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COMIFAC

International Conference

MONITORING FOREST CARBON STOCKS AND FLUXES IN THE


CONGO BASIN

CONFERENCE REPORT

2-4 February 2010


Conference Centre, Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Brazzaville, Republic of Congo
http://www.observatoire-comifac.net/carbonCconfBrazza.php

GOFC-GOLD Report No. 44

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

ii

Central Africa Forestry Commission


COMIFAC
Monitoring Forest Carbon Stocks and Fluxes in the Congo Basin

Conferencesponsors(listedalphabetically):
GOFCGOLD
GlobalObservationofForestandLandCoverDynamics
JRC
JointResearchCentreoftheEuropeanCommission
OFAC
ObservatoiredesFortsdAfriqueCentrale
OSFAC
ObservatoiresatellitaldesFortsdAfriqueCentrale
START
GlobalChangeSystemforAnalysis,ResearchandTraining
UNFAO
UnitedNationsFoodandAgricultureOrganisation
USAID
UnitedStatesAgencyforInternationalDevelopment
WCS
WildlifeConservationSociety
WRI
WorldResourcesInstitute
WWF
WorldWideFundforNature

Leadeditors:
MichaelBrady,NaturalResourcesCanada/GOFCGOLD
CarlosdeWasseige,ObservatoiredesFortsd'AfriqueCentrale
Contributingeditors:
AliceAltstattandDianeDavies,UniversityofMaryland
PhilippeMayaux,EuropeanCommissionJointResearchCentre
MartinTadoum,CentralAfricaForestryCommission

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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Executive Summary
The Central African Forests Commission (COMIFAC) and its partners (OFAC, USAID, ECJRC,
OSFAC, WWF, WRI, WCS, GOFCGOLD, START, UNFAO) organized an international conference
on"MonitoringofCarbonstocksandfluxesintheCongoBasin"inBrazzaville,RepublicofCongo,
24February2010.Theconferencebroughttogetherleadinginternationalspecialiststodiscuss
approachesforquantifyingstocksandflowsofcarbonintropicalforestsoftheCongoBasin.The
conferenceprovidedauniqueopportunitytoassessthestatusandcapacitytomonitorforestsin
theCongoBasinandtoidentifykeytechnicalissuesrelatedtocarbonmonitoringintheregion.
Thespecificobjectivesoftheconferencewereto:(a)provideanoverviewofcurrentlandcover,
land use and carbon monitoring activities in the Congo Basin, including both field based and
remote sensing projects; (b) assess current capacities for land cover, land use and carbon
monitoringattheregionalandnationallevels;(c)establishscientificandtechnicalguidelinesfor
successful carbon monitoring in the Congo Basin; (d) identify current satellite data needs for
CongoBasinlandcoverandcarbonmonitoring,includingdataacquisition,dataaccessanddata
dissemination, and develop a strategy to meet these needs; and (e) identify a mechanism to
inform COMIFAC and national governments on the technical issues associated with carbon
monitoring, particularly in the context of Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation(REDD).
Thereportsummarizeskeypointsfromtheplenarysessionsandworkinggroups,andpresents
recommendations for near and medium term actions. In addition to supporting the REDD
process,thefindingspresentedhereapplyaswellforadvancingregionalcapacityforlandcover
and land use monitoring in general (e.g., for land use planning, agricultural monitoring,
conservationofbiodiversity).Keyfindingsoftheconferenceinclude:
1. Estimating forest cover change using remote sensing has reached a good level of
maturity in the Congo Basin. This work will contribute to MRV systems in the region.
Two operational approaches, basin wide mapping (by SDSUOSFAC) and thematic
sampling of 400 km2 (by JRCUCL OFACFAO and national experts), used Landsat
imagestoestablishratesofdeforestationintheCongoBasin.Therates(~0.2%/year)
arelowcomparedtoothertropicalcontinents.Itisrecommendedthattheseresultsbe
consolidatedandnationalauthoritiescollaborateinproducingthisvitalinformation.
2. CentralAfricahassufferedfrompoorspatialdataacquisitionpolicies.OnlyLandsatdata
areroutinelyavailable(throughOSFAC),withlimitationsonqualityinrecentyears.2010
seemstomarkaturningpointinimproveddataacquisition:(i)DMCiicoverageisbeing
finalized (GMES), (ii) free SPOT data for REDD+ in the Congo Basin should soon be
available (AFD), (iii) a satellite ground receiving station is to become operational in
Librevillein2011(FrenchBrazilianGabonproject),(iv)freeCBERSdataareavailableto
African users, (v) recent ALOSPALSAR radar data, with wall to wall coverage for the
Congo Basin, is available (Japan), and (vi) the GEO Forest Carbon Tracking initiative in
Central Africa will facilitate data access to designated national demonstrator countries.
WiththeseeffortsCentralAfricashouldcatchupintheyearstocome.However,further
efforts should be made in two areas relating to data access: fostering a policy of open
data and making data readily available from receiving stations and data providers to
domestic users by strengthening infrastructure for data dissemination (e.g., internet,
GEONETcast).
3. Despite the progress in mapping biomass using satellite Earth observations (a
combination of radar and optical images), a number of challenges need to be met to
reliablyestimatecarbonstock,including:(i)collectionofforestinventorydatapertinent
for biomass estimates for different forest types (including soil, litter, dead wood and
MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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belowground biomass), (ii) establishment of allometric equations to link forest


