph is moved up or down and is said to be translated

vertically. In mapping notation, a vertical translation of B units is given by (x, y) (x, y + B).

The graph of g(x) = 2x + 1 is shown below with the graph of f (x) = 2x. The graph of f (x) = 2x has been

moved up 1 unit. Every y-value has been increased by 1. The line y= 1 is the horizontal asymptote.

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x + 1

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 2)

Range

(0, )

(1, )

Horizontal asymptote

y=0

y=1

(1, 2)

(1, 3)

Mapping

(x, y)

(x, y) (x, y + 1)

Domain

166

y

4

3

(0, 2)

g(x) = 2x + 1

f(x) = 2x

(1, 3)

(0, 1)

0

1

(1, 2) Asymptote

y=1

2

The graph of g(x) = 2x 1 is the graph of f (x) = 2x translated 1 unit down. This means that the horizontal

asymptote is now the line y = 1 and the graph crosses the x-axis. Therefore, there is an x-intercept. Every

y-value has been decreased by 1. The graph of y = 2x 1 is shown with the graph of y = 2x.

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x 1

x-intercept

(0, 0)

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 0)

Range

(0, )

(1, )

Horizontal asymptote

y=0

y = 1

(1, 2)

(1, 1)

Domain

f(x) = 2x

4

2

(0, 1)

3 2 1

(1, 2)

g(x) = 2x 1

(1, 1)

x

0 1 2 3

Asymptote

y = 1

(x, y) (x, y 1)

Mapping

horizontal translation

In mapping notation, a horizontal translation of b units is given

by (x, y) (x + b, y).

The graph of g(x) = 2x 1 is the graph of f (x) = 2x translated 1 unit

to the right.

The graph of h(x) = 2x + 1 is the graph of f (x) = 2x translated 1 unit

to the left.

The graph of g(x) = 2x 1 is shown at right with the graph

of f (x) = 2x.

h(x) = 2x + 1

f(x) = 2x

f(

4

2

(0, 1)

3 2 1

g(x) = 2x 1

(1, 1)

(0, 12 )

01 2 3

Asymptote

y=0

x

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x 1

h(x) = 2x + 1

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, )

(0, 2)

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

Horizontal asymptote

y=0

y=0

y=0

(1, 2)

(2, 2)

(0, 2)

(x, y) (x + 1, y)

(x, y) (x 1, y)

Domain

Range

1

2

Mapping

Horizontal and vertical translations have the same effect regardless of the base.

g(x)=2 + 10x + 1 is f (x) = 10 x translated 1 unit to the left and 2 units up. Horizontal translations

keep the same asymptote, domain and range as the original function; vertical translations keep the

same domain, but the range changes.

It is interesting to note that f (x) = 0.5 2x can be written as f (x) = 2x 1 because

f (x) = 0.5 2x

1

= 2 2x

= 2 1 2x

= 2x 1

A dilation of 0.5 from the x-axis has the same effect on f (x) = 2x as a translation of 1 unit to the right.

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

167

WorkeD exaMple 2

stating the domain andrange.

think

tUtorial

eles-1205

Worked example 2

Write/DraW

f (x) = 2x 1 2

An exponential curve with the same shape as

f (x) = 2x

Horizontal translation of 1 unit to the right

Vertical translation of 2 units down

y = 0 down 2 units.

y-intercept:

If x = 0, then

y=2 12

1

=22

1

Equate the indices.

Solve for x.

6

7

= 1 2

x-intercept:

If y = 0, then

y

1

3 2 1

1

2

10

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Do more

Interact

with exponential

functions and their

transformations.

(2, 0)

0 1 2 3 x

f (x) = 2x 1 2

1

(0, 12 ) Asymptote

y = 2

For all the graphs of the form f (x) = ax + b + B, where b, B R and a R+\{1}, the maximal domain

is R, the range is (B, ), the horizontal asymptote is y = B and they are all increasing functions.

The graph remains exactly the same shape as f (x) = ax. The mapping is (x, y) (x b, y + B).

reflections

If a negative sign is in front of the a the graph is reflected in the x-axis. (Remember a > 0.) The mapping

is (x, y) (x, y).

The graph of g(x) = 2x is shown with the graph of f (x) = 2x.

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 1)

R+ = (0, )

R = (, 0)

y=0

y=0

Domain

Range

Horizontal asymptote

A point on the graph

Mapping

168

2x 1 2 = 0

2x 1 = 21

x1=1

x=2

(1, 2)

(1,

2)

(x, y) (x, y)

f(x) = 2x

Asymptote

(1, 2) y = 0

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 x

(1, 2)

2

(0, 1)

(0, 1)

g(x) = 2x

If there is a negative sign before the x term, the graph is reflected in the y-axis. The graph of g(x) = 2x

is shown with the graph of f (x) = 2x.

f (x) = 2x

g(x) = 2 x

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

(0, 1)

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

Horizontal asymptote

y=0

y=0

(1, 2)

(1, 2)

Domain

Range

f(x) = 2x

g(x) = 2x y

3

Mapping

(1, 2) 2

1

3 2 1

(1, 2)

(0, 1)

0

Asymptote

y= 0

x

1 2 3

(x, y) (x, y)

For all the graphs of the form g(x) = ax, where a R+\{1}, the maximal domain is R and the range is

The horizontal asymptote is y = 0 and the functions are all decreasing. It is the reflection of f (x) = ax

in the x-axis. The mapping is (x, y) (x, y).

For all the graphs of the form g(x) = ax, where a R+\{1}, the maximal domain is R and the range is

+

R . The horizontal asymptote is y = 0 and the functions are all decreasing. It is the reflection of f (x) = ax

in the y-axis. The mapping is (x, y) (x, y).

R.

WorkeD exaMple 3

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 2x 1, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the domain

and the range showing all working.

think

Write/DraW

f (x) = 2 2x 1

Vertical translation of 2 units up

Reflection in the x-axis

y = 0 up 2 units.

If x = 0,

f (x) = 2 2

=2

1

2

= 12

1

The y-intercept is 1 2.

6

2 2x 1 = 0

2x 1 = 21

x1=1

x=2

The x-intercept is 2.

If y = 0,

169

y

2

Asymptote

y=2

(0, 32 )

1

0

2 1

(2, 0)

x

2

f (x) = 2 2x 1

1

8

with any base

exercise 4a

Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing the intercepts and the

asymptote, and stating the domain and range of each one.

a f (x) = 2x

b f (x) = 10x

c f (x) = 2 10x

d f (x) = 3 2x

x

x

3x

e f (x) = 0.3 2

f f (x) = 0.5 10

g f (x) = 2

h f (x) = 102x

1 We1

DiGital DoC

doc-9190

Spreadsheet

exponential graphs

f (x) = 5 32x

j f (x) = 4 23x

k f (x) = 2 10 2

l f (x) = 2 2 2

We2 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and

stating the domain and range of each one.

a f (x) = 2x + 1

b f (x) = 3x + 2

c f (x) = 3x 3

d f (x) = 2x 4

x

+

2

x

+

1

x

4

e f (x) = 2

f f (x) = 10

g f (x) = 3

h f (x) = 2x 3

x

+

1

x

2

i f (x) = 2

8

j f (x) = 10

+1

We3

Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and

stating the domain and range of each one.

a f (x) = 2x

b f (x) = 10x

c f (x) = 10x

d f (x) = 2x

x

x

x

e f (x) = 1 3

f f (x) = 10 10

g f (x) = 2 + 10

h f (x) = 1 + 2x

1

x

2

x

i f (x) = 2 2

j f (x) = 1 3

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 31 x, showing the intercepts and asymptotes and stating the domain and

range.

Sketch the graph of the function f: R R where f (x) = 3 2x 1, showing the intercepts and

asymptotes and stating the domain and range.

Sketch the graph of the function f: R R where f (x) = 5 4 31 x showing the intercepts and

asymptotes and stating the domain and range.

State the transformation of y = 2x needed to sketch the graphs of the following functions. Give details of

each transformation.

a y = 23x

b y = 24x

c y = 2 2x

d y = 3 2x

e y = 2x

x

x

x

x

1

f y=2

g y=2 +1

h y=2 3

i y=2

j y = 2x + 5

Each of the following functions is a translation of f (x) = 10x. State how far each graph is translated, and

in which direction.

a f (x) = 10 x + 4

b f (x) = 10 x 2

c f (x) = 10 x + 2

d f (x) = 10 x 3

x

x

x

1

e f (x) = 10 3

f f (x) = 2 + 10

g f (x) = 10

h f (x) = 102 + x

x

+

1

x

4

x

3

i f (x) = 5 + 10

j f (x) = 10

+2

k f (x) = 10

4

l f (x) = 10 x + 2 3

Write down the domain and range for each of the following graphs and the equations for the horizontal

asymptotes.

i

4

5

6

7

6

4

2 (0, 2)

y=0

x

0

3 2 1

1 2

170

6

4

4 (0, 4)

2

(0, 2)

y=1

3 2 1

0 1

y=3

2

3 2 1

0 1

y

2

e

y=1

3 2 1 0

x

y=2

3 2 1

y=1

(1, 0)

4 (0, 4)

1 0

1 2

2 (0, 2)

0

1 2 3

10 If the graph of f (x) = 2x is translated 1 unit up and reflected in the x-axis, what is the new equation?

11 If the graph of f (x) = 1 2x + 3 is translated 2 units to the right and dilated by factor 3 from the x-axis,

12 MC The domain and range of the graph of f (x) = 102x 1 + 3 are respectively:

a R, R

B R, [1, )

C [3, ), R

D [1, ), R

e R, (3, )

13 MC The y-intercept of the graph of f (x) = 10x + 1 is:

a 1

B 2

e 11

C 1

D 2

x

1

14 MC When the graph of f (x) = 2

4 is translated 3units down and 2 units to the left, it becomes:

a f (x) = 2x 3 7

B f (x) = 2x 3 1

C f (x) = 2x + 1 7

x

+

1

x

2

D f (x) = 2

1

e f (x) = 2

6

15 Under certain conditions a mathobacillus bacterial colony doubles its numbers every minute. The

P = 50 2t

where P is the number of bacteria t minutes after counting has begun.

a Find the number of bacteria when t = 0.

b Find the number of bacteria after 3 minutes.

c Sketch the graph of the population as a function of time.

4B

The function f (x) = loga (x) is a logarithmic function where a is a positive, real number which is not 1

(that is, a R+\{1}). Logarithms to base 10 appear in many scientific formulas. An example of this is the

intensity of earthquakes which is measured on the Richter scale.

Remember that loga (x) does not exist when x < 0.

In this course only graphs of functions where a > 1 are considered. Graphs with a positive coefficient

of x will be considered first.

The graphs of f (x) = log2 (x) and f (x) = log10 (x) are shown below.

Asymptote

y x= 0

(2, 1)

2

(1, 0)

1

1 0

1

2

2 3

Asymptote

x= 0

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

(10, 1)

(1, 0)

2 4 6 8 10

1. They are both increasing functions; that is, as x , y .

2. Both graphs cross the x-axis at the point (1, 0), as loga (1) = 0

3. The y-axis is a vertical asymptote, so there is no y-intercept. This is because loga (0) is undefined.

4. There are no negative values of x because the log of a negative number does not exist.

5. Another point on the graph is (a, 1), where a is the base because loga (a) = (1).

6. The domain is R+.

7. The range is R.

8. It can be seen that the smaller the value of a, the steeper the graph or the more rapidly the graph rises.

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

171

Dilation

Dilation from the x-axis

If the coefficient of loga (x) is changed to a positive real number greater than 1, the graph is stretched

along the y-axis and is said to be dilated from the x-axis. This could be written

f (x) = A loga (x) where A is the dilation factor. The graph is stretched along the y-axis

because each y-value is being multiplied by the constant, A. In mapping notation, a dilation factor of A

from the x-axis, where A > 0, is given by (x, y) (x, Ay).

The asymptote, x-intercept, domain and range are the same for all graphs of the form

f (x) = A loga (x).

Graphs with different values of A can be more easily compared by drawing them on the same axes.

The graphs of g(x) = 2 log10 (x), f (x) = log10 (x) and h(x) = 1 log10 (x) are drawn below. Notice that, as

2

A increases, the graph becomes steeper.

Asymptote

y x= 0

(10, 2) g(x) = 2 log10 (x)

1

0

h(x) = 12 log10 (x)

1

(10, 2 )

x

2 4 6 8 10

x-intercept

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

y-intercept

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

x=0

x=0

x=0

1

2

(10, 1)

(10, 2)

Domain

Range

Vertical asymptote

Dilation factor from the x-axis

A point on the graph

1

2

Mapping

(10, )

(x, y) (x , y)

1

2

1

2

Note: h(x) = 1 log10 (x) can be written as h(x) = log10 (x ) and is drawn in the same way.

2

If the coefficient of x is changed to a positive

real number not equal to 1, the graph is

stretched along the x-axis and is said to be

dilated from the y-axis. This could be written

1

f (x) = loga (kx), where is the dilation

k

factor. When k > 1, the graph moves away

from the x-axis.

To see the effect of a dilation from the

x-axis the graphs g(x) = log10 (2x), f (x) = log10

(x) and h(x) = log10 ( 1 x) are drawn at right.

2

172

y Asymptote

x= 0

1

f(x) = log10 (x)

( 12 , 0)

0

h(x) = log10 (2 x)

2 (2, 0)

(1, 0)

h(x) = log10

( x)

1

2

x-intercept

(1, 0)

( ,0)

(2, 0)

y-intercept

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

x=0

x=0

x=0

1

2

(10, 1)

(5, 1)

(20, 1)

Domain

Range

Horizontal asymptote

Dilation factor from the y-axis

Another point on the graph

Mapping

1

2

(x, y)

1

2

(x, y) (2x, y)

x, y

For all graphs discussed so far (that is, of the form y = A loga (kx), A R+\{1}, k > 0), the

maximal domain is R+, the range is R, the y-axis is the vertical asymptote and they are all

increasing functions. The graphs have varied in their x-intercepts. The dilation factor from

1

the x-axis is A and the dilation factor from the y-axis is . In mapping notation, (x, y) 1 x, Ay .

k

k

If the base is 2, the graph is steeper than when the base is 10 but the

vertical asymptote, intercept, domain and range stay the same as for

f (x) = A log10 (kx).

The graphs of f (x) = 2 log10 (3x) and f (x) = 2 log2 (3x) are shown

at right.

1. The vertical asymptote is the y-axis.

2. The x-intercept is 1 .

3

3. The domain is R+ and the range is R.

4. The basic graph is dilated by factor 2 from the x-axis and factor

1

from the y-axis.

3

Asymptote

y x=0

f(x) = 2 log2 (3x)

2

1

( 3 , 0)

1

2

WorkeD exaMple 4

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 3 log10 (2x), showing the intercepts and the asymptote, and state the

domain, range and the kind of transformation.

think

Write/DraW

f (x) = log10 (x)

undefined).

Remember that log10 (1) = 0.

x-intercept:

Let y = 0,

3 log10 (2x) = 0

2x = 1

x = 13

The x-intercept is 1 .

which makes 2x equal the base.

=31

=3

Coordinates are (5, 3).

173

Asymptote

y x=0

3

(5, 3)

f(x) = 3 log10 (2x)

( 2 , 0)

3

8

factor 1 from the y-axis.

3

translation

Translations may be either vertical or horizontal.

If a constant is added to the function, the graph is moved up or down and is said to be translated

vertically.

The graphs of f (x) = log10 (x), g(x) = log10 (x) + 1 and h(x) = log10 (x) 1 are drawn and compared.

y Asymptote

x=0

2

f(x) = log10 (x)

1

0

1

2

12 x

10

2

3

1

10 ,

x-intercept

(1, 0)

y-intercept

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

Vertical asymptote

x=0

x=0

x=0

Vertical translation

1 unit up

1 unit down

(1, 0)

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

(x, y) (x, y + 1)

(x, y) (x, y 1)

Domain

Range

Mapping

(10, 0)

horizontal translation

If a constant is added to x, the graph of f (x) = log10 (x) is translated horizontally.

The graphs of f (x) = log10 (x), g(x) = log10 (x + 1) and h(x) = log10 (x 1) are drawn.

174

g(x) = log10 (x + 1)

h(x) = log10 (x 1)

x-intercept

(1, 0)

(0, 0)

(2, 0)

y-intercept

R+ = (0, )

(1, )

(1, )

x=0

x = 1

x=1

1 unit to left

1 unit to right

(10, 1)

(9, 1)

(11, 1)

(x, y) (x 1, y)

(x, y) (x + 1, y)

Domain

Range

Vertical asymptote

Horizontal translation

A point on the graph

Mapping

y

2

g(x) = log10 (x + 1)

1

2 1

0 1

h(x) = log10 (x 1)

2

x = 1

x=1

For all graphs of the form f (x) = loga (x + b) + B, where b and B R and a R+\{1}, the maximal

domain is (b, ), the range is R, the vertical asymptote is x=b and they are all increasing

functions. The graph has exactly the same shape as f (x) = loga (x). The horizontal translation is b

and the vertical translation is B. In mapping notation, (x, y) (x b, y + B).

WorkeD exaMple 5

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 1 + log10 (x + 2), showing intercepts and asymptotes,

and stating the domain, range and transformations. Give intercepts to

1 decimal place.

think

Write/DraW

f (x) = 1 + log10 (x + 2)

f (x) = log10 (x)

undefined).

x+2=0

x = 2 is the vertical asymptote.

If y = 0,

x + 2 = 10 1

x = 0.1 2

= 1.9

tUtorial

eles-1206

Worked example 5

1 + log10 (x + 2) = 0

log10 (x + 2) = 1

175

1 + 0.301 03

1.3, correct to 1 decimal place

The y-intercept is 1.3.

Asymptote y

x = 2

2

(0, 1.3)

(1.9, 0)

0

x

4 6 8

f(x) = 1 + log10 (x + 2)

the vertical translation is 1 unit up.

reflections

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Do more

Interact

with logarithmic

functions and their

transformations.

If there is a negative sign in front of the loga (x) term, the graph is

reflected in the x-axis. The mapping is (x, y) (x, y).

The graphs of f (x) = log10 (x) and g(x) = log10 (x) are shown at right.

f (x) = log10 (x)

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

x-intercept

y-intercept

Domain

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

x=0

x=0

(10, 1)

(10, 1)

Vertical asymptote

A point on the graph

(1, 0)

0

1

Range

Asymptote

y x=0

f(x) = log10 (x)

1

(10, 1)

2

6 8 10

g(x) =

(10, 1)

10 (x)

log

(x, y) (x, y)

Mapping

If there is a negative sign in front of the x term, the graph is reflected in the y-axis. The mapping is

(x, y) (x, y).

The graphs of f (x) = log10 (x) and g(x) = log10 (x) are shown below right.

f (x) = log10 (x)

x-intercept

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

y-intercept

Domain

Range

Vertical asymptote

A point on the graph

Mapping

176

R = (0, )

(,

x=0

x=0

(10, 1)

(10, 1)

Asymptote

y x=0

g(x) = log10 (x) f(x) = log10 (x)

1

(10, 1)

(10, 1)

(1, 0)

0)

(x, y) (x, y)

10

2

1

(1, 0)

2

10

WorkeD exaMple 6

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 log10 (3 x) 2, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the

domain, range and transformations. Give exact values or round to 3 decimal places.

think

Write/DraW

f (x) = 2 log10 (3 x) 2

undefined).

3x=0

x = 3 is the vertical asymptote.

If y = 0,

If x = 0, y = 2 log10 (3) 2

= 1.046 (to 3 decimal places)

The y-intercept is 1.046.

2 log10 (3 x) 2 = 0

2 log10 (3 x) = 2

log10 (3 x) = 1

3 x = 101

x = 7

The x-intercept is 7.

(7, 0)

x

6 4 2 0 2

Asymptote

(0, 2 log10 (3) 2)

x=3

2

f (x) = 2 log10 (3 x) 2

7

x-axis, vertical translation 2 units down, horizontal

translation 3 units to the right

exercise 4B

1

a f (x) = log2 (x)

b f (x) = log10 (x)

d f (x) = 5 log2 (x)

e f (x) = log2 (3x)

g f (x) = 3 log10 (2x)

h f (x) = 2 log2 (3x)

f f (x) = log10 (4x)

Sketch the graph of each of the functions in question 1, showing the intercepts and

asymptotes, and stating the domain and range of each one.

2 We4

3

State the horizontal and vertical translations required to transform f (x) = log2 (x) into the following

functions.

a f (x) = log2 (x + 2)

b f (x) = log2 (x + 1)

c f (x) = log2 (x 3)

d f (x) = log2 (x 4)

e f (x) = 1 + log2 (x 5)

f f (x) = log2 (x 3) + 2

g f (x) = 2 + log2 (x + 1)

h f (x) = 3 + log2 (x + 1)

i f (x) = log2 (x + 3) 2

j f (x) = log2 (x + 1) 2

4 We5 Sketch the graph of each of the functions in question 3, showing the intercepts and asymptotes,

5 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the

a f (x) = log10 (x)

b f (x) = 2 log10 (x)

d f (x) = 3 log10 ( x)

e f (x) = 1 log10 (x)

g f (x) = 2 + log10 (x)

h f (x) = 2 log10 (x)

f f (x) = 1 + log10 (x)

DiGital DoC

doc-9191

Spreadsheet

logarithmic graphs

177

6 Sketch the graph of f (x) = log2 (2x 1), showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the domain,

7 We6 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and

stating the domain and range of each one. Give exact values or round to 1 decimal place.

a f (x) = 2 log2 (x) + 3

b f (x) = 3 log10 (x) + 1

c f (x) = log10 (1 x)

d f (x) = log10 (3 x)

e f (x) = 1 2 log2 (x)

f f (x) = 2 5 log10 (x)

g f (x) = 3 log10 (x + 1) 2

h f (x) = 4 log2 (x 2) 1

i f (x) = 1 + 2 log10 (3x)

j f (x) = 3 4 log10 (2x)

8 Each graph in question 7 is a transformation of the graph of f (x) = loga (x), a = 2, 10. State the base of

each graph and the kinds of transformation that have taken place.

9 Sketch the graph of f: R R where f (x) = 3 log2 (2 x) + 1, showing all key features and stating the

10 Sketch the graph of f: [0, 10] R where f (x) = 3 log10 (x + 1) 2, showing key features.

11 MC When the function f (x) = log2 (x + 2) is translated 2 units up and 3 units to the left, the function

becomes:

a f (x) = log2 (x + 4) + 3

C f (x) = log2 (x 1) + 2

e f (x) = log2 (x + 1) + 2

DiGital DoC

doc-9192

WorkSHEET 4.1

B f (x) = log2 (x + 5) + 2

D f (x) = log2 (x + 5) 3

with base e

4C

the same way as with any other base. The graph of f (x) = ex can be

dilated, translated and reflected in the same way. The graphs of

f (x) = ex, g(x) = 2x and h(x) = 10x are shown at right. The graph of

f (x) = ex is shown in red.

It can be seen that h(x) = 10x is steeper than f (x) = ex and

h(x) = 2x is less steep than f (x) = ex.

y

4

3

2

three graphs

h(x) = 10x

f(x) = ex

g(x) = 2x

(1, e)

(1, 2)

Asymptote

(0, 1)

y=0

x

0

2

1

1. The graphs all cross the y-axis at the point (0, 1).

2. The horizontal asymptote is the x-axis or the line y = 0.

3. The domain is R.

4. The range is R+.

5. They are all increasing functions.

WorkeD exaMple 7

State the transformations of f (x) = ex needed to form the graph of f (x) = 2 e3x 1.

think

1

f (x) = 2e3x 1

the dilation from the x-axis.

The reciprocal of the coefficient of x gives

the dilation from the y-axis.

given by the constant added to the ex term.

178

Write/DraW

WorkeD exaMple 8

Sketch the graph of f (x) = ex. On the same set of axes sketch the graph of f (x) = ex 2, marking

the asymptote and y-intercept, and state the transformation, the domain and the range.

Give exact answers.

think

Write/DraW

f (x) = ex

Exponential curve

If x = 0, y = e0

y = 1 is the y-intercept.

f(x) = ex

Asymptote y = 0

(0, 1)

3 2 1 0

2 3

f (x) = ex 2

translation is given by the constant added

to the x term.

same as for f (x) = ex.

If x = 0, y = e0 2

y=e 2

=

10

y

2

(0, 1)

1

e2

f(x) = ex

f(x) = e (x 2)

2

(0, e )

Asymptote y = 0.

(2, 1)

3 2 1 0

11

12

transforming the point (0, 1) and marking it

on your graph.

State the domain and the range which are the

same for both graphs.

2 3

(0, 1) (2, 1)

For graphs of y = Aekx, k > 0 the coefficient of the ex term shows the dilation of A from the

1

x-axis and the reciprocal of the coefficient of the x term shows the dilation of from the y-axis.

k

1

The mapping is (x, y) ( x, Ay).

k

WorkeD exaMple 9

Sketch the graph of y = 3e2x, marking the asymptote and intercept, and state the transformations,

domain and range.

think

Write/DraW

f (x) = 3e2x

Exponential curve

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

179

dilation by a factor of 12 unit from the y-axis

unchanged by dilation.

by multiplying y-values of f (x) = ex by

3. (0, 1) (0, 3)

If x = 0,

y = 3e2 0

=31

=3

so y-intercept is 3.

y

4

2

(0, 3)

f (x) = 3e2x

Asymptote y = 0

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

The vertical translation is given by the constant added to the ex term. The horizontal translation is given

by the constant added to the x term.

WorkeD exaMple 10

Sketch the graph of f (x) = ex 2 + 1, marking the asymptote and intercept, and

state the transformations, domain and range. Find the y-intercept correct to

2 decimal places.

think

Write/DraW

f (x) = ex 2 + 1

Exponential curve

the vertical translation is 1 unit up.

asymptote of f (x) = ex up one unit.

so the y-intercept is 1.14.

y-intercept of f (x) = ex to the right by

2 units and up by 1 unit.

(0, 1) (2, 2)

y

(0, 1.14) 2

1 0

180

tUtorial

eles-1207

Worked example 10

(2, 2)

Asymptote

y=1

3

f (x) = ex 2 + 1

A reflection in the y-axis is shown by a negative sign before the x term.

WorkeD exaMple 11

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 e x, marking the asymptote and intercepts. State the

transformations, domain and range. Give exact answers. Check using a CAS calculator.

think

Write/DraW

x

f (x) = 2 e

Exponential curve

in the y-axis. The vertical translation is

2 units up.

the asymptote of f (x) = ex up 2 units.

reflecting (0, 1) in the x-axis and translating it up

2 units.

If x = 0,

and solving the equation.

If y = 0,

y=2e 0

=21

=1

or (0, 1) (0, 1) (0, 1)

The y-intercept is 1.

1

ex

loge (ex) = x loge (e)

=x1

2e x=0

e x=2

1

=2

ex

ex = 12

e x=

2

x=

loge 1

2

7

y

2

(loge( 12 ), 0)

Asymptote

y=2

(0, 1)

0

1

f (x) = 2 e

x

The graphs of f (x) = e2x, g(x) = e2x 1 and h(x) = e2x 2 are drawn below.

y

f(x) = e 2x

g(x) = e 2x 1

h(x) = e 2x 2

(0, 1)

1

(0, e1)

1

(1, 1)

( 12 , 1)

Asymptote

(0, e2) y = 0

x

1

181

f (x) = e2x

g(x) = e2x 1

2 x

=e ( )

h(x) = e2x 2

= e2(x 1)

x-intercept

y-intercept

(0, 1)

0, 1 = 0, e 1

)

(

e

0, 1 = 0, e 2

)

(

e2

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

R+ = (0, )

y=0

y=0

Domain

Range

Horizontal asymptote

1

2

y=0

1

2

Horizontal translation

A point on the graph

1 unit to right

unit to right

( , 1)

1

2

(0, 1)

(1, 1)

1. Dilation by factor A from the x-axis can be written as y = Af (x), A > 0.

1

2. (a) Dilation by factor from the y-axis can be written as y = f (kx), k > 0.

k

(b) Dilation by factor k from the y-axis can be written as y = f 1k x , k > 0.

( )

3. (a)

(b)

4. (a)

(b)

5. (a)

(b)

Translation of B units down can be written as y = f (x) B, B > 0.

Translation of b units to the right can be written as y = f (x b), b > 0.

Translation of b units to the left can be written as y = f (x + b), b > 0.

Reflection in the x-axis can be written as y = f (x).

Reflection in the y-axis can be written as y = f (x).

exercise 4C

base e

1 We7 State the transformations of f (x) = ex needed to form each of the following functions.

a f (x) = e3x

x

3

d f (x) = 2e

g f (x) = 3 e2x

b f (x) = e2x

c f (x) = 4e 2

e f (x) = 1 + ex 2

h f (x) = 1 e3x

f

i

f (x) = 2 + ex + 5

f (x) = 3e2 + x 1

For each of the following examples sketch the graph of f (x) = ex. On the same set of

axes, sketch the graph of the given functions, marking the asymptote and y-intercept, and state the

transformation, the domain and the range. Give exact answers.

a f (x) = ex 1

b f (x) = ex 3

c f (x) = 2ex

x

x

d f (x) = 3e

e f (x) = 1 + e

f f (x) = ex 2

2

x

1

x

g f (x) = e

h f (x) = e

i f (x) = 3 ex

2 We8

DiGital DoC

doc-9190

Spreadsheet

exponential functions

3 We9 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, marking the asymptote and intercept, and

stating the transformations, domain and range. For the intercepts give exact answers or correct to

1decimal place where appropriate.

a f (x) = e3x

b f (x) = e2x

c f (x) = 4ex

1

2

d f (x) = 2ex

e f (x) = e4x

g f (x) = 2e3x

h f (x) = 3e4x

f (x) = 1 e2x

4

Sketch the graph of each of the following, marking the asymptote and intercepts, and stating

the transformations, domain and range. Mark the y-intercepts as exact values.

a f (x) = ex + 3

b f (x) = ex 3

c f (x) = ex + 1

x

x

+

1

d f (x) = e + 2

e f (x) = e

+2

f f (x) = ex + 2 + 1

x

1

x

2

g f (x) = e

+3

h f (x) = e

+5

i f (x) = ex + 2 1

4 We10

182

5 We11 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, marking the asymptote and intercepts,

and stating the transformations, domain and range. For intercepts, give exact answers or correct to

1decimal place where appropriate.

a f (x) = e x

b f (x) = ex

c f (x) = 1 ex

x

x

d f (x) = 2 + e

e f (x) = 1 + e

f f (x) = 1 + ex

x

x

g f (x) = 3 e

h f (x) = 5 e

i f (x) = 2e x

6 Sketch f: R R where f (x) = e2x 3 1, marking all the key features and stating the domain and range.

7 Sketch f: [0, ) R where f (x) = ex 2 1, marking all the key features and stating the domain and

8 If f (x) = ex, sketch the following functions.

a y = f (x) + 1

b y = f (x) 2

e y = 1 f (x)

i y = f (x)

f

j

y = 2 f (x)

y = 1 + f (x)

1

2

c y = 2f (x)

d y = f (x)

g y = f (x + 1)

h y = f (x 2)

9 MC The graph with equation y = e2x + 3 is translated so that the new graph has a horizontal asymptote

a 1 unit down

B 2 units down

D 4 units down

e 5 units down

C 3 units down

B y = e4x + 2

e y = 2ex + 2

a y = e2x + 4

D y = 2ex + 4

C y = e2x 4

a Find the values of B and b.

b If the graph was translated down 1 unit, translated 3 units to the left

new graph.

1

2

y

4

3

2

2 1

4D

(3, 3)

Asymptote

y=1

0 1 2 3

Graphs of logarithmic functions with base e are drawn in exactly the same way as with any other base.

The function f (x) can be dilated, translated and reflected in the same way.

The graphs of f (x) = log2 (x), g(x) = log10 (x) and h(x) = loge (x) are shown below. The graph of

h(x) = loge (x) is in blue.

f (x) = log2 (x) and h(x) = loge (x) are steeper than g(x) = log10 (x).

Remember h(x) = loge (x) h(x) = ln (x)

y Asymptote

x=0

2

(1, 0)

1

1 0

1

1 2 3 4 5

h(x) = loge (x)

g(x) = log10 (x)

x

Common features

1. The graphs all cross the x-axis at (1, 0) because loga (1) = 0.

2. The vertical asymptote is the y-axis (x = 0) because loga (0) is undefined.

3. The domain is R+.

4. The range is R.

5. They are all increasing functions.

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

183

WorkeD exaMple 12

State the transformations of f (x) needed to form the graph of f (x) = 2 loge (x 3) + 1.

think

Write

f (x) = 2 loge (x 3) + 1.

gives the dilation from the x-axis.

(a) Horizontal translation is given by the

constant added to the x term.

(b) Vertical translation is given by the constant

added to the log term.

Dilations do not change the vertical asymptote, the domain or the range of a logarithmic graph. The

x-intercept does change, however.

WorkeD exaMple 13

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 3 loge (2x), marking all key features and stating the domain

and range.

think

Write/DraW

loge (0).

Solve for x. Divide both sides by 3.

Use loge (x) = a ea = x.

Use e0 = 1.

Divide both sides by 2.

If y = 0, 3 loge (2x) = 0

loge (2x) = 0

e0 = 2x

2x = 1

x = 12

The x-intercept is 1 .

y Asymptote

x=0

6

4

2

1 0

2

( 12 ,

1

0)

2 3

Translations do not change the shape of the basic graph, only the position. The asymptotes, intercepts

and domain may change but the range stays the same.

WorkeD exaMple 14

Sketch the graph of f (x) = ln (x + 1) 2, marking the vertical asymptote and the intercepts.

think

184

Write/DraW

f (x) = ln (x + 1) 2

(x + 1) = 0.

x + 1 = 0 for asymptote

so x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.

Remember that ln (1) = 0.

If x = 0, y = ln (0 + 1) 2

= ln (1) 2

= 2

y-intercept = 2.

Use ln (x) = a ea = x.

If y = 0,

ln (x + 1) 2 = 0

ln (x + 1) = 2

e2 = x + 1

x = e2 1

x 6.39

x-intercept 6.39 (to 2 decimal places)

Asymptote

x = 1

y

2

2

2 (0, 2)

(e2 1, 0)

4 6 x

f (x) = ln (x + 1) 2

A reflection of f (x) = loge (x) in the x-axis does not change the graphs asymptote, x-intercept, domain or

range. If there is a y-intercept, the sign changes.

A reflection in the y-axis does not change the vertical asymptote or the range, but the x-intercept and

the domain change.

WorkeD exaMple 15

Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2 3 loge (1 x), marking the asymptote and intercepts.

State the domain and range.

think

Write/DraW

f (x) = 2 3 loge (1 x)

line x = 0 one unit to the right or by making

1 x = 0.

Vertical asymptote is x = 1.

solving the equation.

If x = 0, y = 2 3 loge (1)

=2

If y = 0, 2 3 loge (1 x) = 0

3 loge (1 x) = 2

2

loge (1 x) = 3

tUtorial

eles-1208

Worked example 15

e3 = 1 x

x = 1 e3

5

reflection in both the x- and the y-axes.

y

4

(0, 2)

2

(1 e 3 , 0)

f (x) = 2 3 loge (1 x)

x

2 1 0 1

2 Asymptote

x=1

6

To sketch a graph by using transformations it is necessary to dilate, reflect and then translate.

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

185

exercise 4D

1 We12 State the transformations of f (x) needed to form the graph of each of the following.

a f (x) = 5 loge (2x)

b f (x) = 2 loge (4x)

c f (x) = loge (x + 1) 3

d f (x) = loge (x 2) + 1

e f (x) = loge (x)

f f (x) = loge (2x)

g f (x) = 1 loge (x 2)

h f (x) = 2 loge (x + 3)

i f (x) = 3 loge (x + 4) 1

j f (x) = 1 loge (x 4)

k f (x) = 2 loge (1 x) + 3

l f (x) = 3 loge (2 x) 1

Sketch the graph of the following functions, marking all key features and stating the domain

and range. Give exact values.

a f (x) = loge (2x)

b f (x) = loge (3x)

c f (x) = 3 loge (x)

2 We13

DiGital DoC

doc-9191

logarithmic graphs

e f (x) = 2 loge

()

x

3

3 We14 Sketch the graph of the following functions, marking the vertical asymptote and the intercepts.

Give exact answers for a f, otherwise round to 1 decimal place.

a f (x) = 1 + loge (x)

b f (x) = 2 + loge (x)

c f (x) = loge (x 1)

d f (x) = loge (x 2)

e f (x) = loge (x + 2)

f f (x) = loge (x + 3)

g f (x) = loge (x 3) + 2

h f (x) = loge (x 1) + 1

i f (x) = loge (x + 3) 2

j f (x) = loge (x + 1) 2

4 We15 Sketch the graph of the following functions, marking the asymptote and intercepts, and stating

the domain and range. Give intercepts correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate.

f (x) = loge (x)

b f (x) = loge (x)

c f (x) = 2 loge (x)

e f (x) = 3 loge ( 2x)

f f (x) = 2 loge (4x)

f (x) = loge (1 x)

h f (x) = loge (2 x)

i f (x) = loge (2 x)

f (x) = loge (3 x)

a

d

g

j

5 The graph of f (x) = loge (x) undergoes the following transformations. Find the equation of the image of

a Translation of 1 unit to the right.

b Translation of 2 units down.

c Dilation of 5 units from the x-axis.

d Dilation of 3 units from the y-axis.

e Reflection in the x-axis.

f Reflection in the y-axis.

g Reflection in the x-axis and translation of 3 units to the left.

h Dilation of 4 units from the y-axis and translation 1 unit up.

i Reflection in the x-axis, dilation of 2 units from the x-axis and translation of 3 units down.

6 Sketch the graphs of the equations found in question 5, showing the asymptote and intercepts, and

stating the domain and the range. Give intercepts correct to 2 decimal places where appropriate.

7 State the transformations of f (x) needed to form the graph of f (x) = 2 loge (3x + 6) 1 and sketch the

graph, showing the asymptote and intercepts. Give intercepts correct to 2 decimal places.

8 Sketch the graph of f: (, 1] R where f (x) = 3 loge (2 x), showing key features.

9 MC The graph of y = loge (x) is transformed into the graph of y=5loge(2x) by:

a A dilation of factor 5 from the x-axis and a dilation of factor 2 from the y-axis

B A dilation of factor 2 from the x-axis and a dilation of factor 5 from the y-axis

C A dilation of factor 1 from the x-axis and a dilation of factor 2 from the y-axis

5

1

D A dilation of factor 5 from the x-axis and a dilation of factor from the y-axis

2

1

e A dilation of factor from the x-axis and a dilation of factor 5 from the y-axis.

2

10 MC For the function f (x) = 3 loge (x 2), the vertical asymptote and the coordinates of the

a x = 3, (2, 0)

D y = 2, (3, 0)

B x = 2, (3, 0)

e x = 3, (3, 0)

a 0

D 6

B 0.5

e a

C y = 3, (2, 0)

a

is undefined when x is equal to:

logge ( x )

C 1

12 a When the function f (x) = a + b loge (x) is reflected in the x-axis and

translated 2 units to the right, find g(x), the equation of the image of f (x).

DiGital DoC

doc-9193

WorkSHEET 4.2

186

b State the domain and range of g(x) and write it using correct function notation.

c If g(x) is reflected in the y-axis and dilated by factor 4 from the x-axis, write in correct function

exponential and logarithmic functions

4e

As with other functions, it is sometimes necessary to be able to determine the equation of an exponential

or logarithmic function from its graph.

If we know points on the curve, we can substitute the values into the most suitable general equation:

1. For an exponential graph the general equation is y = Ae(x + b) + B.

2. For a logarithmic graph the general equation is y = A loge (x + b) + B.

Both of these examples are written with base e but they could be written with any base, for example

y = A 2(x + b) + B or y = A log10 (x + b) + B.

If there are two unknowns, two pieces of information are necessary. The coordinates of two points,

substituted into a general equation, will give two equations and enable two unknowns to be found.

WorkeD exaMple 16

y

4

Find the values of A and B correct to 2 decimal places and hence

find the equation of the function.

(0, 2)

(2.44, 0)

0 1 x

4 3 2 1

think

1

2

3

4

values into the given equation.

Substitute the coordinates of another point into

the given equation.

Solve simultaneous equations by subtracting

[1] from [2].

Write

2 = Ae0 + B

2=A+B

(2.44,

2.44

For

0 = Ae

[1]

0):

+B

[2] [1]:

[2]

2.44

= Ae

A

= A(e 2.44 1)

2

A=

Substitute in [1]: 2 =

e

1

2.19 (to 2 decimal places)

equation [1] or [2] to find B.

2.44

2.44

B=2

e

0.19

values for A and B.

1

2

2.44

+B

1

equations [3] and [2].

1

a = 2.190 97

b = 0.190 967

2 decimal places.

The horizontal asymptote of an exponential equation gives the vertical translation and hence the value of

B in the general equation f (x) = Aex + B.

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

187

WorkeD exaMple 17

y

10

The equation of the graph shown is of the form f (x) = aex + b. Find the

values of a and b and hence find the equation of the function.

(0, 5)

3 2 1

think

Asymptote

y=2

0 1

Write

of b.

b= 2.

f (x) = aex + 2

the given equation.

5 = ae0 + 2

ae0 = 3

a=3

f (x) = 3ex + 2

If there are three unknowns, three pieces of information are necessary to solve the equation.

The vertical asymptote of a logarithmic graph gives the horizontal translation and hence the value of b

in the equation y = A loge (x + b) + B. A translation to the left gives a positive value of b and a translation

to the right gives a negative value of b.

WorkeD exaMple 18

y

The equation of the graph shown is of the form

x = 1

y = A loge (x + b) + B. Find the values of A, b and B

5 (0, 5)

and hence find the equation.

0

think

tUtorial

eles-1209

Worked example 18

(2, 0)

1

Write

the left, so b = 1.

f (x) = A loge (x + 1) + B.

A loge (0 + 1) + B = 5

f (x) = A loge (x + 1) + 5

A loge (2 + 1) + 5 = 0

A loge (3) + 5 = 0

A loge (3) = 5

A loge (1) + B = 5

B=5

A=

A

logge ((3)

4.55

7

188

exponential and logarithmic functions

exercise 4e

f (x) = Aex +B. Find the values of A and B correct to 2 decimal places

and hence find the equation of the function. State the equation of the

horizontal asymptote.

4

2

(1, 4)

(0, 3)

0 1

y=

y

6

2 Find the values of b and B if the general equation of the graph shown is

ex + b

(1, 6)

4

2 (0, 2)

x

y

0

2 1

(1, 4)

5

10

(2, 10)

y

4

graph shown is y = A

2x

(1, 3)

2

x

3 2 1 0 1 2

Asymptote

(3, 1)

2

y = 19

15

find the equation of the function. Give exact answers.

4

2

(0, 112 )

1 Asymptote

y=1

0 1 2 x

3 2 1

6 MC If the horizontal asymptote is y = 1 and the y-intercept is 2, the

a y = ex + 1 2

B y = ex + 2 + 1

C y = ex + 1 2

D y = ex 1 2

e y = ex + 1.1 + 1

7 Find the values of b and B if the general equation of the graph shown is

y

y = e x + b + B. Give exact answers.

6

4

(2, 4)

Asymptote

y=3

2

0 1

189

4

(0, 3)

2

0 1 2 x

Asymptote

2

y = 1

3 2 1

9 We18 The equation of the graph shown is of the form

equation. Give answers correct to 1 decimal place.

10 Find the values of A and k, given that the graph of y = A log10 kx passes

through the points (1, 1) and (3,2). Give your answers correct to 4

decimal places where appropriate.

11 If the horizontal translation is 2 units to the left, the vertical translation

is 3, the graph passes through the point (2, 6), and the equation is of the

form y = A log2 (x + b) + B, find the values of A, b and B.

4F

interaCtiVitY

int-0249

addition of ordinates

y

Asymptote

6

x= 2

(2, 6)

4

2

3 2 1

0 1

addition of ordinates

Sometimes we need to sketch the graph of a function that can be thought of as the sum of two functions.

For example, the function y = x2 + ex can be thought of as the sum of the functions y = x2 and y = ex.

Such a graph can be drawn by sketching the two individual functions on the same set of axes, then

adding the y-values (ordinates) for each x-value and plotting the resulting points.

This method is convenient to use when we know the basic shape of the individual functions but cannot

recognise the basic shape of the given function. We can sketchboth graphs on the same set of axes, then

plot the resulting points by adding the y-values for each x-value, and hence sketch the new curve.

For example, the graph of y = x2 + ex can be sketched using the addition of ordinates technique,

since the basic shape of the function is not known, but the two individual functions are a basic positive

parabola and a basic exponential curve. The graph of y=ex + 1 can also be thought of as the sum of two

functions, but since we can recognise its shape as the basic exponential curve translated 1 unit up, there

is no need to use the addition of ordinates method.

Note that the sum function can only be defined for the domain over which both of the individual

functions are defined. So the domain of the sum function is obtained by finding the intersection of the

domains of the individual functions. That is, if h(x) = f (x) + g(x), domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).

Sometimes a function is defined as the difference between two individual functions. We can still

use the method of addition of ordinates to graph such a function, because the second function can

be expressed as the addition of a negative function. That is, h(x) = f (x) g(x) can be written as

h(x) = f (x) + (g(x)).

So if, for example, we need to graph y = x2 ex, we could think of it as y = x2 + (ex). We then would

sketch the basic parabola and the basic negative exponential curves on the same set of axes and use the

addition of ordinates technique to obtain the graph of the original function.