inventorydataandbiomass(andhencecarbonstocks)fordifferentforesttypes,and(iii)
the establishment of permanent plots to measure the increase in carbon stock in
differentecologicalconditions.
4. ForanMRVsystemtobeeffective,nationaltrainingstrategiesneedtobeestablishedand
a critical mass of managers and technicians trained with expertise in remote sensing,
field inventories and reporting techniques. It is suggested that RIFFEAC make a first
inventory of projects and training institutions which can facilitate the development of
REDD+.
5. Although MRV systems will be established nationally, it is recommended that these be
strengthenedbyregionalcoordinationwhichwill:(i)continuetheinventoryofREDD+,
(ii)buildregionaldatabasesofforestinventoriesandallometricequations,(iii)establish
rulesfordatasharinganduse(e.g.,throughaCreativeCommonslicense),(iv)establish
and oversee the training strategy, (v) maintain coherence among the national MRV
systems and facilitate dialogue with financial partners, and (vi) establish a scientific
committeetoadvisethestakeholdersintheregion.Suchregionalcoordinationshouldbe
placedundertheauspicesofCOMIFAC,withoperationalsupportofOFACandOSFAC.

Rsum excutif
UnpeuplusdunmoisaprslesommetdeCopenhaguequiaconsacrlerlefondamentaldes
forts tropicales dans lattnuation du changement climatique, la COMIFAC et ses partenaires
(OFAC, ECJRC, OSFAC, WWF, WRI, WCS, GOFCGOLD, START, UNFAO) ont organis une
confrence scientifique sur le Suivi des stocks et flux de carbone dans le Bassin du Congo
Brazzavilledu02au04fvrier2010.Cetteconfrence,destinetouslesacteursduprocessus
REDD+dansleBassinduCongo,amislaccentsurlesaspectsdeMRV(Monitoring,Reporting,
Verification)duprocessusREDD+.Cetteconfrencefutuneopportunituniquedvaluerltat
et la capacit de suivi des forts du Bassin du Congo et didentifier les principaux verrous
scientifiques du suivi oprationnel du carbone dans la sousrgion. Les principaux
enseignementsdeces3joursdetravauxintensessontcidessous.
1. Lestimationdeschangementsdecouvertforestierpartldtectionestarriveunbon
niveaudematuritparapplicationdetechniquesrobustesetprouvesetpermettrade
nourrir des systmes MRV dans la rgion. Deux projets rgionaux, bass sur lanalyse
dimages Landsat, ont montr des applications oprationnelles complmentaires, en
cartographiecomplte(SDSUOSFAC),ousurbasedanalysesthmatiquesplusdtailles
dchantillons de 400 km2 (JRCUCLOFACFAO et experts nationaux). Les deux tudes
montrentunedforestationfaibledanslebassinduCongo(~0.2%/an)parrapportaux
autrescontinentstropicaux.Ilestrecommanddeconsolidercesrsultatsetdimpliquer
davantage les administrations nationales dans la production conjointe de ces
informationscruciales.
2. LAfrique centrale a souffert dune politique dacquisition sporadique de donnes
spatiales. Seules les donnes Landsat sont actuellement disponibles de manire
routinire (OSFAC), avec des limitations de qualit sur les dernires annes. Lanne
2010 semble marquer un tournant en ce domaine : (i) couverture DMCii en voie de
finalisation(GMES),(ii)ouverturegratuitedesarchives SPOTpourlesactivitsREDD+
danslebassinduCongo(AFD),(iii)stationderceptiondeLibrevilleoprationnelleen