WorkeD exaMple 19

think

190

Write

functions g(x) and p(x).

and p(x) = loge (x).

Domain g(x) = R

Domain p(x) = R+

intersection of the domains of individual

functions.

= R R+

= R+

When sketching the graph by hand, it is important to select wisely the values of x for which the ordinates

should be added. As a guide, good points to select are:

1. the end points of the graph

2. the points of intersection of the graphs

3. the x-intercepts of either of the graphs.

WorkeD exaMple 20

Using the same scale and axes, sketch the graphs of y1 = ex and y2 = e x over the domain [2, 2).

think

1

asymptote, the y-intercept, and the end points.

DraW

x = 0, y = e0, y = 1

x = 2, y = e2, y = 7.4

x = 2, y = e 2, y = 0.1

The y-intercept is 1.

y

8

(2, 7.4)

y1 = ex

4

2

(2, 0.1)

(0, 1)

0

2 1

2

y1 in the y-axis and finding the horizontal

asymptote, the y-intercept, and the end points.

The y-intercept is 1.

y2 = ex

(2, 7.4)

y1 = ex

y

8

(2, 7.4)

6

4

2

(2, 0.1)

(0, 1)

0

2 1

(2, 0.1)

x

x-value (y = y1 + y2 = ex + ex).

When x = 2,y = e 2 + e2

7.5

Point (2, 7.5)

When x = 0,

y=1+1

=2

Point (0, 2)

5

ordinates), and join them to sketch the graph.

It is necessary to label only end points and

intercepts.

When x = 2,

Point (2, 7.5)

x

y2 = e

(2, 7.5)

y 7.5

y

8

6

4

2

2 1

y1 = ex

y = ex + e x

(2, 7.5)

(0, 2)

0 1

191

WorkeD exaMple 21

Given the graphs of f (x) and g(x), sketch the graph of h(x) = f (x) + g(x).

y

f(x)

g(x)

x

0

think

1

points of the graph: a large positive

value plus a smaller negative value

should give a smaller positive value.

Mark this point on the axes.

g(x) has the x-intercept and mark

the resulting point on the set of

axes. Note that g(x) = 0 at this point;

therefore f (x)+ 0 = f (x) (that is, if

one of the functions cuts the x-axis,

the sum is equal to the y-value of

the other function).

of intersection of the 2 functions.

Note that at the point of intersection

the value of y is the same for both

functions, so the resulting point is

double the y-value. Mark the point

on the set of axes.

f (x) has the x-intercept and mark the

result on the set of axes.

point of intersection of the 2 graphs

and mark the resulting point on the

set of axes.

points of the graph: 2 positive

values together give an even larger

positive value.

Join the points with a smooth curve

to produce the graph of h(x).

DraW

1

f(x)

g(x)

g(x)

y

f(x)

g(x)

g(x)

f(x)

f(x)

g(x)

g(x)

h(x)

g(x)

f(x)

f(x)

192

f(x)

WorkeD exaMple 22

think

Write/DraW

the intersection of the domains of

individual functions.

of g(x) (a straight line, passing

through the origin and bisecting

the first quadrant) and p(x) (a basic

square root curve). Note that only

the first quadrant is needed, since

the domain is R+ {0}.

g(x) and p(x) is at the origin,

f (x) = 0 + 0 = 0 (that is, f (x) will

also start at the origin). Mark this

point on the set of axes.

Domain g(x) = R

Domain p(x) = R+ {0}

Domain f (x) = domain g(x) domain p(x)

Domain= R R+ {0}

Domain= R+ {0}

g(x)

p(x)

points of the graph and mark the

resulting point on the set of axes.

the points.

point of intersection of the two

graphs and mark the resulting point

on the set of axes.

g(x)

y

g(x)

p(x)

x

p(x)

f(x)

y

g(x)

p(x)

x

Further graphs

The example below shows how to draw the graph of a product function.

WorkeD exaMple 23

Sketch the graph of y = x2ex using a CAS calculator. Show all axis intercepts and any asymptotes.

think

1

Write/DraW

f1(x) = x2ex

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

193

your CAS calculator.

f1 (x)

As x , ex 0.

Therefore as x , y 0.

Horizontal asymptote y = 0

The only x-intercept is at f1(0).

f1(0) = 0 e0 = 0

x-intercept = (0, 0)

when f1(x) = 0.

x2e2 = 0

x2 = 0 or ex = 0

x=0

Not possible

y-intercept = (0, 0)

exercise 4F

addition of ordinates

a y=x+

1

x

d y = x+2 x

g y=

j

2

x2

( x + 1)2

1

2

b y=3 x x

c y = x2 +

x 1

e y = x2 3x3

y = 2x3

h y = 3x 2 1 x

y = 3(2 x)2 +

1

x3

2

3x

y = 2 3 x 3 x +1

2 MC If f (x) = g(x) + p(x), and if f (x) is defined over the domain [2, 7] and g(x) is defined for x 7, the

a [2, 7]

C [2, 7)

e [2, 15]

B [2, )

D [2, 7.5)

3 We20 Using the same scale and axes, sketch the graphs of y1 and y2 over the given domain. Hence,

sketch the graph of y = y1 + y2, rounding coordinates to 1 decimal place as this is accurate enough for

most sketch graphs. Check all graphs using a CAS calculator.

a y1 = 2ex, y2 = 2ex, [1, 1]

b y1 = 3ex, y2 = 3ex, [1, 1]

c y1 = ex, y2 = x, (2, 2]

d y1 = ex, y2 = x, (2, 2]

x

2

e y1 = e , y2 = x , ( 2, 2)

f y1 = ex, y2 = x2, (2, 3)

4 Using the same scale and axes, sketch the graphs of f (x) and g(x). Hence, sketch the graph of

h(x) = f (x) + g(x), rounding coordinates to 1 decimal place as this is accurate enough for most sketch

graphs. State the domain and range of h(x). Check all graphs using a CAS calculator.

a f (x) = 2 loge(x), g(x) = x

b f (x) = 3 loge(x), g(x) = x

1

2

1

2

1

2

5 Using the addition of ordinates, sketch the graph of f: [2, 2] R, where f (x) = ex + e x. State the

domain and the range, giving answers to 1 decimal place where rounding is necessary.

6 MC If the domain of y1 is (2, 2] and the domain of y2 is (0, ), the domain of y1 + y2 is:

a (2, )

B [2, )

C (0, )

D (2, 0)

e (0, 2]

194

7 We21 Given the graphs of f (x) and g(x), sketch the graph of h(x) = f (x) + g(x).

y

f(x)

x

f(x)

f(x)

g(x)

g(x)

y

g(x)

g(x)

f(x)

f(x)

g(x)

f(x)

g(x)

8 On the same set of axes sketch the graphs of f (x) = x2 and g(x) = 5x + 6. Use the addition-of-ordinates

9 On the same set of axes sketch the graphs of f (x) = x3 and g(x) = x2 1 and hence sketch the graph of

10 We22 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, using addition of ordinates. Check your

a y=

x + 2 x

b y = 2x

c y=

x 3 x2

d y=

x +5 + 5 x

a

0

0

D

0

x

0

and then adding the ordinates. State the domain of the function. Verify your answer with a CAS

calculator.

13 If f (x) = 3x 3 and g(x) = loge x, sketch the graph of h( x ) = f ( x ) + g( x ), using addition of ordinates.

14 We23 For each of the following, sketch the graph using a CAS calculator. Show all axis intercepts

a y = x2e2x

b y = x2ex

c y = ex

15 For each of the following, sketch the graph using a CAS calculator. Show all axis intercepts and any

a y = x2 loge (x)

b y = x2 loge (3x)

c y = x loge (x)

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

195

functions with absolute values

4G

x for x 0

The modulus, or absolute value, function is defined as f ( x ) = x =

.

x for x < 0

To obtain the graph of y = f x , the graph of y = f (x), where x 0, is reflected in the y-axis.

The rule of the composite function y = f x , where f (x) = loge (x), x > 0, can be written as:

ge ( x )

log

y = loge x =

ge ( x )

log

ffor

or x > 0

ffor

or x < 0

2

1

2

0

1

2 x

2

3

To obtain the graph of y = f ( x ) , negative y-values of y = f (x) are reflected in the x-axis. The rule

of the composite function y = f ( x ) , where f (x) = loge (x), x > 0, can be written as:

logge ( x )

y = loge( x)

x) =

logge ( x )

f or 0 < x < 1

f or x 1

4

3

2

1

0

4 x

The rule of the composite function y = f x , where f (x) = ex, can be written as:

y

e x for x 0

y = e x = x

for x < 0

e

(0, 1)

2

2 x

The rule of the composite function y = f ( x ) , where f ( x ) = e x k, k R+, can be written as:

y

y = ex k = x

for x loge k

e k

y=k

(0, |1 k|)

2 x

(loge(k), 0)

196

WorkeD exaMple 24

a sketch the graph of y = 2 log e x + 2 3, showing any asymptotes

b calculate all axis intercepts both in exact form and correct to 2 decimal places

c state the domain and range.

think

so there is a vertical asymptote at x = 2.

Write/DraW

2

1

1 2 3 4 5 x

7 6 5 4 3 2 110

2

3

Asymptote

x = 2

asymptote at x = 2.

2

1

1 2 3 4 5 x

7 6 5 4 3 2 110

2

3

Asymptote

x = 2

2 loge ( x + 2) 3

y=

2 loge ( ( x + 2)) 3

2 loge (x + 2) 3 = 0

logge ( x + 2) =

for x > 2

for x < 2

3

2

solve for x.

x + 2 = e2

3

x = e2 2

x = 2.481 69

3

logge ( ( x + 2)) =

2

(x

+ 2) = e 2

3

x = 6.481 69

5

in exact form and correct to 2 decimal places.

x = e 2 2

2 2, 0 and e 2 2, 0

e

simplify, using the first function in step b 1 .

y = 2loge 0 + 2 3

y = 2loge 2 3

y = 1.613 71

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

197

c x R\{2}

2

(0, 1.61)

in exact form and correct to 2 decimal places.

yR

WorkeD exaMple 25

b State the domain and range.

think

tUtorial

eles-1210

Worked example 25

Write/DraW

y = 1.

2

y = e x 1 and the asymptote about the x-axis.

horizontal asymptote at y = 1.

2

1

2

0

1

Asymptote

y=1

x

2 Asymptote

y = 1

b y = e0 1

simplify.

= 11

=0

is also the x-intercept).

xR

y R+{0}

with absolute values

exercise 4G

1 We24 Sketch the graphs of the following functions, showing all axis intercepts and asymptotes in

exact form. For each graph, state the maximal domain and the range of the function.

b y = loge ( x + 1) 2

c y = log10 3 x + 1

y = 3loge x 2 + 3

2 Sketch the graphs of the following showing all axis intercepts and asymptotes in exact form. For each

graph, state the maximal domain and the range of the function.

a

y = loge ( x 2)

b y = loge (1 x ) 2

y = log10 ( x + 3) + 1

3 Sketch the graphs of the following showing all axis intercepts in exact form. For each graph, state the

a

y = e x 1 + 4

y = e 4 x 3

y = e

x 1

+2

4 We25 Sketch the graphs of the following showing all axis intercepts and asymptotes in exact form.

For each graph, state the maximal domain and the range of the function.

a

198

y = ex 3

b y = e x 2 + 4

y= e

1 + 2

modelling using graphs

4h

As seen in chapter 3, exponential and logarithmic functions can be used to model real situations.

Graphs of these functions can be used to illustrate the model and make predictions for future changes.

In most cases when modelling real life situations, the domain is restricted to [0, ) because t = 0 when

the model begins.

WorkeD exaMple 26

W = 100e0.03t

where W is the number of wombats t years after 1 January 1998.

a Find the initial size of the population.

b Find the population 2 years and 10 years after the number of wombats was first recorded. Give

answers to the nearest whole wombat.

c Graph W against t for 0 t 30.

d Find the expected size of the population in the year 2020.

e Find the year in which the wombat population reaches 250.

think

Write/DraW

a W = 100e0.03t

Find W when t = 0.

100 wombats.

b 1 Find W when t = 2.

b When t = 2, W = 100e0.03 2

= 100 1.0618

106 (nearest whole number)

= 100 1.3499

135 (nearest whole number)

Determine w(0) and w(30).

2

w(0) = 100

w(30) = 100e0.9

= 246.0

w

250

200

150

100

50

0

number of years.

2

equation.

(30, 246)

30

d t = 2020 1998

= 22 years

= 193.479

= 193 (nearest whole number)

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

199

e 1 Let W = 250.

193 wombats.

e 250 = 100e0.03t

2.5 = e0.03t

0.03t = loge (2.5)

t=

t = 30.543

t = 31 (nearest year)

as a sentence.

1

loge (2.5)

0.03

using graphs

exercise 4h

1 We26 The population of a species of koala found on Eucalyptus Island is increasing according to the

DiGital DoC

doc-9165

Spreadsheet

Function grapher

equation K = 50e0.04t, where K is the number of koalas t years after 1 January 1998.

a Find the initial size of the population.

b Find the population 2 years and 10 years after the number of koalas was first recorded. Give

answers to the nearest whole number.

c Plot a graph of K against t.

d Use the graph to find the size of the population after 15 years.

2 The population of a species of wallaby found on a reserve is increasing according to the equation

W = 150 1.08t, where W is the number of wallabies t years after records were first kept.

a Find the initial size of the population.

b Find the population 1 year and 5 years after records were first kept. Give answers to the nearest

whole number.

c Plot a graph of W against t.

d Use the graph to find the size of the population after 15 years.

e Use the graph to find how long it would take for the population to double.

3 A student invests $500 with a company that pays interest of 6% compounded continuously. (Interest

paid according to the formula A = A0ert is said to be compounded continuously and r is called the

continuous interest rate.)

a How much money made up the initial investment?

b How much did the student have with the company after 1 year? Give your answer correct to the

nearest 5 cents.

c How much interest did the student have after 5 years? Give your answer correct to the nearest

5 cents.

d Plot a graph of A against t.

e Use your graph to find how much the student would have in the account after 8years.

200

4 The decay of a radioactive element, E, is given by the equation E = E0 e kt, where E is the number of

a If 200 radioactive nuclei are present in the element at the beginning of the experiment and there

b

c

d

e

f

are 33 radioactive nuclei present after 10 days, find the value of k correct to 2 decimal places. Use

this rounded value for all working in the other parts of this question.

Find the number of radioactive nuclei, E, present after 1 day and after 5 days.

Plot a graph of E against t.

Use the graph to find how long it would take before 50 radioactive nuclei are left.

Would there ever be no radioactive nuclei left? Give reasons for your answer.

The half-life of a radioactive element is the time taken for half of the radioactive nuclei to decay.

Use your graph to find the half-life of this element.

5 A hard-boiled egg is placed in water to cool. The cooling process can be modelled by the equation

T T1 = (T0 T1)e kt, where T is the temperature of the egg t minutes after it was placed in the water

and T1 is the temperature of the water. Assume that the temperature of the egg is 98 C when it is first

placed in the 18 C water and it takes 5minutes for it to cool to 38 C.

a Substitute the values of T0 and T1 into the equation and simplify, making T the subject.

b Find the value of k to 3 decimal places.

c Substitute it into the equation.

d Find how long it would take to reach a temperature of 25 C. Give your answer to the

nearest minute.

e Draw a graph of T against t, marking in asymptotes.

f Use the graph to find the temperature after 15 minutes.

g Assuming that the water does not become significantly warmer, use your graph to determine

whether the egg will ever reach the temperature of the water.

to an unknown cause. The number

of fish t weeks after the first dead

fish was found on the surface of the

water can be modelled by the

equation P = A loge (t) + B. One

week after the first dead fish was

discovered, the population was

10 000. The population was 8000

after 5 weeks.

a Find the values of A and

B. Give answers correct

to 2decimalplaces where

appropriate.

b Find how many fish there are after 10 weeks.

c Find how long it would take for the population to be 3000. Give your answer to the

nearest week.

d Sketch a graph of P against t, clearly indicating the asymptote.

e Use the graph to find how many fish there would be after 20 weeks.

7 MC The relationship between m and n is modelled by the equation m = log10 (an + b). The graph is

shown below.

m

2

1

1

a 3 nd

a 2

B 2 nd

a

(4, 1)

(1, 0)

0 1

C 3 and 2

D 1 nd

a

e 1 and 3

201

8 It costs a clothing company $20 to produce a jacket. Production costs are proportional to the number of

jackets produced.

a If the company produces n jackets, write an equation for the companys production costs for the

jackets, $C.

As the company produces more jackets they find that they have to sell them at a lower price. The

companys revenue, $R, is modelled by the equation

b Show that R(0) = 0.

c According to this model, revenues plateau as costs increase. What is the value that the revenue

approaches?

d On the same axes, sketch the graphs of the cost equation and the revenue equation for 0 n 55.

e Use addition of ordinates to sketch the graph of the profit the company can expect to make from

selling the jackets (profit = revenue cost).

f Write an equation for this profit.

g Use a CAS calculator to find the number of jackets that must be sold in order to maximise the

profits and what that profit would be.

h Use a CAS calculator to find how many jackets the company could make before they began to

make a loss.

i Is this a reasonable model for a company to use? Explain your reasons.

202

Summary

exponential functions

y

For graphs of the form f (x) = ax, where a R+\{1}:

1. The maximal domain is R.

4

2. The range is R+.

3. The x-axis is the horizontal asymptote.

2

4. The y-intercept is 1.

(0, 1)

5. They are all increasing functions.

x

2 1 0 1 2

Reflection:

1. If f (x) = ax is reflected in the x-axis the result is the graph of f (x) = ax. The graph is a

decreasing function instead of an increasing function. The y-intercept changes to (0, 1) and the

range becomes R.

2. If f (x) = ax is reflected in the y-axis the result is the graph of f (x) = ax. All key features stay the

same but the graph is a decreasing function instead of an increasing function.

Translation:

For all of the graphs of the form f (x) = ax + b + B, where b, B R, and aR+\{1}, the maximal

domain is R, the range is (B, ), the horizontal asymptote is y = B and they are all increasing

functions. b translates the graph horizontally, B translates the graph vertically.

Dilation:

If f (x) = Aakx, where A, k R+, the graph of f (x) = ax is dilated by factor A from the x-axis

1

and by factor from the y-axis.

k

Combinations of transformations:

For all the graphs of the form f (x) = A ak(x + b) + B, where b, B R, A, k R+ and a R+\{1},

the maximal domain is R, the range is (B, ), the horizontal asymptote is y = B and they are all

increasing functions. b translates the graph horizontally, B translates the graph vertically and

1

A dilates the graph by factor A from the x-axis, k dilates the graph by factor from the y-axis. If

k

A, k < 0 the graphs are reflected in the x- and y-axes, respectively.

logarithmic functions

y

1. The maximal domain is R+; that is, there are no negative values of x.

2. The range is R.

3. The vertical asymptote is the y-axis so there are no y-intercepts.

4. The graph crosses the x-axis at (1, 0) because loga(1) = 0.

x

0 (1, 0)

5. They are all increasing functions.

Reflection:

1. If f (x) = loga (x) is reflected in the x-axis the result is the graph of

f (x) = loga (x). All key features remain the same but the graph is a

decreasing function instead of an increasing function.

2. If f (x) = loga (x) is reflected in the y-axis the result is the graph of f (x) = loga (x). The vertical

asymptote and the range remain the same but the x-intercept and the domain change.

(a) The graph crosses the x-axis at (1, 0).

(b) The domain is (, 0).

Dilation:

1. The function f (x) = A loga (x) dilates the graph of f (x) = loga (x) by a factor of A from the x-axis.

The vertical asymptote, x-intercept, domain and range remain the same. As A increases, the

graph becomes steeper.

1

2. The function f (x) = loga (kx) dilates the graph of f (x) = loga (x) by a factor from the y-axis.

k 1

the vertical asymptote, domain and range stay the same, but the x-intercept is . As k increases,

k

the graph becomes steeper and the x-intercept becomes smaller.

Translation:

1. The function f (x) = loga(x) + B translates the graph of f (x) = loga (x) vertically, B units. The

vertical axis, domain and range remain the same but the x-intercept changes. There is no change

in the shape of the graph.

203

2. The function f (x) = loga (x + b) translates the graph of f (x) = loga (x) horizontally b units. The

shape and the range remain the same but the vertical asymptote, the x-intercept and the domain

change:

(a) The vertical asymptote becomes x = b.

(b) The graph crosses the x-axis at (1 b, 0).

(c) The domain is (b, ).

Combinations of transformations:

The function f (x) = A loga (x + b) + B has dilation factor A from the x-axis and is translated b units

horizontally and B units vertically. If A < 0 there is a reflection in the x-axis and if x is used there

is a reflection in the y-axis.

addition of ordinates

A graph of the sum of two functions can be drawn by sketching the two functions on the same set

of axes and then adding the y-values for each value of x.

If h(x) = f (x) + g(x), domain h(x) = domain f (x) domain g(x).

Suitable points at which to add ordinates are:

1. the end points of the graph

2. the points of intersection of the two graphs

3. the x-intercepts of the two graphs.

The technique can be used for the difference of the two functions, if it is rewritten as a sum:

h(x) = f (x) g(x) = f (x) + [g(x)].

Further graphs

Use a CAS calculator to graph the product of two functions or composite functions.

Obtain the equation of any asymptote of the function by considering asymptotic behaviour of the

individual functions.

On your graph, clearly label:

1. asymptotes

2. axis intercepts.

x for x 0

The modulus, or absolute value, function is defined as f ( x ) = x =

.

x for x < 0

For y = f x , the graph of y = f (x), where x 0, is reflected in the y-axis.

For y = f ( x ) , negative y-values of y = f (x) are reflected in the x-axis.

204

Chapter review

1 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2(x + 1) 4, showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the domain and range.

2 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 3 log10 (2x), showing intercepts and asymptotes, and stating the domain and

S ho rt

a n S W er

range.

3 Find the equation of the graph below, given that it is of the form f (x) = Aex + B.

y

4

2

x

4 3 2 1 0 1 2

2 (0, 1)

y = 4

4

5

4 The graphs of f (x) and g(x) are shown below. Sketch the graph of (f + g)(x), using the addition-

of-ordinates technique.

y

g(x)

f(x)

g(x)

f(x)

5 a Use the law loga (mp) = p loga (m) to simplify f (x) = log10 (x2) and hence sketch the graph of the

b Sketch the graph over the domain, R, noting that it is now possible to take negative values of x.

7 For the function g(x) = 2ex + 1 4:

a sketch the graph of g(x) by finding the equation of any asymptotes and the coordinates of all

intercepts

b determine the rule for g 1(x), and hence state the domain and range of g 1(x).

8 If h(x) = f (x) + g(x) where f (x) = x2 + 1 and g(x) = loge (x), sketch the graph of h(x) = f (x) + g(x). State

9 Describe a sequence of transformations that maps the graph of y = f (x) on to the graph of

y = 2f (3 x) + 5.

T(t) = 50 20.4t, where t is the number of months after the start of the

program. At the same time, the number of elephants in the province is

Find:

a the number of tigers and elephants in the province on

1 January 2006

b which of the two animals has the highest numbers in the province

on 1 April 2007

c the date when the population of the tigers will equal the

population of elephants in the province.

If the number of elephants falls below 25, they are at risk of

extinction in this province.

d According to the model, will this happen? If so, when will it

happen?

11 Sketch the graph of y = loge ( x + 3) , showing all intercepts and asymptotes in exact form. State the

maximal domain and the range.

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

205

M U lt ip l e

C h oiCe

a x=2

B x=1

D y = 1

e y = 2

C y=0

2 The domain and range of the graph of f (x) = 3 10x + 1 are respectively:

a R, [1, )

B R, (1, )

C R, [3, )

e R, R

D R, (3, )

3 The y-intercept for the graph of f (x) = 1 2x is:

a 0

B 1

C 2

D 3

e 4

4 When the function f (x) = log10 (x 1) is translated 2 units up and 1 unit to the left the function becomes:

a log10 (x 2) + 2

B log10 (x 3) + 3

C log10 (x) + 2

D log10 (x + 1) + 2

e log10 (x + 2) + 1

5 The function f (x) = log2 (x + 1) has as its domain:

a (1, )

B [1, )

C (1, )

D [1, )

6 Which of the following graphs best represents the function f (x) = log10 (x 2) + 1?

a

x=2

2

6 4 2 0

2

y

2

x = 2 y

2

2 4

2 4

6 4 2 0

2

4

e

x=2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

6 4 2 0

2

4

D

x = 2 y

x = 2 y

3 2 1

0 1 2 3 x

7 The graph of f (x) = 2ex + 1 is obtained from the graph of f (x) = ex by:

a a dilation of 2 units from the y-axis and a translation of 1 unit to the left

B a dilation of 2 units from the y-axis and a translation of 1 unit to the right

C a dilation of 2 units from the x-axis and a translation of 1 unit to the left

D a dilation of 2 units from the x-axis and a translation of 1 unit to the right

e a dilation of 1 unit from the x-axis and a translation of 2 units to the right

y

2

(0, 1)

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

Asymptote

2

y = 2

a 3f (x) + 2

D 2 3f (x)

206

B 3f (x) 2

e 2 + 3f (x)

e R

C 2f (x) + 3

2 4

9 If the horizontal asymptote is y = 2 and the y-intercept is 1, a possible equation for the graphis:

a y = ex + 2

B y = 2ex + 1

C y = 2ex 1

x

x

D y=e 2

e y=2e

10 The vertical asymptote for the graph of f (x) = 3 loge (x 2) + 1 is:

a x = 1

B x=0

C x=1

D x=2

e x=3

11 For the function f: [1, ] R where f (x) = 3 loge (x + 2), the domain and range are respectively:

a (2, ), (0, )

B (2, ), R

C (1, ), R+

+

D [ 1, ), [0, )

e R ,R

12 If f (x) = loge (x + 1), the y-intercept of 2f (x) + 3 is:

a 0

B 1

D 3

e 4

C 2

13 The general equation of the graph shown is y = Aex + B. The values of A and B are:

y

4

(0, 3)

2

0 2 x

Asymptote

2 y = 1

6 4 2

a 3, 1

D 1, 3

B 2, 1

e 4, 1

C 4, 1

14 If f (x) = loge (x + 2) + 1, then f (1) and f (0) are respectively (correct to 2 decimal places):

a 2.10, 1.69

B 2.09, 0.69

C 2.098, 1.693

D 1.10, 1.69

e 2.10, 0.69

15 The domain of {f (x) + g(x)} is:

a dom f dom g

D dom g

B dom f dom g

e R

C dom f

16 If f (x) = g(x) + p(x), and dom g(x) = (, 5] and dom p(x) = (2, ), then the domain of f (x) is:

a ( 2, 5]

B [2, 5)

C [2, 5]

D ( 2, 5)

17 Which of the following shows the graph of y +

y

4

4

D

x+4 +

4x ?

y

4

4 x

4 x

4 x

4

4

4

4 x

18 The decay of uranium-235 is modelled by the equation U = U0ekt, where U is the number of grams

of uranium-235 after t million years. If a 1000 g mass of uranium-235 decays to 907g in 100 million

years, the values of U0 and k are respectively:

a 100, 0.000 976

B 1000, 0.000 976

C 10 000, 0.000 907

e 100, 907

D 1000, 0.000 907

Chapter 4 Exponential and logarithmic graphs

207

e x t enDeD

r e SponS e

1 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 2ex 1 + 1, showing all key features. State the domain and the range.

2 Sketch the graph of f (x) = 1 loge (2 x), clearly showing intercepts and asymptotes, and state the

3 By adding ordinates, sketch the graph of f (x) = log10 (2x) + log10 (x). State the domain and the range.

4 N is the number of bacteria in a culture where N = 10 000e0.04t is the formula for the number of bacteria

a the initial number of bacteria

b the number of bacteria after 10 hours. Give your answer to the nearest thousand.

5 Sketch the graph of y = 4 e x 1 showing all axis intercepts in exact form and any asymptotes. State

6 Kerri invested $5000 with a company that pays interest of 5% compounded continuously. To answer

the questions below, use the formula A = A0ert, where A is the amount of the investment, A0 is the

original investment, r is the continuous interest rate and t is the number of years since the money was

originally invested. Round the answer to the nearest 5c.

a How much money did Kerri first invest with the company?

b How much money did Kerri have with the company after 1 year?

c How much did she have after 5 years?

If the company had been paying interest compounded quarterly, the formula used would have been

( )

4t

A = A0 1 + r .

4

d Using this system, how much would Kerri have after 5 years of the investment?

e How long would it take to double the investment? Give your answer in years.

f Which is the better investment? Give reasons.

g What is the difference in the amount of interest after 5 years?

h What would be the difference in 5 years if Kerri had invested $10 000?

7 A local council decided to build a new road along the coast. To make it safer it was decided to design

y = 2 log10 (2x a) + 3 where a > 0.

The grid below shows the road. In each direction, 1 unit represents 1kilometre.

y

Bridge

Ship

4

a If the new section of road goes over the bridge marked on the graph, find the value of a.

b Find the x-coordinate of the point where the road begins. Give the answer correct to 2decimal

places. How far would this be from the vertical axis to the nearest metre?

c What is the shortest distance from the beginning of the road to the coastline if the coastline is on

the vertical asymptote at that point? Give the answer correct to the nearest metre.

d The main highway is along the x-axis. How far is the road from the main highway when it is in

line with the ship marked on the grid? Give the answer in kilometres, correct to 1decimal place.

208

8 The air pressure P in kilopascals (kPa) at a height of x kilometres (km) above sea level may be

A mountain climber uses an altimeter to record air pressures at known heights on a climb of

Mount Kosciuszko (height 2.228 km). These pressures are shown in the table below.

x

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

101.3

95.2

89.4

84.0

78.9

a If b is between 0.1 and 0.2, find the value for b (to 3 decimal places) which produces the best

b Use your model to predict the air pressure at the top of Mount Kosciuszko.

9 The graph of the function f (x) = e2x bex + c is shown below.

y

y=6

DiGital DoC

doc-9194

Test Yourself

Chapter 4

(0, 2)

0

b Show that the exact values of the x-intercepts are x = loge (2) and x = loge (3).

c Use a CAS calculator to find the coordinates of the turning point. Round answers to 2 decimal

d

e

f

g

h

places.

Find the exact values of the coordinates of the point of intersection of the function and the

horizontal asymptote.

If the function is reflected in the x-axis, fully define the new function g(x) = f (x).

If the function is reflected in the y-axis, fully define the new function, h(x).

If the function is reflected in both the x- and the y-axis, sketch the graph of

the new function, k(x), write its equation and state the domain and the range.

Find the equation of f (2 x) + 1. State the domain and range, rounding to

2 decimal places where appropriate.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Practice

VCE exam

questions

Use StudyON to

access all exam

questions on this

topic since 2002.

209

ICT activities

Chapter opener

DiGital DoC

10 Quick Questions doc-9189: Warm up with ten quick questions on

exponential and logarithmic graphs. (page 163)

4a

tUtorial

We2 eles-1205: Watch how to sketch a graph of an exponential

function. (page 168)

DiGital DoC

Spreadsheet doc-9190: Investigate exponential graphs. (page 170)

4B

tUtorial

We5 eles-1206: Watch how to sketch the graph of a logarithmic

function. (page 175)

DiGital DoCS

Spreadsheet doc-9191: Investigate logarithmic graphs. (page 177)

WorkSHEET 4.1 doc-9192: Sketch graphs of exponentials and

logarithms, identify transformations and determine rules for graphs.

(page 178)

4C

tUtorial

We10 eles-1207: Watch how to sketch the graph of

an exponential function and state the transformations.

(page 180)

DiGital DoC

Spreadsheet doc-9190: Investigate the exponential function.

(page 182)

4D

tUtorial

We15 eles-1208: Sketch the graph of a logarithmic function

stating the domain and range using a CAS calculator to check.

(page 185)

210

DiGital DoCS

doc-9191: Investigate logarithmic graphs. (page 186)

WorkSHEET 4.2 doc-9193: Sketch graphs of exponentials and

logarithms and determine points of intersection between graphs.

(page 186)

and logarithmic functions

tUtorial

We18 eles-1209: Watch how to find the equation of an

exponential given the graph. (page 188)

4F

addition of ordinates

interaCtiVitY

Addition of ordinates int-0249: Consolidate your understanding of

addition of ordinates using the interactivity. (page 190)

absolute values

tUtorial

We25 eles-1210: Watch a worked example on how to sketch the

graph of an absolute function. (page 198)

graphs

DiGital DoC

Spreadsheet doc-9165: Invesigate graphs using a function grapher.

(page 200)

Chapter review

DiGital DoC

Test Yourself doc-9194: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress. (page 209)

Answers CHAPTER 4

i Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

exponential anD

loGarithMiC GraphS

y

6

functions with any base

1 a Asymptote y = 0, domain R, range R+

f (x) = 2x

y

2

(0, 5)

3 2 1

f (x) = 10x

y

2

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

01 2 x

3 2 1

f (x) = 2 10x

y

2 (0, 2)

x

01 2

f (x) = 3 2x

01 2 3

(0, 0.3)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

range (1, )

f (x) = 2x + 1

y

0 1

y

8

6

4

(1, 8)

6

4

2

1

(0, 1)

0

1

y

8

6

4

2

0.5

f (x) = 102x

(12 ,

10)

4 (1, 0)

3 2 1 0

x

1 2 3 x

(0, 2) y = 3

1

8

horizontal asymptote

y = 0, domain R, range R +

f (x) = 2x 3

0 1

range (3, )

f (x) = 3x 3

y

2

(0, 1)

0 0.5

h y-intercept is , no x-intercepts,

3

2

1 (0, 1 )

8

c y-intercept is 2, x-intercept is 1,

(1, 5)

(0, 3) y = 2

01 2 3

3 2 1

81 )

0 1

range (2, )

f (x) = 3x + 2

y

f (x) = 23x

1

,

81

(4, 1)

(0,

(1, 3)

2 (0, 2) y = 1

b y-intercept is 3, no x-intercepts,

0 1

0.5

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

1 )

2

01 2 3 x

no x-intercepts,

horizontal asymptote

y = 0, domain R, range R+

f (x) = 3x 4

y

(1, 5)

2

(0,

3 2 1

x

g y-intercept is

2 1

5

(1, 1)

2 a y-intercept is 2, no x-intercepts,

(2, 1.2)

y

(0, 10)

(3, 4)

f (x) = 0.3 2x

range R+

f (x) = 10x + 1

f (x) = 2 2 3

2 (0, 2)

(2, 1)

x

2 x

4 (0, 4)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 x

y

6

y

6

f (x) = 2 10 2

y

4

(1, 121) 2

2 1

range R+

f (x) = 2x + 2

(0, 3)

0 1

e y-intercept is 4, no x-intercepts,

4 (0, 4)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

(2, 0)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 x

2

(0, 3) y = 4

4

f (x) = 4 23x

2 (0, 2)

(1, 0.2)

2 1

y

6

3 2 1

(0, 1)

range (4, )

y

f (x) = 2x 4

4

2

d y-intercept is 3, x-intercept is 2,

(1, 2)

(0, 1)

01 2 x

3 2 1

f (x) = 5 32x

(3, 1)

2

i y-intercept is 6, x-intercept is 2,

range is (8, )

f (x) = 2x + 1 8

y

(2, 0)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 x

5

(0, 6)

y = 8

211

f y-intercept is 9, x-intercept is 1,

range (1, )

f (x) = 10x 2 + 1

range (, 10)

y

f (x) = 10 10x

y

2 (0, 1.01)

10

(0, 9)

2

(0, 1)

2

4

1

(1, 2

10 )

(0, 3)

2

f (x) = 2 + 10 x

range (, 0)

f (x) = 2x

y

0

3 a y-intercept is 1, no x-intercepts,

0 1

2 1

b y-intercept is

0

1

(0, 1)

2

y

4

y=2

x

(0, 2)

1

(1, 12 )

0 1

2 1

y=1

x

i y-intercept is 0, x-intercept is 0,

range (, 2)

y

c y-intercept is 1, no x-intercepts,

range (0, )

f (x) = 10 x

y=2

2

(1, 1)

0 1 2

2 1

f (x) = 2 21 x

4

2

1

(1,

10 )

(0, 1)

2 1 0 1 2

j y-intercept is 8, x-intercept is 2,

range (, 1)

range (0, )

f (x) = 2 x

(1, 2)

(0, 1)

x

e y-intercept is 0, x-intercept is 0,

range (, 1)

f (x) = 1 3x

y

1 0

2

212

y=1

1

4 x

(0, 7)

Horizontal asymptote is y = 5, domain is R,

range is (, 5).

1

7 a Dilation by factor

from the y-axis

f (x) = 1 32 x

f (x) = 2 31 x

y

6 (0, 6)

1

4

d Dilation by factor 3 from the x-axis

e Reflection in x-axis

f Reflection in y-axis

g Translation of 1 unit up

h Translation of 3 units down

i Translation of 1 unit right

j Translation of 5 units left

8 a 4 units up

b 2 units down

c 2 units to the left

d 3 units to the right

e 3 units down

f 2 units up

g 1 unit to the right

h 2 units to the left

i 5 units up and 1 unit to the left

j 2 units up and 4 units to the right

k 3 units to the right and 4 units down

l 2 units to the left and 3 units down

9 a R, R+, y = 0

b R, (1, ), y = 1

c R, (3, ), y = 3

d R, (, 1), y = 1

e R, (2, ), y = 2

f R, (, 1), y = 1

10 f (x) = 1 2x

11 f (x) = 1 3 2x + 1

12 E

13 B

14 C

15 a 50

b 400

c

p

400

(3, 400)

0 1 2

2 1

(0, 8)

y=1

(2, 0)

0 1

d y-intercept is 1, no x-intercepts,

(0.8, 0)

2 3

range (1, )

f (x) = 1 + 2 x

no x-intercepts,

horizontal asymptote y = 0, domain R,

range (, 0)

f (x) = 10x

y

b Dilation by factor

h y-intercept is 2, no x-intercepts,

1,

f (x) = 5 4 31 x

y=5

(1, 0)

0 1 2 x

2 1

4 x

y=1

0

y = 10

y-intercept is 1 1 , no x-intercepts.

2

Horizontal asymptote is the x-axis, domain

, 0).

is R, range is (

200

(1, 2)

2

0

4 x

y-intercept is 6, no x-intercept.

Horizontal asymptote is the x-axis, domain

is R, range R+.

y

5

f (x) = 3 21 x

2 1

(1, 2)

2

4

0 1 2 x

(0, 112)

(1, 3)

2 1

(0, 50)

0 1 2 3 t

Asymptote y = 0

exercise 4B

any base

1 a y-axis

c y-axis

e y-axis

g y-axis

logarithmic graphs to

b

d

f

h

y-axis

y-axis

y-axis

y-axis

2 a

4 a x = 2 y

y

2

(2, 1)

(1, 0)

0 1 2 3 4 5 x

y

1

(1, 0)

2 4 6

b x = 1

(1, 0)

4 6

y

6

4

2

(1, 0)

Asymptote x = 0

f (x) = 5 log2 (x)

R+, R

2 3

4 5 x

2 3

4 5 x

Asymptote x = 0

f (x) = 3 log10

(2x) R+, R

2 left

3 right

5 right, 1 up

1 left, 2 up

3 left, 2 down

(1, 0)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5x

2

b

d

f

h

j

Asymptote x = 0

f (x) = 2 log2 (3x)

R+, R

1 left

4 right

3 right, 2 up

1 left, 3 up

1 left, 2 down

y

1

(1, 0)

0 x

5 4 3 2 1

1

(4, 2)

(3.25, 0)

x

4

6 8

5 4 3 2 1

(1, 3)

2 (0, 2)

1

1

f (x) = 2 + log2 (x + 1)

Domain (1, ), range R

1

0

Asymptote x = 0

R, R, in y-axis

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R, in x-axis

y

2

Asymptote x = 0

R, R, in y-axis

y

2

(1, 0)

y

x = 13

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R, in x-axis

f (x) = log2 (x 3) + 2

Domain (3, ), range R

( 23 , 2)

( 13 , 0)

(5.5, 0)

6 8 x

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R, in x-axis

x=3

1

0

(6, 1)

2

x=5

y

2

(1, 0)

01 2 3 4

f (x) = 1 + log2 (x 5)

Domain (5, ), range R

f

( 12 , 0)

0

1

(5, 3)

3 a

c

e

g

i

Asymptote x = 0

f (x) = log10 (4x)

R+, R

( 14 , 0)

1

f (x) = log2 (x 4)

Domain (4, ), range R

e

(2 12 , 1)

1

0

Asymptote x = 0

f (x) = log2 (3x)

R+, R

2 x

y

2

(6, 1)

(5, 0)

0

1

( 23 , 1)

0 ( 1 , 0) 1

3

f (x) = log2 (x + 1) 2

Domain (1, ), range R

5 a

x=4

1 2 3 4

(3, 0)

2 (0, 2)

f (x) = log2 (x 3)

Domain (3, ), range R

y

x = 1

1 0

1

(2, 5)

f (x) = log2 (x + 3) 2

Domain (3, ), range R

(4, 0)

(5, 1)

2

x = 3 y

(1, 0)

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4

2

(0, 0.4)

x=3

1

0

( 78 , 0)

(1, 1)

f (x) = log2 (x + 1)

Domain (1, ), range R

Asymptote x = 0

f (x) = 2 log10 (x)

R+, R

8 10 x

0 1 2 3 4 x

f (x) = 3 + log2 (x + 1)

Domain (1, ), range R

i

1 0 1

1

(10, 2)

2 1 0 1 2 3 4 x

y

1

(0, 3)

Asymptote x = 0

f (x) = log10 (x)

R+, R

y

x = 1

4

(0, 1)

f (x) = log2 (x + 2)

Domain (2, ), range R

8 10 x

Asymptote x = 0

f (x) = log2 (x)

R+, R

(10, 1)

(1, 0)

(1, 1)

2

(10, 0)

x

8 10

213

y

2

(0.1, 0)

0

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R, no

reflection

2

1

(

,

100

(1, 2)

2

(105 , 0)

0 1

(10, 1)1

x

Asymptote x = 0

R, R in x- and

y-axis

2 3

(1, 0)

13

(2 2, 0)

y

2

1

y

5

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

Asymptote x = 2

(2, ), R

y

2

x=3

(0, log103)

(2, 0)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x

Asymptote x = 3

(, 3), R

8 10

2 (0, 2)

functions with base e

1

1 a Dilation by factor 3 from the y-axis

1

2

( 2 , 3)

2

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

(0.24, 0)

1 unit up

2 units up

1

from the y-axis,

2

reflection in the x-axis, translation of

3 units up

1

h Dilation by factor 3 from the y-axis,

reflection in the x-axis, translation of

1 unit up

i Dilation by factor 3 from the x-axis,

translation of 2 units to the left and

1 unit down

g Dilation by factor

0 2

4 6

(5, 1)

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

10, reflection in the y-axis, translation of

3 units to the right

2, reflection in the x-axis, dilation by

factor 2 parallel to the y-axis, translation

of 1 unit up

10, reflection in the x-axis, dilation by

factor 5 from the x-axis, translation

2 units up

10, dilation by factor 3 from the x-axis,

translation 1 unit to the left, translation

2 units down

2, dilation by factor 4 from the x-axis,

translation 2 units to the right and

1 unit down

(10, 1.1)

(3.6, 0)

0 2 4

b Dilation by factor

translation of 1 unit up

Asymptote x = 1

(, 1), R

2 a

214

y

2 x=1

(0, 0)

3

4

(3, 1)

y

4

Asymptote x = 0

translation of 3 units up

1 12 3

(10 3 , 0)

3 2 1 0 1 2

Asymptote x = 1

(1, ), R

(2.8, 0)

(1, 1)

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

11 B

(1.2, 0)

0

1

(1, 3)

0

10

x=2

5

y

(3.2, 0)

Domain

), range R, dilation by

1

factor 2 from the y-axis, horizontal

1

translation of 2 unit to the right.