2011 (projet francobrsiliogabonais), (iv) donnes CBERS mises disposition des
utilisateurs africains, (v) couvertures radar ALOSPALSAR (Japon), (vi) initiative GEO
Forest Carbon Tracking. LAfrique centrale devrait donc rattraper son retard dans les
annesvenir.Ilfauttoutefoispoursuivreleseffortsdansdeuxdomaines:favoriserune
MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

politiquedesdonnesouverteetpermettreladissminationphysiquedesimagesdepuis
les stations de rception jusquaux utilisateurs nationaux, en renforant les
infrastructuresderediffusion(Internet,Geonetcast).
3. Malgrcertainsprogrsmontrsdanslacartographiedebiomassepartirdobservation
delaterre(combinaisondimagesradaretoptiques),ilresteungrandnombrededfis
relever dans lestimation du stock de carbone : (i) la rcolte de variables dinventaire
forestier pertinentes pour les estimations de biomasse pour les diffrents types
forestiers (incluant le sol, la litire, le bois mort et la biomasse souterraine), (ii)
ltablissement dquations allomtriques qui permettront de relier ces donnes
dinventaires forestiers unebiomasse relle(et donc unstockde carbone)pour les
diffrents types forestiers, (iii) la mise en place dun rseau de placettes permanentes
permettant de mesurer finement laugmentation du stock de carbone dans diffrentes
conditionscologiques.
4. Pour un systme MRV efficace, il faut tablir des stratgies nationales de formation et
amenerunemassecritiquedecadresettechniciensformsunniveauadquatdansles
domainesdelatldtection,desinventairesdeterrainetdestechniquesdereporting.
Le RIFFEAC pourrait raliser un premier inventaire des projets et institutions de
formationsusceptiblesdeservirlamiseenplacedunsystmeREDD+.
5. Bien que les systmes MRV se mettront en place par pays, il est recommand de
renforcer ces composantes nationales par une coordination rgionale qui devra : (i)
continuerlinventairedesprojetsREDD+,(ii)construiredesbasesdedonnesrgionales
desinventairesforestiersetdesquationsallomtriques,(iii)mettreenplacedesrgles
de partage et dutilisation des donnes, notamment travers des licences de type
Creative Commons, (iv) tablir et suivre la stratgie de formation, (v) maintenir le
cohrence entre les systmes MRV nationaux et le dialogue avec les partenaires
financiers,(vi)tabliruncomitscientifiquechargdeconseillerlesacteursdelargion.
Cette coordination rgionale se placera sous les auspices de la COMIFAC, avec lappui
oprationneldeOFACetOSFAC.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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Table of Contents

ExecutiveSummary.......................................................................................................................................................... iv
Rsumexcutif .................................................................................................................................................................. v
TableofContents..............................................................................................................................................................vii
1