0 1 2

( 12 ,

7 a

(0, 2)

y

5

(1.5, 1)

x=2

(, 2), R

0 1

x = 2

1 0 1

2

3

(3.6, 0)

100 80 60 40 20 0

2

1

y

4 (0, 4)

2

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

y

2

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

g x = 1

Asymptote x = 0

R, R, in y-axis

translation 1 unit up

j 2, dilation by factor 4 from the x-axis

and by factor 12 from the y-axis,

translation of 3 units up and reflection in

the x-axis

0 x

5 4 3 2 1

(100, 0)

0)

( 2, 0)

0 1 2 3

(2, 1)

y

2

y

4

f(x) = ex

f(x) = ex 1

2

(0, 1)

(1, 1)

(0, 1e )

x

0

1 2 3

3 2 1

Asymptote y = 0

Translated 1 unit to the right, R, R+

b

y f(x) = ex

4

f(x) = ex 3

2

(0, 1) (0, e3)

(3, 1)

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

Asymptote y = 0

Translated 3 units to the right, R, R+

3 a

y f(x) = 2ex

4

f(x) = ex

(0, 2)

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

y f(x) = 3ex

4

f(x) = ex

(0, 3)

2

(0, 1)

3 2 1

(2,

y

f(x) = e2 x

8 (0, e2) f(x) = ex

y

f(x) = e1 x 8

f(x) = ex

2 1

0 1

Asymptote y = 0

Reflected in the y-axis, translated

1 unit to the right, R, R+

i

(0, 1)

2 1

y

4

f(x) = ex

(0, 2)

e

4

(0, 4.72)

x-axis, R, (, 3)

y

2 (0, 2)

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

y

8

6

4

2

Asymptote y = 0

Dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis

and by factor 1 from the y-axis, R, R+

3

2 units up, R, (2, )

f

1

1

y=2

Asymptote y = 0

Dilation by factor 14 from the x-axis

1

and by factor 2 from the y-axis, R, R+

y=3

0 1 2 x

f(x) = 3 ex

y=2

(0, 4 )

x

y=1

y

4

(0, e)

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

4

(0, 1)

y

4

(0, 3)

y

2

Asymptote y = 0

Dilation by factor 12 from the x-axis,

and by factor 14 from the y-axis, R, R+

Asymptote y = 0

Reflected in the y-axis, translated

2 units to the right, R, R+

h

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

1

(0, 2 )

(0, 1)

0 1

(3, 1)

2 (0, 2)

y

4

2 1

Asymptote y = 0

Dilation by factor 2 from the x-axis, R, R+

(0, 0.05)

Asymptote y = 0

Translation of 3 units to the right, R, R+

y

4

x

1.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

y = 2

y

2

1

Asymptote y = 0

Dilation by factor 4 from the x-axis, R, R+

1 2 3

Asymptote y = 0

Translation of 3 units to the left, R, R+

x

1.510.5 0 0.5 1 1.5

0 1 x

3 2 1

2 (0, 2)

(0, 1) 2

10

y

4 (0, 4)

y

20 (0, 20.09)

Asymptote y = 0

1

Dilation by factor 2 from the y-axis, R, R+

2

(0, 1)

f(x) = ex

f(x) = ex 2

3 2 1 0

Asymptote y = 0

Dilation by factor 3 from the x-axis

and by factor 1 from the y-axis, R, R+

4 a

(0.5, e)

(0, 1)

0 0.5

1 0.5

y=1

(0, 1)

01 2 3 x

y

4

f

1.5 1 0.5

f(x) = 1 + ex

f(x) = ex

Asymptote y = 0

Dilated by factor 3 from the x-axis,

R, R+

y

(0, 1)

0 0.5 1

Asymptote y = 0

1

Dilation by factor 3 from the y-axis, R, R+

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

(0, 2)

(0, 3)

2

1 0.5

Asymptote y = 0

Dilated by factor 2 from the x-axis,

R, R+

y

4

2

(0, 1)

(0.5, e1.5)

(0, 8.39)

y=1

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

1 unit up, R, (1, )

215

y

6

4

y=3

2

01 2 3

3 2 1

y=5

y=5

(0, 1)

x

1 0

1 unit up, R, (, 1)

y=2

8 a

y

2

y = 1

1 (0, 1)

2 1

0 1

Asymptote y = 0

x

y = 1

y

2 (0, 2)

(0, 0.86)

y

2 (0, 2)

Asymptote y = 0

i

(0, e2)

0 1

[0, ), [0.86, )

2 units up, R, (2, )

(0, 0.95)

(2, 0)

0 1 2

1

1

4

(0, 3)

(1, 2 + e)

2

R, (1, )

Asymptote y = 0

(12 , 0)

0 1 2

2 1

(0, e)

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

x

1

(1, 1 e)

(0.69, 0)

x

1

y

4

Asymptote y = 0

Reflection in the y-axis, reflection in

the x-axis, dilation by factor 2 from

the x-axis, R, R

y=1

(1, e)

y

2

0

2 (0, 2)

y=2

2

0

Asymptote y = 0

Reflection in the x-axis, R, R

y

1

y=1

(0, 1)

0

0

1

(0, 1)

2

216

y

2

4 (0, 4)

Asymptote y = 0

Reflection in the y-axis, R, R+

the x-axis, translation of 5 units up,

R, (, 5)

2

Asymptote y = 0

e

(ln5, 0)

0 1

y = 1

the x-axis, translation of 3 units up,

R, (, 3)

1 unit down, R, (1, )

(0, 2)

(2, 0)

(0, 2 )

(ln3, 0)

2 1

y=3

(1, e) 2

Asymptote y = 0

y

4

(0, 6.39)

6

3 2 1

5 a

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

y=1

5 units up, R, (5, )

y = 2

2

y

4

(0, 2)

(0.69, 0)

0 1 2 x

2 (0, 2)

(0, 5.14)

01 2 3 4 x

3 2 1

y

4

y

8

6

4

2

2 1

(0, 1)

1 unit up, R, (1, )

3 units up, R, (3, )

h

y=1

0 1

y

(1, 1 + e) 4

(0, 2)

(0, 3.37)

y=1

2

9 D

11 a 1,

y=1

0

10 E

b y=ex

base e

1 a Dilation by factor 5 from the x-axis and

by factor 1 from the y-axis

d

e

f

g

h

i

j

k

2 a

(e1, 0)

x

0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(1, 0)

x

0

2 1.5 1 0.5 0.5

2

Asymptote x = 0

y

(e2, 0)

Asymptote x = 0

(, 0), R

y

2

4 a

y

2

(1, 0)

0 1 2

x=1

1

(2, 0)

0

(3, 0)

0 12 3 4 5 6 7x

x = 2

(1, 0)

(0, loge2)

0

2

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

y

4

e

1

2

4

(3.1, 0)

2

y

5

( 2, 0)

2

2

Asymptote x = 0

R, R

(0, loge3)

x=3

2

2

y

1

2

1

( 2 , 0)

x = 3 y

2

(2, 0)

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

y

2

y

2

(1, 0)

0 1 2

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

c

x=2

y

1

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

(6.4, 0)

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2

(0, 2)

x

1.510.5 00.5 1 1.5 2

1

(1, 0)

x

1.510.5 00.5 1 1.5 2

1

y

x = 1

3 a

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

( 3 , 0)

(1, 0)

x

1.510.5 00.5 1 1.5 2

1

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

(4.4, 0)

x

3 21 0 1 2 3 4 5

1 (0, 0.9)

(0.5, 0)

x

0

0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

Asymptote x = 0

y

1

x = 3 y

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

(1.4, 0)

0

2

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

y

1

(0.5, 0)

x

1.510.5 00.5 1 1.5 2

1

c

y

4 x=1

(3, 0)

x

0

0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

1

Translation of 1 unit to the left and

3 units down

Translation of 2 units to the right and

1 unit up

Reflection in the x-axis and in the

y-axis

Reflection in the x-axis and dilation by

factor 1 from the y-axis

2

Translation of 2 units to the right and

1 unit up, reflection in the x-axis

Translation of 3 units to the left and

2 units up, reflection in the x-axis

Translation of 4 units to the left and

1 unit down, dilation by factor 3 from

the x-axis

Translation of 4 units to the right and

1 unit up, reflection in the x-axis

Translation of 1 unit to the right and

3 units up, dilation by factor 2 from

the x-axis, reflection in the y-axis

Translation of 2 units to the right and

1 unit down, dilation by factor 3 from

the x-axis, reflection in the y-axis

Asymptote x = 0

R, R

217

y

5

1

( 4 , 0)

0

1

down

x = 2 y

(1, 2)

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

c

x=1

0 1 2 3

3 2 1

2 (0, 2.58)

Asymptote x = 0

R, R

2

(7.39, 0)

x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

y

0

y

5

(1, 0)

0 0.5 1

1.5

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

(, 1), R

y

2

x=2

3 2 1 0 1 2

(, 2), R

x=2

(3, 0)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x

2

y

2

(1, 0)

2 1 0

(0, 0.69)

2

(1, 0)

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 x

2

(, 2), R

j

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

y

2

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

x=3

y

2

(2, 0)

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

(0, 1.10)

2

y

2

(1, 0)

x

0

2.52 1.510.5 0.5

2

Asymptote x = 0

R, R

5 a f (x) = ln (x 1)

b f (x) = ln (x) 2

c f (x) = 5 ln (x)

x = 3

3

h

f f (x) = ln (x)

218

(0.22, 0)

4

6

Asymptote x = 0

R+, R

B=

19

15

1, f (x) = 12 2x + 1

addition of ordinates

R \{0}

b [0, )

[0, )

d [2, )

R

f R \{3}

R \{1}

h (, 1]

R \{0}

j [1, 3]

2 C

(1, 6.2)

y

6

(1, 6.2)

f(x)

(1, 5.4)

(1, 5.4)

4 (0, 4)

y1 = 2ex

y2 = 2ex 2

(1, 0.74)

(1, 0.74)

(0, 2)

0 0.5 1 x

1 0.5

x

0

2 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

(2,0)

(1, ), R

R+, R

y

2

32

,

15

2, 3

4, 1

2.9, 2.0, 2.0, y = 2.9 loge (x + 2.0) + 2.0

2.0959, 3

1.5, 2, 3

6

7

8

9

10

11

1

,

2

(1.47, 0)

x=1

4 A=

3 a

0

x + 1

h f (x) = ln

4

i f (x) = 2 ln (x) 3

y

2

graphs of exponential and logarithmic

functions

1 0.58, 2.42, f (x) = 0.58ex + 2.42, y = 2.42

2 0.84, 0.33

3 1.60, 0.92

1 a

y

2

g f (x) = ln (x + 3)

(0, 2.08)

exercise 4F

(3, ), R

e f (x) = ln (x)

b Domain is (2, ) and range is R.

c h(x) = 4a 4b loge (x 2)

2

2 1 0

(0, 1.10) 2

D

B

C

(2, 0)

d f (x) = ln

6 a

9

10

11

12

(, 3), R

2 4 6

(1.45, 0)

(1, 0)

0

0

2

y

(1, 9.3)

(1, 8.2)

8 (0, 6) (1, 8.2)

6

y1 = 3ex

y2 = 3ex 4

(0, 3)

2

(1, 1.1)

(1, 1.1)

x

1 0.5 0 0.5 1

(2, 7.4) y

y1 = ex 8

6

4

(2, 5.4) y = x 2

2

(2, 2)

1 2

(2, 11.4)

f(x)

(2, e2)

y1

y

10

(2, 4.14)

(2, 4)

(2, 0.14)

y2

(2, 4)

(1, 1)

=x

g(x)

10

5

y2 = x2

x

(1, 1)

0.5

h(x)

g(x)

(1, 1)

(2, 0.6)

y

y = x2 + 5x + 6

h(x)

Asymptote x = 0

Domain R+, range (0.6, )

5

1.5

(1, 0)

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

f(x)

0.5

2

y

(2, 3.76) 4

6 5 4 321 0 1 2

g(x)

y

2

0

y = x3 + x2 1

1

3 2

6 E

2

g(x)

h(x)

h(x)

g(x)

f(x)

x

g(x)

10 a

y= x+ 2x

x

y= 2x

y= x

Asymptote x = 0

Domain R+, range R

b

y

2

h(x)

(1, 1)

x

f(x)

g(x)

h(x)

g(x)

2

f(x) = 3 loge(x)

0 0.5 1 1.5 x

1

5 f(x) = log (x)

e

y

2

1

2

(1, 2 )

0 0.5 1 1.5

(1, 0)

Asymptote x = 0

Domain R+, range R

x

y= x

g(x)

y= x3

h(x)

f(x)

h(x)

g(x)

y = x 3 x2

y = x2

x

h(x)

g(x) = 21 x

f(x) = loge(x)

x

y = 2x

Asymptote x = 0

Domain R+, range R

d

d

e

y = 2x x

h(x)

g(x) = 2x

(1, 2)

1

4

f(x)

y

5

Asymptote x = 0

Domain R+, range R

c

f(x)

7 a

3

f(x)

(2, 3.76)

f(x)

g(x)

Asymptote x = 0

Domain R+, range [1, )

0 1 2 3 x

y

2

x

f(x)

f(x) = loge(x)

y1 = e (3, e )

2 1

h(x)

(0, 1)

(3, 9.05)

f(x) (3, 9)

(2, 4)

2

(1, 0)

(2, 11.4)

(2, 7.4)

4 a

f(x)

y

2

(2, 2.14)

(2, 2)

(2, 0.14)

x

2

y

(2, 9.4)

f(x) (2, 7.4)

8

y1 = ex

6

4 (0, 1) y = x

2

(2, 0.14) 2

(2, 2)

(2, 1.9)

x

1 2 0 1

2

(2, 2)

h(x)

y

y= 5x

f(x)

g(x)

x

2 5 y= x+5+ 5x

y= x+5

5

11 E

219

12

y = loge(x) + x

4

3

1

( 1 , 0)

3

y= x

y

4

y = loge(x)

1

(0, 2)

x

2

y

x-intercept

f(x)

g(x)

0

y

3

1

Domain (0, ), range ,

e

x-intercept (1, 0)

0.3

0.2

0.1

(0, 0)

4

y

0.6

0.4

0.2

(0, 0)

1 0

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

3 a

y

10

9

8

7

(0, e1 + 4) 65

4

3

2

1

3 2

3

4

1

(2 + e , 0)

(0, e4 3)

1 1 0

(0, 2)

3

x = 1

1

e2

, 0)

2

c

2 a

(1, 1)

(ln (2) 1, 0)

(3.1, 0)

(2.9, 0)

1

(4 + ln (3), 0)

(4 ln (3), 0)

(4, 2)

10

x=3

y-intercept (0, 1)

(ln (2) 1, 0)

0

2

1

1

(0, 2 e1)

2

3

4

4 a

y

y=3

3

1

1

(0, 2)

1

Domain (0, ), range ,

2e

x-intercept (1, 0)

Domain R, range (, 1]

220

x

1 (0, 1)

(1, 5)

y

2 (1 +

1

(1 e 12 , 0)

Asymptote x = 0

c

y

6 (0, 3loge 2 + 3)

5

4

3

2

1

1 0 1

2

2

1

(2 e , 0)

x=2

functions with absolute values

1 a

Asymptote x = 0

15 a

3 2

x = 3

(2, 1)

(f+g)(x)

14 a

1

, 0)

x=1

2

3

1

e2

(1

( )

1

,0

3

18e

Domain x > 0

13

1

0

2 (3, 0) 4

x=2

1

2

(ln (3), 0)

y

4

(0, 3)

2

1

2

f

y=2

x

1 1 0 1

2

2 (ln (6), 0)

3

5 a

c

e

4 days

b 0.277

T = 80e kt + 18

d 9 minutes

T = 80e 0.277t + 18

f 19 C

T

Domain R, range

c

20

y=3

(10, 75)

60

(0, 50) (2, 54)

40

2000

P(n)

(20, 1329)

d 475 wallabies

3 a $500

b $530.90

f

g

h

i

e 9 years

c $174.95

(0, 500)

(5, 675)

400

e $810

4 a 0.18

c

E

8 t

b 167, 81

g(x) = 2e x + 1 4

(0, 2e 4)

(1 + loge 2, 0)

55

y = 4

x + 4 1

b g 1(x) = loge

Domain = (

8

4,

), range = R

y

2

(1, 0)

x

2

6 4 2 0

2 (0, 2)

y = 4

4

200

y = h(x)

0 (0.33, 0)

(1, 167)

(5, 81)

(10, 33)

y

4

(5, 3)

0 2 4 6 8 10121416 t

d 7 days

6 120 e 20

7 a

23 jackets, profit $1339

100

No. Not enough jackets are made before

profits begin to decrease.

1

0 2

100

20

(55, 1100)

Short anSWer

200

6 8 10

Chapter reVieW

(1, 530.9)

2 4

y

(20, 400)

(10, 2)

(55, 892)

300

600

R = 2000

(55, 1992)

(20, 1729)

400

800

y

2

(1, 0)

0

2

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

500

12 16 18 20 t

12 16

(5, 220)

(1, 162)

(0, 150)

0 4

9 15

g(x)

f(x)

b Teacher to check

d 92 koalas

2 a 150 wallabies

b 162 wallabies, 220 wallabies

c

W

200

12 16

8 a C = 20n

c R 2000

d, e

20

8

y

(f + g) (x)

e 6300

7 C

(15, 92)

0 4

T = 18

P

(1, 10 000)

10 000

(5, 8000)

(10, 7139)

6300

5000

modelling using graphs

1 a 50 koalas

b 54 koalas, 75 koalas

80

T = 18 is an asymptote.

6 a A = 1242.67, B = 10 000

b 7139

c 279 weeks

exercise 4h

g(x)

(f + g) (x)

f(x)

(5, 38)

(9, 25)

2 1 1 0 1

60

4]

y

5

4

3

(0, 2)

1

4 a

80

40

(,

3 f (x) = 3ex 4

( 2 , 0)

1

of 3 units right and a translation of

5 units up

221

b On 1 April 2007, there are 3200 tigers

and 50 elephants.

c The numbers of tigers and elephants is

equal on 1 June 2006 (there are 200 of

each).

d The elephant population is at risk from

1September 2007, as the model predicts

their population will reach 25 on this date.

11

4

2

(0.7, 0) (0, 0.3)

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3

3

f(x)

y = log 2x

y

(1, 0.3)

(2, 0)

1 0

2

3

2 3 4 5

extenDeD reSponSe

y

2

3 2 1

(0, 1.74)

y=1

0 1 2 3 x

222

(loge(2), 0) y

(loge(3), 0)

0

3

6

9

12

15

18

A

D

E

D

B

B

MUltiple ChoiCe

B

C

B

D

A

B

1

0.52, 516 metres

16 metres

3.6 kilometres

P = 101.3e 0.125x

76.7 kPa

b = 5, c = 6

x = loge (2) and loge (3)

(0.92, 0.25)

x = (loge (5), 6)

g: R R, g(x) = e2x + 5ex 6

h: R R, h(x) = e 2x 5ex + 6

(0, 2)

(0, 4)

3

2

1

2

5

8

11

14

17

y = log x

x

3 4

7 a

b

c

d

8 a

b

9 a

b

c

d

e

f

g

4 a 10 000

b 15 000

x = 3

D

C

C

D

C

A

1 2

(1, 0)

Domain R+ range R

1

4

7

10

13

16

x=2

3 2 110

2

y = 6

y=3

1 2

(loge (5), 0)

Domain R, range (, 4]

$5000

$5256.35

$6420.15

$6410.20

13.95 years

The first investment, because the interest

is compounded continuously.

g $9.95

h About $20

6 a

b

c

d

e

f

k(x) = e 2x + 5e x 6, domain R,

range (, 0.25]

h y = e 2x + 4 5 x + 2 + 7 or

2(2 x) 5e(2 x) + 7, domain R,

y=e

range [0.75, )

ChapTer 5

Inverse functions

diGiTal doC

doc-9195

10 Quick Questions

ChapTer ConTenTS

5a

5B

5C

5d

Functions and their inverses

Inverse functions

Restricting functions

5a

You will recall from Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS that a relation is a set of ordered pairs

that can be graphed or may be described by a rule.

As we have seen, the inverse of a relation can be found by:

1. interchanging the x- and y-coordinates of an ordered pair; for

y

y=x

example, (1, 2) becomes (2, 1)

3

2. reflecting the relation in the line y = xa

(1, 2)

2

3. interchanging x and y in the rule and rearranging the equation to

(2, 1)

(0, 1)

make y the subject; for example, y = x 1 becomes x = y 1,

1

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

giving y = x + 1.

The domain of a relation becomes the range of its inverse

and the range of a relation becomes the domain of its inverse.

The diagram at right shows a set of ordered pairs

A = {(1, 2), (0, 1), (1, 0), (2, 1)}, the line y = x and the inverse

B = {(2, 1), (1, 0), (0, 1), (1, 2)}.

The domain of A is {1, 0, 1, 2} and the range of A is {2, 1, 0, 1}.

The domain of B is {2, 1, 0, 1} and the range of B is {1, 0, 1, 2}.

0 1 2

3 2 1

1 (0, 1)

(2, 1)

inTeraCTiViTY

int-0250

inverse functions

(1, 2)

In chapter 2, we looked at how matrices can be used to find the image of a point that is transformed

on a plane, or to find the rule for the graph of a relation that undergoes a transformation or series of

transformations.

As the graph of an inverse is the reflection in the line y = x of the original, we can use a matrix to

describe this transformation and find the image of a point on f (x), or the rule of the inverse f 1(x) given

f (x).

0 1 x

The matrix operation that produces a reflection in the line y = x is

.

1 0 y

Finding the image of a point using this method is trivial, as we know that the points on the graph of

an inverse are found by interchanging the (x, y) values of any point on the original. This can be shown as

follows:

The graph of a relation passes through the point (3, 4). Find the image of this point on the graph of

the inverse.

0 1 3

1 0 =

4

223

A more general application will be to find the rule of the inverse of a relation. This can be done using

matrices but in practice this is unnecessary as it simply involves swapping the variables and rearranging

the new equation.

Again, it is not time effective to employ this method, but it is shown as a demonstration of the

relationship of the inverse graph to its original.

x x 0 1 x y

T =

=

=

y y 1 0 y x

That is, (x, y) maps to (y, x).

Therefore, we can write y = x and x = y, which relates to the practice of reversing the variables to

find the rule of the inverse.

Worked example 1

Sketch the graph of each of the following relations. State the domain and range of each.

a {(3, 1), (1, 1), (1, 3), (3, 5)}

b y = x2 + 2

Think

2

the ordered pairs.

the ordered pairs.

WriTe/draW

y

5

4

3

2

1

Domain

= {3, 1, 1, 3}

321 0

1

1 2 3

Range = [2, )

2

or equal to 2.

Range

= {1, 1, 3, 5}

y = x2 + 2 Domain = R

(0, 2)

0

Worked example 2

Find the inverse of each relation in Worked example 1. Sketch the graph of each inverse relation,

stating its domain and range.

Think

2

obtain the inverse.

WriTe/draW

The inverse is {(1, 3), (1, 1), (3, 1), (5, 3)}

y

3

2

1

11 0 1 2 3 4 5 x

2

3

224

elements of the ordered pair.

Domain = {1, 1, 3, 5}

Range = {3, 1, 1, 3}

of the ordered pair.

b y = x2 + 2

2

x = y2 + 2

y2 = x 2

subject.

with a turning point (2, 0).

(Use a CAS calculator to verify this graph.)

y= x2

y

y=+

x 2

Domain = [2, )

Range = R

Note: The domain of the original relation is the range of its inverse, and the range of the original relation

is the domain of its inverse.

Worked example 3

For each relation graphed below, sketch the graph and its inverse on the same

axes. Draw in the line y = x.

a

(2, 0) x

(0, 5)

4

(2, 2)

(3, 0) 0

Think

y

(2, 4)

(2, 2)

TUTorial

eles-1211

Worked example 3

(1, 4)

draW

(0, 2) and (5, 0), respectively, and mark them on a

set of axes.

(0, 2)

(5, 0)

reflection of the original function in y = x.

y=x

(2, 0)

(0, 5)

225

2

(2, 2) to (2, 2), (0, 0), (4, 0) and (2, 2) and mark

on a set of axes.

reflection of the original relation in y = x.

2

(0, 4)

(2, 2)

of points.

Draw the line y = x, noting that the inverse is a

reflection of the original function in y = x.

(2, 2)

(4, 0) x

0

2

c

(1, 4) to (0, 3), (4, 2), (0, 0) and (4, 1) and mark

them on the same set of axes.

y=x

(2, 2)

y

4

(2, 4)

(1, 4)

y=x

2

(4, 1)

(3, 0)

2

0

2

(0, 3)

(4, 2)

Note: This example shows that the graph of the inverse relation can be obtained by reflecting the graph

of the original relation in the line y = x. Some specific points can be marked and used as a guide;

intercepts are particularly useful. Note also that a relation and its inverse intersect on the line y = x.

The following activity can help you to quickly see the shape of an inverse from the graph of a relation.

Make a sketch of the graph of a relation in the right-hand bottom corner of a blank page. This should

be 4 or 5 cm square. You will need to use a pen or a dark pencil for best results.

Fold the corner in to the centre at 45. Keeping the page orientation the same, view the axes through

the paper and you will see the graph of the inverse!

Looking through

paper

Fold in along

this line at 45

Another method is to take the original graph, turn the paper over and rotate 90 until the old y-axis is

at the x-axis and the old x-axis is at the y-axis.

226

exercise 5a

Sketch the graph of each of the following relations. State the domain and range of each.

a {(0, 1), (1, 2), (3, 2), (3, 5)}

b {(8, 7), (5, 2), (2, 1), (1, 1)}

c y=x

d y = 2x 5

e 2x + 4y = 8

2

2

f y = x + 4x

g y=x 1

h y = (x + 1)2

3

i x2 + y2 = 4

j y= x

k y=2

1 We 1

x = 4

diGiTal doC

doc-9251

SkillSHEET 5.1

domain and range

m y = 2x3

2 We 2 Find the inverse of each relation in question 1. Sketch the graph of each inverse relation,

stating its domain and range. (Check your graphs using a CAS calculator.)

The graph of a relation passes through the points (0, 1), (1, 2) and (3, 3). The graph of the

inverse of this relation must pass through the points:

a (2, 1) and (3, 3)

B (0, 1) and (3, 3)

C (0, 1) only

d (1, 2) and (3, 3)

e (3, 3) and (4, 10)

3 mC

diGiTal doC

doc-9165

Spreadsheet

Function grapher

A relation has x-intercepts 2 and 3. The y-intercepts of the inverse of this relation are:

a 2 and 3

B 2 and 3

d 2 and 3

C 2 and 3

e cannot be determined

4 mC

5 We 3

For each relation, sketch the graph and its inverse on the same axes. Draw in the line y= x.

4

3

y

0

1 0

(1, 1)

(1, 1)

0

2 x

2

x

y

2

(1, 3)

(2, 3)

2

4

2 x

(1, 2)

227

5B

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

See more

Watch a

video on inverse

functions.

y

y-value for each x-value. The graph of a function can be

y = f(x)

crossed only once by any vertical line.

To find the inverse of a function, we use the same

procedures that we used for relations in the previous

exercise.

1. The rule for the inverse of a function is obtained by

x

0

either:

(a) interchanging the x- and y-values of its ordered pairs

(b) interchanging x and y in the rule for the function,

then making y the subject.

2. The graph of the inverse of a function is obtained by

Vertical lines cross the curve only once.

either:

(a) interchanging the x- and y-values of its ordered pairs

(b) reflecting the graph of the function through the line y = x

(c) finding the rule of the inverse and graphing the new function.

The domain of a function is the range of its inverse. The range of a function is the domain of its inverse.

Worked example 4

State whether or not each of the following is a function by using the vertical line test.

a y = (x + 1)2 3

b x2 + y2 = 1

c y= 4 +1

x2

Think

2

determine if the relation is a function.

WriTe/draW

a y = (x + 1)2 3

(1, 3)

y

0

(1, 3)

b 1

Write the equation.

to determine if the relation is a function.

(0, 2)

y = (x + 1)2 3 is a function.

b x2 + y2 = 1

y

(0, 1)

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

0

(0, 1)

228

x2 + y2 = 1 is not a function.

2

determine if the relation is a function.

c y=

4

+1

x2

y (x = 2)

(y = 1)

(2, 0) 0 (0, 1)

y=

4

+ 1 is a function.

x2

Worked example 5

For each of the following functions, sketch, on the same set of axes, the graph

of the function, its inverse and the line y = x. State the domain and range for

the function and its inverse.

a y = x2 2x

b y = loge (x + 1)

Think

TUTorial

eles-1212

Worked example 5

WriTe/draW

a y = x2 2x

square.

= x2 2x + 12 12

= (x2 2x + 1) 1

= (x 1)2 1

(1, 1).

substituting in the original equation.

If x = 0, y = 02 2(0)

y=0

The y-intercept is 0.

If y = 0, x2 2x = 0

side.

x(x 2) = 0

x = 0 and x = 2

The x-intercepts are 0 and 2.

0

1

x

1 2

(1, 1)

y = x2 2x

x = (y 1)2 1

x + 1 = (y 1)2

y 1 = x +1

y = 1 x + 1 which is a sideways

parabola.

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

229

10

point and intercepts in the original equation to find

the turning point and intercepts of the inverse.

11

inverse and the line y = x.

(2, 0) becomes (0, 2) and

the origin remains the same.

y

y=x

y = x2 2x

x

y=1 x+1

12

13

the range is R.

b y = loge (x + 1)

loge (0) is undefined.

x = 1 is the vertical asymptote.

x = 0 so the x-intercept is 0.

x = 1

y = loge (x + 1)

x = loge (y + 1)

ex = y +

the original function.

y = 1 is the horizontal asymptote for the

inverse.

(0, 0) is on both graphs.

inverse and the line y = x.

x=

y = ex 1

y = ex 1

y=x

y = loge (x + 1)

x

y = 1

9

10

230

range is (1, ).

Worked example 6

If f(x) = ln (x + 1) + 1:

a find f 1(x)

b draw the graph of f(x) and its inverse f 1(x).

Think

WriTe

a 1 Let y = f (x).

a y = ln (x + 1) + 1

Interchange x and y.

x = ln (y + 1) + 1

solve (ln (y + 1) + 1 = x, y)

y = ex 1 1

f 1(x) = e x 1 1

b f1(x) = ln(x + 1) + 1

f2(x) = e(x 1) 1

2

calculator to sketch the two graphs on the

same set of axes.

(x)

y=x

f1(x)

x

exercise 5B

1 We 4 State whether or not each of the following is a function by using the vertical line test.

a y = 2x 1

d

y=

(2 x + 1)2

g y = loge (x + 1) 2

4

1

x+3

b y = 3(x 1)2 + 2

y=

e x2 + y2 = 4

y = 3e(x 2) + 1

y= x +2

2 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions and state the domain and range of each. (Verify that

a (4, 2), (2, 0), (0, 1), (2, 4), (3, 6)}

b 3x + 4y = 12

c f (x) = 5 2x

d f (x) = x2 9

e f (x) = (x + 2)2

g f (x) = x2 + 8x

h f (x) =

x3

2

f

(

x

)

=

4 x2

k

4

x

f (x) = 2ex

f (x) =

Find the inverse of each function in question 2. Sketch the graph and state the domain and

range of each inverse. (Verify using a CAS calculator.)

4 For each function graphed below:

i copy the graph of each function and sketch its inverse on the same axes

ii state the domain and range of f (x)

iii state the domain and range of the inverse of f (x).

diGiTal doC

doc-9252

SkillSHEET 5.2

matching graphs

with equations

3 We 5

b

y=x

f(x)

f(x)

f(x)

diGiTal doC

doc-9196

Spreadsheet

inverse graphs

1

0

x

0

y=x

y=x

231

f(x)

y x=1

f(x)

3

f(x)

3

0

y=x

g

3 x

y=x

y=x

y

f(x)

y=x

f(x)

5

5x

y

y=x

(4, 1)

3

f(x)

y=x

5

j

y=x

y

x = 3

f(x)

6

3 2

(3, 4)

f(x)

2

x

y=x

2

y=x

f : R + R, f ( x ) =

5 mC The range of f (x) is:

a R+

d R

B R

e (, 0]

a R

d [0, )

B R

e (, 0]

a R

d (, 0]

C [0, )

C R+

C [0, )

B R

e R+

a y = x2, where x [0, )

C y = x2 where x R

e y=

diGiTal doC

doc-9197

WorkSHEET 5.1

x , where x [0, )

B y = x2, where x R

d y = x2, where x R+

9 We6 For each of the following functions, fully define the inverse.

a f : [2, ) R, f (x) = (x 2)2 3

b f : R R, f (x) = 3e x 1 + 2

5C

inverse functions

A one-to-one function is a function where for each x-value there is only one y-value and vice versa.

The graph of a one-to-one function can be crossed only once by any vertical or horizontal line.

A function that is not one-to-one is many-to-one.

A function will have an inverse that is also a function if and only if it is a one-to-one function. If a

232

Furthermore:

dom f 1 = ran f

ran f 1 = dom f

(Note that if f crosses the line y = x at any point, f and f 1 will intersect at that point.)

The maximal domain of a function is the largest domain for which its rule is defined. If a function is

given without its domain specified, then it is understood that the maximal or implied domain is intended.

y

y = f(x)

Horizontal lines

cross the curve

only once.

Worked example 7

1

Consider the function f ( x ) = x + 2 .

a State whether or not it is a one-to-one function, and hence determine if the

inverse function exists.

If the inverse function exists:

b on the same set of axes, sketch f(x), its inverse and the line y = x

c use a CAS calculator to find the points of intersection of f(x) and f 1(x)

d find the maximal domain and range of the original function

e find the domain and range of the inverse function.

Think

TUTorial

eles-1213

Worked example 7

WriTe/draW

1 a basic hyperbola

,

x+2

translated 2 units to the left.

a f (x) =

denominator of the fraction equal to 0.

x+2=0

x = 2

no vertical translation.

y=0.

horizontal line tests to decide whether or not f (x) is a

one-to-one function.

x = 2

y

(0, 12)

x

1

f(x) = x + 2

f 1(x) exists.

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

233

(x) and y = x.

( 0, 12 ) becomes ( 12 , 0 )

1

The equation is y = x 2.

x = 2

1)

(0,

2

1

y =

x+2

y=x

0

1 , 0)

(

2

1 x 2

y=

x y = 2

2.414)

these points both lie on the line y = x.

R \{0}.

e The domain of the inverse is the range of the original

original function.

If a function, f, is not one-to-one but is many-to-one, it is possible to restrict its domain so that the

limited domain is one-to-one and hence the inverse function exists.

Worked example 8

f(x)

(0, 9)

3

Think

234

WriTe

x = 3, so that 2 one-to-one functions are formed.

one-to-one.

restricted to (, 3].

one-to-one.

restricted to [3, ).

exists.

lines cut the parabola in 2 places.

exist is (, 3].

exercise 5C

inverse functions

i state whether or not it is a one-to-one function and hence determine if the inverse function

exists.

If the inverse function exists:

ii on the same set of axes, sketch f (x), its inverse and the line y = x

iii use a CAS calculator to find the points of intersection of f (x) and f 1(x)

iv find the maximal domain and range of the original function

v find the domain and range of the inverse function.

a f (x) = 4x + 1

b f (x) = 6x

c f (x) = 5

d f (x) = x2 + 2

e f (x) = (x 3)2

f f (x) = (x + 1)3

2

16 x 2

g f (x) =

h f (x) =

i f (x) = x2 6x + 3

x

j f (x) = e4x 2

k f (x) = 2 loge (x 1)

2 Find: i which of the functions below has an inverse function f

ii f 1(x), if it exists.

1

(x)

1

2

x2

x3

f (x) =

2

f ( x ) = 16 x 2

f (x) = 3ex 2

f (x) = 1 + 2 ln (x)

a f (x) = 4x

b f (x) =

c f (x) = 5 x2

d f (x) = (x 1)2

g f (x) =

x2

j f (x) = 5 ex 2

m f (x) = 2 loge (x 4)

k

n

f (x) = (x + 5)2 28

f (x) = 2ex + 1

l f (x) = loge (3x)

o f (x) = 3 loge (2x + 3)

i

Function

Domain

Range

Domain

Range

R+

[10,

[1, )

[3, 3]

[0, 3]

(0, )

[5, 5]

[0, 8]

g

h

R+

y

a [3, 5]

B [2, 10]

C [1, 3]

a (, 4]

B [0, )

C R+

d [0, 4]

e [0, 2.2]

d R

e (, 2]

235

2

+ 1.

( x 3)2

a The function would be one-to-one if the domain were restricted to:

a (3, ]

B [3, )

d (1, )

e [3, )

b The inverse would be a function if the domain of f (x) were:

a [0, 4]

B (1, 4]

d [0, 3)

e [1, )

a R+

d R+ {0} or R {0}

b For f

a R

B R

e (, 1]

C [2, 4]

C [1, )

B R

C [0, )

d R+

e [1, )

For each function graphed below, state the largest possible domain of f so that f

7 We 8

a

f(x)

y

0

exists.

y

(3, 3)

f(x)

1 0

y

9

f (x)

f (x)

f(x)

C (3, )

f(x)

1

f(x)

0 1

3

f (x)

5d

9 x

9x

0

x=5

f (x)

restricting functions

As we have seen in the previous exercise, functions which are not one-to-one can have their domains restricted

so that they become one-to-one. As a result their inverses will then be functions, that is, f 1 will exist.

Worked example 9

f : [ 3, 3] R

R,,

f ( x)

x) = 9 x 2

Think

exists.

WriTe

a Let y = f (x)

y = 9 x2

236

y2 = 9 x2

x2 + y2 = 9

TUTorial

eles-1173

Worked example 9

(0,0) and radius 3.

square root implies the upper part of a

semicircle.

semicircle.

y

3

3

7

exist.

or [0, 3].

1

is [0, 3].

using dom f

= ran f.

= ran f

= [0, 3]

= dom f

= [0, 3]

y = 9 x2

Inverse is x = 9 y 2

using ran f

dom f

to exist

1

= dom f.

ran f

x2 = 9 y2

x2 + y2 = 9

y2 = 9 x2

y = 9 x2

Since ran f

positive domain is:

1

2

f 1: [0, 3] R, f ( x ) = 9 x

Worked example 10

1

b fully define f and sketch its graph.

Think

2

WriTe/draW

a y = 3(x 1)2 2

y-intercept (0, 1) and x-intercepts

(0.184, 0) and (1.816, 0)

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

237

x

0

(1, 2)

domain must be restricted.

one-to-one.

exist.

y = 3(x 1)2 2

x = 3(y 1)2 2

x + 2 = 3(y 1)2

x+2

= ( y 1)2

3

x+2

y 1 =

reject the negative

3

solution because the range is [2, ).

to

S = [1, )

b The range is [2, ).

using dom f

= ran f.

The domain of f

y = 1+

5

is [2, ).

x+2

3

f 1:[ 2, ) R, f 1 ( x ) = 1 +

x+2

3

A feature of inverse functions is that by taking the inverse function of a function, or vice versa, the

independent variable (x) is always obtained. That is:

f 1 [ f (x)] = f [ f 1(x)] = x.

The following example illustrates how this works.

Worked example 11

Think

238

Interchange x and y.

the power of 13 and simplifying.

TUTorial

eles-1242

Worked example 11

WriTe

a f(x) = y = x3

1

( y3 ) 3 = x 3

1

y = x3

Simplify.

Simplify.

f (x 3 )

=x

f 1[ f ( x )] =

(x3) by replacing x by x3 in f 1 ( x ) = x 3 .

1

( x )] =

1 3

Find f

R R, f 1 ( x ) = x 3

= x 3

1

:

b f[ f

Find f

dom f = R

ran f 1 = R

b 1 Find f [ f

f 1(x) = x 3

f 1( x 3 )

1

= (x3 )3

=x

Compare f [ f (x)] to f

f [ f 1 (x

( x )] =

[ f(x)].

f 1[ f ( x)]

x )] = x

Worked example 12

a Sketch the graph of f(x) = x2 3x + 3, showing the turning point and relevant

intercept(s).

TUTorial

b Find the rule of the inverse by an algebraic method and sketch this graph on eles-1214

Worked example 12

the same set of axes together with the line y = x.

c Is the inverse a function?

d The inverse is a reflection in the line y = x of the original function f(x). Use this information to

find any points of intersection between the original curve and its inverse.

Think

WriTe/draW

y

4

3

2

1

0

f (x) = x2 3x + 3

y=x

(1.5, 0.75)

1 2 3 4

b x = y2 3y + 3

Interchange x and y.

2

determine the inverse.

y=

( 4 x 3 + 3)

or

2

y=

( 4 x 3 3)

2

f 1( x) =

4x 3 + 3

2

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

239

f 1(x) and y = x.

not a function.

d 1 Use a CAS calculator to determine the points of

Note: These are the points of intersection of

f and f 1.

y

4

3

2

1

f(x) = x2 3x + 3

y=x

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

relation, and therefore it is not a function.

d Solve (x2 3x + 3 = x).

y

4

3

2

1

f (x) = x2 3x + 3

y=x

(1.5, 0.75)

1 2 3 4

0

2

f Min (x2 3x + 3, x)

Minimum is x = 32 .

parabola, a = 32 .

Domain is ( , 32 ].

Worked example 13

Let f: R R, f(x) = ex + 1.

a Sketch the graph of f and state its range.

1

c Find the rule and maximal domain for y = f( f (x)).

ax

d Find y = f(f 1(2x)) in the form

where a, b and c are constants.

bx + c

Think

asymptote y = 1.

WriTe

y

8

6

4

2

y=1

1 20

2x

Range = (1, )

b 1 Interchange x and y to find the inverse equation.

240

by=e

x = e y + 1 is the inverse.

y

subtract 1 from both sides.

x1=e

loge(x

log (x

e

1) = y

1) = y

c f (f 1(x)) = eloge(x 1) + 1

Since the range for the given function was (1, ) then

this becomes the domain of the inverse function.

function notation.

=x1+1

=x

function.

y

5

4

3

2

1

0

f 1(2x).

exercise 5d

5x

f (x) = ex + 1

f 1(x) = loge(x 1)

f 1(x) = log (x 1)

e

f 1(2x)

= loge(2x 1)

f ( f 1(2x)) = eloge(2x 1) + 1

= eloge(2x 1) 1 + 1

= (2x 1)1 + 1

1

1

=

+

2x 1 1

1 + 2x 1

=

2x 1

2x

1

f ( f (2 x ) =

2x 1

restricting functions

1 We9a Find the largest possible domain(s) of the following functions so that the inverse function

b f : R R, f (x) = 3x2 1

1

c f : R R, f (x) = (x + 3)2 2

d f : R \{0}

} R, f ( x ) = 2 3

x

1

1

} R, f ( x ) =

+1

} R, f ( x ) =

e f : R \{4}

f f : R \ {2}

2

( x 4)

x2

a f : R R, f (x) = x2 + 3

g f : [ 5, 5] R,

R, f ( x)

x ) = 25 x 2

R,, f ( x)

x) = 1 x 2

h f : [ 1, 1] R

i f : [4, ) R, f ( x ) = x 4

k f : R R, f (x) = e x + 2

j

l

diGiTal doC

doc-9253

SkillSHEET 5.3

Function

notation

f : R R, f (x) = x2 2x + 5

f : (5, ) R, f (x) = 2 loge (x 5)

2 We 9b For each function in question 1 use the restricted domain to fully define f

1

(x).

(If there are two possible domains, use the one which is to the right.)

3 mC Use the function f : [0, ) R, f (x) = x2 to answer the following questions.

a Any points of intersection of f (x) and f 1(x) must lie on the line:

a y=0

b f

B y=x

C y = 2x

d y=x+1

e x=0

a f 1 : [0, ) R, f 1(x) = x

f 1: [0, )

f 1: (0, ] R, f 1 ( x ) =

R,

f 1( x)

= x

B f 1 : [0, ) R, f 1(x) = x

d f 1: [0, ) R, f 1 ( x ) = x

1

x2

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

241

c The range of f

(x) is:

a (, 0]

C R+

B R

e R

d [0, )

B (1, 1) only

C (0, 0) and (1, 1)

e (1, 1) and (2,, 14 )

4 Copy each of the following graphs, then on the same set of axes sketch the graphs of y = x and

y = f 1(x).

a (0, 0) and (1, 1)

d (0, 0) and (3, 3)

f(x)

f(x)

3

5

f (x)

0

d

1

h

f (x)

x

f(x)

f(x)

(2, 5)

y

2

f(x)

5 We10 If f : S R, f ( x ) = 3 + x 1, find:

[2,

f(x)

b f

6 If f :

a] R, f (x) = (x

5, find:

a the largest possible value of a so that f will have an inverse which is a function

b f

4)2

7 We11 For f : R+ R, f ( x ) =

a find f

c find f

:

1

b find f [ f

[ f (x)]

d show that f [ f

(x)]

a

b

c

d

a the smallest value of b so that g(x) has an inverse that is a function

b g 1

242

(x)] = f 1[ f (x)] = x.

1

:

x2 + 2

sketch the graph of f (x)

state the largest positive domain for f (x) so that f 1(x) exists

1

sketch the graph f (x) on the same set of axes as f (x), using the positive domain

For f : R R, f ( x ) =

10 Given that g( x ) = 3 +

11 The Richter scale is used to measure the intensity of an earthquake. The intensity of an earthquake

indicates the violence of the Earths motion. The actual model is a little more complex but simplifies to:

I

R = log10

I0

where I is the intensity of the earthquake, I0 is the initial intensity which equals one and R is the

magnitude of the earthquake on the Richter scale.

The following earthquakes occurred during the first six months of 2011.

Date

Place

March 11

Tohoku, Japan

9.0

April 7

Honshu, Japan

7.4

February 23

6.3

June 13

6.0

a Calculate the intensity of each of the four earthquakes listed, giving your answers in scientific notation.

b i Compare the magnitudes of the two Japanese earthquakes by setting up a simplified ratio of the

two intensities.

ii Compare the magnitudes of the two New Zealand earthquakes by setting up a simplified ratio of

iii Compare the magnitudes of the smaller Japanese earthquake and larger New Zealand

12 a Sketch the graph of the function f (x) = ex 1, stating the domain and range.

b Find the inverse function, f 1, stating the domain and range. Use function notation to state the

c Sketch the graph of f 1 on the same set of axes used for part (a).

d Find the rule for y = f (f 1(x)) and investigate the conditions under which this composite function

exists.

function exists.

g Find the rule for y = g(x) f(x), stating the domain for this function. Sketch the graph of this

function with the assistance of a CAS calculator.

13 For the function f : ( 2, ) R, f ( x ) = loge ( x + 2)

a Sketch the graph of f and state the range of the function.

b Find the rule, domain and range of the inverse function. Sketch this on the same set of axes as

used in part (a).

c Find where these two functions intersect, giving your answers correct to 2 decimal places.