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................................................................. 1
1.1

BackgroundandObjectives .......................................................................................................................... 1

TechnicalChallenge............................................................................................................................................................................... 1
RegionalCoordinationChallenge..................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.2

ConferenceOrganization................................................................................................................................ 2

SponsoringAgencies ............................................................................................................................................................................. 2
OrganizingCommittee.......................................................................................................................................................................... 3
OrganizationoftheConferenceandReport ................................................................................................................................ 3

OVERVIEWOFCARBONANDREDD:THENEEDSOFMRVSYSTEMS.................................................. 4
REDDplusrequirementsfortheCongoBasincountries/Quellessontlesexigencestechniquesdu
REDD?PhilippeMayauxandFrdricAchard........................................................................................................................... 4
MethodologicalAspectsforForestAreaChangeAssessmentthroughRemoteSensing,REDD/Livre
derfrenceSourcebookduREDDDaniloMollicone ......................................................................................................... 7

REVIEWOFREDDRELATEDACTIVITIESINTHECONGOBASINREGION.................................... 10
3.1

Overview............................................................................................................................................................. 10

CarbonStocksandLandCoverChangeEstimatesinCentralAfricaWhereDoWeStand?/Etatdes
connaissances sur les stocks de carbone et leurs variations dans les forts dAfrique centrale
RobertNasia,PhilippeMayauxb,NBayolc,A.Billandd ........................................................................................................... 10
OverviewofREDDprojects/carbonquantificationinCentralAfricaSurveyResults/Aperudes
Projets REDD et/ou de Quantification du Carbone Forestier en Afrique Centrale Carlos De
Wasseigea,C.Mfukaa,M.MbembaaetP.Mayauxb ................................................................................................................... 14
TheREDD+ReadinessProcessintheDemocraticRepublicofCongo/LeProcessusdeprparation
laREDD+enRpubliqueDmocratiqueduCongoBrunoGuay................................................................................... 19

3.2

EstimationandAnalysisofForestCoverChange ............................................................................ 23

TheFAOGlobalForestResourceAssessment2010RemoteSensingSurvey:MonitoringTreeCover
and Forest Area Change Globally from 1990 to 2005 / Application dans le cadre du FRA Erik
Lindquist ................................................................................................................................................................................................. 23
ObservatoryofCentralAfricanForests:NationalandRegionalEstimateofForestCoverandForest
CoverChangefor1990,2000and2005/Lacartographieforestireetlechangementdoccupation
et utilisation du sol: Description de la mthodologie C. Ernsta, A. Verhegghena, C. Bodartb, P.
Mayauxb,C.deWasseigec,A.Bararwandikad,G.Begotoe,F.EsonoMbaf,M.Ibarag,A.KondjoShokoh,
H.KoyKondjoh,JS.Makaki,JD.MenomoBiangj,C.Musampah,R.NcogoMotogok,G.NebaShul,B.
Nkoumakalim,CB.OuissikanandP.Defournya ........................................................................................................................ 28
ResultsandvalidationtoolsforFRA/Rsultatetoutildevalidationparlesexpertsnationauxdes
classesdoccupationdusoletchangementBrunoNkoumakali1,ChristopheMusampa2 .................................... 34
Quantitative Analysis of Deforestation Drivers in DR Congo: Preliminary Results / Analyse des
causesdedforestationClineDelhage,PierreDefourny ................................................................................................. 39

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Central African Deforestation 200120042007 Mapped WalltoWall with Landsat 7 Data: New
MethodsExploringtheRecentlyOpenedLandsatArchive/Lacartographieducouvertforestieret
de la dforestation en Afrique centrale Mark Broich, Bernard Adusei, Matthew Hansen, Peter
Potapov,andErikLindquist............................................................................................................................................................ 45
Transitiontoaregionalmappinginitiative:OSFAC/OSFACversunmonitoringrgulierdesforts
du bassin du Congo : Transition vers une exploitation Rgionale Landing Mane, Patrick Lola
Amani,GuguyMangono,MarcellineNgomba,EddyBongwele,HuguetteNgilambi...............................................49

3.3

EstimationofForestCarbon..................................................................................................................... 53

Mapping and Monitoring Forest Carbon in Central Africa: Fusion of Ground and Space
Measurements / Le suivi du carbone dans les forts du Gabon: Fusion des donnes de terrain et
spatialesSassanSaatchia,b,LeeWhitec,EdwardMitchardd,SimonLewise,andYadvinderMalhif .................53
Canopy Textural Properties from Metric Resolution Imagery : Validation, Sensitivity and
Perspectives within REDD / Suivi de la structure forestire Nicolas Barbier1, Pierre Couteron2,
JeanPhilippeGastelluEtchegorry3,ChristopheProisy4 ....................................................................................................54
Pan Tropical Biomass Mapping in Support of Forest Monitoring / Une premiere estimation de la
biomasseligneuseariennedAfriquesurlabasedimagessatellitesetdinventairesforestiersN.
Laportea,A.Baccinia,S.Goetza,P.Mekuib,A.Bauscha ...........................................................................................................58
Canopy (Aerial) Carbon Stocks Measurement in Congo Basin Forest / Estimation des stocks de
carboneariendanslesfortsduBassinduCongo:CasdesparcellespermanentesdelIturietde
laSalongaenRDCJeanRemyMakana......................................................................................................................................65
CarbonStockEstimationinForestConcessions/Lagestionetlesuividesstocksdecarboneetdes
missionsassociesdanslesconcessionsforestiresenAfriqueCentraleCamilleLafona,Antoine
Mugniera,NicolasBayolb,BernardCassagnec .........................................................................................................................69
Carbon and Agroforestry in Cameroon / Stockage de carbone dans les agroforts cacao au
CamerounetperspectivespourlAfriqueCentraleDenisJ.Sonwaa,NathalieS.E.Eyohob,c,Bernard
A.Nkongmeneckc,d ..............................................................................................................................................................................72

3.4

REDDProjects ................................................................................................................................................. 76

The GEO Initiative on Forest Carbon Tracking: Towards the Implementation of a Global Forest
CarbonTrackingSystemGiovanniRum...................................................................................................................................76
TheRoleofNationalDemonstratorsintheGEOForestCarbonTrackingTaskMichaelBrady........................77
Development and Implementation of GSE FM REDD Pilot Projects in the Congo Region / Projet
REDDauCamerounT.Haeuslera,J.Amougoub,S.Gomeza,R.Siwea,G.Rammingera,andJ.Seifert
Granzinc ..................................................................................................................................................................................................83
REDD+intheDemocraticRepublicofCongoandtheCongoBasin:AMeasurement,Reportingand
Verification System to Support REDD+ Implementation Under the UNFCCC / Le REDD et le
dveloppement dun systme MRV en RDC Danae Maniatisa, Danilo Molliconea, Erik Lindquista,
ChristopheMusampab,AndrKondjoShokoc,VincentKasulud,SebastienMaleleMbalae ...................................87
The REDD Project in Republic of Congo / Le projet REDD carbone en Rpublique du Congo
GeorgesClaverBoundzangaaandFredStolleb ......................................................................................................................88

3.5

FieldProjectsandotherEnvironmentalServices .......................................................................... 89