14 For the function y = e2x 2ex + 1:

a find where the graph cuts the y-axis

b find where the graph cuts the x-axis algebraically

c find any stationary point(s) and investigate the nature of the point(s).

d sketch the graph of the function, with the aid of a CAS calculator, stating the domain and range

e find the inverse function, stating the domain and range

f find where the graphs of the two functions intersect giving answers correct to 2 decimal places,

where appropriate

g sketch the inverse function on the same set of axes used for part (d).

15 a Sketch the graph of f where f : ( 1, ) R, f ( x ) = 2loge ( x + 1) .

b Find the rule for the inverse function, stating the domain and range. Express the rule of the inverse

using function notation.

ax

where a, b and c are real constants.

bx + c

diGiTal doC

doc-9198

WorkSHEET 5.2

243

Summary

relations and their

inverses

The inverse of a relation can be found by interchanging the x and y elements.

The graph of a relation and its inverse are reflected in the line y = x.

If the rule for a relation is known, then the rule for its inverse is obtained by interchanging x and y

in the rule and then making y the subject.

The domain of a relation is the same as the range of its inverse and the range of a relation is the

same as the domain of its inverse.

inverses

A function is a relation which has only one y-value for each x-value. The graph of a function can

be crossed only once by a vertical line.

A one-to-one function is a function which has only one x-value for each y-value. The graph of a

one-to-one function can be crossed only once by any vertical or horizontal line.

A function which is not one-to-one is many-to-one.

The rule for the inverse of a relation, or a function, can be obtained by either:

1. interchanging the first and second elements of the ordered pairs

2. interchanging x and y in the rule and making y the subject.

y

Graphing the inverse The graph of the inverse of a relation, or a

function, can be obtained by either:

1

f (x)

1. interchanging the first and second elements of the ordered pairs of

2

the relation or function

(5, 2)

2. reflecting the graph of the relation or function through the line y = x

x

0

5

f(x)

3. using the rule of the relation or function to find the rule of the

inverse and then graphing the inverse.

y=x

The domain and range of a function and its inverse are interchanged.

(2, 5)

The graphs of a function and its inverse intersect on the line y = x.

inverse functions

restricting functions

A function, f (x), which is not one-to-one can have its domain restricted so that f 1(x) exists.

A function is fully described using the notation

The inverse of a one-to-one function, f (x), is also a function and is denoted by f 1(x).

dom f 1 = ran f

1

ran f = dom f

f 1[ f (x)] = f [ f 1(x)] = x

The implied (or maximal) domain of a function is the largest domain for which the function has

meaning. When the domain is not mentioned, use the maximal domain.

f : X Y, f (x) = rule

where X is the domain and Y is the co-domain.

1

f [ f (x)] = f [ f 1(x)] = x

244

Chapter review

1 Sketch the graph of the inverse of each of the following relations.

y

S ho rT

a n S W er

b

(4, 4)

2

2

3

2 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions and state its domain and range.

2

a y = 36 x

b f (x) = 2e x 2

3 Using the graph of the functions given below sketch the graph of the inverse of each function.

a

x = 2

b

f(x)

1

2

1 0

y

f(x)

8 x

f(x)

(4, 4)

(1, 4)

4 State the largest possible domain for each of the following functions to be one-to-one.

a f (x) = 3 loge (x +

4)

c f (x) = 5

b g(x) = (x 2)2

1

x2

i Sketch their graphs and, by inspection, define them as one-to-one or many-to-one

functions.

ii For the functions defined in i as many-to-one, define the maximal domain for which the inverse

is a function, stating their domains in formal function notation. If there is more than one

option, choose the right-hand option.

iii Find the rules of their inverses.

iv For all of the one-to-one functions from i and the redefined functions from iii, sketch all these

inverse functions.

a f (x) = 2x 1

b f (x) = 2(x 1)3 + 1

c f (x) = |x2 + x |

d f (x) =

e f (x) = 3ex + 1

g f (x) =

( x + 3)2

2 x 3

2

f (x) =

1

3( x 2)

+1

6 a Sketch the graph of f (x) = loge (x 2) + 1, marking the intercepts and asymptotes and stating the

d Draw the graphs of y = x and f 1(x) on the same axes as f (x) = loge (x 2) + 1, marking the point

(m, 3) and checking that it is on f 1(x). State the domain and the range.

e Mark the image of (m, 3) on the original graph.

1

to exist.

ChapTer 5 Inverse functions

245

m U lTip l e

C h oiCe

1 A relation has an x-intercept of 4 and y-intercept of 2. The inverse of this relation has an x-intercept

B 2, 4

a 4, 2

C 4, 2

d 2, 4

e 0, 0

2 The graph that best represents the inverse of the relation shown in the figure below is:

y

y

0

1

1

0

a a one-to-one function

C a many-to-many relation

e a one-to-one relation

B a many-to-one relation

d a one-to-many function

3 is closest to:

(x), where f ( x ) = 3 x 3,

C 3

d 1.27

e 6

2

+ 3, is closest to:

5 The y-intercept of the inverse function f 1(x), where f ( x ) =

( x 2)

a 43

B no x-intercept

C 34

d 2

e 2

2

+ 3, at:

6 Asymptotes exist on the graph of the inverse function f 1(x), where f ( x ) =

( x 2)

a x = 1 only

B y = 1 only

C x = 3, y = 2

d x = 2, y = 1

e x = 3, y = 2

4

7 The inverse of the relation y =

is:

x2

2

2

2

a y=

B y=

C y=

x

x

x

2

2

d y=

e y=

x

x

4 The x-intercept of the inverse function f

a 1.27

B 6

8 A function has a domain of [0, ) and a range of R+. The domain of its inverse must be:

a R

B R

C R+

d [0, )

e (, 0]

1

is:

1

C R \{0}

d R \{1, 1}

e R+

a R

246

B R \{1}

x2

10 The maximal domain for f (x) is:

a [3, )

11 dom f

a

R+

B (, 3)

C R \{3}

d (3, )

e R+

B [0, )

C R

d (, 3)

e (3, )

is equal to:

a f 1 : R R, f 1 ( x ) = e 4 3

C f 1: ( , 3) R, f 1 ( x ) =

f 1 : R + R, f 1 ( x ) =

x4

e 2

B

x+4

e 2

d f 1 : R R, f 1 ( x ) =

x+2

4

x+4

e 3

f 1 : R R, f 1 ( x ) = e

13 At which one of the following points is it possible for a function and its inverse to intersect?

a (2, 2)

14 The value of

a

B (1, 2)

f [ f 1 ( 13 )]

C (2, 1)

d (0, 1)

C x

e (1, 2)

is equal to:

1

3

1

3

e 3

15 The function shown in the figure is one-to-one if the domain is restricted to:

a [2, )

[3,

2]

e [0, )

C

B [3, )

f(x)

d (, 2]

a (, 0]

B [0, )

C [0, 5]

to exist is:

d [5, 100]

e (, 5]

a Find the rule for the inverse of the function f (x) = 0.213x2 + 1.127x 2.124.

b Explain why this inverse is not a function.

c Find the value of a, correct to 2 decimal points, for [a, ), the maximal domain of f (x) so that the

ex Ten d ed

r eS p o n S e

2 The function, f (x), in the figure below is a parabola with a turning point at (0, 4).

y

4

y=x

A

2

Find the coordinates of the point, A.

State the domain and range of f (x).

Sketch the graph of f (x) and its inverse on the same set of axes.

What shape is enclosed between f (x) and its inverse?

i State the domain for which the inverse of f (x) is a function.

ii Give the rule for the inverse of f (x) over this domain.

g i State the domain for which the inverse of f (x) is not a function.

ii Give the rule for the inverse of f (x) over this domain.

a

b

c

d

e

f

247

a Use a calculator to find the turning points, rounding answers

b State the domain and range of f (x).

c On the same set of axes, sketch f (x), its inverse and the line

f(x) = exx2

e Use a CAS calculator to solve exx2 = x to find the points of

Find the largest possible negative domain of f (x) so that

g Find the domain of the inverse function.

4 a Use a CAS calculator to draw the graph of f (x) = 6 loge |x 3|.

b Find the value of a for (a, ), the maximal domain of f (x), such that f 1(x) exists. Let this new

function be g(x).

d Consider the function f (x) = a loge (x 3), where a > 0. Let f 1(x) = h(x). Given that

x

a

1

and h ( x ) = e a , find the value of a (correct to 2 decimal places) for which the

f ( x ) =

a

x3

graph of f (x) and its inverse intersect only once.

5 Bacteria share one major characteristic; they divide by simple binary division. The mathematical series

describing their growth is 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, . . . which can be rewritten as 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, . . .

a i Write a mathematical equation relating the number of bacteria present in a colony, N, to the

number of hours, t, after the first division. This division model is only valid for seven days.

ii How many bacteria would be present in the colony after 12 hours?

iii How many bacteria would be present in the colony after 1 day?

iv Sketch the graph of N versus t for the first twelve hours.

b Bacterial growth can be graphed as N versus t, as seen in part (a) (iv) above, since it is exponential

growth. However, because population numbers are so large, it is common practice to plot the

logarithm of the N versus t.

i Explain how this is possible.

(Hint: find the equations relating logarithm of N and t and show that it can be expressed in the

form y = mx + c)

ii Sketch, without the use of a calculator, the graph of loge (N) versus t for one week, i.e.

168 hours. Complete the following table to assist with the sketching.

f

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Practice

VCE exam

questions

Use StudyON to

access all exam

questions on this

topic since 2002.

diGiTal doC

doc-9199

Test Yourself

Chapter 5

248

t (hours)

loge (N)

0

(2 days) 48

2.8147 10

(4 days) 96

7.9228 1028

(6 days) 144

2.2301 10144

(7 days) 168

3.7414 10168

c Find how long will it take for the number of bacteria in the colony to reach 1.142 1026?

6 For the function f : R R, f ( x ) = 2e x 2

a Sketch the graph of f and state the range.

b Find the rule, domain and range of the inverse function. Express the rule of the inverse using

function notation.

ax

where a, b and c are real constants.

bx + c

ICT activities

Chapter opener

diGiTal doC

10 Quick Questions doc-9195: Warm up with ten quick questions on

inverse functions. (page 223)

5a

inTeraCTiViTY

Inverse functions int-0250: Use the interactivity to consolidate your

understanding of graphs of the inverses of relations. (page 223)

TUTorial

We3 eles-1211: Watch a worked example on how to sketch

relations and their inverses. (page 225)

diGiTal doCS

SkillSHEET 5.1 doc-9251: Practise identifying domain and range.

(page 227)

Spreadsheet doc-9165: Investigate graphs of functions. (page 227)

5B

TUTorial

We5 eles-1212: Watch a worked example on sketching functions

and their relations. (page 229)

diGiTal doCS

SkillSHEET 5.2 doc-9252: Practise making graphs with equations.

(page 231)

Spreadsheet doc-9196: Investigate inverse graphs. (page 231)

WorkSHEET 5.1 doc-9197: Sketch relations, functions and their

inverses. (page 232)

5C

inverse functions

TUTorial

We7 eles-1213: Watch a worked example on sketching graphs of

inverse functions. (page 233)

5d

restricting functions

TUTorialS

We9 eles-1173: Watch a worked example on defining inverse

functions. (page 236)

We11 eles-1242: Watch a worked example on identifying that the

We12 eles-1214: Watch a worked example on restricting a

function to define an inverse function. (page 239)

diGiTal doCS

SkillSHEET 5.3 doc-9253: Practise using function notation.

(page 241)

WorkSHEET 5.2 doc-9198: Recognise types of functions and sketch

polynomials and power functions. (page 243)

Chapter review

diGiTal doC

Test Yourself doc-9199: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress. (page 248)

249

Answers CHAPTER 5

inVerSe FUnCTionS

exercise 5a

1 a

y = (x + 1)2

1 0

y

5

4

3

2

1

8

x2 + y2 = 4

c

2

2

1

2 0 1

1

2 x

[2,

(1, 1)

2], [2, 2]

R, R

(1, 3)

3

y=x

1 0

(1, 1)

R, R

y = 2x 5

y = 3

x

5

2

5

2

R, R

y=2

2

e

5

y = 2x + 4

5

2

y = 12 x +

R\{0}, R\{0}

y

(1, 3) 3

0 1

y=x

c

y

7

1

1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x

2

R, [0, )

y

0 123

R, {2}

R, R

e

y

x = 4

2x + 4y = 8

2

0

{4}, R

R, R

m

R, R

y= x+42

y

y

3

y = 2x

y = x2 + 4x

4

(2, 4)

(4, 2)

0 1

[4, ), R

R, R

R, [4, )

y

2 a

(1, 2)

y = x +1

y

y

1

1

0

1

R, [1, )

250

3

2

1

0 12345

y = x2 1

1

x

0

1

[1, ), R

5 a

y = 1 x

x = 2

y=x

y=x

y

0

1

y=3

y=x

2

(1, 3)

y=x

(3, 3)

y=x

3

y=

x

0

3

0

4

(3, 1)

j

y=x

x=3

x2 + y2 = 4

(1, 1)

y = 2

[0, ), R

(1, 1)

3

(3, 3)

(4, 4)

(3, 1)

(3, 1)

x

y

y=x

0 2

4

y=x

0 2

R\{0}, R\{0}

k

x=2

(1, 1)

y=x

y=x

y

y

{2}, R

y=

y=x

y=x

6

(1, 1)

x

2

y=x

y=x

1

0

(2, 1)

1

1

2

y=x

0

0 2

R, R

y

2

R, {4}

m y= 3

y

2

4 2 0

2

4

y=x

1

2

3

3A

4C

251

exercise 5B

1 a

c

e

g

2 a

Function

b Function

Function

d Function

Not a function

f Function

Function

h Function

y

5

2

y = 25 21 x

y

6

R, R

(3, 6)

(2, 4)

R, [ 16, )

2 3

y= x+9

[9, ), R

R, R

(4, 0)

0 x

0 1

(0, 3)

(1, 1 )

1

2

4 (2, 0) 0

2

(4, 2)

(4, 16)

(0, 1)

R, R

c

0

x

0

5

R, R+

j

5

2

y= x 2

[0, ), R

R, R

d

3

0 1

3 x

3

2

R, [0, )

f

1 0

(1, 4)

(1, 4)

(6, 3)

(4, 2)

6

y = x + 16 4

[16, ), R

y

h

1

(16, 4)

y

(0, 4)

( 1 , 1)

4x + 3y = 12

252

R, R

0 1

(3, 0) x

y=

R\{0}, R\{0}

R\{0}, R\{0}

(1, 0), (4, 2), (6, 3)}

{2, 0, 1, 4, 6}, {4, 2, 0, 2, 3}

0 (1, 0) 4

2 (0, 2)

(2, 4)

4

2

3 a

0

1

4

(4, 1)

y

(4, 1)

4

y = x

R ,R

2

R,

[9,

R, R

2x

y

3

y = loge ( 2 )

y=x

x = 3

3 2

y = 12 ex

(0, 1 )

2

y

2

ii (1, ), R

iii R, (1, )

y = 4 x2

2

4 a

2

1

4

y=x

x

y=x

ii R, [4, )

iii [4, ), R

d

(1, 4)

(1, 0)

1

4

y=

x

4

x

1

4

(0, )

y=x

5 x

iii

iv

v

b i

( 13 , 13 )

R, R

R, R

one-to-one, f 1 exists

y = 6x

ii

(1, 6)

y=x

(6, 1)

(0, 0)

y=x

(0, 1)

1

( , 0)

4

y

6

1

=

x

6

3

3

ii R, R+

iii R+, R

y=x

iii [5, 0], [5, 5]

inverse functions

ii R, R+

iii R+, R

( x + 3) + 2

1 a i one-to-one, f 1 exists

y

ii

ii R, [1, )

iii [1, ), R

(x) =

y = 4x + 1

1

0 1

exercise 5C

y=x

ii R, R

iii R, R

a f 1 : [3, ) R,

x2

b f 1 : (2, ) R, f 1 = loge

3 +1

(4, 1)

D

A

E

B

5

6

7

8

9

ii R, R

iii R, R

y=x

1 2 3 4 5

ii [ 2, 3), [0, 4)

iii [0, 4), [2, 3)

y=x

y=x

(4, 3)

x=1

y = 4 x2

[0, 2], [2, 2]

32

(3, 4)

4

3

2

y=1

x

y=x

R, R +

k

ii (3, ), R

iii R, (3, )

iii [0, 3], [3, 3]

0

2

R+, R

j

y=x

iii [2, 0], [2, 6]

6 x

iii

iv

v

c i

d i

(0, 0)

R, R

R, R

253

f i one-to-one, f 1 exists

y = (x + 1)3

(0, 1)

(1, 0)

y=

x 1

x

(1, 0)

(0, 1)

m f 1(x) =

iii

iv R, R

v R, R

g i one-to-one, f 1 exists

y

ii

o f

(x) = 12 (e3 x 3)

Function

a

b

c

d

e

f

g

h

None

R \{0}, R \{0}

R \{0}, R \{0}

one-to-one, f 1 exists

Domain

R

[1, )

[3, 3]

R

R

R

[5, 5]

R+

R

R

[0, 3]

R+

[10, )

(0, )

[0, 8]

R

R

R

[0, 3]

R+

[10, )

(0, )

[0, 8]

R

7 a (, 0] or [0, )

c

[1,

y=e 2

(,

R+

R, f

: R R, f

R

[1, )

[3, 3]

R

R

R

[5, 5]

R+

c D

d A

(0.17, 0)

(0, 1)

y = 2

+5

6

5

0

1(x)

y=x

x

f (x)

y

f(x)

(0, 3)

(1, 0)

b [3, )

R+

f 1(x)

0

(0, 1)

(3, 0)

y=x

h R or R+

restricting functions

b [0, ) or (, 0]

f(x)

d (0, ), or (, 0)

x=1

y=x

i [4, )

j (, 1]

y = 2 loge (x + 1)

y

3

k R

y=1

iii None

iv (1, ), R

v R, (1, )

2 i a, e, g, i, j, k, l, m, n, o

f 1(x)

y=x

h [1, 0] or [0, 1]

y = e0.5x + 1

(2, 0)

f R\{2}

g [5, 0] or [0, 5]

(0, 2)

254

+ loge (x)

c [3, )

R, (2, )

(2, ), R

one-to-one, f 1 exists

(x) =

x

e2

x4

e (, 4)

ii a f 1(x) =

(x) =

1 a [0, ) or (, 0]

(1, 0)

iii

iv

v

k i

ii

b C

Range

5) or (5, )

exercise 5d

(0, 0.17)

3 a B

f [9, 0] or [0, 9]

g [1, 5] or [5, 9]

y=x

k f

b E

b D

b C

d

e R

4x

j f 1 : [, 4) R, f 1 (x) = 1

Inverse of function

Range

4 a B

5 a C

6 a D

i f 1 : [0, ) R, f 1 (x) = x2 + 4

4 a

Domain

25 x 2

h f 1 : [0, 1] R, f 1 (x) = 1 x 2

l f

+4

( x 1)

e 2

y=x

x = 2 y

x

e2

n f 1(x) =

(2.3, 2.3)

iii

iv

v

h i

i i

j i

ii

x2

y=x

f 1(x) = loge x 1

2

j f 1(x) = 2 + loge (5 x)

k f 1(x) = loge ( x + 2)

3

ex

l f 1(x) = 3

g f

ii

g f 1 : [5, 0] R, f 1 (x) =

e f 1(x) = 2 x

f 1(x)

l (5, )

2 a f 1 : [3, ) R, f 1 (x) =

x3

b f 1 : [1, ) R, f 1 (x) =

x +1

3

c f 1 : [2, ) R, f 1 (x) =

x+2 3

(0, 1) y = x

d f 1 : (3, ) R, f 1 (x) =

1

x+3

1

e f 1 : (1, ) R, f 1 (x) = 4

x 1

1

f f 1 : R\{0} R, f 1 (x) = + 2

x

y=x

(1, 0)

(1, 0)

(0, 1)

0

f 1(x)

f

f

13 a and c

8 a

1

2

1(x)

f (x)

(5, 2)

f(x)

(2, 5)

1

2

1

f

1(x)

y

0

(2, 5)

(5, 2)

0 1

f (x)

y=x

4

4 ( x 3)2 or

b f 1 : R R, f 1(x) = ex 2

14 a The graph cuts the y-axis where x = 0;

y = e0 2e0 + 1 = 1 2 + 1 = 0

b A = ex; ex = 1 x = 0

c Local minimum x = 0

d and g

: [3, ) R, f

2

1

(x) = 1 + (x 3)2

1 0.5

0.5

f 1(x)

x+5

f (x)

y=x

10

4

0

x

(31, 2)

10

: R R, f

b x

d Teacher to check

1

(x) = 2

x

c x

1

2

1

g 3x(ex 1)

1

2

y

4

3

15 a

y

4

f 1(x)

5

d x

0.5

ran = R+ {0}

e y = loge ( x + 1)

where dom = R+ {0} and ran = R

0

1

1.5x

6 a 4

7 a f

0.5

0

1

(2, 31)

y

3

[1, )

5 a

11 a

11 March 1 109 = I;

7 April 2.512 107 = I;

23 February 2.000 106 = I;

13 June 1 106 = I

b i Approximately 40 : 1

ii Approximately 2 : 1

iii Approximately 12.6 : 1

12 a and c

y

3

y

5

10 g 1 : [3, 5] R, g 1 (x) =

x=4

9 x

c [0, 8]

f (x)

y=x

b g 1 : [55, 9] R, g 1 (x) =

d Teacher to check

9 a 0

0

f 1(x)

1

2

y=x

1

f(x)

y=4

f 1(x)

b [0, )

y=x

y

3

b f 1 : R R, f 1(x) = e 2 1

c x

d Thus a = 3, b = 3 and c = 1.

255

ChapTer reVieW

iv

y=

ShorT anSWer

( )( )

(x 1)

2

1

3

0.40.2 0

y=

iii

y = 2 (x 1)3+1

1 a

g i Many-to-one

ii Restrict domain to (3, ).

+1

iv

y=

iii y =

(4, 4)

iv

b

2 a

6

(.5)

1 2 3 4

6 a

(2, ), R

x=2

y

y = |x 2 + x |

x

2 2.4

0.5

R,

R+

0.2 0

b f 1(x) = ex 1 + 2

y = x + 14 12

0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8

c m=1

R, (2, )

0.5

y=x

d i One-to-one

iii y = x2 6x 7, [3, )

iv

y

1 x

0

1

2

1

(x 1)

3 a

y=

x + 1 1, x 0

1.5

6 x

ii x 0

c i Many-to-one

4 x

1

(x + 3) +1

y

4

+1

2

3 2 1 0

1 3

x 1

(1, 3)

2.4

0

2.4

y = 2

2

y

0

1

4

(4, 1)

2

y = x2 6x 7

4

0.5 1 1.5 2 x

e (3, 1)

y=x

y = 2 x 3

iv

x

4 a (4, )

y = 3e x + 1

b (, 2]

c R or R+

iii y =

x +1

2

y

6

iv

y = 2x 1

0

7 6 5 4 3 2 12

4

6

b i One-to-one

x 1 +1

iii y = 3

2

iv

6

mUlTiple ChoiCe

2

1

1 2 3 4 x

y = ln

x1

3

2

iii y = 3( x + 1) + 2

f

8

6

2

y = (3(x + 1)) + 2 4

2

2.4

7 5

f 1

0

5 4 3 2 1

2

4

6

8

f 1

y

4

3

f i One-to-one

y = x +2 1

256

3 2 110

2

3

5 a i One-to-one

(3, 1)

x 1

iii y = loge

3

e i One-to-one

2.4

y

8

(4, 4)

1 B

2 E

3 C

4 D

5 A

6 C

7 A

8 C

9 D

10 D

11 C

12 B

13 A

14 D

15 A

16 E

exTended reSponSe

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 x

2

y = (3(x 2)) 1

f

1 a y=

426

the vertical line test).

c a = 2.65

[ 2.65, )

e x = 2.87

2 a f(x) =

b

3x 2

e

f

g

4 a

(, 2]

[0, 0.54]

( 43 , 43 )

4

2 120

4

b

c

d

5 a

y=x

A ( 4 , 4 )

3 3

4 x

(2, 2)

ii f 1 : [2, 43 ) R, where

f 1(x) =

2( x 4)

3

g i [ 4 , 4]

ii Inverse of f (x) is y =

2( x

4)

3

b R, [0, )

y

6 x

a=3

x = 5.50

a = 4.97

i N = 2t 0 t 168

ii 4096 bacteria

iii When t = 24 then N = 224 = 16 777 216

bacteria.

2x

1

2

3

Ran f 1 = dom f = R

f 1(2, ) R, f 1(x)

1

= loge ( x + 2)

2

d y=

2x

x+2

2

4

6

8

10 12 t

b i This is of the form y = mk where k is

a constant. When loge(N) is plotted

against t a straight line should result.

ii

f(x) = exx2

y=x

(2, 0.54)

y=0

x

(0.54, 2)

f 1

x=0

d [0, ), R

N

5000

4000

3000

2000

1000

f i [2, 3 )

y

3

2

iv

e Heart-shaped

y

10

8 y = 6 ln (|x 3|)

6

4

2

+4

Ln(N)

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

32

64

96

14.5 hours.

257

Chapter 6

diGital doC

doc-9200

10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS

6a

6B

6C

6d

6e

6F

6G

6h

6i

Symmetry and exact values

Trigonometric equations

Trigonometric graphs

Graphs of the tangent function

Finding equations of trigonometric graphs

Trigonometric modelling

Further graphs

Trigonometric functions with an increasing trend

unit circle

6a

Units: 3 & 4

1u

nit

nit

1u

To define a radian we can use a circle which has a radius of one unit.

This circle is called the unit circle. If we take a piece of string which is

the same length as the radius and place it along the circumference of the

circle from S to P to form an arc, then the angle formed by joining S and

P to O, the centre of the circle, measures one radian.

The radius of the circle can be any length and can still be regarded as

a unit. As long as the arc is the same length as the radius, the angle will

always measure one radian.

In general, therefore, a radian is the angle formed at the centre of any

circle by radii meeting an arc which is the same length as the radius of the

circle. Note the following.

1. One radian is written as 1c (or 1 radian can be written as 1).

2. The circumference of a circle is 2 r units in length.

3. If the radius is one unit, as in the case of the unit circle, then the

circumference is 2 units, and the angle at the centre of the circle is

2 radians.

B

4. 2 radians = 360

5. The length of the semicircle from S through A to B is half the

circumference and is units.

6. radians = 180

7. An arc length of r units subtends an angle of 1 radian.

8. An arc length of 2 r units subtends an angle of 2 radians.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

A unit circle

y

A

P

r

S x

A radian

r

2 r

units thatis, and subtends an angle of radians.

2

2

4

259

Since

we have

c = 180

180

= 57.296 (correct to 3 decimal places)

1c =

Radians are converted to degrees using the following equation.

1c =

180

Worked example 1

Convert the following to degrees, giving the answer correct to 2 decimal places.

9

a 2c

b 6.3c

c

10

think

Write

180

.

2c = 2

180

360

b 6.3c =

2

6.3 180

= 360.9634

180

.

180

.

= 360.96

c

9 c 9 180

=

10

10

= 162

Simplify by cancelling.

Degrees are converted to radians using the following equation.

180 = c

1 =

c

180

Worked example 2

a 2

b 36.35

c 150

think

Write

.

180

a 2c = 2

=

2

260

90

180

= 0.035c

2

.

180

b 36.35 = 36.35

180

= 0.634c

Simplify.

Note: In this example it is not appropriate to

leave your answer in exact form.

.

180

c 150 = 150

180

150

180

5 c

=

6

=

Note the following special cases.

180 =

90 =

2

60 =

3

45 =

4

30 =

6

Divide both sides by 3.

Divide both sides by 4.

Divide both sides by 6.

Sine and cosine

sin ( ) and the horizontal distance OR is defined as cosine ( ) or

cos ( ).

The coordinates of the point P are (cos ( ), sin ( )) where

can be in radians or degrees.

The x-coordinate of P is cos ( ) and the y-coordinate of P is

sin ( ).

sin (0) = 0

sin = 1

2

sin () = 0

sin (2) = 0

sin (0) = 0

sin (90) = 1

sin (180) = 0

sin (270) = 1

sin (360) = 0

sin ()

x

O cos () R

3

sin = 1

2

P (cos ( ), sin ( ))

cos (0) = 1

cos = 0

2

cos () = 1

sin (2 )

cos ()

cos (0) 0

3

)

sin (

2

3

Special cases

3

cos = 0

2

cos (2) = 1

cos (0) = 1

cos (90) = 0

cos (180) = 1

cos (270) = 0

cos (360) = 1

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

261

tangent

y

T

TS is the tangent to the circle which intersects with the x-axis

and TOS = .

Using Pythagoras theorem in triangle OPR (figure below),

PR2 + OR2 = OP2.

2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1

So,

sin

From the diagram below, OPR is similar to OTS (angle, angle,

angle).

tan ( )

sin ( )

un

it

sin( )

tan( ) =

cos( )

cos ( ) R

1 unit

Identities

S x

tan (0) = 0

tan (0) = 0

tan is undefined

2

tan (90) is undefined

tan () = 0

tan (180) = 0

exercise 6a

3

tan is undefined tan (2) = 0

2

tan (270) is undefined tan (360) = 0

sin (90 ) 1

= ,, which is undefined.

cos (90 ) 0

1 We1 Convert the following to degrees, giving answers correct to 2 decimal places.

a 3c

b 5c

c 4.8c

d 2.56c

diGital doC

doc-9201

Spreadsheet

Unit circle

7 c

20

3 c

10

diGital doC

doc-9254

SkillSHEET 6.1

Changing degrees to

radians

5 c

6

b 15

g 235

c 120

h 260

d 130

i 310

a sin (0.4)

b sin (0.8)

c cos (1.4)

e tan (2.9)

f tan (2.4)

g sin (75)

i cos (160)

j cos (185)

k tan (265)

4

5 c

4

e 63.9

j 350

d cos (1.7)

h sin (68)

l tan (240)

b sin ()

d cos ()

e tan

tan

2

c cos (2)

g sin (90)

h sin (360)

cos (0)

k tan (270)

a sin (0)

2

cos (180)

a sin2 (20) + cos2 (20)

b cos2 (50) + sin2 (50)

+ cos 2

d sin2 (2.5) + cos2 (2.5)

e sin 2

2

2

g 2 sin2 () + 2 cos2 ()

h 5 sin2 () + 5 cos2 ()

a sin (35), sin (70), sin (120), sin (150), sin (240)

b cos (0.2), cos (1.5), cos (3.34), cos (5.3),

cos (6.3)

262

2 We2 Convert the following to radians. Give exact answers for a, b, c and d. Write other answers

a 5

f 78.82

tan ( )

TS PR

=

OS OR

tan( ) sin( )

=

1

cos( )

Therefore:

tan ( )

tan (240)

c sin2 () + cos2 ()

f

sin 2 + cos2

2

2

15

8 If sin (A) = 0.6 and cos (A) = 0.8, find tan (A). Draw a triangle marking in the position of angle A and

9 mC

radians is equal to:

3

a 0

B 30

10 mC The expression 1

sin2

C 45

() is equal to:

B cos2 ()

a 1

C cos ()

diGital doC

doc-9255

SkillSHEET 6.2

tangent ratios

d 60

e 90

d tan ()

e tan2 ()

T = 15 3 cos t

12

Calculate the exact temperature after 4 hours and the temperature to the nearest tenth of a degree

at 9.00 am.

6B Symmetry

exact values

Units: 3 & 4

Using the equilateral triangle (of side length 2 units) shown at right, the

following exact values can be found.

6

3

1

2

6

1

tan (30) = tan = 3 =

6

3

3

3

3

1

1

Exact values of sine,

cosine and tangent of

30 and 60

2nd quadrant

sin ( ) = sin ( )

cos ( ) = cos ( )

tan ( ) = tan ( )

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Units: 3 & 4

1

Exact values of sine,

cosine and tangent

of 45

3rd quadrant

sin ( + ) = sin ( )

cos ( + ) = cos ( )

tan ( + ) = tan ( )

Topic:

45

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

The unit circle is symmetrical so that the magnitude of sine, cosine and

tangent at the angles shown in each quadrant are the same, but the sign varies.

In the first quadrant sin, cos and tan are all positive.

In the second quadrant only sin is positive.

In the third quadrant only tan is positive.

In the fourth quadrant only cos is positive.

This can be remembered as All Students To Class (ASTC).

45

2

2

properties

1st quadrant

sin ( )

cos ( )

tan ( )

60

Using the right isosceles triangle shown, the following exact values can be

found.

4

4

4

30

3

2

AOS:

Do more

Interact

with the unit

circle.

Symmetrical properties

4th quadrant

sin (2 ) = sin ( )

cos (2 ) = cos ( )

tan (2 ) = tan ( )

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

263

Worked example 3

a sin (150)

tUtorial

eles-1182

Worked example 3

5

b cos .

4

think

Write

= sin (30)

5 4 .

=

+

4

4 4

b cos

1

2

= cos +

4

4

quadrant, cosine is negative.

= cos

4

2

2

Angles are not restricted to values between 0 and 2 ; that is, the domain is not restricted to [0,2]. If an

angle is greater than 2 radians, it is necessary to subtract multiples of 2 so that the angle is within one

turn of the unit circle. Each 2 radians is a complete turn of the circle.

Worked example 4

If sin (x) = 0.6, cos (x) = 0.8, and x is in the first quadrant, find:

a sin (3 x)

b cos (4 + x).

think

Write/draW

a sin (3 x) = sin (2 + x)

= sin ( x)

= sin (x)

= 0.6

x

264

= 0.8

Worked example 5

If sin ( ) =

12

and < < , calculate cos ( ) and hence find tan ( ).

13

2

think

tUtorial

eles-1183

Worked example 5

Write

Method 1

1

2

3

4

5

Pythagoras theorem. Let be the first quadrant

angle corresponding to .

cos ( ) =

adjacent

hypotenuse

132 = 52 + 122

13

5

cos ( ) = 13

negative.

opposite

tan ( ) =

adjacent

is in the second quadrant, therefore tan ( ) is

negative.

cos () =

tan ( ) =

tan () =

'

12

5

5

13

12

5

12

5

Method 2

1

sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1

Rearrange.

= 1 144

Evaluate.

that the answer could be positive or negative.

sin( )

Use tan( ) =

to find the value of tan ( ).

cos( )

cos2 ( ) = 1 sin2 ( )

12

169

25

169

cos () = 5

13

tan( )

< <

2

12

= 13

5

13

tan () =

12

5

Method 3

12

< <

solve sin ( ) = ,

13 2

Use the solve feature.

= sin

()

1 12

13

1 12

13

1 12

13

5

13

=

( ))

( ))

12

13

265

negative angles

AOS:

In the dia

gram,

RQ = PR, and

OR = OR, so

T1S = TS

Topic:

Concept:

Units: 3 & 4

sin ( )

R S

sin ( )

Q

sin ( ) sin ( )

tan ( ) =

=

= tan ( )

cos ( ) cos ( )

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

T1

Negative angles

sin ( ) = sin ( )

cos ( ) = cos ( )

tan ( ) = tan ( )

The diagram shows 0 < <

2

cos 190)

(

= cos (190)

tan 280)

(

= tan (280)

Worked example 6

a sin (135)

b cos (240)

c tan (330).

think

= sin (45)

quadrant.

= cos (60)

135

135

2

2

266

Write/draW

240

1

2

3

3

330

S x

Worked example 7

4

3

a sin

5

.

6

b tan

think

Write

4 4

= sin

3

3

a 1 sin ( ) = sin ( )

a sin

= sin +

4

is in the 3rd quadrant.

3

= sin

3

= sin

3

=

3

2

5 5

= tan

6

6

b 1 tan ( ) = tan ( )

b tan

5

is in the 2nd quadrant.

6

= tan

= tan

= tan

6

=

1

3

3

3

Complementary angles

2

In other words and are complementary angles, and and are also complementary angles.

2

6

3

The sine of an angle is equal to the cosine of its complement. Therefore, sin (60) = cos (30). We say

that sine and cosine are complementary functions.

The complement of the tangent of an angle is the cotangent or cot that is, tangent and cotangent are

complementary functions (as well as reciprocal functions).

1

cot ( ) =

tan ( )

1st quadrant

2nd quadrant

3rd quadrant

4th quadrant

sin = cos( )

2

sin + = cos( )

2

sin = cos( )

sin + = cos( )

cos = sin ( )

2

cos + = sin( )

2

cos = sin( )

3

cos + = sin( )

tan = cot( )

2

tan + = cot( )

2

3

tan = cot( )

tan + = cot( )

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

267

Worked example 8

3

a cos +

b tan

+ .

2

tUtorial

eles-1184

Worked example 8

think

Write

a cos

second quadrant.

2

= 0.4

4th quadrant.

3 + = ( )

cot

2

b tan

tan ( )

1

Calculate.

places

exercise 6B

diGital doC

doc-9256

SkillSHEET 6.3

rationalising the

denominator

+ = sin( )

2

0.6

1 We3a

Without using a calculator, find the exact values of the following.

a sin (120)

b cos (135)

c tan (330)

d cos (225)

e sin (210)

f tan (150)

g sin (315)

h cos (300)

i tan (225)

j cos (390)

k sin (405)

l tan (420)

Find the exact values of the following.

3

5

a sin

b cos

4

6

2 We3b

4

3

e sin

11

6

h cos

9

cos

4

k sin

5

4

d cos

diGital doC

doc-9201

Spreadsheet

Unit circle

g sin

j

c tan

7

tan

6

5

3

7

tan

4

13

6

7

tan

6

If sin (x) = 0.3, cos (a) = 0.5, tan (b) = 2.4 and x, a and b are in the first quadrant, find the

value of the following.

a sin ( x)

b cos ( a)

c tan (2 b)

d cos ( x)

e sin ( a)

f tan ( + b)

g sin (2 x)

h cos (2 a)

i tan ( b)

j cos (2 + x)

k sin (2 + a)

l tan (2 + b)

m sin (3 x)

n cos (3 + a)

o tan (3 b)

3 We4

268

If sin ( ) =

7

25

and cos( ) =

24

,

25

< x < , find cos (x) and hence find tan (x).

2

1

3

, find sin (x) and tan (x).

, and < x <

b If cos( x ) =

2

2

5a

We5

3

< x < 2 , find cos (x) and tan (x).

2

2

3

, find sin (x) and cos (x).

d If tan( x ) = 3, and < x <

2

6 We6

Find the exact value of the following.

a sin (30)

b cos (45)

c tan (60)

d cos (150)

e sin (120)

f tan (135)

g sin ( 225)

h cos (210)

i tan ( 240)

j cos (330)

k sin ( 315)

l tan (300)

m sin ( 420)

n cos (390)

o tan ( 405)

c If sin( x ) =

, and

b cos

6

3

8 We7

a sin

d cos

4

g sin

6

j

5

cos

3

c tan

4

f

5

tan

6

h cos

4

4

tan

3

13

6

9

tan

4

e sin

3

k sin

Show that cos 2 + sin 2 = 1.

4

4

If sin ( ) = 0.3, cos (x) = 0.7 and tan () = 0.4, find the value of the following.

+

a sin x

b cos

c tan

2

2

2

10 We8

+

2

e sin

+ x

2

h cos

d cos

g sin

j

cos

+

2

11 mC If x =

3 3

2

1

d

2

B

e

d cos 2

2

3

x

k sin

2

tan +

2

tan

2

tan

+

2

3

2

12

a cos

x

2

3 2

2

is equal to:

2

B sin

2

C sin 2

e 0

269

13

A weight on a spring moves so that its speed, v cm per second, is given by the formula:

t

v = 10 + 2 sin

6

diGital doC

doc-9257

SkillSHEET 6.4

problem solving using

trigonometry

b Find the speed of the weight after 5 seconds.

c What is the greatest speed that the weight can reach?

14 The height, H, in metres, that sea water reaches up a

the equation:

t

H = 0.4 cos + 0.5,

12

where t is the number of hours past midnight. Find the

height of water up the trunk at:

a midnight

b 8 am

c 8 pm.

6C

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

trigonometric equations

From the general equation sin (x) = a, we can find an infinite number of solutions. An example of this

3

general equation is: sin ( x ) =

.

2

y

sin ( 3 )

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Do more

Interact with

solving equations.

sin ( 3 )

x

.

, because sin =

3

3

2

3

However, we also know that sin =

3

2

2

For this equation there are two solutions between 0 and 2. They are and

.

3

3

(There are no solutions in the third and fourth quadrants because here, sine is negative.)

To find a greater number of solutions we can go around the unit circle as many times as we wish,

finding new solutions each time. Since

One of the solutions is x =

sin 2 + =

3

2

and sin 3 =

3

2

2 7

8

and

, ,

.

3 3 3

3

2

.

We can also go in a negative direction. In the domain [, ] there are only 2 solutions: and

3

3

Worked example 9

2

2

think

270

Write/draW

2

2

cos ( x ) =

ignoring the sign.

Basic angle is

.

4

So write the appropriate values of x in these

quadrants.

Simplify.

2nd quadrant:

x =

4

3rd quadrant:

x = +

4

x=

x

5

3 5

,

4 4

Worked example 10

Find all solutions to the equation sin () = 0.7 in the domain [0, 4]. Give your answers correct to

4 decimal places.

think

Write

a = sin 1(0.7)

= 0.7754.

quadrants.

= 0.7754, 0.7754

= 0.7754, 2.3662

around the circle twice, so add 2 to each of

the first two solutions.

= 0.7754, 2.3662,

0.7754 + 2, 2.3662 + 2

4 decimal places.

4 decimal places.

= 8.6494 (correct to 4 decimal points)

Worked example 11

think

1

multiply both end points of the domain by 2.

Write

0 360

0 2 720

2sin(2 ) = 3

sin (2 ) =

3

2

the negative sign.

Basic angle = 60

Find the angles in these quadrants equivalent to

the basic angle.

2 = 240, 300

need to go around the circle two times, so add

360 to each of the two initial values.

2 = 240, 300, 600, 660

Simplify.

271

Worked example 12

Calculate the sum of the solutions between 0 and 2 for the equation sin (3x) = cos (3x).

think

Write

0 x 2

0 3x 6

sin (3x) = cos (3x)

sin (3 x) cos (3 x)

=

cos (3 x) cos (3 x)

tan (3x) = 1

Basic angle =

positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants.

3x =

24 8

2 (2 =

=

). They are.

12

4

Calculate the sum of the solutions.

, + , 2 + , 3 + , 4 + , 5 +

4

4

4

4

4

4

5 9 13 17 21

= ,

,

,

,

,

4 4 4

4

4

4

5 9 13 17 21

x= ,

,

,

,

,

12 12 12 12 12 12

5 9 13 17 21

= +

+

+

+

+

12 12 12 12

12

12

66 11

=

=

12

2

3

where x [0, 2] is x = and x = .

4

4

2

However, if a domain is not specified, there are an infinite number of solutions as multiples of 2 can be

3

added or subtracted indefinitely to and . In this situation a general solution is obtained where the

4

4

solutions are in terms of a parameter, n, where n is an integer (that is, n Z).

The general solution for the first quadrant solution x = becomes x = 2n + , where n Z.

4

4

3

3

The general solution for the second quadrant solution x =

becomes x = 2n + , where n Z.

4

4

3

can be expressed as:

Note that the general solution x = 2n +

4

x = 2n + = (2n + 1) .

4

4

Substituting different integer values of n will give specific solutions, as shown in the table below.

The solution to the equation sin ( x ) =

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

See more

Watch a

video on finding

general solutions

to trigonometric

equations.

n

1

0

1

2

272

, n Z

4

7

x = 2 + =

4

4

x = 0+ =

4 4

9

x = 2 + =

4

4

17

x = 4 + =

and so on

4

4

x = 2 n +

3

, n Z

4

3 5

x = 2 +

=

4

4

3 3

x = 0+

=

4

4

3 11

x = 2 +

=

4

4

3 19

x = 4 +

=

and so on

4

4

x = 2 n +

In general:

If sin (x) = a, then x = 2n + sin 1 (a) and x = (2n + 1) sin 1 (a), where a [1, 1] and n Z.

1

Worked example 13

Hence, find all the solutions for x [2, 2].

think

tUtorial

eles-1215

Worked example 13

Write

Substitute a =

1

2

recognising

x = 2n cos 1 (a)

x = 2n cos 1

( )

1

2

x = 2n

and x = 2n , n Z.

4

4

n Z.

x = 2n +

simplified by combining the two terms. A CAS

calculator will give the answer in this form.

x=

the general solutions.

n = 1: x =

x=

8n (8n 1)

=

,nZ

4

4

7

9

and x =

4

4

n = 0: x = and x =

4

4

7

9

and x = 2 + =

n = 1: x = 2 =

4

4

4

4

7

7

, ,

4 4 4

Worked example 14

domain 0 x 2.

think

Write

Use the solve feature of the calculator to find x.

Solve (2 sin (2 x) = 3 , x)

x=

formula.

6

( 3n + 2 )

x=

3

2

n = 0: x =

or x =

3

6

7

5

n = 1: x =

or x =

6

3

11

8

n = 2: x =

or x =

6

3

For 0 x 2, x =

( 6n 1) or

2 5 5 11

, , ,

3 6 3 6

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

273

Alternate methods

5 Using a CAS calculator: specify this domain in

the solve operation.