ForestCarbonSinksinIbiBateke/LepuitsdecarboneforestierIbiBateke:tatdavancementet
perspectivesdavenirOlivierMushiete,RuphinNgabulongo,DanyMulabu ............................................................89
ExplainingandPredictingtheImpactofGlobalChangeonForestBiodiversityintheCongoBasin:
The CoForChange Project / Impact du changement globalsur labiodiversit forestiredu bassin
duCongoS.GourletFleury,N.Bayol,I.Bentaleb,F.Benedet,A.Billand,L.Bremond,J.F.Chevalier,
J.L. Doucet, B. Engelbrecht, N. Fauvet, C. Favier, V. Freycon, J.F. Gillet, V. Gond, A. Laraque, P.
Mayaux,J.M.Moutsambot,R.Nasi,A.Ngomanda,Y.Nouvellet,B.Sonk,M.Swaine,J.Tassin,J.P.
Tathy,O.Yongo,K.Willis.................................................................................................................................................................93
Congo River Watershed Hydrology in Interaction with Carbon Stocks and Fluxes / Interaction
entrelhydrologieetlesstocksetfluxdecarbonedanslebassindufleuveCongoYolandeMunzimi...........94
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Conservation Prioritization, Livelihood Improvement and Potential for Carbon Credits in the
MaringaLoporiWambaLandscape,DemocraticRepublicofCongo/Dveloppementterritorialet
utilisationdusoldanslepaysageMaringaLoporiWambaJefDupaina,JanetNackoneyb,Florence
Bwebwea,CharlyFacheuxa,NicolasGrondardc,DavidWilliamsa,BrunoGuayc ..................................................... 100
Towards Land Use Dynamics Modeling: A Case Study of the Democratic Republic of the Congo /
Dynamique dutilisation du sol et distribution de la population humaine en RDC JeanPaul
KibambeLubambaandPierreDefourny ............................................................................................................................... 105

3.6

RegionalAcquisitionofSatelliteData ............................................................................................... 110

SatelliteDataAccessibilityforForestMonitoringinCentralAfrica/Accsauxdonnessatellitaires
LandingMan,aMichaelBrady,bChrisJusticecandAliceAltstattc .............................................................................. 110
PanTropical ALOS/PALSAR Mapping in Support of Forest Carbon Tracking / Le suivi des forts
tropicales avec PALSAR Josef Kellndorfera, Wayne Walkera, Jesse Bishopa, Tina Cormiera, Katie
Kirscha,GregFiskea,FrancescoHoleczb,AllessandroBaccinia,ScottGoetza,SkeeHoughtona,Nadine
Laportea ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 115
DMCiiGlobalForestServices/LesdonnesdeDMCiiJ.PaulStephens,OwenHawkins ................................. 118
An Earth Observation Ground Station and Research Laboratory for Long Term Monitoring in
CentralAfrica/Lespatialauservicedelasurveillancedelenvironnementetdelagestiondurable
des forts en Afrique centrale JeanMarie Fotsinga, Benot Mertensb, Laurent Durieuxa, Frdric
Huynha,ChristianThomasc,ClaudioAlmeidad,EtienneMassardeetLeeWhitef .................................................... 122
The National Institute for Space Research of Brazil (INPE) and Advances in Space to Monitor
TropicalForest/LesdonnesCBERSpourlAfriqueClaudioAparecidodeAlmeidaandAlessandra
RodriguesGomes............................................................................................................................................................................. 128

SYNTHESIS ................................................................................................................................................................ 133


4.1

SystemsforREDDMonitoring,ReportingandVerification.................................................... 133

4.2

RegionalNetworksforDataDisseminationandCapacityBuilding .................................... 134

4.3

SatelliteDataRequirementsandAccess.......................................................................................... 136

4.4

AdvancesinEstimatingForestBiomass .......................................................................................... 142

CONCLUSIONSANDRECOMMENDATIONS ............................................................................................... 143


5.1

DevelopmentofMRVSystemsinSupportofREDD.................................................................... 143

5.2

BuildingCapacity,SharingDataandDisseminatingInformation........................................ 143

5.3

ImprovingAccesstoSatelliteData ..................................................................................................... 144

5.4

ChallengesofEstimatingForestBiomass........................................................................................ 145

5.5

OtherKeyPoints ......................................................................................................................................... 146

APPENDICES............................................................................................................................................................. 147
Appendix1.ConferenceParticipants................................................................................................................. 147
Appendix2.ConferenceAgenda........................................................................................................................... 153
Appendix3.ListofPresentations ........................................................................................................................ 156
Appendix4.ListofAcronyms................................................................................................................................ 158

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1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background and Objectives
TheCongoBasinforestistheworldssecondlargesttropicalforest;assuchithastheabilityto
sequesterlargeamountsofcarbonandregulateglobalclimate.Understandingstocksandflows
ofcarboninCentralAfricaisfundamentaltoimprovingourknowledgeofclimatechange.

Technical Challenge
From a technical perspective there is still a lack of scientifically proven and internationally
recognizedmethodologiesforestimatingandmonitoringofstocksandflowsofcarbon.Specific
to the Congo Basin, some information useful for this purpose is currently available from land
cover and land use changes studies derived from remote sensing (walltowall or sampling
based), generic allometric equations for the estimation of aboveground tree biomass and
inventory data from permanent sample plots and management inventories for several million
hectares of forest concessions. However uncertainties remain and there is scope to improve
estimates with better field data collected for carbon stocks assessment, allometric equations
designedspecificallyfortheregionandimprovedaccesstosatelliteimagery.
There has been long standing interest in monitoring of Congo Basin Forests, largely driven by
researchonbiodiversity,ecosystems,landuseandearthsystemobservations.Theinclusionof
Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD) in the climate change
treatynegotiationshasgeneratedintenseinterestinforestmonitoringintheCongoBasin.
According to the "State of Forest 2008 report of the Central Africa Forest Commission
(COMIFAC), No matter which final REDD mechanism is chosen, we will need to know as
accurately as possible how much carbon (C) is: stored in different standing vegetation types
(especiallyforests)andsoils;releasedthroughAFOLU(agriculture,forestryandotherlanduse)
activities.(StateoftheForest2008,p191)

Regional Coordination Challenge


In February 2000, the UNsponsored Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics
(GOFCGOLD)heldaregionalworkshopatLibreville.Theworkshopinitiatedtheestablishment
oftheOSFAC(ObservatoireSatellitaldesFortsd'Afrique)regionalnetwork.Withsupportfrom
Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE) and others, the OSFAC office
wasestablishedatKinshasain2004,withitspointofcontactbasedinCameroon.Thefirstjoint
initiativebyallOSFACmemberswaspreparinginputstotheStateoftheForestreportsfor2006
and2008.WithEUsupportandnumerouspartnersinthe,theOFAC(L'ObservatoiredesForts
d'AfriqueCentrale)wasformedin2007,actingasareferencecentersupportingCOMIFAC.Since
2007, OSFAC and OFAC have partnered on forest mapping and assessment topics, as well as
capacitystrengtheningactivities.Thepartnershiphasbeenchallengedwith:strengtheninglinks
to national entities; effectively transferring data and information to members; involving
academicinstitutions;andretainingalongtermandactivecadreofmembers.Theemergence
ofREDDandthenationalreadinessactivitiesinitiatedintheCongoBasinregionnecessitatethat
thenetworksnowaddress:

astrongerintegrationbetweenOFAC,OSFACandotherregionalpartners;

officiallinkwithCOMIFAC;

morejointactivitiesdirectlyinvolvingallthecountries;

linkswithtraininginstitutionsinordertocreatecriticmass;and

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

needforascientificcommitteeforguaranteeingthequalityoftheproductsdeliveredby
thecountriestotheinternationalconventions.