6

Solve (2 sin2 x) =

3 , x)

0 x 2

x=

5

11

2

5

or x =

or x =

or x =

3

6

3

6

Worked example 15

Find the general solution of the equation sin (3x) = cos (3x) and hence find all solutions

for x in the domain 0 x 2.

think

1

Write

sin (3 x ) = cos (3 x )

sin (3 x )

=1

cos (3 x )

tan (3x) = 1

3x = n + tan 1 (a)

angle.

3x = n + tan 1 (1)

3 x = n +

4

(4 n + 1)

x=

, n Z

12

4

0 x 2, substitute n = 0, 1, 2 . . . into each

of the general solutions.

n = 1:

n = 2:

n = 3:

n = 4:

n = 5:

0 x 2.

12

5

x=

12

9

x=

12

13

x=

12

17

x=

12

21

x=

12

n = 0: x =

x=

5 3 13 17 7

, , ,

,

,

12 12 4 12 12 4

Worked example 16

think

274

Use the solve feature, specifing the domain.

Write

1

solve (cos (x) + cos (3x) = , x)

2

2 x 2

x = 5.6549 or x = 2.0944

or x = 0.6283

or x = 0.6283

or x = 2.0944

or x = 56549

trigonometric equations

exercise 6C

1 We9

Find all solutions to the equations below in the domain [0, 2].

a cos ( ) = 0

b sin( ) =

d sin ( ) = 1

e cos( ) =

1

2

e sin ( ) =

cos( ) =

sin ( ) =

1

2

3

2

1

a sin ( ) = 1

b cos( ) = 2

d cos ( ) = 1

3

2

1

2

3 We10 For each equation below, find all the values of x between 0 and 4. Give answers correct to

4 decimal places.

a cos (x) = 0.6591

c cos (x) = 0.48

d sin (x) = 0.371

a sin (x) = 0.2686

c sin (x) = 0.5432

diGital doC

doc-9202

Spreadsheet

trig equations

d cos (x) = 0.1937

5

b 3 cos (x) = 0

a 2 sin (x) = 1

c 2sin ( x ) =

2 cos( x ) = 1

6 We11 Find the solutions to the following equations in the domain 0 x 360.

Give exact answers where possible, otherwise give answers correct to 2 decimal places.

b 2 sin (2x) = 1

c 2 cos(3 x ) =

2

d 2sin(3 x ) = 3

e sin (3x) = 0.1254

f 3 cos (2x) = 0.5787

1

2 cos( x ) = 0.2751

h

g 4 sin x = 0.913

a cos (2x) = 1

( )

2

7 Find all the solutions between 0 and 2 to the following equations. Give exact answers where possible,

a 4 sin (x) + 2 = 6

b 3 cos (x) 3 = 0

c cos

x

d sin + 5 = 5.32

e 2 sin (3x) 5 = 4

g 2 cos(2 x ) + 3 = 0

1

3

+ 4 = 4.21

2 cos (3 x ) + 2 = 3

sin 2 x 1 = 0.8039

8 We12 Calculate the sum of the solutions between 0 and 2 for each of the following equations. Give

exact answers for questions a to d. Otherwise give answers correct to 4decimal places.

a sin (x) = cos (x)

3 sin (3 x ) = cos(3 x )

c sin (2 x ) =

3 cos (2 x )

9 A particle moves in a straight line so that its distance, x metres, from a point O is given by the

equation x = 3 + 4 sin (2t), where t is the time in seconds after the particle begins to move.

a Find the distance from O when the particle begins to move.

b Find the time when the particle first reaches O. Give your answer correct to 2 decimal places.

Find the general solution of the following equations. Hence, find all solutions for

x 2 for each equation.

10 We13

2

a 2 cos( x ) 3 = 0

b tan ( x ) =

1

3

2 sin ( x ) 1 = 0

11 We14 Find the general solution of the equation 2 sin (2x) 1 = 0. Hence, find all solutions for

x .

12 Find the general solution of the equation 2 cos (3x) 1 = 0. Hence, find all solutions for x .

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

275

13 We15 Find the general solutions for each of the following equations. Hence, find all solutions for

x [0, 2].

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doc-9203

WorkSHEET 6.1

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

3 sin ( x ) = cos( x )

c

3

2

3 sin (3 x ) = cos(3 x )

, x [ , ].

6d trigonometric graphs

Graphs of the sine and cosine functions

The graph of the function f (x) = sin (x) is drawn below. It is drawn over the domain [2, 2]. The graph

repeats itself every 2 radians. We say that it has a period of 2. Half the distance between the maximum

and minimum values is 1 so we say that the amplitude is 1.

It is possible to take any value of x for the function f (x) = sin (x), so the domain of the whole

function is R.

The range is [1, 1]. The graph is shown below.

y

1

0.5

3

2 0

22

2

0.5

2 x

y

1

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Do more

Interact with

transformations of

the sine graph.

The graph of the function f (x) = cos (x) is the same shape

as the sine graph, but the graph has been translated to a different

position. The period is also 2. The amplitude is 1, the domain is

R and the range is [1, 1]. The graph is shown at right.

0.5

3

2 0

22

2

0.5

2 x

1

f(x) = cos (x), 2 x 2

dilation

y

If we change the amplitude, the distance between the maximum value

2

and the minimum value also changes.

The graph of f (x) = 2 sin (x) is shown at right. The amplitude is 2. The

1

period is still 2. The domain is R and the range is [2,2].

0

3

This graph is a dilation of the basic graph of f (x) = sin (x) by a factor

2 x

2

2

1

of 2 from the x-axis. It has been stretched vertically. Generally, if

f (x) = a sin (x) or f (x) = a cos (x), a is the dilation factor in the direction

2

of the y-axis. The amplitude of the graph is a.

f(x) = 2 sin (x), 0 x 2

If we change the coefficient of x, the period of the graph changes. The

graph of f (x) = cos (2x) from 0 to 2 is shown at right. The amplitude is 1

and the period is . This can be found by dividing 2 by the coefficient of x.

y

2

1

In this case

2

0.5

The x-intercepts can be found by solving the equation cos(2x) = 0.

0

3

5

3

7 2 x

3 5 7

4 2

2

4

4

4

2x = , , ,

0.5

2 2 2 2

so

x=

3 5 7

, , ,

4 4 4 4

1

f(x) = cos (2x), 0 x 2

1

This graph is a dilation of the basic graph of f (x) = cos (x) by a factor of 2 from the y-axis. The period

has been halved or the graph has been squashed up.

The decimal approximation for these solutions can be found using a graphing calculator. The graphics

calculator can also be used to check the number and approximate value of the solutions when solving

trigonometric equations.

276

Generally, if f (x) = sin (nx) or f (x) = cos (nx), the graph is dilated

1

2

by a factor of from the y-axis. The period of the graph is

.

n

n

The graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x) is shown at right. It is drawn from

2

0 to 2. The amplitude is 4 and the period is

. The domain is R.

3

The range is [4, 4].

y

4

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

4

f (x) = 4 sin (3x), 0 x 2

So

sin (3

x) = 0

3x = 0, , 2, 3, 4, 5, 6

2

4 5

x = 0, ,

,,

,

, 2

3 3

3 3

2 x

This is an example of a sine graph dilated in both x and y directions. It has a dilation factor of 4 from

1

Worked example 17

State the period and the amplitude of the graphs of each of the following functions.

a y = 2sin

( x)

1

4

b y=

1

cos(2x )

3

think

2

formula:

2

.

Period =

n

State the amplitude it is the coefficient in

front of the sine function.

2

amplitude is always positive, so we need

only the magnitude of the coefficient.

Write

a y = 2sin

( x)

1

4

2

Period =

, n = 14

n

2

4

So period = 1 = 2 = 8

1

4

Amplitude = 2

b y=

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

1

cos(2 x )

3

2

, n = 2

n

2

So period =

=

2

Period =

Amplitude =

Units: 3 & 4

Do more

Interact with

transformations of

the cosine graph.

1

3

Worked example 18

Sketch the graph of y = 12 sin (3 ) for one complete cycle stating the amplitude, period and range.

think

1

Write/draW

1

y = 2 sin (3 )

2

,n=3

n

2

So period =

3

Period =

Amplitude =

1

2

277

2

1

with the period of

and the amplitude of 2 .

3

1

The scale on the x-axis should be 4 of a

period (to reflect the 4 quadrants),

2

2

= .

4 =

so it is

3

12 6

The minimum value of the function is

1

2

y

1

2

1

2

Range:[

and

, 2 ]

reflection

If the coefficient of the function is negative, the graph is turned upside down, that is, reflected in the

x-axis. This does not alter the amplitude, which is always positive.

y = f (x) is the image of f (x) when reflected in the x-axis.

y = f (x) is the image of f (x) when reflected in the y-axis.

The graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x) is shown below. You will notice that it is the graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x)

turned upside down. (The graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x) is shown on page 277.)

y

4

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

4

2

3 3

2 x

2

. The domain is R. The range is [4, 4].

3

2

4 5

,,

,

, 2 .

The x-intercepts are 0, ,

3 3

3 3

1

This graph has a dilation factor of 4 from the x-axis and of 3 from the y-axis.

If the function f (x) = 4 sin (3x) is reflected in the x-axis, the result is f (x) = 4 sin (3x). If we

reflected the graph of f (x) = 4 sin (3x) in the y-axis, the result would still be f (x) = 4 sin (3x), since

sin(3x) = sin (3x).

If we reflect f (x) = 2 cos (3x) in the x-axis, the result is f (x) = 2 cos (3x), but if we reflect it in the y-axis,

the graph does not change. This is because f (x) = 2 cos (3x) is symmetrical about the y-axis.

Check this on a CAS calculator.

The amplitude is 4 and the period is

translation

If we add a constant to the function, the graph is moved up or down

and is said to be translated parallel to the y-axis. The number that is

being added becomes the median value of the function.

The graph of f (x) = 3 cos (2x) + 1 is shown at right. Compared to

f (x) = 3 cos (2x), the graph is shifted 1 unit up. The amplitude is 3,

the period is , the domain is R and the range is [2, 4].

The x-intercepts are found by solving 3 cos (2x) + 1 = 0.

So cos2 x =

1

3

()

Remember: Cosine is negative in the 2nd and 3rd quadrants.

2x = 1.231, + 1.231, 3 1.231, 3 + 1.231

2x = 1.911, 4.373, 8.194, 10.656 x = 0.955, 2.186, 4.097, 5.328

1

278

y

4

3

2

1

1

2 x

2

f (x) = 3 cos (2x) + 1, 0 x 2

y

that is, left or right.

1

0.5

0

5

4

2 x

4

4

0.5

0.5

The graph of f ( x ) = sin x + is the graph of f (x) = sin (x)

4

1

translated units to the left.

4

is shown at right. It is drawn

f ( x ) = sin x + , x 2

4

4

between [, 2].

The amplitude is 1, the period is 2, the domain is R and the range This graph is a translation of the

is [1, 1]. The y-intercept occurs when x = 0.

basic graph of the function

.

So y = sin 0 + =

4

4

2

= 0.

The x-intercepts occur when sin x +

3 7

= 0, , 2 x = ,

,

4

4 4 4

3

Note: The graph of sin (x) is the same as the graph of cos ( x ) or cos ( x + ). That is, the sine

2

2

3

graph can be turned into the cosine graph by a translation of units left or

units right. The cosine

2

2

graph can be turned into the sine graph by the opposite translations.

So x +

2

a period of

, a horizontal translation of b units and a vertical translation of cunits.

n

y

The graph of f ( x ) = 2cos3 x 1 is shown at right for 0 x 2.

3

1

2

The amplitude is 2, the period is , the domain is R and the range

3

is [ 3, 1].

0

1

This graph is a dilation of the basic graph of f (x) = cos (x) by a factor

1

of 2 from the x-axis and a factor of 3 from the y-axis, along with a

3

2 x

2

3

Worked example 19

Sketch the graph of y = 5cos x + + 5 for 0 x 2 ; state the period and amplitude.

4

think

Write/draW

y = 5cos x + + 5

(The coefficient of x is 1.)

Period =

Amplitude = 5

the period and amplitude above.

2

= 2

1

y

5

y = 5 cos (x)

2 x

279

means to the left). Again, use pencil. 4

5

3

7

4 2 4 2

y = 5 cos (x)

5

6

5 y = 5 cos (x + 4 )

y = 5 cos (x + 4 ) + 5

10

+5

+5

5

+5

+5

y = 5 cos (x + 4 )

+5

3

7

2 4

2 x

5

7

y

10

y = 5 cos (x + 4 ) + 5

2 x

trigonometric graphs

exercise 6d

diGital doC

doc-9258

SkillSHEET 6.5

period and amplitude

of sine and cosine

graphs

1 We17

State the period and amplitude of the graphs of each of the following.

a y = cos (x)

b y = sin (x)

c y = 4 sin (x)

1

d y = 3 cos( x )

g y = 3sin

j

( x)

1

2

e y = 2 cos (3x)

h y = 2cos

( x)

1

3

y = 3 sin (2x)

y=

1

cos(2 x )

3

y = 4 sin (3x)

Sketch the graphs of each of the following for one complete cycle and state the amplitude,

the period and the range.

2 We18

a

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doc-9204

Spreadsheet

Sine graphs

diGital doC

doc-9205

Spreadsheet

Cosine graphs

280

y = 3 cos( )

d y = 2 cos (3 )

g y = 4sin

( )

1

2

b y = 4 sin ( )

e y=

1

2

cos(3 )

h y = 3cos

( )

c y = 3 sin (2 )

f

y=

1

3

sin(2 )

1

3

Sketch the graph of the function f:R R where f (x) = 4 cos (3 ) for 0 2. State the

amplitude, period and range.

Sketch the graph of the function f:R R where y = 2 sin (2x) for x . State the amplitude,

period and range.

From the basic graphs of y = sin (x) and y = cos (x), state the horizontal translation and the vertical

translation for each of the following.

+1

+3

a y = sin x +

b y = cos x

3

2

1

c y = 3cos x

d y = 2sin x +

2

3

4

6 Sketch the graphs of the following for one complete cycle stating the amplitude, the period and the range.

a y = sin (x) + 1

b y = cos (x) 1

c y = 2 cos (x) 2

d y = 2 sin (x) + 3

e y = sin (3x) 1

f y = cos (2x) + 1

g y = 3 cos (3x) 2

j

y = 2 cos

( x) 1

y = 2 sin(2 x ) + 3

y = 3sin

( x) + 4

1

2

1

3

7 We19 Sketch the graphs of the following for 0 2. State the period and amplitude.

d y = 2sin

+1

g y = cos3

6

j

f y = 3cos3 +

1

i y = 2sin

e y = 2sin 2 +

2

h y = 2sin 2

a y = sin

c y = 3cos

b y = cos +

y = cos 2 ( ) + 1

Write down the amplitude, period and range of the following graphs.

8

a

y

4

2

3

0

4

2 4

4

2

3 x

y

1

0.5

2

y

4

3

2

1

0 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 x

1

y

3

x

2 1 0

2

x

7

h

y

1.5

1

0.5

0.5

1

1.5

y

1

0.5

2 x

0.5

a y = cos (x)

d y = 2 cos (x)

g y = 4 sin (2x) + 1

j

y = 4 sin (3 (x + )) + 1

3 x

State the maximum and minimum values for each of the following.

b y = sin (x)

e y = 2 cos (3x)

h y = cos (4x) 2

4 x

0.5

0

1

y

2

4

c

y

4

k y = 2 sin (3( x + 2 )) + 2

c y = 3 sin (x)

f y = 3 sin (2x)

i y = 2 cos (x ) 3

l

y = 3 cos (2( x 2 )) 4

281

10 Sketch the graphs of the following over the domain [0, 2] and state the period, amplitude and range.

a y = cos (x)

d y=

cos (x)

g y = 1 4 sin (x)

j

b y = sin (x)

e y=

c y = 2 sin (x)

cos (2x)

h y = 2 cos (2x) 2

y = sin (3x)

y=

y = 2 sin (x 2)

1

2

cos3( x + ) + 1

3

12 If the graph of y = 2 cos (3x) 2 is translated to the right and 3 units up, what is the new equation?

4

13 If the graph of y = 3 sin (x ) + 1 is translated to the left and 3 units down, what is the new equation?

3

14 The level of the water in the Banksia River was measured at hourly intervals from midnight and the

results recorded. The graph below right shows the results.

Find:

y

a the amplitude

3

b the period

2

c the maximum height of the river

d the minimum height of the river

1

e at what times the river has maximum height

f at what times the river has a minimum height

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 x

g the equation of the curve which is of the form

Hours

y = A sin (ax) + B.

Water level

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Do more

Interact with

transformations of

the tangent graph.

6e

x = 2

2, 2]. The graph repeats itself

It is drawn over the domain [

y

x = 32

x = 2 x = 32

every radians, so its period is . There are vertical asymptotes

3

through half the period,

2

3

that is, at x = and , so the function is not

1

2

2

defined at these points. Generally, the vertical

0 3

2 32 2

2 x

2

2

1

asymptotes are given by the equation x = (2 k + 1) ,

2

2

where k Z (that is, k = 0, 1, 2 ). Hence, the domain

3

2

Unlike sine and cosine functions, the tangent graph does not

have an amplitude; it extends infinitely up and down, so its range is R.

dilation

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

282

Compared to f (x) = tan (x), the graph of f (x) = a tan (x) is dilated by a

factor of a from the x-axis. Vertical dilation does not affect the period,

domain or range, or the position of the asymptotes or the x-intercepts. In

fact, its effect can be seen only when two graphs are sketched on the same

set of axes. The diagram at right shows the graphs of f (x) = tan (x) and

f (x) = 2 tan (x) over the domain [0, 2]. The graph of f (x) = 2 tan (x) is the

dilation of the basic tangent graph by a factor of 2 from the x-axis. It has

been stretched vertically.

Compared to f (x) = tan (x), the graph of f (x) = tan (nx) is dilated by

1

from the y-axis. Horizontal dilation affects the period

a factor of

n

and domain of the graph, as well as the position of the asymptotes and

x-intercepts.

y = 2 tan (x)

y = tan (x)

y

3

2

1

0

1

32

2

3

x = 2 x = 32

n

, where k Z.

2n

2n

accordingly. (The range is not affected by the value of n.)

At right is the graph of f (x) = tan (2x). This graph is a

1

dilation of the basic f (x) = tan (x) graph by a factor of 2 from

the y-axis; its period is . As the period has been halved, the

2

resultant graph is compressed horizontally.

x = 4

asymptotes is x = (2 k + 1)

x = 34 x = 54 x = 74

2

1

0

1

2 x

3

7

2 4

2

3

reflection

x = 2 x = 32

the x-axis. Reflecting the graph does not affect its period, domain or range,

or the position of the asymptotes. At right is the graph of

f (x) = 2 tan (x). This graph is a reflection in the x-axis of the graph

f (x) = 2 tan (x), shown previously.

translation

2

1

0

1

2

3

y

is, up or down, parallel to the y-axis. Thus, the graph of f (x) = tan (x) + c

x = 2 x = 32

3

represents a translation of the graph f (x) = tan (x) by c units in the y direction.

2

If c > 0, the graph is shifted up, and if c < 0, it is shifted down. Vertical

translation does not affect the period, domain or range, or the position of the

1

asymptotes. The axial intercepts, however, will change. The diagram at right

0 3 2 x

shows the graph of y = tan (x) + 2. It is translated 2 units up, compared to the

2

2

1

basic graph of y = tan (x).

If a constant is added to x, the graph is translated horizontally,

2

that is, right or left, parallel to the x-axis. Thus, the graph of

3

f (x) = tan (x b), represents a translation of the graph

f (x) = tan (x) by b units in the x direction. If b > 0, the graph is shifted to

the right, and if b < 0, it is shifted to the left. Horizontal translation has no effect on the period or

range, but it does affect the domain and the position of the asymptotes and the axial intercepts.

The diagram below shows the graph of y = tan ( x + ) translated units to the left, compared to the basic

4

4

graph of y = tan (x).

y

x = 54

x = 4

3

2

1

0

1

3

7

2 4

2 x

Having considered each transformation individually, we can now summarise them as follows.

Compared to the basic graph of y = tan (x), the graph of y = a tan [n(x b)] + c is:

dilated by a factor of a from the x-axis

1

dilated by a factor of from the y-axis (and hence has a period of n )

n

reflected in the x-axis if a < 0

translated c units vertically (up if c > 0 and down if c < 0)

translated b units horizontally (to the right if b > 0 and to the left if b < 0).

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

283

Worked example 20

x

State the period and sketch the graph of y = 2 tan , showing one full cycle.

4

think

1

Write/draW

x

y = 2 tan

4

1

Period = ; n = 4

n

4

So, period = 1 = = 4

1

4

The graph is dilated by a factor of 2 parallel

to the y-axis, so in comparison to the graph of

y = tan (x), each y-coordinate will be doubled.

The vertical asymptote goes through half of the

period, so it is at x = 2.

x = 2

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

Worked example 21

think

1

with a period of .

2

(Since 0 x , we need to show two cycles.)

Remember that the asymptotes are at the middle

of each cycle (that is, halfway through the

period).

) + 1 for 0 x .

4

Write/draW

y = tan 2 x + 1

Period = ; n = 2. so period =

n

2

y

x = 4 x = 34

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

the graph in the x-axis.

x = 4 x = 34

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

284

tUtorial

eles-1216

Worked example 21

4

y

3

x = 4 x = 2

x = 34

1

0

1

2

3

6

x = 2 x =

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

7

x = 2 x =

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

exercise 6e

1 We20 State the period and sketch the graphs of each of the following, showing one full cycle.

a y = 4 tan (x)

b y = tan (2x)

c y = tan (3x)

d y = 2 tan (4x)

( x)

x

y = 2 tan

3

x

g y = 3tan

h y = 5 tan (2x)

y=

y=

y = tan

1

4

1

tan(4 x )

2

( x)

1

tan 12

3

ii the transformations, compared to the basic graph y = tan (x).

i the period

a y = 2 tan (3x)

d

y = tan

1

2

tan 3 x +

y = 2tan x + + 5

g y=

j

( x) 2

1

4

b y = tan (4x) + 1

e y=

+

2

1

x

h y = 6 2 tan

3

5 tan x

c y = 3 tan (2x) 4

f

i

y = tan 2 x

1

y = tan 4 x 3

12

285

3 We21 State the period and sketch the graphs of each of the following for 0 x .

a y = tan (x) + 2

d y = 2tan x

1

g y = 2 tan

j

4

1

x

f y = 3tan + 1 2

6

3

tan 4 x + + 1

i y=

4

12

c y = tan x +

b y = tan (2x) 3

x 1

2

1

y = tan 4 ( x )

h y = 2tan 2 x +

8

1

1

y = 3 tan 2 x 2

Finding equations of

trigonometric graphs

6F

interaCtiVitY

int-0251

Finding equations of

trigonometric graphs

Sometimes it is necessary to be able to find the equation of a trigonometric function from a graph. The

following worked examples illustrate how this can be done.

Worked example 22

Find the values of a and n. Hence, find the equation of the

function.

y

2

1

0

1

2

think

Write

Amplitude = 2

the graph is not reflected in the x-axis,

a is positive.

one full curve).

Period = 4.

ofn.

Period =

y = a sin (nx) to find the equation of the function.

2

2

, so

= 4 ;

n

n

2 1

n=

=

4 2

1

y = a sin (nx); a = 2, n =

2

1

y = 2sin 2 x

( )

Worked example 23

y = a sin (nx) + c. Find the values of a, n and c.

Hence, find the equation of the function.

286

y

2

1

1 0 4

2

3

4

2 x

think

Write

the maximum and minimum values.

y = a sin (nx) + c

1

Amplitude a = (2 + 4) = 3

2

graph to the next point where the graph begins

2

to repeat itself. The period is .

n

The period is

is y = 1, so the graph has been translated

down 1 unit.

c = 1

So the equation is y = 3 sin (2x) 1.

2

= , so n = 2.

n

Worked example 24

This graph is a trigonometric function of the form y = c + a cos (nx). Find the values of a, n and c.

Hence, write the equation of the function.

y

3

2

1

0

1

think

1

the maximum and minimum values.

6 x

Write

y = c + a cos (nx)

1

Amplitude a = 2 (3 + 1)

=2

a = 2

must be inverted; that is, a is negative.

complete the pattern once.

Period =

has been translated up one unit.

c=1

the form y = c + a cos (nx).

y = c + a cos(nx )

2

=6

n

2

=n

6

so n =

3

c = 1, a = 2, n =

y = 1 2 cos x

3

287

exercise 6F

1 We22 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a sin (nx). Find the values of a and n.

a

diGital doC

doc-9204

Spreadsheet

Sine graphs

diGital doC

doc-9205

Spreadsheet

Cosine graphs

y

3

2

1

2

1

0

1

2

3

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 x

1

2

2 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a cos (nx). Find the values of a and n. Hence,

a

0

1

1

3 We23 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a sin (nx) + c. Find the values of a, n,

a

y

1.5

y

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8x

1

2

1.0

0.5

0

2 x

3

4

5

4 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a cos [n(x )]. Find the values of a, n and .

a

y

4

y

5

2

0

2

5 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = a sin [n(x + )] + c. Find the values of a, n,

a

y

1

0

1

2

5

3 2 3 6

2

3

288

7

4

3

5 11

6 3 2 3 6

2 x

y

5

4

3

2

1

0

1

6 We24 The equations of the following graphs are of the form y = c + a cos (nx). Find the values of a, n

a

y

4

3

2

1

y

4

3

2

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 x

1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12x

1

7 mC If the amplitude is 2, the period is 6 and there is a vertical translation of 2, then the equation

a y = 2 sin (6x) 2

C y = 2 2sin

B y = 6 sin (2x) 2

x

3

x 2

y = 2sin x 2

e y = 2sin

6

3

8 mC If the period is , the range is [ 2, 4], and the horizontal translation is , the equation for the

4

trigonometric function of the form y = a cos [n(x + )] + b is:

C y = 2cos 3 x + + 1

a y = 3 2cos x + + 1

B y = 3cos 2 x + 1

4

4

4

d

d y = 2cos 3 x + + 1

4

6G

e y = 3cos 2 x

+1

4

trigonometric modelling

In real life there are many examples of periodic behaviour. Sine and cosine functions such as

y = a sin [n(x b)] + c and y = a cos [n(x b)] + c are often used to model this behaviour.

diGital doC

doc-9206

WorkSHEET 6.2

eleSSon

eles-0092

trigonometric

modelling

Worked example 25

notes that the height of the tide in the harbour

can be found by using the equation:

h = 5 + 2 cos t ,

6

where h metres is the height of the tide and

t is the number of hours after midnight.

a What is the height of the high tide and

when does it occur in the first 24 hours?

b What is the difference in height between

high and low tides?

c Sketch the graph of h for 0 t 24.

d John North knows that his trawler needs a depth of at least 6 metres to enter the harbour. Between

what hours is he able to bring his boat back into the harbour?

think

Write/draW

t

6

a h = 5 + 2 cos

For maximum h,

cos t = 1

6

So h = 5 + 2 1 = 7

Alternatively, maximum value =

median + amplitude so h = 5 + 2 = 7.

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

289

cos t = 1, so

6

t = 0, 2 , 4 , . . .

6

t = 0, 12, 24, . . .

noon the next day, and midnight the next night.

b 1 Find the minimum value of h.

b For minimum h,

cos t = 1

6

So h = 5 + 2 1 = 3

Alternatively, min. value =

median amplitude so h = 5 2 = 3.

tides.

Period = 12.

tides is 7 3 = 4 metres.

c

h

6

4

2

0 2 4 6 8 1012 14 16 18 202224 t

d When h = 6,

5 + 2cos t = 6

6

2cos t = 1

6

cos t =

6

1

2

5 7 11

t= ,

,

,

....

6

3 3 3

3

t = 2, 10, 14, 22, . . .

3

exercise 6G

bring his boat back into harbour before 2 am,

between 10 am and 2 pm and between 10 pm

and 2 am the next morning.

trigonometric modelling

1 We25 Competition is severe, so Fred Greenseas decides that he will catch more fish in an inlet several

diGital doC

doc-9165

Function grapher

290

kilometres east of the place where John North fishes. There is a sandbar at the entrance to the inlet and

t

the depth of water in metres on the sandbar is modelled by the function d (t ) = 6 + 2.5sin

where t

6

is the number of hours after 12 noon.

a

b

c

d

e

What is the greatest depth of the water on the sandbar and when does it first occur?

How many hours pass before there is once again the maximum depth of water on the sandbar?

What is the least amount of water on the sandbar?

Sketch the graph of d for 0 t 24.

Fred Greenseas needs a depth of 7.25 metres to cross the sandbar. Between what hours is he able

to enter and leave the inlet?

2 A student wanting to catch fish to sell at a local market on Sunday has discovered that more fish are in

the water at the end of the pier when the depth of water is greater than 8.5 metres.

The depth of the water (in metres) is given by d = 7 + 3sin t , where t hours is the number of

6

hours after midnight on Friday.

a

b

c

d

e

What is the maximum and minimum depth of the water at the end of the pier?

Sketch a graph of d against t from midnight on Friday until midday on Sunday.

When does the water first reach maximum depth?

Between what hours should the student be on the pier in order to catch the most fish?

If the student can fish for only two hours at a time, when should she fish in order to sell the

freshest fish at the market from 10.00 am on Sunday morning?

3 The mean daily maximum temperature in Tarabon, an experimental town in a glass dome, is modelled

m

by the function T (m) = 18 + 7cos

, where T is in degrees Celsius and m is the number of

6

months after 1 January 2007.

a What was the mean daily maximum temperature in March 2007, and in August 2007?

b What is the highest mean daily maximum temperature in Tarabon? In which months does it

occur?

c What would the mean daily maximum temperature be in February 2008?

d If the pattern continued, how many months would pass before the mean daily maximum

temperature would be the same again as it was in February 2008?

4 The height above the ground of the middle of a skipping rope as it is being turned in a childs game is

found by using the equation h = a sin (nt) + c, where t is the number of seconds after the rope has begun to

turn. During the game, the maximum height the rope reaches is 1.8metres and it takes 2 seconds for the

rope to complete a full turn.

a Find the values of a, n and c and hence write the equation of h in terms of t.

b Sketch the graph of h against t for 0 t 5.

c After how much time from the beginning of the turn will the rope be 25 cm above the ground?

Give your answer correct to the nearest tenth of a second.

y

a Calculate the height of the hill, in metres, and

hence find the amplitude of the trigonometric

function.

b If the ground was flat, how far would the lizard

run to reach the same spot on the other side of

the hill? Hence, find the period of the function.

6 When Sloane and Michael were riding on a

turned clockwise, the height of their seat in

metres after t minutes could be modelled by

the function h(t) = a b cos (nt).

The graph of h against t is shown for the whole ride.

a State the values of a, b and n.

b Write down the rule for h(t).

c How many times do Sloane and Michael reach

the highest point during their ride and how far

above the ground is it?

d How high are they when the ride begins to move?

e How many minutes pass before they are at this

point again?

f How far above the ground are they after 1 minute?

g If the ride began when the boys were at the

height found in part f, what would the function

become?

h Draw a graph of the new function for the first

6minutes of the ride.

y = 1 cos ( 4 x)

0

h

h = 34

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

h=2

9 12 15 t

291

7 On a summer day the hourly temperature, which can be approximated to a cosine curve, was recorded.

The maximum temperature was 30 C and occurred at 3.00 pm. The minimum temperature was 10 C and

occurred at 3.00 am. The temperature was first recorded at 12midnight, then every hour for 24 hours.

a What is the amplitude of the function?

b What is the period of the function?

c What is the middle value of the function?

d How far has this middle value been translated upwards from the x-axis?

e When do the maximum and minimum temperatures occur?

f Using the above, write an equation that will model this function.

g Check the accuracy of your work by using your equation to find the temperature after 3, 9, 15 and

21 hours.

h What is the temperature at midnight? Give your answer correct to the nearest degree. Check that

your answer makes sense.

6h

Further graphs

Earlier in the book we discussed in detail how to graph the sum and difference offunctions. In this

section we will further apply these techniques to trigonometric functions.

The sum (and difference) function is defined over the intersection of the domains of the individual

functions. That is, dom (f (x) g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x).

To sketch the graph of the sum function, the method of addition of ordinates can be used. This method

involves sketching the graphs of the individual functions on the same set of axes and then adding their

y-coordinates. This technique is illustrated in the worked example below.

Worked example 26

Using addition of ordinates, sketch the graph of y = sin (x) + cos (x) for the domain [0, 2].

think

1

on the same set of axes over the required domain.

(Note that both y = sin (x) and y = cos (x) are

defined over [0, 2], so the sum function is defined

over the same domain.)

draW

y

2

1

0

1

2 x

2

2

the two graphs and plot the resultant points. The

3

5 3 7

,

,

,

keypoints are at x = 0, , ,

4 2 4

4 2 4

and 2.

y

2

1

0

1

2 x

2

3

y

2

1

0

1

2

292

final graph.

y

2

1

0

1

2 x

Note that a difference function can be treated as a sum function where the second additive is negative.

For instance, the function y = sin (x) cos (x) can be viewed as y = sin (x) + (cos (x)). So to obtain the

graph of y = sin (x) cos (x), we can sketch the graphs of y = sin (x) and y = cos (x) on the same set of

axes and add their respective y-coordinates.

As was discussed previously, to sketch the graph of the modulus function y = | f (x)|, sketch the graph of

y = f (x) and then reflect all sections of the graph that are below the x-axis in the x-axis. The technique is

shown in Worked example 27.

Worked example 27

Sketch the graph of y = |3 cos (2x)| over the domain [0, 2].

think

1

amplitude of this graph is 3 and its period is

2

= . Since the domain is [0, 2], we need

2

to sketch two full cycles.

draW

y

3

2

1

0

1

2 x

2

3

2

the x-axis in the x-axis.

y

3

2

1

0

1

2 x

2

3

3

final graph.

y

3

2

1

0

1

2 x

2

3

293

The product function is defined over the intersection of the domains of the individual functions. That

is, dom (f (x) g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). Some features of the product function can be established by

using the following rules:

1. The x-intercepts of f (x) g(x) occur where either f (x) or g(x) have their x-intercepts.

2. f (x) g(x) is above the x-axis where f (x) and g(x) are either both positive, or both negative.

3. f (x) g(x) is below the x-axis where one of the functions f (x) or g(x) is positive and the other is negative.

The general shape of the graph and the coordinates of the turning points can be found using a CAS

calculator.

Worked example 28

Find the domain and sketch the graph of the product function y = x sin (x). Use a CAS calculator

for assistance.

think

Write/draW

a product of two functions: f (x) = x and

g(x) = sin (x). The domain of the product

function is equal to the intersection of the

domains of the two individual functions.

Let g(x) = sin (x), dom g(x) = R

dom (f (x) g(x))

= dom f (x) dom g(x)

=R

So the domain of y = x sin (x) is R.

Enter the rule for the function into the

calculator.

f1(x) = x sin(x)

of f1(x).

Of course the graphs of product functions are not limited to those involving trigonometric functions.

Worked example 29

If f(x) = 2x and g ( x ) =

think

1

Write/draW

y = 2x

y= x+1

(0, 1)

(1, 0) 0

294

Dom fg = [1, )

find the x-intercepts of the product fg.

x-intercept for g(x) is when x = 1 and g(x) = 0

Hence, the x-intercepts for the product are when

x = 0 and x = 1.

negative.

x (1, 0), so fg is negative for x (1, 0).

positive.

fg is positive for x (0, ).

calculator. Round the answer to 2 decimal

places as appropriate.

, 0.77).

y = 2x x + 1

(1, 0)

(0, 0)

( 32 ,

0.77)

A composite function is formed from two functions in the following way. If f (x) = x + 5 and g(x) = 2x are

two functions, then we combine the two functions to form the composite function g(f (x)) = 2f (x) = 2(x + 5).

That is, f (x) replaces x in the function g(x).

The composite function reads g of f and can be written g f.

Another composite function is f (g(x)) = g(x) + 5 = 2x + 5. In this case, g(x) replaces x in f (x). This

composite function reads f of g and can be written f g.

For the composite function f (g(x)) to be defined, the range of g must be a subset of the domain of f.

Furthermore, if f (g(x)) is defined, the domain of f (g(x)) equals the domain of g(x).

Composite functions can be rather complex to graph by hand, so a CAS calculator can be used for

assistance when sketching.

Worked example 30

a show that f(g(x)) is defined

b find f(g(x)) and state its domain

c sketch the graph of f(g(x)), using a CAS calculator for assistance.

think

of f to show that this condition is observed.

b 1 Form the composite function, f (g(x)), by substituting

2

of g(x). Since the domain of g(x) is R+ {0}, so is the

domain of f (g(x)).

calculator.

tUtorial

eles-1217

Worked example 30

Write/draW

Range of g(x) domain of f(x)

f (g(x)) is defined

b f ( g( x )) = cos( x )

c f1(x) = cos( x )

295

sketch the graphs of f (x) = cos ( x ), x 0.

y

1

61.7

2.4

22.2

The graphs of composite functions are not limited to those involving trigonometric functions. This is

demonstrated in the following example.

Worked example 31

a show that both f(g(x)) and g(f(x)) are defined

b find both f(g(x)) and g(f(x)), stating the domain and range of each one

c on separate axes, sketch the graphs of f(g(x)) and g(f(x)).

think

Write

b 1 Write f(x).

b f (x) = x2 2

Range of f domain of g, so g(f (x)) exists.

Range of g domain of f, so f (g(x)) exists.

substituting g(x) into f (x). Simplify.

f (g(x)) = (x4)2 2

= x8 2

substituting f (x) into g(x).

2decimal places.

y

y = x8 2

(1.09, 0) 0

(1.09, 0)

x

(0, 2)

point is (2, 0).

y

(0, 16)

y = (x2 2)4

0

296

(2, 0) x

Further graphs

exercise 6h

1 We26

Using addition of ordinates, sketch the following graphs for the domain [0, 2].

a y = sin (x) + cos (2x)

b y = cos (x) + sin (2x)

c y = 2 sin (x) + cos (x)

d y = 2 cos (x) + sin (x)

e y = 2 sin (x) + cos (2x)

f y = 2 cos (x) + sin (2x)

g y = 2 sin (2x) + cos (x)

h y = 2 cos (2x) + sin (x)

diGital doC

doc-9259

SkillSHEET 6.6

addition of ordinates

2 Apply the addition of ordinates method to sketch each of the following graphs over the domain [0, 2].

a y = sin (x) + x

b y = cos (x) x

1 2

1

e y = 2sin (4 x ) 8 x 3

d y = cos(2 x ) + 4 x

20

g y = 4 sin (x) 5 loge (x + 1)

h y = 3cos(2 x )

( x + 2)2

c y = 3 sin (x) 2x

f

3 We27 Sketch each of the following graphs over the domain [0, 2].

1 x

2

a y = |sin (2x)|

b y = |2 sin (4x)|

c y = cos

d y = |3 cos (3x)|

e y = | 2 tan (x)|

g y = |1 2 cos (2x)|

h y = |tan (2x) + 3|

y = | 4 sin (x) + 2|

4 Sketch each of the following graphs over the domain [0, 2]. Remember to observe the appropriate

order of transformations.

a y = 3|sin (x)|

c y = 2 cos + 3

2

b y = |2 cos (2x)| + 1

5 We28 Find the domain and sketch the graph of each of the following product functions. Use a CAS

a y = 0.5x sin (x)

b y = (x 1) cos (x)

d y = 2cos( x ) x

h y=

x

sin

2

2 x

6 We29 For each of the following functions f (x) and g(x), sketch the graph of f (x)g(x).

a f ( x ) = x , g( x ) =

x+2

b f (x) = x 2, g(x) = ex

d f (x) = | x |, g(x) = x2 1

3

e f ( x ) = x , g( x ) =

g f (x) =

x+2

x , g( x ) = 1 x

i show that f (g(x)) is defined

ii find f (g(x)) and state its domain

iii sketch the graph of f (g(x)), using a CAS calculator for assistance.

b f ( x ) = sin(2 x ) and g( x ) =

a f (x) = cos (x) and g(x) = loge (x)

c

f ( x ) = 2sin( x ) and g( x ) =

g

f ( x ) = cos

x2

4

d f (x) =

f

and g( x ) = 2 x 2

x + 2 and g( x ) = 2 cos ( x )

h f ( x ) = 2sin( x ) + 1 and g( x ) =

x 3

8 We31 For each of the following pairs of functions f (x) and g(x):

i state whether f (g(x)) and g(f (x)) are defined

ii for the composite functions that are defined, find f (g(x)) and g(f (x)), stating the domain and

iii on separate axes, sketch the graphs of f (g(x)) and g(f (x)) that are defined.

a f (x) = x 2, g(x) = ex

b f (x) = | x| g(x) = x2 1

c f (x) = 1 x2, g(x) = ex

x

e f (x) = e , g(x) = cos (x)

f f (x) = loge x, g(x) = sin (x)

d f ( x ) = x , g( x ) = sin( x )

Chapter 6 Circular (trigonometric) functions

297

increasing trend

6i

Consider a trigonometric function where there is an increasing trend, for example, economic growth

cycles, tidal heights due to global warming or increasing seasonal populations. These situations can be

modelled by a function of the form:

y = ax + b + m sin (nx)

where ax + b represents the increasing trend line and m sin (nx) represents the seasonal variation.

Worked example 32

Consider a remote island where global warming has caused the temperature to increase by

0.1degree each month. The mean daily temperature is modelled by the function

T ( m) = 16 + 0.1 m + 6 cos m , where T is the temperature in degrees Celsius and m is the number

6

of months after January 2008.

a Sketch a graph of the function for a five year period from January 2008, using a CAS calculator

for assistance.

b Find the mean daily temperature for March 2009.

c When will the mean daily temperature first reach 23 degrees?

think

2

i.e. 0 x 60 (months). Use the graphing feature to

help sketch the graph.

Write/draW

x

6

a f1 ( x ) = 16 + 0.1x + 6 cos

y

6

0

b March 2009 occurs when m = 14. Use a CAS calculator

to determine f 1(14).

c 1 Use a CAS calculator to determine when f 1(x) = 23.

b f1 (14) =

102

= 20.4

5

c f 2(x) = 23

(11.5631, 23).

23C will be during the 12th month

after January 2008, that is; during

January 2009. (m = 11.5631).

increasing trend

exercise 6i

1 We32 A fisherman finds himself stranded on an island, where the mean daily temperature is

increasing as a result of global warming. He finds that the temperature can be modelled by the function

T (m) = 12 + 0.2m + 5cos m , where T is the temperature in degrees Celsius and m is the number

6

of months after January 2008.

a Sketch a graph of the function for a 2-year period beginning with January 2008.

b Find the mean daily temperature for December 2009.

c When will the temperature first reach 18 degrees?

298

2 In a region of country Victoria, a study shows that increased wheat production causes the mouse

population to increase according to the function M = 15000 + 100t 4000 cos t , where M is the

6

number of mice and t is the number of months after July 2008.

a How many mice are being added to the average population per month?

b Draw a graph of this situation for a 5-year period beginning with July 2008.

c How many mice would you expect to be in the region in December 2008?

d When would the mice population first reach 20 000?

3 The value of a particular stock on the market follows a trigonometric model, and inflation causes

the stocks value to have an overall upward trend. The value of the stock can be represented by the

equation V (t ) = 20 + 0.02t + 5sin t , where V is the value of the stock in dollars and t is the

6

number of months after January 2006.

a What is the inflation rate per month?

b What was the initial value of the stock?

c What will be the stocks value after 6 months?

d When will its value first reach $25.50?

299

Summary

revision of radians

and the unit circle

1c = the size of the angle formed where the length of an arc is equal to the radius of the circle.

c = 180

Angles are in radians unless a degree symbol is shown.

180

.

To change radians to degrees, multiply by

.

To change degrees to radians, multiply by

180

Identities

1. sin2 ( ) + cos2 ( ) = 1

sin ( )

2. tan ( ) =

cos( )

values

Exact values can be determined by using the equilateral triangle and the right isosceles triangle

shown below.

3 30

45

45

60

1

180 ()

360 (2)

270

0 (0)

30 6

45 4

60 3

sin ( )

1

2

2

2

3

2

cos ( )

3

2

2

2

1

2

tan ( )

3

3

Undef.

Undef.

90

The unit circle is symmetrical so that the magnitude of sine, cosine and tangent are the same in

each quadrant but the sign varies. All functions (sine, cosine and tangent) are positive in the 1st

quadrant, sine is positive in the 2nd quadrant, tangent is positive in the 3rd quadrant and cosine is

positive in the 4th quadrant.

sin ( ) = sin ( )

sin ( + ) = sin ( )

sin (2 ) = sin ( )

cos ( ) = cos ( )

cos ( + ) = cos ( )

cos (2 ) = cos ( )

tan ( + ) = tan ( )

tan (2 ) = tan ( )

tan ( ) =

tan

( )

Negative angles

sin ( ) = sin ( ), cos ( ) = cos ( ), tan ( ) = tan ( )

2

The sine of an angle is equal to the cosine of its complement.

The complement of the tangent of an angle is the cotangent.

sin

(

tan (

cos

300

= cos( )

)

) = cot ( )

= sin ( )

sin

(

tan (

cos

+ = cos( )

)

+) =

+ = sin ( )

cot ( )

)

cos ( ) = sin ( )

tan ( ) = cot ( )

sin

3

2

3

2

3

2

= cos( )

sin

3

2

(

tan (

cos

3

2

3

2

+ = cos( )

+ = sin ( )

+ = cot ( )

trigonometric

equations

Given a general equation such as sin x = a, there can be an infinite number of solutions. The

domain is usually restricted and it is important to find all values for x within this domain.

If the domain is given in radians, then the solution(s) to x should be in radians. If the domain is

given in degrees, then the solution(s) to x should be in degrees.

Adjust the domain to match what has been done to the angle in the question.

Sine is positive in the 1st and 2nd quadrants, cosine is positive in the 1st and 4th quadrants and

tangent is positive in the 1st and 3rd quadrants.

If sin (x) = a then the general solution is x = sin 1 (a) + 2n and x = sin 1 (a) + (2n + 1), n Z.

1

If cos (x) = a then the general solution is x = cos (a) + 2n, n Z.

Find all the solutions within the specified domain by substituting integer values for n into the

general solution.

If the equation is of the form sin (ax) = k cos (ax), divide both sides by cos (ax) to change the

equation to tan (ax) = k.

trigonometric graphs

Graphs of the form y = a sin [n(x b)] + c and y = a cos [n(x b)] + c are transformations of

y = sin (x) and y = cos (x).

The amplitude a is a dilation from the x-axis. If a is negative, the amplitude is still positive but the

graph is a reflection in the x-axis.

The vertical translation c is a translation parallel to the y-axis. If c is positive, the graph is

translated c units up, and if c is negative, the graph is translated c units down.

c represents the median value of the function.

The range is [c | a |, c + | a |].

2

The period is .

n

1

The factor n is the horizontal dilation where the graph has been dilated by a factor of from the y-axis.

n

The value b is the horizontal translation or a translation parallel to the x-axis. If b is positive, the

graph is translated b units to the right and if b is negative, the graph is translated b units to the left.

Tangent graphs

The graph of y = tan (x) has the following properties.

y

x = 32 x = 2

x = 2 x = 32

It has no amplitude.

3

The period is .

2

There are x-intercepts at x = . . ., 2, , 0, , 2, . . .

3 3

1

There are vertical asymptotes at x = . . .,

, , ,

,...

2 2 2 2

0 3

2 32 2

2 x

The range is R.

2

2

1

The graph of y = tan (nx) has the following properties.

It has no amplitude.

2

The period is .

3

n

k

There are x-intercepts at x =

where k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

n

(2 k + 1)

where k = 0, 1, 2, . . .

There are vertical asymptotes at x =

2n

The range is R.

Compared to the basic graph of y = tan (x), the graph of y = a tan [n(x b)] + c is:

dilated by the factor of a from the x-axis

1

dilated by the factor of from the y-axis (and hence has period of )

n

n

reflected in the x-axis if a < 0

translated b units horizontally (to the right if b > 0 and to the left if b < 0)

translated c units vertically (up if c > 0 and down if c < 0).

301

Finding equations of

trigonometric graphs

y=a cos [n(x b)] + c.

The amplitude a can be found by halving the distance between the maximum and minimum values.

The period is the interval from one point on the graph to the next point where the graph begins to

2

repeat itself. The period is n .

The vertical shift is c.

The horizontal shift is b.

Further graphs

For the graph of the sum/difference function, dom(f (x) g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). The graph

of the sum/difference function can be obtained by using the addition of ordinates method.

The graph of the modulus function y = | f (x)| can be obtained by sketching the graph of y = f (x) and

then reflecting all of the sections of the graph that are below the x-axis in the x-axis.

For the product function, dom(f (x)g(x)) = dom f (x) dom g(x). Some features of the graph of the

product function are as follows:

the x-intercepts of f (x)g(x) occur where either f (x) or g(x) have their x-intercepts

f (x)g(x) is above the x-axis where f (x) and g(x) are either both positive or both negative

f (x)g(x) is below the x-axis where one of the functions f (x) or g(x) is positive and the other is

negative.

For the composite function f (g(x)) to be defined, the range of g must be a subset of the domain of f.

Furthermore, if f (g(x)) is defined, the domain of f (g(x)) equals the domain of g(x).

trigonometric

functions with an

increasing trend

These situations can be modelled by a function of the form y = ax + b + m sin (nx), where ax + b

represents the increasing trend line and m sin (nx) is the seasonal variation.

302

Chapter review

1 Convert the following into radians.

a 60

b 30

e 360

f 270

i 225

j 120

c 45

g 150

k 210

S ho rt

a n S W er

d 90

h 300

l 315

2

b sin

4

3

e tan (2)

f sin (120)

i cos (315)

j tan (225)

3 If sin (x) = 0.85 and x is in the first quadrant, find:

a sin ( x)

b sin ( + x)

a cos

6

g cos (135)

4

h tan (30)

c tan

d sin

c sin (2 + x)

d sin (4 x)

5 Find the general solution for 3 sin (2 x ) = cos(2 x ) and hence all solutions for x between 0 and 2.

+ 2 .

4

a State the translations required to form this graph from y = sin (x).

b State the amplitude and period of the transformed trigonometric function.

c Sketch the graph of the transformed function over the domain 0 x 2.

8 The equation of the graph at right is of the form

the equation of the function.

t

after 9 am is given by d = 5 + 3sin , for 0 t 24 hours.

6

a Sketch the graph of d for 0 t 24 hours.

b At what times will the depth of water in

the bay be 6.5 metres?

c Particular water sports cannot run in the

bay when the depth of water is less than

6.5 metres. At what times of the day (not

night) will the water sports be able to run?

10 Sketch the graph of y = | 2 sin (2x) | over the

domain [0, 2].

y

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

a y = 2x

b y = sin (x)

c y = sin (x) + 2x.

a y=x

b y = sin (x)

c y = x sin (x).

g(x) = x2 + 2:

a show that f (g(x)) is defined

b find f (g(x))

c state the domain and range of f (g(x)).

303

m U lt ip l e

C h oiCe

a

2

9

5

18

13 c

expressed in degrees?

6

a 390

B 420

5

equals:

3 The expression sin

3

8

9

4

9

16

9

2 What is

1

2

C 150

d 120

3

2

3

2

e 330

e 1

B 2, , R

C 3, , [4, 2]

a 3, , [ 4, 2]

2

d 2,

, [ 1,3]

2

e 3,

1

a 0 solutions

10

11

C 2 solutions

e 4 solutions

[,

5 3 7

3

3

,

, ,

,

,

a

B

C

4

4 4 4

2 4

8 8

5 3 7

,

, ,

,

d

e

8

8 8 8

4 4

3

The solution of the equation 4 sin ( x ) = 2 3 between and

is:

2

4

7

2

a

B

C

d

e

6

3

3

3

3

The domain and range of the function

, 2 ] [ 4, 4]

a [0, ], R

B [0, ], [2, 6]

C R, R

d [

e [0, ], [2, 4]

3

Using addition of ordinates for the graph of the difference function y = 2 cos (x) 3 sin (x), the value of y

at x = is:

3

1

1+ 3 3

2+3 3

a

B

C

2

2

3

1 3 3

23 3

d

e

2

2

x

is:

3

a

B

C 2

d 3

e 6

3

The graph of the function f : [1.5, 1.5] R, f (x) = a + b cos ( nx) is shown below. The values of a, b,

and n are respectively:

6 The function f :

B 1 solution

d 3 solutions

Max = 3.5

3

2

1

1.5

1.0

0.5

0

1

0.5

x

1.0

1.5

Min = 1.5

2

5

a 1, 2 , 3

304

1, 3 , 2

C 1, 5, 3

d 1, 3 , 3

1,

5

3

,2

c, 2 c

B , 2

C c, c

+ c, 2 c

e c, + c

13 The position of a particle from a fixed point O is given by the equation x = 2 2 sin ( t). If 0 t 2,

the particle is at the point O when t equals:

a 0

B 2

C 0.5

e 6

e 6

a

d

1 At the South Pole in midsummer on the planet Marus, the red sun of its solar system does not set.

It dips towards the horizon until its lower rim just touches it, then rises until its lowest point is at an

angle of D(t) to the horizontal before sinking again. It continues in this pattern. The angle above the

horizontal can be modelled by the following relation:

D(t) = a b sin n(t + c) where t is the time in hours after midnight and a, b, c and n are positive

constants.

The graph of D(t) for 24 hours is shown on the axes in the figure below.

ex ten d ed

r eS p o n S e

D(t)

10

8

6

4

2

0

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24

a State the values of a, b, c and n and hence write the rule for D(t).

b What would be the angle above the horizon at 6.00 am and at 9.00 pm? Give an exact answer

c Use your graph to find at what times the angle to the horizontal is 8. When does the rim of the sun

d By using an appropriate equation, check your answer and account for any difference in your two

solutions.

e If a spot on the surface of the sun is 5 above the horizon at midnight, what would be the relation

2 Nathan and Rachel are competing in the National Ballroom Dancing Championships. The judges are

evenly spaced around the circular dance floor, standing just outside the edge. As Nathan and Rachel

waltz around the circular floor, their distance (in metres) from judge Maya can be described by the

function

d = 10.5 9 cos t , where t is time (in seconds) from the beginning of the dance.

30

a How far is the couple from judge Maya when they start dancing?

b What is the couples maximum distance from the judge?

c Assuming that, while dancing, Rachel and Nathan trace a perfect circle, what is its diameter?

d How long does it take for the couple to complete one full circle around the dance floor?

e What is the couples average speed (in m/s)? Give your answer i in exact form and ii correct

to 2decimal places.

t

f If the duration of the waltz is 2.5 minutes, draw the graph of d = 10.5 9 cos

over the

30

domain, showing the full length of this dance.

g Judge Joseph is positioned further down the dance floor, so that Nathan and Rachel are closest to

him 6seconds after the waltz begins. Write the equation describing the couples distance from

judge Joseph at any time, t, from the beginning of the dance.

h How far is the couple from judge Joseph when they finish the waltz?

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Practice

VCE exam

questions

Use StudyON to

access all exam

questions on this

topic since 2002.

diGital doC

doc-9207

Test Yourself

Chapter 6

305

ICT activities

Chapter opener

diGital doC

10 Quick Questions doc-9200: Warm up with ten quick questions on

circular functions. (page 259)

6a

diGital doCS

Spreadsheet doc-9201: Investigate the unit circle. (page 262)

SkillSHEET 6.1 doc-9254: Practise changing degrees to radians.

(page 262)

SkillSHEET 6.2 doc-9255: Practise working with tangent ratios.

(page 263)

6B

tUtorialS

We3 eles-1182: Watch a worked example on exact values using

degrees and radians. (page 264)

We5 eles-1183: Watch a worked example on determining

trigonometric ratios. (page 265)

We8 eles-1184: Watch a worked example on complementary

angle formulas. (page 268)

diGital doCS

SkillSHEET 6.3 doc-9256: Practise rationalising the denominator.

(page 268)

Spreadsheet doc-9201: Investigate the unit circle. (page 268)

SkillSHEET 6.4 doc-9257: Practise problem solving using

trigonometry. (page 270)

6C

trigonometric equations

tUtorial

We13 eles-1215: Watch a worked example on determining the

general solution to a trigonometric equation. (page 273)

diGital doCS

Spreadsheet doc-9202: Practise solving trigonometric equations.

(page 275)

WorkSHEET 6.1 doc-9203: Use exact values, solve trigonometric

equations and application questions. (page 276)

6d

trigonometric graphs

diGital doCS

SkillSHEET 6.5 doc-9258: Practise identifying the period and

amplitude of sine and cosine graphs. (page 280)

Spreadsheet doc-9204: Investigate sine graphs. (page 280)

Spreadsheet doc-9205: Investigate cosine graphs. (page 280)

306

6e

tUtorial

We 21 eles-1216: Watch a worked example on calculating the

period of trigonometric functions. (page 284)

6F

interaCtiVitY int-0251

Finding equations of trigonometric graphs: Use the interactivity to

consolidate your understanding of trigonometric graphs.

(page 286)

diGital doCS

Spreadsheet doc-9204: Investigate sine graphs. (page 288)

Spreadsheet doc-9205: Investigate cosine graphs. (page 288)

WorkSHEET 6.2 doc-9206: Sketch trigonometric graphs over given

domains, including composite and absolute value graphs, and

determine the equations of trigonometric graphs. (page 289)

6G

trigonometric modelling

eleSSon eles-0092

Trigonometric modelling: Learn how trigonometry can be used to

model sinusoidal patterns. (page 289)

diGital doC

Spreadsheet doc-9165: Investigate graphs of functions.

(page 290)

6h

Further graphs

tUtorial

We30 eles-1217: Watch how to sketch a composite function using

a CAS calculator. (page 295)

diGital doC

SkillSHEET 6.6 doc-9259: Practise using addition of ordinates to

sketch graphs. (page 297)

Chapter review

diGital doC

Test Yourself doc-9207: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress. (page 305)

Answers CHAPTER 6

CirCUlar (triGonometriC)

FUnCtionS

exercise 6a

unit circle

1 a 171.89

c 275.02

e 63

g 150

286.48

146.68

54

225

c

b

12

36

c

e

g

i

3 a

c

e

g

i

k

4 a

c

e

g

i

k

5 a

c

e

g

6 a

b

8

6 a

3

1 a

2

3

2

2

g

2

3

j

2

3

m

2

7 2

8 a

2

2

2

g

2

3

j

2

2

2

1

d

2

1

g

2

2

j

2

2 a

2

1

h

2

k

2

2

1

2

1

k

2

3

2

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

i 1

l

3

3

2 a

c

e

3 a

b

c

d

4 a

b

3

2

h

k

exercise 6C

2

2

3

2

3

2

2

2

3

2

1

+

2

10 a 0.7

d 0.3

g 0.7

j 0.3

11 C

12 D

13 a 10 cm/s

14 a 0.9 m

1 a

2

2

1

g

2

1

j

2

i 1

l

3

2

2

3

b

c

2

3

11 13.5 C, 15.8 C

exercise 6B

9 D

10 B

i 2.4

8 3

f 2.4

c 2 ,

3

e

2

h 0.5

3

3

,

2

3

5 a

7 15

3

91

d

10

g 0.3

c 2.4

c 212.90, 327.10

d 78.83, 281.17

3

2

2

2

1

or

2

2

,1

2

3 1

, 2

2

c

f1

i

3

3

o 1

c 1

3

3

f

i

10

l 1

1 1

1

= + =1

2 2

2

b 0.3

c 2.5

e 0.7

f 2.5

i 2.5

h 0.3

k 0.7

l 2.5

b 11 cm/s

c 12 cm/s

b 0.3 m

c 0.7 m

11

12

13

trigonometric equations

3

5 7

7

,

b

,

c ,

2 2

4 4

4 4

3

5 7

e

,

2

6 6

90

b 60, 300

60, 120

d 180

45, 135

2.2904, 3.9928, 8.5736, 10.2760

1.1442, 1.9973, 7.4274, 8.2805

1.0701, 5.2130, 7.3533, 11.4962

3.5217, 5.9031, 9.8049, 12.1863

15.58, 164.42

137.91, 222.09

5

3

,

b ,

6 6

2 2

7

4 5

c

,

d ,

4 4

3 3

a 0, 180, 360

b 105, 165, 285, 345

c 45, 75, 165, 195, 285, 315

d 20, 40, 140, 160, 260, 280

e 62.40, 117.60, 182.40, 237.60,

302.40, 357.60

f 39.44, 140.56, 219.44, 320.56

g 26.39, 333.61

h 101.22, 258.78

a

b 0, 2

2

c 2.7184

d 0.9772

5 13 17 25 29

e

, ,

,

,

,

18 18 18 18 18 18

7 9 15 17 23

f

,

,

,

,

,

12 12 12 12 12 12

5 7 17 19

g

,

,

,

12 12 12 12

h 1.2579, 5.0253

3

7

a

b

2

2

16

11

c

d

3

3

e 19.7766

f 6.9266

a The particle is 3 metres from O.

b It takes the particle 1.99 seconds to

reach O for the first time.

11 11

,

, ,

a x=

6 6 6 6

11 5 7

b x=

,

, ,

6

6 6 6

7 5 3

,

, ,

c x=

4

4 4 4

11 7 5

x=

,

, ,

12

12 12 12

7 5 5 7

x=

,

,

, ,

,

9

9

9 9 9 9

7

a x= ,

6 6

5 9 13

, ,

b x= ,

8 8 8 8

5 11 17 25 29 35

c x=

,

,

,

,

,

18 18 18 18 18 18

x = 6.1033, 5.2360, 2.0944,1.5116,

0.1799, 1.0472, 4.1888, 4.7716

5 a

13

2

d

8

3

c

1.12

f 1.38c

4.10c

h 4.54c

5.41c

j 6.11c

0.389

b 0.717

0.170

d 0.129

0.246

f 0.916

0.966

h 0.927

0.940

j 0.996

11.430

l 1.732

0

b 0

1

d 1

Undefined

f Undefined

1

h 0

1

j 1

Undefined

l 0

1

b 1

1

d 1

1

f 1

2

h 5

sin( 240), sin (150), sin (35),

sin (120), sin (70)

cos (3.34), cos (1.5), cos (5.3),

cos (0.2), cos (6.3)

c

3

91

k

l 2.4

2

10

m 0.3

n 0.5

o 2.4

2

2

7 7

49 576 625

24

4

=1

, + =

=

+

25

24 24

625 625 625

b

d

f

h

2 a

b 0.5

3 a 0.3

14

exercise 6d

1 a 2, 1

d 2 ,

1

3

g 4, 3

j

2

,4

3

trigonometric graphs

b 2, 1

2

e

,2

3

h 6, 2

c 2, 4

f , 3

i , 1

307

2 a

h 3, 6, 3 to 3

2

2 2

, 2,

to

3

3 3

y

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

e 1,

y

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

y

0.5

2 3 4 5 6

2

3 4, 3 , 4 to 4

0

2

4

2

4 2, ,

3

2

to 2

g 3,

y

2

c 3, , 3 to 3

y

3

2

1

0

2 1

2

b

2

c

4

d

3

to the left, up 3

5 a

2

d 2,

, 2 to 2

3

y

2

1

0

1

2 1 1

e 12

, 2 to 2

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

43

2 x

43

g 4, 4, 4 to 4

2

0

2

4

308

2 x

3

2

1

3

2 x

0

1

2

3

4

4 x

0 2 3 4 5 6 x

1

2

3

7 a 2, 1

2 x

y

1.5

1

0.5

0.5

1

1.5

0

3

5

3

7 2

4 2 4

4 2 4

b 2, 1

y

5

4

3

2

1

j 2, 6, 3 to 1

1

0.5

d 2, 2, 1 to 5

y

4

1

2

3

4

5

c 2, 2, 4 to 0

y

0

6

4

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

f 13 , , 13 to 1

i 3, 4, 1 to 7

b 1, 2, 2 to 0

2

, 5 to 1

3

6 a 1, 2, 0 to 2

0

1

y

0.6

0.4

0.2

2 x

h 2 , , 2.5 to 3.5

to the right, up 1

y

2

0

1

2

3

y

2.5

2

1.5

1

0.5

0.5

f 1, , 0 to 2

4

2

y

4

0

2

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

b 4, 2, 4 to 4

2

, 2 to 0

3

2 x

y

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

8 a 4, , 4 to 4

c 2, 3

y

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

7

4

9

511

2

6 3 2 6 6

6 3 6 3 6

y

3

2

1

0

y

2

y = 2 sin 2 ( + )

2

3

2

0

1

2

3

0.5

1

1.5

2 x

1 0

1.5

2

2.5

1

2

3

h , 2

y

1

0 3 5 3 7 2

4 2 4

4 2 4

11

12

13

14

0

1

2

2 x

y

1

4

2

2 x

0

2

4

y

3

2

1

b Period =

0 3

5

3

7 2 x

1 4 2

4

4 2 4

2

3

2

f

, 1, 1 to 1

3

c Period =

d Period =

g 2, 4, 3 to 5

2.5

2

1.5

1

e Period = 4

4

2

0

2

2 x

y

2

1

0

1

2

1 0

1.5

2

2.5

y

2

1

0

1

2

0

3

5

3

7 2

4 2 4

4 2 4

y

2

1

0

1

2

j 4, 1

2 x

function

1 a Period =

y

e , 3, 3 to 3

y = sin (x + ) + 1

3

y = 2 cos 3 (x ) + 1

4

2

y = 3 sin (x

)2

3

a 1

b 12

c 3 metres

d 1 metre

e 3.00 am and 3.00 pm

f 9.00 am and 9.00 pm

x

g y = sin

6 + 2

i 2, 2

4

5 2 x

3 3

y

3

2

1

2

3 3

j 2, 1, 1 to 3

b 2, 1, 1 to 1

2 x

2 x

y

1.5

1

0.5

2 1 1

, , to 1 12

3 2 2

0

0.5

0

1.5

1

0.5

y

1.5

1

0.5

y

3

2

1

2.5

2

1.5

1

2

1

l 3 3 , 4 3

d 2, 3, 3 to 3

2

,1

3

1

2

3

y

2

1

3

2

1

1

2

3

4

c 2, 2, 2 to 2

0

1

2

3

4

f 5,

k 22, 1 2

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

,3

3

d 1, 6, 1 to 1

10 a 2, 1, 1 to 1

h , 2, 4 to 0

, 7 to 3

2

1, 2, 1 to 1

h 1, 2, 1 to 1

1, 1

b 1, 1

c 3, 3

2, 2

e 2, 2

f 3, 3

5, 3

h 1, 3

i 1, 5

j 5, 3

e , 2

9 a

d

g

d 2, 2

1

2

3

b 3, 4, 3 to 3

2

c 2,

, 2 to 2

3

e 3, , 2 to 4

y

2

1

0

1

2

4 x

309

f Period = 3

h i Period = 3

ii Dilated by factor of 12 from the x-axis

y

2

1

0

1

2

g Period = 2

h Period =

0

1

2

3

2 x

y

5

reflected in the x-axis; translated

6 units up

i i Period =

4

ii Dilated by factor of 14 from the y-axis;

translated

12

1

units

down

3

j i Period =

ii Dilated by factor of 2 from the x-axis;

3

5 units up

y

3 a Period =

2 x

2

1

b Period =

1

3

13

ii

b i

ii

c i

ii

d i

ii

e i

ii

f i

ii

g i

ii

310

j Period = 2

2 x

c Period =

Period =

3

Dilated by factor of 2 from the x-axis

and by factor of 13 from the y-axis

Period =

4

Dilated by factor of 14 from the y-axis;

reflected in the x-axis; translated 1 unit

up

Period =

2

Dilated by factor of 3 from the x-axis

and by factor of 12 from the y-axis;

translated 4 units down

Period = 2

Dilated by factor of 2 from the y-axis;

reflected in the x-axis; translated

2 units down

Period =

Dilated by factor of 5 from the x-axis;

reflected in the x-axis; translated

2

Period =

2

Dilated by factor of 12 from the y-axis;

4

Period =

3

Dilated by factor of 14 from the x-axis

and by factor of 13 from the y-axis;

6

d Period =

3

4

3

4

x =

y

4

3

2

1

trigonometric modelling

b 12 hours

0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 t

5.00 am

h Period =

2.78 x

0

1

8

6

4

2

g Period = 2

1 a 8.5 m, 3.00 pm

c 3.5 m

d d(t)

y

3

2

1

, y = 2 sin ( x)

6

6

a 2, 4, y = 2 cos (4x)

b 2, , y = 2 cos ( x)

3

3

a 12 , 1, 1, y = 12 sin (x) + 1

b 3, , 2, y = 3 sin ( x) 2

4

4

a 4, 2, , y = 4 cos 2(x )

2

2

b 5, 2, , y = 5 cos 2(x )

4

4

a 2, 1,

, 1, y = 2 sin (x + ) 1

3

3

b 3, 1,

, 2, y = 3 sin (x + ) + 2

2

2

a 1, , 3, y = 3 cos ( x)

6

6

b 1, , 2, y = 2 cos ( x)

4

4

D

8 E

exercise 6G

f Period = 6

0

1

2

19

24

b 2,

y

2

1

e Period = 4

13

24

trigonometric graphs

y

2

1

0

1

2

7

24

0

1

2

3

4

0

2 a i

y

3

2

1

0

1 24

2

3

y

2

1

0

1

2

3

y

1

1 a 3, 2, y = 3 sin (2x)

0

1

2

y

2

1

0

1

2

j Period = 2

y

3

2

1

i Period =

i Period =

2.21 x

x =

0

5 3

7 x

1 8 4 3

8 2

8 4

8

2

3

4

2 a 10 m, 4 m

b d

10

7

4

6 12 18 24 30 36 t

c 3.00 am

e

3 a

b

c

4 a

b

Sunday morning

3.00 am to 5.00 am Sunday

18 C, 14.5 C

25 C, December

21.5 C

d 8 months

0.9, , 0.9, h = 0.9 sin ( t) + 0.9

h

2

1.5

1

0.5

0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 t

0.5

c 1.3 seconds

5 a 2, 1

6 a

b

c

e

g

h

b 8 m, 8

2

18, 16,

3

2

h(t) = 18 16 cos ( t)

3

5, 34 m

d 2m

3 minutes

f 26 m

2

h(t) = 18 16 cos

(t + 1)

3

y

0

exercise 6h

Further graphs

0

0.5

1

1.5

2 x

1.5

1

0.5

0.5

1

1.5

10

2

3

4

5

0

2

3 2 x

3 a

3

2

2 x

3

2

2 x

3

2

0

1

2 x

y

2

1

y

2

1

0

3 2 x

2

3 2 x

y

1

y

2

0

1

2

3

4

5

y

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

3

2

3

2

3 2 x

2

3

2

2 x

y

0

5

15

20

25

30

35

y

3

2

1

0

1

y

10

8

6

4

2

0

3

2

x

2

2 x

3

2

2 x

y

6

4

2

0

2 x

0

2 x

y

1

y

3

2

1

1

2

x

2

3

2

2

1

y

1.5

1

0.5

2 x

10

1

2

2 a

g 10 C, 20 C, 30 C, 20 C

h 13C

2 x

2

1

f T = 20 10 cos

(t 3) or

12

T = 20 10 cos (t + 21)

12

(t 15)

or T = 20 + 10 cos

12

or T = 20 + 10 cos

(t + 9)

12

0

1

2

2

g

0

1

2

7 a 10

b 24

c 20

d 20

e 3.00 am, 3.00 pm

y

2

1

1

2

e

y

2

1

0

1

2

y

30

25

20

15

10

5

1 a

y

2

1

3

2

2 x

3

2

2 x

y

3

2

1

0

311

e Domain: R

y

5

4

3

2

1

4

0

1

(2, 0)

2 x

3

2

y

(5.57, 7.07)

8

6

4 (.61, 2.61)

(2.67, 1.08)

2

2 x

0

2

4

6

3

2

3

2

3

2

(0, 1)

2 x

3

2

0

2 1

2

(3.5, 2.3)

2 x

3

2

2 x

6 a

(1, 0)

0 (0.61, 0.18) x

f (g(x)) = R+

iii

0

(113 , 1.09)

3

2

2 x

iii

0

1

2

3

4

5

312

2 x

(1, 2.7)

c ii f (g(x)) = 2 sin (

{0}

3

2

(3.29, 3.59)

d ii f (g(x)) =

f (g(x)) = R

(0.65, 1.28)

x=0

iii

0

1

2

(5.6, 2)

3

2

2 x

(4.34, 2)

2cos( x ) + 2 ; domain

y

2

1

2 x

(1, 0)

0 (1, 0)

x

(0.58, 0.38) (0.58, 0.38)

x2

); domain

4

y

2 (2.51, 2)

1

iii

0 (1, 0)

R+

2 x

3

2

(5.55, 1)

f (g(x)) = R

(4.84, 4.69)

d Domain:

y

3

2

1

3

2

(0, 2)

y

2 (0.62, 1)

1

0

1

2

(2, 0) x

2 x

3

2

= R+ {0}

c Domain: R+

(2.13, 1.92)

y (1, 1)

1

0

1

(2, 0)

(3.52, 2.34)

0

1

2

3

4

5

(1, 0) x

(3.32, 1.8)

2 3

2

y

5

4

3

2 (2.03, 0.91)

1

y

3

2

1

1

(0.5, 0.5)

2 x

b Domain: R

y

1 (1.27, .51)

(4.91, 2.41)

h Domain: R (, 2]

(4.05, 3.98)

0

1

2

y

3

2 (2.03, 0.91)

1

y

(2, 3.14)

3

2 (.18, 1.02)

1

2 x

5 a Domain: R

0

1

g Domain: R

c y

3

2

1

0

1

2

3

2

f Domain: R

y

3

2

1

4 2 4

y

3

2

1

0

y

(1.7, 2.7)

0

2

4

0 3 5 3 7 2 x

4 2

4 a

y

4

2

0

1

3

2

2 x

iii

y

2

1

1 a T(m)

0

1

3

2

(1, 0) 0

y

2

1

g ii f (g(x)) = cos (

(0, 1)

defined.

0

1

(1, 0)

3

2

2 x

x2

); domain f (g(x)) = R

8

Domain is R

Range is ( , 1)

iii

3

2

(5.01, 1)

f(g(x))

g( f (x)) = ex 2

Domain is R

Range is (0, )

ii f (g(x)) = ex 2

Domain is R

Range is (2, )

iii

d

2

5

g

6

2

j

3

iii y

(0, 1)

y = 2

g(f(x))

defined.

ii f (g(x)) = ecos (x)

Domain is R

1

Range is [ , e]

e

g( f (x)) = cos

Domain is R

Range is [

1,

( , 1 )

e

2

ii f (g(x)) = x 2 1

g( f(x)) = x 2 1

Domain is R

Range is [1, )

Domain is R

Range is [0, )

y

f(g(x))

0

1

(0, 1)

(1, 0) 0

(1, 0)

0

1

(4.8, 1)

g(f(x))

5 10 15 20

2

2

2

2

e 0

2

2

3

3

3

f

2

3

3

2

2

b 0.85

d 0.85

y

5

4

y

5

3

7

k

6

4

and 2 units up.

b Amplitude = 3, period = 2

iii

e 2

3 a 0.85

c 0.85

4

3

f

2

5

i

4

7

l

4

y

g(f(x))

1]

j 1

(8n + 1) (8n 1)

,

4

4

7 13 19

(6n + 1)

5

,

,

, x =, ,

12 12 12 12

12

60 t

50

(0, e) (2 , e)

f(g(x))

( , 1 )

e

x

0

2

(ex)

iii

(0, 0.14)

0

2 a

(2.47, 1) g(f(x))

( 2, 0)

0

(0.69, 0)

40

d December 2009

b $20

d April 2008

1 a

ii g( f (x)) = sin ( x )

f(g(x))

30

Short anSWer

20

Chapter reVieW

(0, 2.7)

2 x

3

2

10

c 18 964

3 a 0.1%

c $20.12

g(f(x))

c December 2008

25000

20000

15000

10000

5000

iii y

2

1

(2.04, 1)

b 20.9 C

2 a 100

b

M

y=1

2 x

iii

h ii f (g(x)) = 2 sin ( x 3) + 1;

0

1

(0, 0) x

0

1

2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 m

g( f (x)) = e(1 x

Domain is R

Range is (0, e)

ii f (g(x)) = 1 e2x

y

2

1

iii

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

2 x

iii

an increasing trend

g(f(x))

3

2

1

0

1

3

2

313

y

4

extended reSponSe

11

12

0

2

2

x

8 a = 3, n = 12 , b = 1; y = 3 sin 1

2

y

12

Period =

9 a

0

2

2

18

24

and 2 pm.

314

2 a 1.5 m

b 19.5 m

c 18 m

y = sin x

d 60 s

3

m/s

10

ii 0.94 m/s

e i

y = x sin x

g domain f .

b f (g(x)) = sin (x2 + 2)

c Domain f(g(x)) = R, range f(g(x)) = [1, 1]

mUltiple ChoiCe

2

1

0

y=x

4

12

c Water sports may run between 10 am

10

y

6

midnight.

Differences occur due to inaccuracy of

graphical methods.

e D(t) = 10 5 sin (t + 6)

12

y = sin (x)

day.

3

2

1 E

2A

3 D

4 C

5 B

6 D

7C

8 B

9 E

10 D

11 A

12 E

13 C

, D(t) = 5 5 sin (t + 6)

12

12

b 5, 1.46

c 8.30 am and 3.30 pm. 8.30 am the next

y = sin (x) + 2x

6

0 3

4 2 4

1 a 5, 5, 6 and

y = 2x

10

f f (m)

19.5

10.5

1.5

0

1

2

30

60

g d = 10.5 9 cos (

(t 6))

30

h 17.78 m

1 Solve the equation log2 (2x 3) log2 (3) = 1 for x.

2 Solve the equation

32x + 3

33

1 mark

= 9 for x.

1 mark

3 The graph of the function f : [2,0] R where f (x) = ex is reflected in the y-axis, translated

S ho rt

a n S W er

30 minutes

2 units to the left then translated 3 units up. (Note the change to the domain.)

a Specify the rule of the transformed graph.

b Determine its exact range.

2 marks

by carrying out dilation(s) followed by

translation(s).

a Write down the transformations (type,

direction and quantity) necessary to create the

second graph.

b Write down the equation of the second graph.

0 /6

y = sin (x)

4 marks

5 Find the exact solutions of the equation sin (3x) cos (3x) = 0 for 0 x .

2 marks

f :[

) R, f ( x ) = 2 tan(2 x ) + 1.

4

2 marks

2 marks

1,

8 For f : [

3] R, where f (x) = x sin (x):

a sketch f

b determine the minimum value of f (x)

c estimate the maximum value of f (x) to 1 decimal place.

1 If y = 2abx 1 + 5, then x is equal to:

y

loga ( 5) + 1

2

a

b

d

y5

+b

2b

y5

a 2

+1

b

loga (

y5

) +1

2

b

a {1, 4}

d {loge (1), loge (4)}

B {4}

e {loge (1), loge (4)}

4 marks

m U ltip l e

C ho iC e

y5

+1

2

C

b

12 minutes

one mark.

C {loge (4)}

3 The graph of the function f :[2, 5] R, f (x) = loge (x) is reflected in the y-axis, translated 2 units to the

left then translated 3 units up. The domain of the new graph is:

B [4, 1]

e not defined

a [7, 1]

d [loge (7), loge ( 4)]

C [7, 4]

a f 1: R R, where f 1( x ) = x 1

B f 1: [2, ] R, where f 1( x ) =

1

x2 + 1

1

1

e f 1: [ , ) R, where f 1( x ) =

2

x2 + 1

d f 1: R+ {0} R, where f ( x ) =

C f 1: [1, ] R, where f 1 ( x ) =

x 1

x 1

5 The equation a sin (3 ) b = 0 has = 2 as one solution. Which of the following could also be a solution?

a 3 + 6

2

+2

d

3

+2

2

+6

e

3

B

C 2

Exam practice 2

315

y

3a

0

a

a 2a cos

2

B 2a cos

T + a

2

d 2a sin(

( )) + a

T

2

2 + 1)

T

+ a

T

T ( ) + 1)

e a (sin

2

2

C a (cos

7 The graph of y = 3 cos (2x) 1 is shown below. If a and b are two adjacent x-intercepts, b a is equal to:

y

20 minutes

C 3a

316

2a

500

silver-banded lorikeets in an area proposed for a wind farm.

400

The variation in estimated numbers over a number of months is

300

recorded in the graph below. It is suggested that the relationship

200

could be modelled by a sine function of the form

100

P(t) = a sin (b(t + c)) + d, where P is the bird population and

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

t is the time in months since estimates commenced.

Months

a What is the amplitude of the sine model (to the nearest

10 birds)?

b What is the period (to the nearest month)?

c What is the mean population (to the nearest 10 birds)?

d After how many months is the population a minimum?

e Determine the values of a, b, c and d in the model P(t) = a sin b(t + c) + d.

f What was the initial bird population when the observations commenced?

g A second researcher conducts observations over a 10-year period at the same time each

year and records the following estimates for the population.

Time (months)

0

60

120

diGital doC

doc-1609

Solutions

exam practice 2

d 2 a

Bird population

e xt ended

r e S p onS e

9 x

1 mark

1 mark

1 mark

1 mark

4 marks

1 mark

Population

500

370

274

She believes that the population can be modelled by an exponential function of the

form Q(t) = Ae kt, where t is the time in months since the first estimate was calculated.

Determine the values of A and k.

h Explain how both researchers results are consistent with the model:

P( x )Q( x )

Population =

.

500

2 marks

3 marks

Chapter 7

Differentiation

DIGItaL DOC

doc-9208

10 Quick Questions

Chapter CONteNtS

7a

7B

7C

7D

7e

7F

7G

7h

7I

7J

Limits and differentiation from first principles

The derivative of xn

The chain rule

The derivative of ex

The derivative of loge (x)

The derivatives of sin (x), cos (x) and tan (x)

The product rule

The quotient rule

Mixed problems on differentiation

of change

7a

The gradient is a measure of how one quantity changes with respect to another quantity; in other words,

the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another quantity. The gradient (or slope) is the measure

of how the vertical distance (the rise) changes with respect to the horizontal distance (the run). Speed is

the measure of how distance travelled changes with respect to the time taken; another way of saying this

is that speed is the rate of change of distance with respect to time.

y

Constant rates

(1, 15)

When the rate of change of one quantity with respect to another quantity does not

change, the rate is constant. If the rate of pay for babysitting is fixed at $15 an hour,

this is a constant rate. This means that a babysitter would be paid $15 for 1 hour

and $150 for 10 hours. A constant rate can be represented graphically by a straight

line.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

(0, 0) x

average rates

An average rate of change is the rate of change over a period of time. A car travelling at 60 km/h is

probably not actually registering that speed at every moment of the distance travelled; more likely,

its speed varies above and below 60 km/h. The average rate of change between two points can be

represented by the gradient of a straight line joining the two points.

y

(0, 0)

(1, 0) x

(1_2, 33_4)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

317

Instantaneous rates

(2, 3)

If the police want to find how fast a car is travelling, they measure the

speed at a particular instant. This is known as instantaneous rate of change.

(1, 0) (1, 0)

Graphically, thisis found by drawing a tangent to the curve at a particular

x

0

(3, 0)

point and finding the gradient of the tangent. If a section of the graph shows

the function is increasing, the gradient of the tangent is positive, and if a

(0.15, 3.08)

section of the graph shows the function is decreasing, the gradient of the

tangent is negative.

For example, for the curve y = (x 1)(x + 1)(x + 3), the gradient is positive when x<2 and when

x > 0.15; the gradient is negative when 2 < x < 0.15; and the gradient is zero when x = 2 and x = 0.15.

of a function

Differentiation is the process of calculating the gradient

y

f(x)

function from a given function. It can be used to find the

There is a break in the

gradient of a curve at a particular point and to find the

graph at x = 1(discontinuous),

maximum and minimum values of a function.

so gradient does not exist

Derivatives can be found at a given point if:

at x = 1. That is, gradient

exists for R\{1}.

1. the function is continuous at that point

x

0

2. the function is smooth at that point.

1

A function is continuous if there are no breaks,

jumps or asymptotes on its graph. The gradient

does not exist where the function is not continuous. An

example is shown at right.

A function is smooth if there are no sharp points on its graph.

The gradient does not exist where the function is not smooth. An example is shown below.

y

f (x) is not smooth at x = 2

so gradient does not exist

at x = 2. That is, gradient

exists for R\{2}.

0

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

2

f(x)

The gradient of a function exists wherever the function is smooth and continuous. That is, the gradient

of a function exists at a point providing only one tangent can be drawn at that point. An example is

shown below.

y

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

f(x)

See more

Watch

a video about

differentiable

functions.

exists for x R as

f(x) is smooth and

continuous.

x

A function is not differentiable where there is a gap, hole or asymptote, a sharp corner or an end point.

In general, for straight lines in the form f (x) = mx + c (or y = mx + c), the rule for the gradient is

f (x) = m, that is, a horizontal straight line through y = m.

318

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 1

of its gradient function.

f(x)

2

thINK

WrIte/DraW

gradient.

1

2

rise

.

run

m=

1

2

to represent the

y

1

2

f'(x)

x

The gradient function of a polynomial function is also a polynomial function but the degree is reduced

by 1. That is, the gradient function of f (x) = ax2 + bx + c is of the form y = mx + c. So the gradient of a

quadratic function is a linear function.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 2

function shown and state its domain.

0

thINK

f (x) = 0 when x = 1.

Sketch f (x).

hence find the domain of f (x).

WrIte/DraW

f(x)

f'(x)

The domain is R.

Chapter 7 Differentiation

319

The gradient function of a cubic is a quadratic function.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 3

For the cubic function shown, sketch the gradient function and state its domain.

tUtOrIaL

eles-1175

Worked example 3

y

f(x)

thINK

WrIte/DraW

smooth and continuous.

f'(x)

The domain is R.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 4

For the function f (x) shown, state the domain of the gradient function f (x).

y

1 0 2

x

f(x)

thINK

except at x = 1 (discontinuous) and x = 2 (not

smooth).

320

WrIte

exercise 7a

1 We1 For each straight line function shown below, sketch the graph of its gradient function.

y

f(x)

3

1

x

f(x)

2

0

1

DIGItaL DOC

doc-9260

SkillSHEET 7.1

Gradient

positive, negative and

zero

f(x)

y

0

f(x)

y

f(x)

DIGItaL DOC

doc-9261

SkillSHEET 7.2

Gradient function

3

x

0

5

a 1

D

B 2

1

2

C 0

y

f(x)

2

0 1

b The graph of the gradient function in the graph above is represented by which of the diagrams

below?

a

f'(x)

f'(x)

y

1

2

0 1

f'(x)

x

0

y

x

f'(x)

f'(x)

0

Chapter 7 Differentiation

321

3 We2

Sketch the graph of the gradient function for each quadratic function shown below.

g(x)

g(x)

g(x)

g(x)

0

1

g(x)

a always increasing

B always decreasing

C decreasing then increasing

D increasing then decreasing

e constant

y

f(x)

b The gradient function for the graph in question 4a is shown by which of the graphs shown below?

a

f'(x)

f'(x)

D

f'(x)

0

f'(x)

5 We3

For each cubic function f (x) graphed below, sketch the gradient function.

x

f(x)

322

f(x)

f'(x)

y

Gradient = 0

f(x)

f(x)

Gradient = 0

f (x)

f(x)

f (x)

y

Gradient = 0

2

a 1 < x < 2

B x < 1 only

f(x)

C x > 2 only

e x>0

a x > 1

B x<2

C 1 < x < 2

e x<0

c The graph of the gradient function for the figure above is:

y

y

a

B

f '(x)

y

f '(x)

1 0

1 0

f '(x)

2x

1 0

f '(x)

f '(x)

1 0

1 0

Chapter 7 Differentiation

323

7 For each the functions graphed below, state the domain (where applicable) where the gradient:

i is equal to zero

ii is positive

iii is negative

iv does not exist.

a

y

f(x)

1

0

e

g(x)

1 0

f(x)

f

g(x) y

0

1

0

x

f(x)

f(x)

g(x)

Gradient = 0

x

2 0

f(x)

g(x)

x

Gradient = 0

4

g

y

5

1 0

0

y

4

2

2 0

4

f(x)

9 We 4 For each function f (x) graphed below and on the top of the opposite page, state the domain of

the gradient function f (x). (Do not sketch the graph of f (x).)

a

y

f(x)

f(x)

2

0

8 x

4

e

3

d

f(x)

f

f(x)

f(x)

1

f(x)

324

f(x)

f(x)

f(x)

2

f(x)

5

from first principles

7B

The limit of a function, f(x), is the value that the function approaches as x approaches a given value.

If the function is continuous at the point in question then the limit exists and can be found by direct substitution.

y

f(x)

Continuous

Units: 3 & 4

1

0

eLeSSON

eles-0093

Limits and

differentiation

from first principles

lim (33 x + 1).

x 1

In this example f (x) is a continuous function at x = 1. (In fact, it is continuous for all values of x.)

Therefore, the limit is found by direct substitution, that is:

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

lim (33 x + 1)

1) = 33(1)) + 1 = 4.

x 1

If the function is discontinuous at the point in question, then the limit exists if the function is

approaching the same value from the left as it is from the right.

For example:

For example:

y

f(x)

Discontinuous

3

Discontinuous

at x = 2

f(x)

5

3

2 0

0

approaching 3 from the left and from the right.

Therefore:

lim f ( x ) = 3

x2

is approaching 3 from the left and 5 from the right.

That is, if the left-hand limit is not equal to the

right-hand limit, then the limit does not exist.

Chapter 7 Differentiation

325

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 5

x2 + 5 x + 6

x 0

x+3

x)

a lim(( x 2 3 x

b lim

x 5

thINK

WrIte

lim ( x 2 3 x)

x ) = 52 3(5)

2

x 5

= 10

Evaluate.

x 2 + 5 x + 6 0 2 + 5(0

55(0)

(0)) + 6

=

x0

x+3

0+3

tUtOrIaL

eles-1218

Worked example 5

lim

Evaluate.

6

3

=2

If direct substitution makes the denominator zero, the limit of a rational expression can be evaluated by

first simplifying the expressions and then using direct substitution.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 6

Evaluate lim

x 3

x2 + 5 x + 6

.

x+3

thINK

WrIte

x 2 + 5x + 6

( x + 3)( x + 2)

= lim

3

x

3

x+3

x+3

becomes zero, factorise the numerator.

Simplify by cancelling.

= lim ( x + 2), x 3

Substitute x = 3.

= 3 + 2

Evaluate.

= 1

lim

x 3

Note: f(x) does not exist for x = 3, but its limit as x 3 does exist.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

The gradient function is the rule for the instantaneous rate of change of a given function at any point. It

also gives the gradient of the tangent drawn at any point of the given function.

Consider the chord (straight line) PQ to the curve below.

f(x)

Q

y

f(x + h)

f(x + h) f(x)

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

f(x)

Do more

Interact with

first principles.

P

h

x

The gradient of PQ =

x+h

rise f ( x + h) f ( x )

=

run

h

As Q moves along the curve towards P, the value of h gets smaller and smaller. Or as Q gets as close

as possible to P, h 0, and PQ becomes a tangent at P. The gradient of the curve at a point P is the

gradient of the tangent at that point.

326

f ( x + h) f ( x )

, h 0.

h

Finding the gradient this way is known as differentiation from first principles.

Differentiating f (x) gives f (x) or f (x) is the derivative of f (x).

dy

dy

is the derivative of y with respect to x.

Differentiating y gives , or

dx

dx

That is, gradient at point P is f ( x ) = lim

h0

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 7

Find the gradient of the chord PQ drawn to the curve f (x) = x2 + 2 in the diagram.

y

Q [1 + h, f(1 + h)]

P [1, f(1)]

x

0

thINK

rise

Gradient =

.

run

WrIte

f ( x + h) f ( x )

,h0

h

f (1 + h)

h) f (1)

=

h

2

(1 + h)

h) + 2 (12 + 2)

=

h

3 + 2h + h 2 3

=

h

2

2h + h

=

h

h(2 + hh)

=

h

=2+h

The gradient is 2 + h.

Gradient =

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 8

a sketching a graph and finding the gradient of the tangent at x = 2

b differentiating using first principles.

thINK

2

Construct a tangent at the given point on the

curve. (It is difficult to be accurate.)

WrIte/DraW

y

8

7

(3, 6)

6

5

4

3

2

11

1

0 12345

2

3

4

5

(0, 5)

3

Chapter 7 Differentiation

327

rise

evaluating run .

Gradient of tangent at x = 2 is

11

approximately = 3 23 .

3

f ( x + h) f ( x )

b f ( x ) = lim

,h0

h0

h

( x + h)2 1 ( x 2 1)

h0

h

= lim

x 2 + 2 xh

xh + h 2 1 x 2 + 1

h0

h

2 xh + h 2

= lim

h0

h

h(2 x + h)

= lim

h0

h

= lim

lim (2

(2 x + h)

= lim

h0

= 2x

2

f (2) = 2(2)

=4

answer b (4).

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 9

thINK

WrIte

g(x + h) = (x + h)2 (x + h)

= x2 + 2xh + h2 x h

g ( x ) = lim

g( x + h) gg(( x )

, h 0,

h0

h

x 2 + 2 xh

xh + h 2 x h ( x 2 x )

= lim

h0

h

2

2

x + 2 xxhh + h x h x 2 + x

= lim

h0

h

2 xh + h 2 h

h0

h

h(2 x + h 1)

= lim

h0

h

= lim

= lim

lim (2

(2 x + h 1)

h0

= 2x 1

first principles

exercise 7B

1 We 5

a lim ( x + 4)

c lim (8 3h)

d lim ( x 2 5)

x2

h0

328

lim (2 p 3)

p 2

x 3

e

g

i

lim ( x 2 + 4 x 3)

lim (10 x + x 2 x 3 )

x 1

x 2

lim ( x 3 5 x + 2)

x 3

x 2 + 5x + 6

x0

x+2

lim

x 2 2x 3

x 1

x3

lim

3x 2 3x

x 1 x 1

x 2 + 3x

x0

x

b lim

a lim

c

2x 2 + 2x

1 x +1

x2 4

x2 x 2

lim

d lim

x 2 + 3x + 2

x 1

x +1

3

h 8

g lim

h2 h 2

x2 + 4x 5

i lim

x 5

x+5

e

lim

x 2 5x 6

x 6

x6

lim

lim

x 3 + 27

3 x+3

a lim (3 x 4)

x 3

d lim

x 1

+4

x+2

x2 9

3 x+3

x2 + x 6

x2

x2

lim

c lim

h3 64

h4 h 4

x3 + 1

h lim

x 1 x 1

x3

e lim

x 2 + 3x

x 3 x 1

g lim

f

i

lim ( x 3 + x 2 6)

x 2

x 2 + 7 x + 12

4

x+4

lim

Questions 4 and 5 refer to the following diagram. Consider the chord PQ drawn to the curve

f (x) as shown.

4 We 7 Find the gradient of the chord PQ drawn to the curve f (x)=x2+ 1 in the diagram below.

y

f(x) = x2+1

Q (2+h, f(2+h))

P (2, f(2))

1

0

a h

B 4+h

C 4h

D 4 + h2

e 4

b Hence, find the gradient of the function at P.

7 If the gradient of the chord joining two points on the curve f (x) = x2 + 2x + 3 is

f (1 + h)

h) f (1)

,

h

a sketching a graph and finding the gradient of the tangent at x = 2

b differentiating using first principles.

9 Find the gradient of h (x) = 2x2 6x at x = 1 by:

a sketching a graph to find the gradient of the tangent at x = 1

b differentiation from first principles.

Chapter 7 Differentiation

329

f ( x + h) f ( x )

f (3 + h)

h) f ( x)

x

B lim

h0

h0

h

h

f (3 + h)

h) f (3)

f ( x + h) f ( x )

D

e

h

h

11 We 9 Use first principles to differentiate f (x) if:

a f (x) = 3x + 5

b f (x) = x2 3

d f (x) = (x 4)(x + 2)

e f (x) = 8 3x2

dy

12 Use first principles to find

if:

dx

a y = 9 4x

b y = x2 + 3x

3

d y = x 4x

e y = 5x 2x3

a

lim

7C

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

lim

h0

f (3 + h)

h) f (3)

h

c

f

f (x) = x2 + 6x

f (x) = x3 + 2

c

f

y = 3x2 + 8x 5

y = x2 2x

the derivative of xn

Instead of using the procedure of differentiating from first principles, rules can be applied to find

derivatives. These rules can be derived from first principles and have been looked at in detail in

Maths Quest 11 Mathematical Methods CAS.

If f (x) = axn then f (x) = naxn 1, where a and n are constants and n is real.

If f (x) = c then f (x) = 0, where c is a constant. (This is because c = x0 and, using the rule, the

derivative of x0 is 0 x 1 or 0.)

dy

= 7 x 6 . If f (x) = 5x4 then f (x) = 20x3.

For example, if y = x7 then

dx

If f (x) = g(x) + h(x) then f (x) = g(x) + h(x), that is, differentiate each term of a function separately.

If f (x) = a g(x), where a is a constant, then f (x) = a g(x).

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 10

Differentiate y = x 4

3 2

x + 7.

2

thINK

WrIte

y = x 4 32 x 2 + 7

dy

= 4 x 4 1 32 ((2)

2) x 2 1 + 0

dx

= 4x3 3x

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 11

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

1

1

a f ( x) = +

x

x

b f ( x) =

thINK

x+ x

.

x2

WrIte

1

1

and

using negative indices.

x

x

Rewrite

a f (x) =

f ( x ) = x 1 + x

f ( x ) = x

=

330

1 1

+

x

x

1 1

x 2

1

x2

1

2

12 x

x

3

2

2

1

2 x3

1

1

2

f (x) =

x+ x

x2

x + x2

x2

index form.

x x2

= 2+ 2

x

x

=x

Simplify f ( x ) .

+x

3

2

3 3 1

x 2

2

3 5

= x 2 x 2

2

1

3

= 2 5

x

2x 2

f ( x ) = 1x

1 1

1

3

x2 2 x5

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 12

If f ( x ) = x 3 2 x 2 +

a f '(x)

8

, use a CAS calculator to find:

x

b f '(2).

thINK

WrIte

a f1(x) = x3 2x2

2

d

8

f1(x) = 3x2 4x 2

x

dx

to find the derivative of the function.

b If f1(x) = 3x2 4x

find f1(2).

exercise 7C

8

x

8

,

x2

b f1(2) = 2

the derivative of xn

a y = x6

b y = 3x2

20

d y=x

e y = 4x3

x4

g y = 12 x 3

h y=

3

j y = 8x5

2 We10

Differentiate each of the following.

1

a f (x) = 4x3 + 5x

c y = 5x4

f y = 5x

i

b g(x) = 5x2 + 6x + 1

c h( x ) = 9 +

d h(x) = 4 3x + 6x2 + x3

h g( x ) = 7 x 2 4 x +

f (x) =

(x2

2

3

y = 10

f (x) =

x3

5

2x5

x3

+ + 10

5

3

h (x) = (x + 4)(x 1)

DIGItaL DOC

doc-9262

SkillSHEET 7.3

Index laws

+ 2x)(3x 6)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

331

3 We11

a

2

x3

5

d 4x 4

g x

1

2

3

4x

1

3

c x3

b 3 x

x3

x+3

x

2

k

5x 2

+ x3

4x +

x 2x 2

i

l

1

+ x2

x

x2 + x3

x

2

+ 3x 2

x

4

n x+x

x 3

4 We12 If f (x) =

10x + 5 find:

a f (x)

5 MC If f (x) = x2 6x then f (4) is equal to:

2x5

B 12

a 8

b f (2).

C 12

D 2

e 16

D 8

e 0

1

C 12 12

B 18

a 2

1

+ 3 x 8.

x2

5

8 Find the gradient of the curve y = 4 at the point where a x = 2 and b x = 0.

x

1

3

2x x 2 +

9 Find the gradient of f ( x ) = 2x

at the point where x equals:

x

a 1

b 4

c 9.

7 Find g (2) if g( x ) =

10 If g (x) =

x + 4 x , find:

a g (x)

b g(1)

c g (8)

d g (8).

12 For each of the following:

i expand the brackets

a (x + 1)2

d (2x + 1)3

b (x + 1)3

e (3x + 1)2

c (2x + 1)2

f (3x + 1)3

13 Using the results of question 12 give the derivative of (ax + b)n in factorised form. (a, b, n are constants.)

7D

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

332

A function which can be expressed as a composition of two simpler functions is called a composite

function. For example, y = (x + 3)2 can be expressed as y = u2 where u=x+ 3.

That is, to obtain y from x, the first function to be performed is to add 3 to x(u=x+3), then this

function has to be squared ( y = u2).

Composite functions can be differentiated using the chain rule. For example, using the previous

function, y = (x + 3)2:

Let u = x + 3, so y = u2.

du

dy

Then

= 1 and

= 2u.

dx

du

dy

and dy = dy du . This is known as the chain rule. It is known as the

dx

dx du dx

chain rule because u provides the link between y and x.

dy

Now

= 2u 1

dx

= 2(x + 3) 1 (replacing u with x + 3)

= 2(x + 3)

The chain rule is used when it is necessary to differentiate a function of a function as above.

But we require

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 13

du

dy

a

b

and hence

dx

du

thINK

Express y as a function of u.

b 1 Express u as a function of x.

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

Replace u as a function of x.

y = (3x 2)3

Let y = u3 where u = 3x 2

dy

= 3u 2

du

u = 3x 2

du

=3

dx

c 1 Find

tUtOrIaL

eles-1176

Worked example 13

WrIte

dy

.

dx

dy dy du

=

= 3u2 3 = 9u2

dx du dx

= 9(3x 2)2

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 14

If f ( x ) =

1

2 x2

3x

thINK

WrIte

f (x) =

Express y as a function of u.

Express u as a function of x.

du

= 4x 3

dx

3

dy

= f ( x ) = 12 u 2 (4 x 3)

dx

3x

y = (2 x 2 3 x )

1

2

dy 1 32

= 2u

du

u = 2x2 3x

=

=

=

calculator.

f1 ( x ) =

10

to find the derivative of the above function.

f1 ( x ) =

11

expressed in the same format obtained previously.

2x 2

f ( x ) =

1

2 (4 x

3) (2 x 2 3 x )

(4 x

2(22 x 2

3

2

3)

3

3 xx) 2

3 4x

2 (2

(2 x 2 3 xx))3

1

2 x 2 3x

(4 x

3)

2 x (2 x 33)) x (2 x 3)

(4 x

3)

2 x (2 x 3) x (2 x 3)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

333

A quicker way to apply the chain rule when a function can be expressed in index form is as follows.

If f (x) = [g(x)]n then f (x) = n[g(x)]n 1 g (x). That is, differentiate the bracket and then what is

inside the bracket; outside then inside.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 15

thINK

WrIte

g(x) = x2 2x

Find g (x).

g(x) = 2x 2

differentiate f (x).

= 3(x2 2x)2 [2(x 1)]

= 6(x 1)(x2 2x)2

= 6x2(x 1)(x 2)2

exercise 7D

1 If each of the following functions are expressed in the form y = un, state i u and ii n.

b y=

a y = (5x 4)3

d y=

1

7 4x

3x + 1

c y=

e y = (5x + 3)

1

(2 x + 3)4

4

y = (4 3 x ) 3

a u = (x + 3)5

B u=x+3

D u=3

3 We13

i

dy

du

du

nd

a

dx

ii

a y = (3x + 2)2

d y=

he

nce

iii

dy

.

dx

1

2x 5

3

f y=

3x 2

b y = (7 x)3

1

(4 2 x )4

e y=

g y = 3(2x2 + 5x)5

j

C u=x

e u = x5

c y=

5x + 2

2

h y = (4x 3x2)

1

y = x +

y = 4(5 6x)

dy

4 MC

is equal to:

du

1

a 12 u

D

B u 2

3

1 u2

2

du

is equal to:

dx

a 2x 3

1

1 u2

2

1

2 u

5 MC

334

1

2

x2

3

2

x +1

B x2 3x + 2

e x3

C x2 3x

dx

2x 3

a

u

D 2 (2 x 3)

2x 3

x2

1 (2 x

2

3x + 2

x 2 3x + 2

2 u

3)( x 2 3 x + 2) 2

b y = (2x 5)3

c f (x) = (4 3x)5

d y = 3x 2 4

a y = (8x + 3)4

e f ( x ) = ( x 2 4 xx) 3

1

g g( x ) = x

g(x) = (2x3 + x)

1

h y = (x2 3x)

x

1

, find f (x).

4x + 7

8 We 14 If f ( x ) =

(Hint: Simplify first using index notation and the laws of indices.)

6x 5

a y=

b f (x) =

6x 5

a f (x) = (x2 + 5x)8

c f (x) =

( x 2 + 22))2

x2 + 2

b y = (x3 2x)2

3

1

( x 3 + 2 x 2 7) 5

d y = (2 x 4 3 x 2 + 1) 2

13 If f ( x ) =

x 2 2 x + 1,

1 find:

b f (x)

d f (x) when x = 2.

a f (3)

c f (3)

14 Find the gradient of the function h( x ) =

15 Find the value of f (1) if f ( x ) =

3

.

5 4x

16 If f (x) = (2x 1)5 and f (x) = 10 (2x 1)n, find the value of n.

17 If f (x) = (3x + 2)7 and f (x) = a (3x + 2)6 3, find the value of a.

18 If f (x) = (5x 3)10 and f (x) = 10m (5x 3)9, find the value of m.

7e

DIGItaL DOC

doc-9209

WorkSHEET 7.1

the derivative of e x

f ( x + h) f ( x )

f ( x ) = lim

,h0

h0

h

= lim

x+h

h0

ex

e xeh e x

= lim

h0

h

e x (e h 1)

h0

h

= lim

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

eh 1

h0 h

= e x lim

Chapter 7 Differentiation

335

eh 1

can be deduced by using a calculator and substituting values of h close to zero.

h0 h

eh 1

h

0.01

0.0001

0.000 001

1.0050

1.000 05

1.000 000

eh 1

= 1.

h0 h

Therefore, f (x) = ex 1

= ex

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 16

Differentiate y = e

5x

thINK

WrIte

5x

y=e

du

.

dx

dy

Express y as a function of u and find .

du

Let u = 5x so

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

Find

Replace u as a function of x.

du

= 5

dx

dy

= eu

du

y = eu so

dy u

= 5e

dx

5x

= 5e

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 17

thINK

WrIte

y = e2x + 1

du

.

dx

Let u = 2x + 1 so

dy

.

du

y = eu so

Find

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

dy

= eu 2

dx

= 2eu

Replace u as a function of x.

= 2e2x + 1

du

=2

dx

dy

= eu

du

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 18

Differentiate:

a f (x) = ex(ex 2)

thINK

2

336

Expand.

b f ( x) =

e 2 x 2 e x

.

ex

WrIte

a f (x) = ex(ex 2)

= e2x 2ex

Differentiate.

was given.

= 2ex(ex 1)

b f (x) =

e 2 x 2e x

ex

e 2 x 2e x

x

ex

e

the denominator.

denominator using the laws of indices.

= e2x x 2e

= ex 2e 2x

x x

f (x) = ex + 4e 2x

4

= ex + 2x

e

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 19

3

x.

thINK

WrIte

3

y = ex

du

.

dx

dy

Express y as a function of u and find .

du

Let u = x3 x so

y = eu so

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

Find

Replace u as a function of x.

du

= 3x 2 1

dx

dy

= eu

du

dy

= eu (3 x 2 1)

dx

= (3x2 1)eu

3

= (3x2 1)ex

This example shows that if f (x) = eg(x) then f (x) = g (x) e g (x).

exercise 7e

the derivative of ex

1 We 16

1x

a y = e10x

b y = e3

c y = e4

d y=e x

g y = 6e 2x

e y = 2e3x

h y = 5e0.2x

f

i

a y = e6x 2

b y = e8 6x

7

2x

d y = 4e

e y = 3e8x + 1

6

9x

g y = 10e

h y = 5e3x + 4

j

x +1

y = 2e 2

k y = 3e

2 x

3

a

B (3x + 2)e3x + 2

3x

+

2

e 3xe3x

D 3xe

3 MC

3e3x + 2

a f (x) = 2(ex + 1)

b f (x) = 3e2x(ex + 1)

y = 4e 5x

y = 2e 11x

c y = 2e5x + 3

f y = 2e6 5x

i y = 6e 7x

l

x +5

y = 4e 4

C 3e3x

4x

c f (x) = 5(e

+ 2x)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

337

d f (x) =

(ex

3e3 x + e

e f (x) =

ex

+ 2)(e + 3)

6 x

2

2

a y = ex + 3x

b y = ex 3x + 1

2

2

5x

d f (x) = e

e f (x) = e6 3x + x

2 7x

2

4x

2x

3x

g h(x) = 3e

h y = 5e

k g(x) = e(x + 2)

1

3

n h(x) = e(x

a

5

3

D 6(x3 5x)ex 5x

3x2

c y = ex 2x

3

f g(x) = ex +33x 2

(2x

+

1)

i y=e

f (x) = e(4 x)

m f ( x ) = e( x +1)

4e 7 x 2e x

e 2x

g f (x) = ex + e2

f (x) =

5x

y=e

3x + 4

+ 3x)2

is equal to:

3

B 6(3x2 5)ex 5x

2

e 6(3x2 5)e3x 5

2

C (3x2 5)ex 5x

2 3x + 2

8 If g (x) = 2ex

3

9 Find the exact value of h(1) if h(x) = 5ex + 2x.

7F

If y = loge (x) then ey = x, as shown in chapter 4, Exponential and logarithmic equations.

Let

x = ey

dx

= ey

dy

dy

1

But

=

dx

dx

dy

dy 1

=

Therefore,

.

dx x

But

ey = x,

dy 1

=

.

dx x

so

1

.

x

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 20

thINK

WrIte

y = loge (7x)

du

.

dx

u = 7x, so

dy

.

du

y = loge (u), so

Find dy .

dx

338

du

=7

dx

dy 1

=

7

dx 7 x

1

=

x

1

.

x

dy 1

=

du u

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 21

thINK

WrIte

y = 2 loge (3x 4)

Express u as a function of x.

Let u = 3x 4.

du

=3

dx

Express y as a function of u.

y = 2 loge (u)

Find

Replace u with 3x 4.

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

dy

1

= 2

du

u

2

=

u

dy 2

= 3

dx u

6

=

u

6

=

3x 4

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 22

thINK

WrIte

y = loge (x2 + 4x 1)

Let u = x2 + 4x 1

du

= 2x + 4

dx

Express y as a function of u.

Find

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

y = loge (u)

dy 1

=

du u

dy 1

= (2 x + 4)

dx u

2x + 4

= 2

x + 4x 1

g ( x )

.

g( x )

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 23

thINK

WrIte

y = 2 loge (x2 + 5x 2)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

339

dx

dy

Express y as a function of u and find .

du

3

4

u = x2 + 5x 2, so

du

= 2x + 5

dx

y = 2 loge (u), so dy = 2

du u

dy dy du

dy 2(22 x + 5)

=

=

so

dx du dx

dx

u

dy

.

dx

exercise 7F

2(22 x + 5)

x 2 + 5x 2

du

dx

dy

d

using the chain rule.

dx

a u

c

dy

du

a y = loge (10x)

b y = loge (5x)

d y = loge (6x)

e y = 3 loge (4x)

x

x

g y = loge

h y = loge

2

3

2 We 20

c y = loge (x)

f y = 6 loge (9x)

i

x

y = 4 loge

5

2x

y = 5loge

3

a 8

B 81 x

8

x

1

x

e loge (8)

a u would be used to represent:

a 3x + 7

b

a

D

B 3x

dy

du

and

are respectively:

du

dx

1

and 3x + 7

u

1

and 3

u

dy

Hence

is equal to:

dx

a 3

D

1

3x + 7

C loge (x)

D loge (3x)

1

and 3x

u

C 3 and

e x

1

3x

e 1 and 3

1

x

3

e

x

B

3

3x + 7

a

d

g

j

y = loge (2x + 5)

y = loge (8x 1)

y = loge (4 7x)

y = 4 loge (12x + 5)

b

e

h

k

y = loge (6x + 1)

y = loge (3 5x)

y = 6 loge (5x + 2)

y = 7 loge (8 9x)

6 We 22

Differentiate the following.

a y = loge (3x4)

b y = loge (x2 + 3)

d y = loge (x2 2x3 + x4)

340

e y = loge

2x + 1

c y = loge (3x 4)

f y = loge (2 x)

i y = 8 loge (4x 2)

f

y = loge

3 4x

y = loge (5 x + 2) 3

loge (2

(2 3 x ) 5

h f ( x ) = log

a y = loge (x2 + 1)2

c y = loge (x2 2x + 3)3

1

f ( x ) = loge

x + 3

2

f ( x ) = loge

4 + 3 x

b y = loge (3 x2)2

d y = loge (x2 + 4x + 4)3

8 MC Using the chain rule the derivative of f (x) = loge (x2 5x + 2) would be:

a

x2

1

5x + 2

1

x (2 x 5)

5

5x + 2

2x 5

x 2 5x + 2

C 2x 5

x2

10 If g(x) = 3 loge (3x + 5) find the value of g(0).

11 Find the exact value of f (2) if f (x) = 3x2 + 4 loge (x2 + x).

12 If y = eloge (x), find:

dy

dx

b the exact gradient when i x = 1 ii x = 2 iii x = 4 iv x = 10. Can you explain this result?

a

a f (x)

b the exact value of:

i f (1)

2

ii f (5)

iii f (2).

and tan (x)

7G

The derivatives of sin (x), cos (x) and tan (x) can be found by differentiation from first principles, but are

beyond the requirements of this course.

The derivatives of sin (x) and cos (x) can be shown by drawing the graphs of the gradient functions.

The domain of each of these functions is R, but we will use only part of that domain.

Consider the graph of f (x) = sin (x), domain [0, 2] shown at right.

y

3

f (x) = 0 when x = ,

(

, 1)

2 2

2

3

f (x) < 0 when < x <

0

2 x

2

2

3

( 3

, 1)

2

< x < 2

f (x) > 0 when 0 < x < and

2

2

By sketching the graph of the gradient function, we can see that it is y = cos (x).

y

1

we can see that the derivative of y = cos (x) is y = sin (x).

The derivative of tan (x) can be found using the quotient rule

y

(which appears later in this chapter).

If f (x) = sin (x) then f (x) = cos (x).

1

If f (x) = cos (x) then f (x) = sin (x).

1

0

, which can be written

If f (x) = tan (x) then f ' ( x ) =

2 ( x)

1

cos

s

2 (x).

as sec

0

1

2 x

y = cos (x)

y = sin (x)

2 x

Chapter 7 Differentiation

341

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 24

thINK

WrIte

Method 1:

1 Write the equation.

y = sin (5x)

du

.

dx

Let u = 5x so

du

=5

dx

dy

.

du

y = sin (u) so

dy

= cos((u)

du

Find

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

dy

= 5cos(u)

dx

= 5 cos (5x)

6

radians mode.

Define the function that is to be differentiated.

to find the derivative of the function.

Worked example 24 shows that if f (x) = sin (ax), then f (x) = a cos (ax). Similarly, if f (x) = cos (ax),

then f (x) = a sin (ax).

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 25

thINK

WrIte

y = tan (3x)

du

Express u as a function of x and find .

dx

Let u = 3x so

du

=3

dx

du

y = tan (u) so

dy

= secc 2 (u)

du

Find

dy

3

= 3 sec 2 (u) or

dx

coss2 (u)

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

= 3 sec 2 (3 x ) or

3

coss2 ((33 x )

a

or a sec2(ax).

cos2 ax

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 26

thINK

342

WrIte

y = cos (x2 + 2x 3)

du

.

dx

Let u = x2 + 2x 3 so

tUtOrIaL

eles-1185

Worked example 26

du

= 2x + 2

dx

3

4

5

du

dy

Find

using the chain rule.

dx

Replace u with the part in brackets in the rule and

simplify.

y = cos (u) so

dy

= sin(u)

du

dy

= si

sinn u (2 x + 2)

dx

This example shows that the chain rule can be applied as follows.

If f (x) = sin [g(x)] then f (x) = g(x) cos [g(x)].

If f (x) = cos [g(x)] then f (x) = g(x) sin [g(x)].

g' ( x )

If f (x) = tan [g(x)] then f ' ( x ) =

coss2 [ g( x )]

= g(x) sec2 [ g(x)].

and tan (x)

exercise 7G

1 We 24

Find the derivative of each of the following.

a y = sin (8x)

b y = sin (6x)

d y = sin

c y = sin (x)

x

3

e y = sin

2x

y = sin

3

b y = cos (2x)

a y = cos (3x)

c y = cos

x

x

e y = cos

4

8

Differentiate each of the following.

d y = cos

3 We 25

a y = tan (2x)

b y = tan (4x)

c y = tan

x

3

2x

y = cos

5

3x

4

x

5

d y = tan

a 6 cos (6x)

D 6 cos (6x)

B 6 cos (x)

C 6 sin (x)

1 cos(6 x )

6

a 4 sin (4x)

D 4 cos (4x)

a 4 cos (4x)

D 4 cos (4x)

a 8 cos (8x)

D 8 sin (x)

B 4 sin (x)

e 4 sin (4x)

C 4 sin (x)

B 4 cos (x)

e 4 sin (4x)

C 4 cos (4x)

B 8 sin (8x)

e 8 sin (x)

C 8 sin (8x)

x

7

1

coss2 ((77 x )

D sec2 (7x)

1

7

a 7 tan

C 7 sec2 (7x)

sec(( x )

dy

du

b

du

dx

6 If y = cos (3x + 1) is expressed as y = cos (u), find:

dy

du

a

b

du

dx

a

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

dy

using the chain rule.

dx

Chapter 7 Differentiation

343

b y = sin (6 7x)

3x + 2

d y = sin

e y = 5 sin (2 x)

4

a y = sin (2x + 3)

c y = sin (5x 4)

f

a y = cos (3x 2)

b y = cos (4x + 7)

d

2 x + 3

y = cos

3

c y = cos (6 5x)

e y = 4 cos (10 x)

a y = tan (2x + 1)

b y = tan (8 x)

y = 6 cos (2x)

c y = tan (5x 2)

e y = 3 tan (x)

a cos (x2 4x + 3)

b sin (10 5x + x2)

2

d cos (x + 7x)

e tan (4x x2)

c sin (ex)

f tan (x2 + 3x)

1

cos

x

l 3 cos [loge (10x)]

x

o 2cos

4

h sin (e4x)

j

3x

y = 4sin

8

k cos (2e3x)

8 tan

3x

11 If f (x) = 3 sin (x2 + x), find f (1) (answer correct to 3 decimal places).

12 Find the gradient of the curve g (x) = 2 cos (x3 3x) at the point where x = 0.

13 For each of the following functions find:

i f (x) nd

a

ii the exact value of f .

a f (x) =

7h

esin (x)

b f (x) =

ecos (x)

6

c f (x) = loge [sin (x)]

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

f (x) = (x + 2)(x 5)

or

Although the first example can be expanded and then differentiated, the second example cannot and

therefore can be differentiated only using the product rule.

product rule

If y = uv then

dv

du

d

dy

= u

+v .

dx

dx

dx

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 27

du

dv

dy

dy

dv

du

=u +v .

a u and v

b

and

c

using

dx

dx

dx

dx

dx

dx

thINK

2

344

multiplied together.

WrIte

a y = (3x 1)(x2 + 4x + 3)

Let u = 3x 1

and

v = x2 + 4x + 3.

2

du

=3

dx

dv

= 2x + 4

dx

dy

.

dx

dy

dv

du

=u

+v

dx

dx

dx

2

= 9x2 + 22x + 5

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 28

thINK

WrIte

Identify u and v.

Find

du

dv

and

.

dx

dx

du 1

=

dx x

Find

dy

using the product rule.

dx

dy

1

= log

loge ((44 x ) 3cos(3 x 2)

2) + ssin(33 x 2)

2)

dx

x

1

= 3log

3loge (4 x ) cos(3 x 2)

2) + sin(33 x 2)

x

exercise 7h

dv

= 3cos

3cos(3

3c

os(

(33 x 2)

dx

du

dv

and

dx

dx

2 We 28

Find the derivative of:

3

a y = 4x loge (6x)

a u and v

3 MC

dy

dy

dv

du

=u

+v .

using the product rule,

dx

dx

dx

dx

b g (x) = (3x 2) loge (2x).

x2

C f (x) = 2x sin (2x) + x2 cos (2x)

e f (x) = 2x sin (x) + 2x2 cos (x)

B f (x) = 4x cos (2x)

D f (x) = 2x sin (2x) + 2x2 cos (2x)

a y = x cos (x)

b y = 3x sin (x)

c y = (5x 2) ex

d y = e3x (2 11x)

e y = x5 cos (3x + 1)

f y = 2x3 loge (7x)

g y = e 2x loge (2x 5)

h y = 8 tan (5x) loge (5x)

1

cos(6 x )

m f (x) =

x

2

q f (x) = (x + e3x)(4 e 3x)

4x

y = sin cos(( x )

3

f (x) = 4e 5x sin (2 x)

n f (x) =

xe

3x

r f (x) = (x2 6)(2 + 3x x2)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

345

7 Find the value of f (2) if f (x) = (x2 + 2) sin (4 3x) (answer correct to 3 decimal places).

DIGItaL DOC

doc-9210

WorkSHEET 7.2

9 Find the exact value of f () if f (x) = (3 x) tan (2x).

7I

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

The quotient rule is used to differentiate functions which are rational expressions (that is, one function

divided by another). For example,

f (x) =

x 2 6x + 3

5x + 2

or

f (x) =

e3 x + 8

.

cos (66 x )

Quotient rule

du

dv

u

dy v dx u dx

If y = then

.

=

v

dx

v2

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Or if f ( x ) =

v ( x )u ( x ) u( x ) v ( x )

u( x )

then f ( x ) =

.

v( x )

[ v ( x)]

x 2

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 29

u

3 x

is expressed as y = , find:

2

v

x + 4x

du

dv

a u and v

b

and

dx

dx

If y =

thINK

2

c 1

WrIte

a y=

dy

Apply the quotient rule to obtain .

dx

3 x

x2 + 4x

Identify u and v.

dy

.

dx

du

= 1

dx

dv

= 2x + 4

dx

c dy =

dx

=

2

dy

where possible, factorising the

dx

final answer where appropriate.

Simplify

=

=

346

du

dv

u

dx

dx

v2

( x 2 + 4 x)

x ) 1 (3 x )(2 x + 4)

( x 2 + 4 xx))2

x2

4 x (12 + 2 x 2 x 2 )

( x 2 + 4 xx))2

x2

4 x 12 22xx + 2 x 2

( x 2 + 4 xx))2

x 2 6 x 12

( x 2 + 4 xx))2

x 2 6 x 12

x 2 ( x + 4) 2

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 30

2 e3 x

.

cos(2 x 3)

thINK

tUtOrIaL

eles-1219

Worked example 30

WrIte

2e3 x

cos (22x 3)

f (x) =

Let v(x) = cos (2x 3).

u(x) = 6e3x

v(x) = 2 sin (2x 3)

f ( x ) =

exercise 7I

1 We 29 If y =

a u and v

b

v ( x )u ( x ) u( x ) v ( x )

[ v ( x)]

x 2

[cos (2 x 3)]2

[cos (2xx 3)]2

coss2 ((22 x 3)

u

x+3

is expressed as y = , find:

v

x+7

du

dv

and

dx

dx

du

dv

dy

dy v dx u dx

c

using the quotient rule,

.

=

dx

dx

v2

u( x )

x 2 + 2x

2 If f ( x ) =

is expressed as f ( x ) =

, find:

v( x )

5x

a u(x) and v(x)

b u (x) and v (x)

c f (x) using the quotient rule.

sin ( x )

3

f (x) = tan (x) can be written as f ( x ) =

. If u(x) = sin (x) and v(x) = cos (x), use the quotient

cos ( x )

1

rule to show that the derivative of tan (x) is

.

coss2 ( x )

4 We 30

Find the derivative of each of the following.

a

2x

x2 4x

4x 7

10 x

g

j

sin (22 x )

cos (22 x )

4x

2

x + 3x 2

h

k

x 2 + 7x + 6

3x + 2

e2 x

x

logge ( x + 1)

x2 + 2

2x3 + 7x

e5 x

cos ( x )

ex

3x 2

logge ((44 x )

i

l

e3 x + 2

cos (22 x )

x2 5

x

Chapter 7 Differentiation

347

e 3x

3x + 8

4 loge (8 x )

x 2 2x

2 cos (3 2 x )

3e 2 7 x

q

2

x

x+3

2

8 3x

5 MC If h( x ) =

then h(x) equals:

x

9x 2 8

8 9x 2

a

B

2

x

x2

p

3x 2

x2

3x 2

sin( x )

x

e2 x

2x 3

3x 2

+8

x2

+8

sin (44 x )

is:

4x + 1

4(44 x + 1) cos ( x ) 4 sin (4 x )

f ( x ) =

(4 x + 1)2

4(44 x + 1) cos (4x)

x ) 4 sin (44 x )

f ( x ) =

4x + 1

4 sin (4x ) 4(4 x + 1) cos (44x )

f ( x ) =

(4 x + 1)2

6 MC The derivative of f ( x ) =

a

C

e

cos (33 x 2)

then g(x) is equal to:

ex

3e x sin (3 x 2) e x cos (3 x 2)

a

e2 x

(4 x + 1) cos (4 x ) 4 sin (4 x )

(4 x + 1)2

4(44 x + 1) cos (4 x)

x ) 4 sin (44 x )

D f ( x ) =

(4 x + 1)2

B

f ( x ) =

7 MC If g( x ) =

e x cos (3 x 2)

2) + 3e x cos (3 x 2)

e2 x

3e x

8 If y =

dy

cos(2 x )

find

when x = 0.

3

x

dx

e

7J

e x

sin (3 x 2)

2) e x cos (3 x 2)

e2 x

3e x

ex

sin (3 x 2) e x cos (3 x 2)

e2 x

INteraCtIVItY

int-0252

Mixed problems

on differentiation

2 x 3x 2

at the point where x = 1.

logge ((33 x + 4)

4 loge (2 x )

.

3x

Problems on differentiation may involve any combination of chain, product and quotient rules.

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 31

For each of the following decide which rule of differentiation, that is, chain, product or quotient

rule, would be useful to find the derivative.

logg e ( x )

2

a

b (x2 5x)6

c (x2 + 2x 3) cos (2x)

d ex + 3x

sin ( x )

thINK

2

348

u

It is of the form , that is, a rational function.

v

WrIte

a y=

logge ( x )

sin ( x )

Quotient rule

b y = (x2 5x)6

2

where u = x2 5x.

2

two functions.

Product rule

d y = ex2 + 3x

2

Chain rule

where u = x2 + 3x.

Chain rule

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 32

thINK

WrIte

v to apply the rule.

u = 2x3 and v = cos (x2 + x).

du

= 6x 2

dx

v with respect to x using the chain rule.

v = cos (x2 + x)

Let w = x2 + x.

dw

= 2x + 1

dx

v = cos (w)

dv

= sin( w)

dw

dv dv dw

=

dx dw dx

dv

= ( ssin(

in(w))(2 x + 11)

So

dx

= (2x + 1) sin (x2 + x)

dy

dv

du

=u

+v

dx

dx

dx

= 2x3[(2x + 1)] sin (x2 + x) + cos (x2 + x) 6x2

dy

.

dx

= 2x2[3 cos (x2 + x) x(2x + 1) sin (x2 + x)]

x if x 0

Consider the absolute value function, f ( x ) = x =

.

x if x < 0

As discussed earlier, the graph of f (x) = |x| is continuous for all x and has

a cusp (sharp point) at x = 0.

1 iff x > 0

The derivative of f (x) = x, f (

.

( x ) =

1 iff x < 0

In order for the derivative to be defined at x = 0 for a function f (x), the limit as x approaches 0 from

m f '( x ) , and the limit as x approaches 0 from the right, written as lim

m f ' ( x ), must be

the left, written as lim

x0

x0

equal.

Chapter 7 Differentiation

349

m f ' ( x ) = 1 and lim

m f ' ( x ) = 1. Thus, the function f (x) = x is not

x0

x0+

differentiable at x = 0 and the graph of y = f (x) has open circles at x = 0 as shown below.

y

1

x

The chain rule is used to differentiate the composite function f (x) = h(g(x)), to give f (x) = g(x) h(g(x)).

x) > 0

1 iff g( x)

Hence, for f (x) = h(g(x)), where h (x) = x, then f '( x ) = g' ( x )

.

x) < 0

1 iff g( x)

Note the derivative is a hybrid function and the domain is obtained by examining the graph of the

function y = g(x).

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 33

a find the derivative

b sketch the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f (x) on the same set of axes.

thINK

tUtOrIaL

eles-1220

Worked example 33

WrIte/DraW

f (x) where g(x) = x2 4x and h(x) = x.

f (x) = h(g(x))

f (x) = g (x) h(g(x))

1 iff x 2 4 x > 0

f ( x ) = 2 x 4

2

1 iff x 4 x < 0

2 x 4 if x 2 4 x > 0.

f ( x ) =

2

2 x + 4 if x 4 x < 0

y

4

3

2

1

consider the graph of the function

g(x) = x2 4x. From the graph, x2 4x > 0

if x < 0 or x > 4 and x2 4x < 0 if 0 < x < 4.

0

1

1

2

3

4

3

350

f ( x ) =

2 x + 4 if 0 < x < 4

domain.

2 x 4 if x < 0 orr x > 4

f ( x ) =

2 x + 4 if 0 < x < 4

For the graph of y = f (x), put open circles

at x = 0 and x = 4 as the derivative is not

defined at these points.

1 2 3 4 5x

f'(x) = 2x 4, x > 4

10

8

6

4

f(x) =x2 4x 2

x

3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2

4

f '(x) = 2x + 4, 0 < x < 4

6

8

f '(x) = 2x 4, x < 0

WOrKeD eXaMpLe 34

a find the derivative

b sketch the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f (x) on the same set of axes.

thINK

WrIte/DraW

function, apply the chain rule to find

the derivative, f (x) where g(x) = sin

(x) and h(x) = |x|.

f (x) = h(g(x))

f (x) = g (x) h(g(x))

1 if sin( x ) > 0

f ( x ) = cos( x )

1 if sin( x ) < 0

x) > 0

cos(( x ) if sin( x)

f ( x ) =

x) < 0

cos(( x ) if sin( x)

derivative, consider the graph of the

function g(x) = sin (x) for x [0, 2].

From the graph, sin (x) > 0 if

0 < x < and sin (x) < 0 if < x < 2.

domain.

x [0, 2].

y

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

3

2

f ( x ) =

cos(( x ) if < x < 2

b

y

f(x) =sin (x)

cos ( x ) if 0 < x <

f ( x ) =

cos ( x ) if < x < 2

For the graph of y = f (x), put open circles

at x = 0, x = and x = 2 as the derivative

is not defined at these points.

exercise 7J

0.5

0

0.5

1

3

2

f '(x) = cos (x), 0 < x < f '(x) = cos (x), < x < 2

1 We31 For each function given below, state which rule of differentiation would be used to find the

a f (x) = loge (8x)

4x

cos ( x )

g h(x) = cos (x2 4x)

d h( x ) =

3x + 7

4x2

x 2 + 9x 8

f g( x ) =

logge ( x )

i g(x) = loge [sin (x)]

c g( x ) =

x

h f (x) = e

loge (5x)

x

2

ge ( x )

j f (x) = sin2 (x)

k h( x ) = x

l f ( x ) = log

e

m g(x) = ecos (x)

n f (x) = tan (x)

2 Using the appropriate rule find the derivative of each function in question 1.

3 We 32 Find the derivative of each of the following. (Note that more than one rule will need to be

5x

a y=e

cos (4x 7)

b y=

x 2

3x + 1

c y = loge (x + 1)3

f (x) =

sin (22 x )

cos (22 x )

Chapter 7 Differentiation

351

g f (x) =

i

1

sin ( x )

y = 4e3x2 5x + 2

f (x) = (x 1)(x2 + 5x + 3)

(2 x + 3)5

l g( x ) =

x3 5

n y = cos2 (3x)

sin ( x 4 )

p f (x) =

x2

j

k g(x) = ex(x2 + 3)

4x

m f (x) = e

cos (4x 3)

q f (x) =

s y=

cos (22 x )

sin (22 x )

loge

( x)

x

x + 3

y = sin

x 2

3

u f (x) =

3x5

logge ( x 2 )

v g( x ) =

x2

cos (2x + 1)

w y = ex sin (x)

x

a f (x) = x2 1

b f (x) = x2 + 2x

i find the derivative

ii sketch the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f (x) on the same set of axes.

5 We 34 For the following functions:

a f (x) = sin (2x) for x [0, ]

b f (x) = cos (x)for x [0, 2]

i find the derivative

ii sketch the graphs of y = f (x) and y = f (x) on the same set of axes.

352

Summary

review gradient

and rates of change

The gradient of a function exists wherever the graph of the function is smooth and continuous.

If the gradient of a function, f (x), is zero at x = a, then the graph of its gradient function, f (x), will

have an x-intercept at x = a.

When the gradient of a function is positive, the graph of the gradient function is above the x-axis

and when the gradient of a function is negative, the graph of the gradient function is below the

x-axis.

A polynomial function has a gradient function which is also a polynomial function, but its degree

is reduced by one.

A function is smooth if there are no sharp points on its graph.

A function is continuous if the graph can be drawn without lifting pen from paper.

The graph of the gradient function is a graph of the gradients of all the points of the original

function.

The gradient of a horizontal line is 0.

The gradient of a vertical line is undefined.

Limits and

differentiation from

first principles

The gradient of a chord (secant) or the average rate of change is given by:

f ( x + h) f ( x ) .

h

A limit is the value that y approaches as x approaches a given value.

A limit exists if the function is approaching the same value from both left and right.

The gradient of the tangent to a curve at a point P is the gradient of the curve at P and is

f ( x + h) f ( x )

given by lim

.

h0

h

dy

For a function y = f (x), its derivative is expressed as either

or f (x).

dx

The gradient at a point P on a curve is the gradient of the tangent to the curve at that point.

the derivative of xn

If f (x) = c then f (x) = 0, where c is a constant.

If f (x) = ag(x) where a is a constant then f (x) = ag(x).

If f (x) = g(x) + h(x) then f (x) = g (x) + h (x). Differentiate each term separately.

dy dy du

=

dx du dx

A short way of applying the chain rule is:

If f (x) = [g(x)]n then f (x) = n[g(x)]n 1 g(x).

the derivative of ex

the derivative of

loge (x )

If f (x) = ekx then f (x) = kekx.

If f (x) = aekx + c then f (x) = akekx + c.

If f (x) = aeg(x) then f (x) = g (x) ae g(x).

1

If f (x) = loge (x) then f (x) = x .

1

If f (x) = loge (kx) then f (x) = x .

g ( x )

If f (x) = loge [g(x)] then f (x) =

.

g( x )

Chapter 7 Differentiation

353

the derivatives of

sin (x ), cos (x ) and

tan (x )

If f (x) = cos (x) then f (x) = sin (x).

1

If f (x) = tan (x) then f (x) =

= sec2 (x).

cos 2 ( x )

If f (x) = sin (ax) then f (x) = a cos (ax).

If f (x) = cos (ax) then f (x) = a sin (ax).

a

If f (x) = tan (ax) then f (x) =

= a sec2 (ax).

2

cos (ax )

If f (x) = sin [g(x)] then f (x) = g (x) cos [g(x)].

If f (x) = cos [g(x)] then f (x) = g (x) sin [g(x)].

g ( x )

If f (x) = tan [g(x)] then f (x) =

= g (x) sec2 [g(x)].

cos2 [ g( x )]

dy

dv

du

1. if y = u v, then

=u

+v

dx

dx

dx

2. if f (x) = u(x) v (x) then

f (x) = u(x) v(x) + v(x) u(x).

du

dv

u

dy v dx u dx

1. if y = then

.

=

v

dx

v2

u( x )

2. if f ( x ) =

then

v( x )

f ( x ) =

v ( x )u ( x ) u( x ) v ( x )

[ v ( x)]

x 2

Summary of derivatives:

f (x)

f (x)

axn

naxn 1

[g(x)]n

ng(x)[g(x)]n 1

ex

ex

ekx

kekx

eg(x)

g(x)eg(x)

loge (x)

1

x

loge (kx)

1

x

loge [g(x)]

g ( x )

g( x )

sin (ax)

cos (ax)

tan (ax)

a cos (ax)

a

sin (ax)

a

coss2 (ax )

(= a sec2 (ax))

354

Chapter review

1 The graph of a cubic function is shown below.

S hO rt

a N S W er

1 0

1 2 3

f(x)

2

3

4

h 3 + 2h 2 + 4 h

Find lim

.

h 0

h

a Find the derivative of f (x) = x3 + 2x using first principles.

b Hence find the gradient at the point where x = 1.

x3

a Find the gradient function if g( x ) =

4x .

3

b Find the gradient of g (x) when x = 3.

3x 4 x 3

If h( x ) =

+ 3 x , find:

2

4

a h (x)

b i h(1)

ii h(2).

3

7 Find the derivative of

8 Differentiate f (x) =

a x = 2 and

b x = 1.

x2 + 4 .

e2x 1.

2

dy

if y = loge (2x3 4).

dx

11 The tangent to the curve f (x) = loge (ax 1) when x = 2, has a gradient of 1. Find the value of a.

10 Find

13 Find f (x) if f (x) = tan (5x).

14 Find f (x) if f (x) = tan (2x2 3).

15 If y = 3x2 loge (6x), find

dy

.

dx

cos(( x 2 )

.

x

17 Differentiate esin (2x).

16 Find f (x) if f ( x ) =

19 Find the derivative of y = f (x) where f (x) = sin (x) for x

, .

2 2

M U LtIp L e

C hO IC e

y

f(x)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

355

y

x

0

y

4

0

2 For the function g(x) graphed below, the gradient function g(x) is defined over the domain:

y

B R \{1}

D R \{1, 4}

a R

C R \{4}

e [1, 4]

0 1

x 2 2x 8

is:

x4

x4

a undefined

B 0

C 1

D 4

e 6

C 6

D undefined

e 6

5x

is:

x +1

x3

4 lim

x 3

B 22

a 22

+ 3x is:

a

2x + 3

B 4x2 2x + 3

2

D 12x x + 3

e 4x2 2x

1

6 The derivative of g( x ) = 2 2 x is:

x

1 2

2 2

a

B

x

x

x3

x

4x3

x2

12x2

2 2

x

x

a 6(2x + 5)5

D 12(2x + 5)5

8 The derivative of

1

is:

4x 9

B

D 4 4x 9

6x

then

a 30e 6x

D 30e 6x 1

10 If y = e4x + 7 then

a 4e4x + 6

D 4e4x + 7

dy

is equal to:

dx

dy

is:

dx

x3

C 12x2 2x

x3

1

x

1

3

x2

B 12x(2x + 5)5

e 12(2x + 5)4

a 2 4x 9

9 If y = 5e

356

(4 x 9)3

C 6x(2x + 5)5

4

3

(4 x 9) 2

2

4x 9

B 6e 6x

7x

e 5e

C 5e 6x 1

B e4x + 6

e 4e3x + 7

C e4x + 7

1

3x 2

1

D

3(33 x 2)

1

3x

3

e

3x 2

C 1

2(22 x + 1)

x2 + x

2x

D

x2 + x

a

dy

is:

dx

a 8 sin (8x)

D 8x sin (8x)

a 4x cos (2x + 3)

D 4 cos (2x)

2(22 x + 1)

x

4x

e

x2 + x

2x + 1

x2 + x

B sin (8x)

e sin (8x)

C 8 sin (8x)

B 4 cos (2x + 3)

e 2 cos (2x + 3)

C 4 cos (2x + 3)

dy

is equal to:

dx

a

coss2 (6 5 x )

5

coss2 (6 5 x )

C sec2 (6 5x)

e 5 cos2 (6 5x)

D 5 cos2 (6 5x)

a 2xe2x + 2x2e2x

D 2xe2x 2x2e2x

B 2xe2x

e 2xe2x + x2e2x

C 4xe2x

a 2 loge (3 x ) +

2

3

B 2 loge (3x) + 2

D 2 loge (3 x )

2

3

18 The derivative of

a

4x 5

( x 2)2

2x + 1

is:

x2

B

D 4x 5

(x

2)2

C 2 loge (3x) + 6x

4x 3

( x 2)2

2(22 x 1)e 4 x

x3

( x 2)2

e4 x

19 The derivative of 2 is:

x

4

x

2(11 2 x )

( x 2)e

B

a

3

x3

x

2

4

x

4

x

x e 2e

2e 4 x

D

e

4

x

x3

2

5

20 If g(x) = (x + 3x 7) then g(x) is equal to:

a 5(x2 + 3x 7)4

C 5(2x + 3)4

e (x2 + 3x 7)4

D 5(2x + 3)(x2 + 3x 7)4

a 2 sin (x) cos (x)

sin2

(x)

cos2

(x)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

357

e X t eNDeD

r e SpONS e

1 A section of a roller-coaster ride follows part of the curve with the equation y =

shown below.

1

(x3

200

+ 3300 x 2 ),

28 20

12

i zero?

ii positive?

iii negative?

b Sketch the gradient function.

c Use the graph of the gradient function to find the value of x where

d

e

f

g

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic: 1 & 2

Practice

VCE exam

questions

Use StudyON to

access all exam

questions on this

topic since 2002.

DIGItaL DOC

doc-9211

Test Yourself

Chapter 7

358

dy

Find .

dx

Find the gradient where x equals:

i 25

ii 10

iii 10.

Does this verify your answer to part c? Briefly explain.

What is the highest point reached by the roller-coaster? (Give your answer in metres.)

a State the domain and range for each function.

b Find the composite functions:

i f (g(x))

ii g(f (x)).

c State the domain and range for f (g(x)) and g(f (x)).

d Find:

d

( f ( g(

g x )).

dx

d

( g( f ( x ))

ii

dx

e Evaluate:

i f (g(2))

ii g (f (2))

i

4 x 2 , x 2

4

x 1, x 5

b For what values of x is f (x) discontinuous?

c For what values of x is f (x) not differentiable?

d Find f (x).

e Sketch the graph of f (x).

ICT activities

Chapter opener

DIGItaL DOC

10 Quick Questions doc-9208: Warm up with ten quick questions on

differentiation. (page 317)

7a

tUtOrIaL

We3 eles-1175: Watch how to sketch a gradient function.

(page 320)

DIGItaL DOCS

SkillSHEET 7.1 doc-9260: Practise identifying positive negative and

zero gradients. (page 321)

SkillSHEET 7.2 doc-9261: Practise sketching the gradient function

given the original function. (page 321)

7B

7G

tUtOrIaL

We26 eles-1185: Watch a worked example on using the chain

rule to differentiate trigonometric functions. (page 342)

7h

DIGItaL DOC

WorkSHEET 7.2 doc-9210: Differentiation of mixed expression

involving the product, quotient and chain rules. (page 346)

7I

tUtOrIaL

We30 eles-1219: Watch a worked example on how to use the

quotient rule. (page 347)

7J

eLeSSON eles-0093

Limits and differentiation from first principles. Watch an eLesson on

related rates of change (page 325)

INteraCtIVItY int-0252

Differentiation: Consolidate your understanding of differentiation.

(page 348)

tUtOrIaL

We5 eles-1218: Watch how to evaluate limits. (page 326)

tUtOrIaL

We33 eles-1220: Watch a worked example on how derivatives of

an absolute value function. (page 350)

7C

the derivative of xn

DIGItaL DOC

SkillSHEET 7.3 doc-9262: Practise using index laws. (page 331)

7D

tUtOrIaL

We13 eles-1176: Watch a worked example on using the chain

rule. (page 333)

Chapter review

DIGItaL DOC

Test Yourself doc-9211: Take the end-of-chapter test to test your

progress. (page 358)

DIGItaL DOC

WorkSHEET 7.1 doc-9209: Sketch gradient functions, identify where

the derivative exists, evaluate limits, apply first principles and

differentiation rules to determine derivatives. (page 335)

Chapter 7 Differentiation

359

Answers CHAPTER 7

DIFFereNtIatION

rates of change

f '(x)

g'(x)

4 a

5 a

b A

y

0

f '(x)

y

1

f '(x)

f '(x)

f '(x)

y

0

0

1

c

d

f '(x)

5

2

f'(x)

f '(x)

x

f '(x)

f '(x)

g'(x)

y

f '(x)

f '(x)

g'(x)

g'(x)

bC

2 a

3 a

8 a

x = 2 and x = 3

( , 2) (3, )

x=2

n/a

x = 1 and x = 2

ii ( , 1) (2, )

iii (1, 2)

i i n/a

iii (0, )

j i n/a

iii (0, )

i

iii

g i

iii

h i

1 a

g'(x)

f '(x)

x

2 0

f '(x)

g'(x)

360

f '(x)

g'(x)

x

g'(x)

3

f '(x)

6 a D

b C

7 a i Not applicable (n/a)

iii n/a

b i n/a

iii R

c i x = 1

iii (1, )

d i x=4

iii (, 4)

e i x=0

iii R\{0}

c E

ii R

iv n/a

ii n/a

iv n/a

ii ( , 1)

iv n/a

ii (4, )

iv n/a

ii n/a

iv n/a

2

y

1 0

g'(x)

ii

iv

ii

iv

(2, 3)

n/a

R\{2}

n/a

iv

ii

iv

ii

iv

n/a

( , 0)

x=0

( , 0)

x=0

0

1

9 a

c

e

g

i

R\{2}

R

R\{3}

R\{2}

R\{5}

R\{0}

R\{1, 2}

R\{0}

R\{2}

R\{5, 4}

exercise 7B

from firstprinciples

1 a 6

c 8

b 7

d 4

f 14

e 6

g 24

h 3

i 2

2 a 3

b3

c 2

d 4

e 1

f 7

g 12

h 27

i 6

3 a 5

c 5

b 6

d 53

e 48

f 10

g 9

h 0

i 1

5 E

4 4+h

6 a h

b 0

74

8 a Approx. 4

b 4

9 a Approx. 10

b 10

10 C

11 a 3

b 2x

c 2x + 6

f 3x2

d 2x 2

e 6x

12 a 4

b 2x + 3

c 6x + 8

d 3x2 4

e 5 6x2

f 2x 2

the derivative of x n

dy

dy

b

= 6x5

= 6x

dx

dx

dy

dy

d

= 20 x 3

= 20 x19

dx

dx

dy

dy

f

= 5

= 12 x 2

dx

dx

dy

dy 3 2

h

= 4 x3

= x

dx 3

dx 2

dy

dy

j

=0

= 40 x 4

dx

dx

f ( x) = 12x2 + 5 b g( x) = 10x + 6

3

h( x) = 5 x2

h( x) = 3 + 12x + 3x2

g( x) = 77x10 + 30x4

f ( x) = 2x4 + x2

f ( x) = 6 + 6x 12x2

g( x) = 14x 4

h( x) = 2x + 3

j f ( x) = 9x2 12

6

b 3

x4

2 x

1

1

d 5x 4

2

exercise 7C

1 a

c

e

g

i

2 a

c

d

e

f

g

h

i

3 a

c

3x 3

1 + 2x

4x

2

2

+ x

3

4

5x 3

8 a

5

8

9 a

32

10 a

2 x

g ( x) =

1

2

3x 3

u2

4

u5

1

e i

2 u

3

f

i

iii

h i

iii

i

4x 4

2

( x 2)( x 2 4 x ) 3

3

2(6x2 + 1)(2x3 + x)3

1

15

61 + 2 x

x

x

2

g

b 43

9 a

(4 x + 7)3

3

(6 x

d 412

10 a

b

ii 2x + 2

ii 3x2 + 6x + 3

d

ii 8x + 4

ii 24x2 + 24x + 6

ii 18x + 6

ii

81x2

ii

ii

ii

ii

+ 54x + 9

3x(4x2 3) 2 x 4 3 x 2 + 1

ii 3

ii 1

iii 6(3x + 2)

iii 3(7 x)2

ii 2

iii

ii 2

iii

5)2

8

(4 2 x )5

5

iii

2 5x + 2

9

iii

2(3 x 2) 2

7

12 500

or 0.014

11 37 500

x 1

13 a

d 1

x 2 2x

+1

14 4

1 a

d

g

2 a

d

g

ii 3

ii 3

3

2u 2

15u4

ii 4x + 5

15(4x + 5)(2x2 + 5x)4

2u 3

ii 4 6x

4(2 3x)(4x 3x2)3

x2 1

6u5

ii

x2

15 9

17 7

exercise 7e

1

2

4

1

6

ii 5

2x(3x2 2)(x2 2)

3x 2 + 4 x

16 4

(2 x

b 3x x 2 + 2

3

5) 2

5( x 3 + 2 x 2 7) 5

ii 3

2x + 3

7 4x

5x + 3

4 3x

2 B

3 a i 2u

b i 3u2

c 467 54

+4

i 5x 4

i 3x + 1

i

i

i

i

53

15

b 8716

1

412

11 Teacher to check

12 a i x2 + 2x + 1

iii 2(x + 1)

b i x3 + 3x2 + 3x + 1

iii 3(x + 1)2

c i 4x2 + 4x + 1

iii 4(2x + 1)

d i 8x3 + 12x2 + 6x + 1

iii 6(2x + 1)2

e i 9x2 + 6x + 1

iii 6(3x + 1)

f i 27x3 + 27x2 + 9x + 1

iii 9(3x + 1)2

13 na(ax + b)n 1

c

d

e

f

6

x3

b 150

6 C

1 a

b

1

6( x 2 1) x +

x

iii

2

x

j

i 16u 5

ii 6

5

iii 96(5 6x)

4 C

5 A

6 B

7 a 32(8x + 3)3

b 6(2x 5)2

3x

c 15(4 3x)4

d

3x 2 4

b Undefined

exercise 7D

3

x2

4 a 10x4 10

5 D

1

34

1

+ 2x

x2

3

x2

3

j

4x2

l 1

m x 2 4 3x 4

f '(x)

b

d

f

h

j

1

x

2

k

x

2 x

y

1

f '(x)

10e10x

x

e

12e 2x

6x

6e 2

8e7 2x

90e6 9x

x

e2

18 5

the derivative of e x

b

e

h

b

e

h

+1

3 A

4 a 2ex

c 20e 4x + 10

e 6e2x 7e 7x

x

g e

x

1 3

e

3

3x

c

f

i

c

f

i

6e

e0.2x

6e8 6x

24e8x + 1

15e3x + 4

x

22e

10e5x + 3

10e6 5x

42e7x

x

+5

l e 4

2

k e 3

b

d

f

h

x

1 4

e

4

20e 5x

11x

9e3x + 6e2x

3ex 2e x

36e9x 2ex

20e5x + 4x

2

b (2 x 3)e x 3 x 1

2

5 a (2 x + 3)e x +3 x

d 5e 2 5 x

2( x 1)e x 2 x

3

6 3 x + x 2

e (2 x 3)e

f 3( x 2 + 1)e x +3 x 2

2

2

g 3(8 x 7)e 4 x 7 x h 10(1 + 3 x )e1 2 x 3 x

2

k

2( x

+ 2) 3 e( x + 2)

4

j 4(4 x )3 e(4 x )

e( x +1) 3

3e 3 x + 4

m

2

3( x + 1) 3

2 3x + 4

2

2

n 2x(2x + 3)(x + 3)e( x +3 x )

l

Chapter 7 Differentiation

361

6

7

8

9

20e

2

6e

25e 3

exercise 7F

1 a

4x

1

2 a

x

3

e

x

4

i

x

3 D

4 a A

5 a

c

e

f

h

j

6 a

c

e

g

i

k

7 a

c

1

1

b4

c

d

u

x

1

1

1

b

c

d

x

x

x

6

1

1

f

g

h

x

x

x

5

j

x

bD

6

6x + 1

8

d

8x 1

i

k

b

d

f

h

j

l

b

d

or

7

7x 4

4 7x

16

2x 1

63

8 9x

2x

x2 + 3

4 x3 6x 2 + 2x

x 4 2x3 + x 2

2

4x 3

3

5(3 x 2)

12

3x 2

3

4 + 3x

4x

2

x 3

6

x+2

9 18

7

9

5

11

1

15 3

1 loge ( x )

e

12 a

or 1

x

b i 1

ii 1

iii 1

iv 1

The gradient is always 1 since e loge ( x ) = x.

2 loge ( x 2)

e

13 a

or 2x

x

b i 2

ii 10

iii 4

exercise 7G

cos (x) and tan (x)

1 a 8 cos (8x)

b 6 cos (6x)

362

1

3

1

8

x

sin

3

x

sin

8

2

5 a

c

6 a

c

7 a

2 sec (2x)

x

1

sec2

5

5

A

D

C

cos (u)

4 cos (4x + 3)

sin (u)

3 sin (3x + 1)

2 cos (2x + 3)

5 cos (5x 4)

102 cos (2 x)

c

c C

1

2

3 a

cos (x)

cos x

2

2 a 3 sin (3x)

2

2x + 5

3

3x 4

5

5

or

3 5x 5x 3

1

1

or

2 x

x2

30

5x + 2

48

12 x + 5

4

x

3x 2 + 4 x 7

x3 + 2x 2 7x

1

2x + 1

5

3(5 x + 2)

1

x+3

10

5x + 8

4x

2+

x 1

6( x 1)

( x 3)( x + 1)

8 E

10

4 a

c

e

3

2x

cos

3

f 3

b 2 sin (2x)

d

x

sin

4

2x

f 25 sin

9 a

c

e

10 a

b

c

d

e

f

b 4 sec ( 4x)

b E

d B

1

2

b 4

exercise 7h

b 3

1 a

3x + 2

d 3 cos

3x

f 32 cos

1

2

b

2

cos (8 x )

cos (2 x + 1)

5

2

d

cos2 (5 x 2)

cos2 (2( x + 1))

3

cos2 ( x )

2(2 x) sin (x2 4x + 3)

(2x 5) cos (10 5x + x2)

ex cos (ex)

(2x + 7) sin (x2 + 7x)

4 2x

cos2 (4 x x 2 )

2x + 3

cos2 ( x 2 + 3 x )

3

2

6x2 + 2x 15

4x2 + 12x2 loge (6x) or 4x2 (1 + 3 loge (6x))

3x 2

b

+ 3 loge (2x)

x

3 D

4 a cos (x) x sin (x)

b 3 sin (x) + 3x cos (x)

c 3ex + 5xex

d 5e3x 33xe3x

e 5x4 cos (3x + 1) 3x5 sin (3x + 1)

f 6x2 loge (7x) + 2x2

2e 2 x

g 2e 2x loge (2x 5) +

2x 5

40loge (5 x ) 8 tan (5 x )

h

+

cos2 (5 x )

x

i 5 cos (2x) cos (x) 10 sin (2x) sin (x)

c

2a

4

3

4x

4x

cos cos (x) sin sin (x)

3

3

e4 x 3

x

cos (6 x )

6 sin (6x )

m

3

x

2 x

e 3x

3 xe 3 x

2 x

1

1

sin

x

x2

2

j

cos (loge (2x 1))

2x 1

k 6e3x sin (2e3x)

3

l sin (loge (10x))

x

4 x (3 x + 4)

m

cos2 ( x 3 + 2 x 2 )

ii

u = x + 3, v = 2x2 5x

du

dv

= 4x 5

=1,

b

dx

dx

b 7 cos (6 7x)

2

cos ( x )

c i

or cot (x)

ii 3

sin ( x )

1

sin ( x )

d i

or tan (x) ii

cos ( x )

3

3x

d 43 sec2

x

h 4e4x cos (e4x)

g

24

3x

5 cos2

5

x

sin

4

p 2(x + 1) sin (x2 + 2x) + 3 cos (3x 9)

12 0

11 3.745

1

3e

3 2

13 a i cos (x) esin (x)

ii

e or

2

2

sin (4x + 7)

2x + 3

c 5 sin (6 5x)

d 23 sin

3

e 402 sin (10 x) f 12 sin (2x)

8 a

sin (3x 2)

x

d 13 cos

6x4 sin

2e2x

q

r

8x + 12e3x 2xe 3x + 3 x 2e

4x3 + 9x2 + 16x 18

loge (3x2 + 5) +

5 4 + 2 loge (4)

7 17.279

26

e

9 6 2

8

6 10

6 xe 2 x

3x 2 + 5

3 x

exercise 7I

u = x + 3, v = x + 7

4

du

dv

dy

= 1,

=1

b

c

=

dx

dx

dx ( x + 7)2

1 a

u(x) = 2x + 2, v(x) = 1

2 10

x + x + 10

c f ( x ) =

(5 x )2

3 Check with your teacher.

2

4 a

( x 4)2

2 a

b

b

c

d

e

f

3x 2 + 4 x 4

(3 x + 2)2

(sin(

x ) + cos( x ))

ex

33

(10 x )2

e 2 x (2 x

1)

2

g

cos2 (2 x )

j

k

l

m

n

(3 cos (2 x ) + 2 sin (2 x ))

cos2 (2 x )

4( x 2

+ 2)

( x 2 + 3 x 2)2

10 x 3

+ 6 x 2 35 x + 7

e5 x

3x 2 + 5

2 x3

9( x

+ 3)e 3 x

(3 x + 8)2

4[ x 2 2( x 1)loge (8 x )]

x 2 ( x 2)2

x cos ( x ) 2 sin ( x )

2x 2

4[ x sin (3 2 x ) cos (3 2 x )]

x3

3e 2 7 x (7 x + 22)

q

( x + 3)2

p

r

5D

7E

j

k

l

x 2 + 2 2 x ( x + 1)loge ( x + 1)

h

( x + 1)( x 2 + 2)2

i

3 x (2 loge (4 x ) 1)

(loge (4 x ))2

x2

3x + 2

differentiation

1 a C

b P

d Q

e P

g C

h P

j C

k Q

m C

n Q

1

2 a

x

b 3 (sin (x) + x cos (x))

3 x 14

c

4x3

4 (cos ( x ) + x sin ( x ))

d

cos2 ( x )

5x

e e (5 sin (x) + cos (x))

4( x 2)e 2 x

(2 x 3)2

6 D

8 3

15

9 Does not exist as f ( x) =

0

4 (1 loge (10))

10

75

m

n

3 a

b

on

c

f

i

l

Q

Q

C

C

x (2 x + 9)loge ( x ) x 2 9 x + 8

x (loge ( x ))2

2(2 x) sin (x2 4x)

1

e x ( loge (5x))

x

cos( x )

or cot (x)

sin( x )

2 sin (x) cos (x)

3x

ex

1

2 x loge ( x )

1 or sec2 (x)

cos2 ( x )

5x

e [5 cos (4x 7) + 4 sin (4x 7)]

3x + 8

2 (3 x + 1)3

3

x +1

d 2(3 x) sin (x2 6x)

e ex (cos (2x) 2 sin (2x))

2

f

cos2 (2 x )

cos( x )

g

sin 2 ( x )

c

3cos(3 x )

h

sin(3 x )

i

j

k

l

m

n

o

4(6 x 5) e3 x 5 x + 2

3x2 + 8x 2

ex (x2 + 2x + 3)

(4 x 3 9 x 2 50)(2 x + 3)4

( x 3 5)2

4e4x [cos (4x 3) + sin (4x 3)]

6 cos (3x) sin (3x)

3sin(3 x )

cos(3 x )

2

x3

2

q

sin 2 (2 x )

p

20[loge (5 x 1)]3

5x 1

1 2 loge ( x )

s

2x 2

5

x+3

t

cos

( x 2)2

x2

u 3x4 [5 cos (2x + 1) 2x sin (2x + 1)]

r

( )

3 4 loge x 32

2x3

w (sin (x) + x cos (x)) ex sin (x)

v

2

2e 2

x

z 3 sin (x) cos2 (x)

2 x , x < 1 or x > 1

4 a i

2 x , 1 < x < 1

y 18cos(6x ) +

ii

y

6

5

4

3

2

1

f(x) =x2 1

5 4 3 2 110

f '(x) = 2x, x < 1 2

3

4

2 x + 2, x < 2, x > 0

2 < x < 0

b i

2 x 2,

ii

7

6

f '(x) = 2x + 2,

5

2

f (x) =x + 2x

x>0

4

3

2

1

x

1 2 3

5 4 3 2 1 10

2 f '(x) = 2x 2,

3 2 < x < 0

4

5

f '(x) = 2x + 2, x <2

2

5 a i

2cos(2 x ), < x <

2

ii

y

2

1

0

1

2

3

4

2

f '(x) = 2 cos (2x), < x <

2

3

< x <

sin( x ), 0 < x < ,

2 2

b i

3

sin( x ),

<x<

2

2

Chapter 7 Differentiation

363

ii

2

f(x) =cos (x)

y

1

4x

or 4x sec2 (2x2 3)

cos2 (2 x 2 3)

15 3x + 6x loge (6x)

14 f (x) =

16

0

3

2

2

2

2

Chapter reVIeW

ShOrt aNSWer

2 x 2 sin( x 2 ) cos( x 2 )

x2

b i 2 x +1

ii 4x + 1

c Domain f (g(x)) = R, range f (g(x))

2

= [2, )

Domain g(f(x)) = [0, ), range g(f (x))

= [1, )

2x

2 x 2,

x < 0, x > 2

18 f ( x ) =

2 x + 2, 0 < x < 2

d i

ii 4

2

19 f ( x ) =

cos( x ),

<x<0

e i

3 a

x

f '(x)

2 4

3 a

4 a

3x2 + 2

x2 4

5 a

6x3 +

8 1

4

6 a

7

3

4

18

x

x2

b5

b5

x2 3

ii 48

b6 5

1

5

9

13

17

21

B

A

A

C

B

D

10

3

7

11

15

19

E

D

E

A

C

4

8

12

16

20

C

B

A

A

D

1 a i

ii

iii

b

x = 20 and x = 0

(28, 20) (0, 12)

(20, 0)

y

dy

dx

2 xe x 2

25

b x=0

3x 2

28 20

c x = 10

0 1012 x

dy 3 x

=

( x + 20)

dx 200

e i 1.875

ii 1.5

iii 4.5

f Yes, the largest absolute value of the

gradient is 4.5, that is, the steepest

section.

g 30.24 m (at x = 12)

d

ii 4

y

0

3 2 1

1

1 2 3 4 5 6

b x=5

c x = 2 and x = 5

+4

x3 2

11 a = 1

12 f (x) = 6 cos (2x), f (2) = 6

5

13 f (x) =

or 5 sec2 (5x)

cos2 (5 x )

364

D

C

D

C

E

eXteNDeD reSpONSe

8 2e2x 1

9 a

2

6

10

14

18

4

5

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

MULtIpLe ChOICe

1 0

x2 + 1

2x, x < 2

2<x <5

d f ( x ) = 2,

1,

x >5

e

y

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

0

3 2 1

1

2

3

4

1 2 3 4 5 6

Chapter 8

Applications of differentiation

diGital doC

doc-9212

10 Quick Questions

Chapter ContentS

8a

8B

8C

8d

8e

8F

8G

Sketching curves

Maximum and minimum problems when the function is known

Maximum and minimum problems when the function is unknown

Rates of change

Related rates

Linear approximation

8a

Units: 3 & 4

touches the curve at a given point and whose gradient

represents the gradient of the curve at that point. A normal to

a curve is a straight line passing through the point where the

tangent touches the curve and is perpendicular (at right

angles) to the tangent at that point.

f(x)

Tangent

Point of tangency

Normal

x

1

(as the product

If the gradient of the tangent to a curve is m, then the gradient of the normal is

1).

m

of the gradients of two perpendicular lines equals

The equation of a straight line passing through the point (x1, y1) and having a gradient of m is:

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

See more

Watch

a video about

tangents and

normals.

y y1 = m(x x1).

The gradient of the tangent at x = a is f (a).

1

.

Therefore the gradient of the normal is

f (a)

The equation of the tangent at x = a is y f (a) = f (a)(x a) and

the equation of the normal is

1

( x a).

y f (a) =

f (a)

f(a)

0

Do more

Interact

with tangents.

f(x)

(a, f(a))

a

Worked example 1

think

Write

Find

dy

.

dx

y = x3 2x + 3

dy

= 3x2 2

dx

Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation

365

dy

where x = 1 to find the gradient of

dx

the tangent where x = 1.

Evaluate

At x = 1,

dy

=32

dx

=1

So gradient of tangent is 1.

rule for the equation of a straight line:

y y1 = m(x x1).

y 2 = 1(x 1)

y2=x1

y=x+1

Worked example 2

a the tangent

b the normal to the curve with the equation y = 3 loge (2x) at x = 1.

think

Write

y = 3 loge (2x)

Evaluate y when x = 1.

At x = 1, y = 3 loge (2)

Find

dy

.

dx

dy 3(2)

=

dx

2x

3

=

x

dy

when x = 1 to obtain the

dx

gradient of the tangent at x = 1.

a 1 Evaluate

(1, 3 loge (2)).

which is

dy

dx

1 We1

366

dy 3

=

dx 1

=3

So gradient of tangent is 3.

a At x = 1,

Equation of tangent is

y 3 loge (2) = 3(x 1)

= 3x 3

y = 3x 3 + 3 loge (2)

b Gradient of normal is

1

.

3

(1, 3 loge (2)).

exercise 8a

diGital doC

doc-9213

Spreadsheet

tangent and normal

tUtorial

eles-1221

Worked example 2

Equation of normal is

y 3 loge (2) = 31 (x 1)

3y 9 loge (2) = 1(x 1)

= x + 1

x + 3y = 1 + 9 loge (2)

1 + 9 loge (2) x

y=

3

3

Find the equation of the tangent to the curve y = x2 + x at the point (2, 6).

Find the equations of the tangent to the curve y = x2 + 5x 6 at the points where it crosses the x-axis.

3

4

Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 3x2 5x + 4 at the point where x = 1.

Find the equation of the normal to the curve y = 12 x2 + 3x 7 at the point where it crosses the y-axis.

5 We2 For each of the following functions, find the equation of:

i the ngent

ta

ii the normal at the given value of x.

b y = x3 6x, x = 2

a y = x2 + 1, x = 1

d y = (x 1)(x2 + 2), x = 1

g y = x(x + 2)(x 1), x =

j y = e2x, x = 0

e y=

x, x = 4

h y = 3x2 + 4x, x = 0

k y = e3x + 2, x = 1

n y = sin (2x), x =

3

x3

,x=0

4

6 mC If y = (2x + 3)4 then at the point (1, 1)

a the equation of the normal is:

a y + 4x 3 = 0

B 8y + x 7 = 0

d y + 2x + 8 = 0

e 2y x = 0

1

,x=2

x

f y = 2 x + 3, x = 3

i y = 2x3 + x2 6x + 2, x = 1

l y = loge (x), x = 2

x

o y = 3 cos , x =

2

c y=

p y = sin 2 x +

C y 4x + 5 = 0

b the value of x where the gradient of the tangent is parallel to the x-axis is:

a

d

3

1

3

1

3

2

3

3

2

7 Find the equation of the tangent to f (x) = x2 + 4x + 1 which is parallel to the line y=2x+3.

x2 + 1

at x = 0.

x2 1

2

10 Find the equation of the normal to y = loge (x + 2) which is parallel to the line with equation

y + 3x 5 = 0.

8 Find the equation of the tangent to y =

11 Find the equations of the tangent and normal for each of the following curves.

a f (x) = x2 + 1 at x = a

c f (x) = e x at x = 2a.

x at x = a

4x

12 Find the equation of the tangent to the curve f (x) = e that is perpendicular to the line x + 8y = 16.

13 The graph of y = x has a normal with equation y = 8x + b, where b is a real constant. Find the value of b.

8B

b f (x) =

diGital doC

doc-9214

WorkSHEET 8.1

Sketching curves

When the graphs of polynomial functions are being sketched, four main characteristics should be featured:

1. the basic shape (whenever possible)

2. the y-intercept

3. the x-intercept(s)

4. the stationary points.

Stationary points

A stationary point is a point on a graph where the function momentarily stops rising or falling; that is, it

is a point where the gradient is zero.

y

x

Function stops falling

and rises after this point.

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Do more

Interact

with stationary

points.

or

0

Units: 3 & 4

x

Gradient = 0 where function

stops rising momentarily,

then continues to rise again

after this point.

367

The stationary point (or turning point) of a quadratic function can be found by completing a perfect

square in the form y = (x + h)2 + k. In this case the stationary point is (h, k). For cubics, quartics or

higher-degree polynomials there is no similar procedure. Differentiation enables stationary points to be

found for most polynomial functions where the rule is known.

The gradient function of a function f (x) is f (x).

Stationary points occur wherever the gradient is zero.

f (x) has stationary points when f (x) = 0

or

y has stationary points when

dy

= 0.

dx

The solution of f (x) = 0 gives the x-value or values where stationary points occur.

If f (a) = 0, a stationary point occurs when x = a and y = f (a). So the coordinate of the stationary

point is (a, f (a)).

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

1. A local minimum turning point at x = a.

If x < a, then f (x) < 0 (immediately to the left of x = a, the gradient

is negative).

If x = a, then f (x) = 0 (at x = a the gradient is zero).

If x > a, then f (x) > 0 (immediately to the right of x=a, the gradient

is positive).

2. A local maximum turning point at x = a.

If x < a, then f (x) > 0.

If x = a, then f (x) = 0.

If x > a, then f (x) < 0.

The two cases (1 and 2) can be called turning points because the

gradients each side of the stationary point are opposite in sign (that is,

the graph turns).

The term local turning point at x = a implies in the vicinity ofx = a,

as polynomials can have more than one stationary point.

3. A positive stationary point of inflection at x = a.

If x < a, then f (x) > 0.

If x = a, then f (x) = 0.

If x > a, then f (x) > 0.

That is, the gradient is positive either side of the stationary point.

f(x)

f '(x) > 0

f '(x) < 0

0

f '(x) = 0

x

y

a

f(x)

y

Gradient = 0

f'(x)

If x < a, then f (x) < 0.

If x = a, then f (x) = 0.

If x > a, then f (x) < 0.

In cases 3 and 4 above the word stationary implies that the gradient is

zero.

368

f(x)

Gradient = 0

y

or

0

Gradient 0

When determining the nature of stationary points it is helpful to complete a gradient table, which

shows the sign of the gradient either side of any stationary points. This is known as the first derivative test.

Gradient tables are demonstrated in the examples that follow.

Worked example 3

a Find the stationary points and their nature for the function

b Show that the curve passes through (1, 0).

c Find the coordinates of all other intercepts.

d Hence, sketch the graph of f (x).

think

tUtorial

eles-1222

Worked example 3

Write/draW

a f (x) = x3 + 5x2 8x 12

(3x 2)(x + 4) = 0

2

x=3

4

x where f (x) = 0.

or

x = 4

= 14 22

27

so ( 2 , 14 22 ) is one stationary point.

3

77

When x = 4,

f (4) = (4)3 + 5(4)2 8(4) 12

= 36

so (4, 36) is another stationary point.

5

nature of the stationary points.

Gradient table:

x

2

3

f (x)

Slope

stationary point and ( 2 , 14 22 ) is a local

3

27

minimum stationary point.

Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation

369

knowing that (x + 1) is a factor of f (x).

= 1 + 5 + 8 12

=0

Therefore f (x) passes through (1, 0).

and

= (x + 1)(x + 6)(x 2)

Solve f (x) = 0.

x-intercepts:

(x + 1)(x + 6)(x 2) = 0

x = 1 or 6 or 2

= 12

The y-intercept is (0, 12).

d

(4, 36)

f(x)

(6, 0)

(2, 0) x

(1, 0)

(0, 12)

)

( 23 , 14 22

27

Worked example 4

Sketch the graph of g(x) = x2(4 x2), clearly indicating all stationary points and intercepts.

think

Write/draW

g(x) = 4x2 x4

Differentiate g(x).

g(x) = 8x 4x3

Solve g(x) = 0.

g(x) = 0

8x 4x3 = 0

4x(2 x2) = 0

x = 0 or x2 = 2

x=0

x = 2 or 2

or

When x = 0, g(0) = 0

When x = 2 , g( 2 ) = 4( 2 )2 ( 2 )4

=4

When x = 2,

g( 2) = 4( 2)2 ( 2)4

=4

Therefore the stationary points are ( 2 , 4), (0, 0)

and ( 2 , 4).

6

370

nature of the stationary points.

Gradient table:

x

g(x)

Slope

+

/

+

/

2

0

point.

(0, 0) is a local minimum stationary point.

( 2, 4) is a local maximum stationary point.

x2(4 x2) = 0

x2 = 0 or x2 = 4

x = 0 or x = 2 or 2

The x-intercepts are (2, 0), (0, 0) and (2, 0).

y-intercept: When x = 0,

g(0) = 02(4 02)

=0

The y-intercept is (0, 0).

10

( 2, 4)

( 2, 4)

(2, 0)

(0, 0) 0

(2, 0)

x

g(x)

Worked example 5

If f (x) = x3 + 4x2 3x 7:

a sketch the graph of f (x)

b state the values of x where f (x) is i increasing and ii decreasing.

think

Write/draW

f (x) = x3 + 4x2 3x 7

f (x) = 3x2 + 8x 3

of f (x).

3x2 + 8x 3 = 0

(3x 1)(x + 3) = 0

x = 1 or 3

3

3

parabola).

y-intercept: When x = 0,

f (0) = 3

so the y-intercept of f (x) is (0, 3).

y

f '(x)

1

3

3

b

positive (that is, above the x-axis).

negative (that is, below the x-axis).

1

.

3

1

3

so f (x) is

and x > 1 .

3

1

3

so f (x) is decreasing

371

Worked example 6

a Find f (x).

b Find the coordinates of the stationary points.

c Determine the nature of the stationary points.

d Find the value of a in exact form if the straight line with equation y = 5x + 15 intersects y = f (x)

at the maximum turning point.

think

2

differentiation feature of your CAS calculator.

to find the y-coordinates of the stationary

points.

real constant).

Substitute a = 1 into the answer found

previously to obtain the stationary points.

nature of the stationary points.

terms of a.

Substitute the coordinates of the turning

point into the equation and solve.

372

that f (x) is a positive function.

Write

d

(f (x)) = (x a)(3x a + 6)

dx

b Solve ((x a)(3x a + 6) = 0, x)

x=

a6

or x = a

3

3

a 6 4(a + 3)

=

f

3

27

f (a) = 0

1 6 4(1 + 3)3

and (1, 0)

27

,

c

3

5 256

and (1, 0) are the stationary points.

,

3 27

f (x)

Slope

is a local maximum turning point.

5 , 256

3 27

a 6 4(a + 3)3

is a local maximum turning

3 ,

27 point.

a 6

4(a + 3)3

+ 15, a

= 5

3

27

d Solve

3(

5 + 2)

or

2

a = 3 or

a=

a=

3( 5 2)

2

a=

3( 5 2)

2

exercise 8B

1 We3

a

d

g

j

m

Sketching curves

Find the stationary points and their nature for each of the following functions.

y = 8 x2

f (x) = 4x 2x2 x3

y = 5 6x + x2

y = 3x4 8x3 + 6x2 + 5

h(x) = 12 x3

b

e

h

k

n

f (x) = x3 3x

g(x) = 4x3 3x4

f (x) = x3 + 8

g(x) = x(x2 27)

g(x) = x3(x 4)

c

f

i

l

g(x) = 2x2 8x

y = x2(x + 3)

y = x2 x + 6

y = x3 + 4x2 3x 2

2 We3 Sketch the graph of each function in question 1, clearly indicating all stationary points.

3 a We3 Find the stationary points of the function f (x) = x3 2x2 7x 4 and state their nature.

b Show that the graph passes through (4, 0).

c Give the coordinates of all other intercepts and hence sketch the graph of f (x).

4 a Find the stationary points, and their nature, for the curve y = x3 x2 16x + 16.

b

Show that the graph passes through (1, 0) and give the coordinates of all other intercepts.

c Sketch the graph.

5 a We3 Find the stationary points of the function g(x) = x4 4x2 and state their nature.

b Find the coordinates of all the intercepts.

c Sketch the graph of g(x).

6 a

b

c

d

Show that the point (1, 0) lies on the curve.

Find all other intercepts.

Sketch the graph.

b Find the y-intercept.

c Sketch the graph without finding the x-intercepts.

8 We4 Sketch the graph of each of the following functions, clearly indicating all stationary points and

intercepts.

a f (x) = x4 x2

c g(x) = x3 + 3x4

e h(x) = x3 4x2 11x + 30

g f (x) = x4 2x2 + 1

i g(x) = x3 + 9x2 + 24x + 20

b

d

f

h

j

f (x) = x3 3x2

g(x) = x3 4x2 + 4x

h(x) = x(x + 3)(x 5)

f (x) = x(x2 + 1)

h(x) = (x2 1)3

9 mC If f (x) < 0 where x > 2 and f (x) > 0 where x < 2, then at x = 2, f (x) has a:

a local minimum

C point of inflection

e gradient of 2

B local maximum

d discontinuous point

4

a 2 and

B 3 only

d 3 and

4

3

11 mC The graph of y =

C 2 only

e 0 and 2

x4

x3

has:

B a local minimum where x = 0

4

4

12 mC A quadratic function has a turning point (2, 1) and a y-intercept of (0, 9).

a y = (x 2)2 + 9

C y = (x 2)2 + 1

e y = 2(x 2)2 + 1

B y = (x 1)2 + 8

d y = 2(x 2)2 + 9

373

13 The graphs of f (x) are shown below. Find all values of x for which f (x) has stationary points and state

their nature.

a

f '(x)

f '(x)

f '(x)

y

f '(x)

y

f '(x)

0 1

f'(x)

14 Show that f (x) = x2 4x + 3 is decreasing for x < 2 and increasing for x > 2.

i sketch f (x) and, hence, state the values of x where

f (x) is ii increasing and iii decreasing.

a f (x) = 1 x3 + 2x2 + 2

3

b g(x) = x3 + 2x2 7x 5

f (x) = 0 if x = 2 and x = 3

diGital doC

doc-9263

SkillSHEET 8.1

review of derivatives

other than polynomials

Units: 3 & 4

AOS:

Topic:

Concept:

Concept

summary

Read a summary

of this concept.

See more

Watch

a video about

maximums and

minimums.

374

a the value of a and b

b the nature of the stationary points.

4

3

, find:

a a and b

where b is a positive real constant.

a Find f (x).

b Find the coordinates of the stationary points.

c State the nature of the stationary points when b > 1.

d Find the equation of the tangent at x = 2.

e If the maximum turning point occurs at x = 4, find the value of b.

2)2

a Find f (x).

b Find the coordinates of the stationary points.

c Find the equation of the tangent to the curve when x = 2.

d Find the value of b in exact form if the straight line with equation y = 4x 2 intersects

2

when the function is known y

Local

8C

value of a quantity is desired. For example it is important

for manufacturers or business operators to minimise the

costs involved in running their businesses. Equally, it is

just as important to maximise their profits.

A graph is always useful and helps us to find

approximately where a maximum or minimum occurs.

Maximum

maximum

Local

minimum

x

Minimum

As we have seen, local maximum and/or minimum stationary points occur where the derivative

is zero.

dP

If P = f (x) then a local maximum and/or minimum may exist where

= 0.

dx

To decide whether a solution is a maximum or a minimum the first derivative test must be applied

(by setting up a gradient table).

A graph of the function could be sketched if it is not difficult, to

y

ensure that the maximum or minimum value is applicable.

The function f (x) has a limited domain of [1, 5].

f(x)

The maximum value occurs at the point where x = 4.

The minimum value, however, is not at x = 2 but at the end point x = 5.

This example shows that the derivative test on its own is not always

x

0 1 2 3 4 5

reliable for finding maximum or minimum values and a graph is

sometimes necessary.

When finding the maximum/minimum value of f (x) the following steps are taken.

1. Find f (x) (to obtain the gradient function).

2. Solve for x where f (x) = 0 (to find the values of x where the maximum or minimum occur).

3. Apply the first derivative test as a check. Also, sketch the graph of f (x).

4. Check end points if domain is restricted.

5. Substitute the appropriate value of x into f (x) to obtain the maximum or minimum.

Worked example 7

t months, after observation began can be modelled

by the function:

t

where P is the number of birds.

Find:

a the initial population

b when the largest number of birds is reached

c the maximum number of birds.

think

2

is P(0).

Write

a P(t) = 400te

b P(t) = 400te

=

Solve P(t) = 0.

+ 600

= 0 + 600

= 600

So the initial population of birds is 600.

t

5

t

5

+ 400t (

t

t

400e 5 80te 5

t

80e 5 (5 t)

1

5

)e

t

5

+0

80e

t

5

(5 t) = 0

t = 5 (as 80e

t

5

cannot equal 0)

Chapter 8 Applications of differentiation

375

derivative test.

Gradient table:

t

10

P(t)

Slope

after 5 months.

c Evaluate P(5) to find the maximum number

of birds.

c P(5) = 400(5)e

5

5

+ 600

= 2000e + 600

= 735.8 + 600