ItiswiththisbackgroundthattheCentralAfricaForestCommission(COMIFAC)anditspartners
invited those with a technical interest in monitoring land use change, land cover and their
relationship to carbon quantification to the international conference on Monitoring Carbon
Stocks and Fluxes in the Congo Basin. The conference was held from 24 February 2010 at
Brazzaville,RepublicofCongo.
The conference brought together leading international specialists to discuss approaches for
quantifying stocks and flows of carbon in tropical forests of the Congo Basin. The conference
providedauniqueopportunitytoassessthestatusandcapacitytomonitorforestsintheCongo
Basinandtoidentifykeytechnicalissuesrelatedtocarbonmonitoringintheregion.Thespecific
objectivesoftheconferencewereto:

provideanoverviewofcurrentlandcover,landuseandcarbonmonitoringactivitiesin
theCongoBasin,includingbothfieldbasedandremotesensingprojects,

assesscurrentcapacitiesforlandcover,landuseandcarbonmonitoringattheregional
andnationallevels,

establishscientificandtechnicalguidelinesforsuccessfulcarbonmonitoringinthe
CongoBasin,

identifycurrentsatellitedataneedsforCongoBasinlandcoverandcarbonmonitoring
includingdataacquisition,dataaccessanddatadissemination,anddevelopastrategyto
meettheseneeds,and

identifyamechanismtoinformCOMIFACandnationalgovernmentsonthetechnical
issuesassociatedwithcarbonmonitoring,particularlyinthecontextofREDD.

1.2 Conference Organization


Sponsoring Agencies
Thefollowingagenciesaregratefullyacknowledgedforprovidingsupporttotheconference:

COMIFAC:CommissiondesFortsdAfriqueCentrale

UNFAO:UnitedNationsFoodandAgricultureOrganization

USAIDCentralAfricanRegionalProgramfortheEnvironment

JRC:JointResearchCentre,EuropeanCommission

OFAC:ObservatoiredesFortsdAfriqueCentrale

GOFCGOLD:GlobalObservationofForestandLandCoverDynamics

START:GlobalChangeSysTemforAnalysis,Research,andTraining

OSFAC:ObservatoireSatellitaldesFortsdAfriqueCentrale

WCS:WildlifeConservationSociety

WRI:WorldResourcesInstitute

WWF:WorldWildlifeFundforNature

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

Organizing Committee
Thefollowingindividualsorganizedtheconferenceandarethankedfortheircontributions.

COMIFACRaymondMbitikon

FAOErikLindquist

OFACCarlosdeWasseige,RobertNasi

GOFCGOLD/OSFACLandingMan,ChrisJustice,AliceAltstatt,MichaelBrady

WRILynaBlanger,MatthewSteil

WWFPayadeMarcken,KenCreighton

JRCPhilippeMayaux

WCSPaulTelfer

ThecommitteegratefullyacknowledgestheconferencehostsintheRepublicofCongo,including
theMinistryofSustainableDevelopment,ForestEconomyandEnvironment,andtheMinistryof
ForeignAffairs.

Organization of the Conference and Report


Theconferencewasattendedby136participantsfromallcountriesintheCongoBasinandfrom
14countriesoutsideoftheregion(Appendix1).
Opening remarks were provided by COMIFACs Deputy Executive Secretary, Martin Tadoum,
followed by a welcoming address from the Principal Private Secretary of the Sustainable
DevelopmentMinistry,RepublicofCongo.Opening remarksonCarbon budgetchallengesand
opportunities were also provided by Emilie Wattelier of the European Union delegation and
JohnFlynnoftheUSAIDCentralAfricanRegionalProgramfortheEnvironment(CARPE).
Followingtheopeningsession,thethreedayconferenceincludedseveralplenarysessionsand
workinggroupdiscussions(Appendix2).Plenarysessionswereasfollows:Day1(i)Overview
ofcarbonmonitoringandREDDprojectsand(ii)landcoverandlandusemonitoringactivitiesat
thenationalandregionallevels.Day2(iii)technicalapproachesforcarbonmonitoring:methods
and results from projects with emphasis on remote sensing and field measurements, (iv)
projects relating to other environmental services provided by the forest and (v) access to
satellite data; current and future regional acquisitions. The third day was devoted to working
groups with the following themes: 1) monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) systems in
supportof REDD,2) capacitybuilding,informationdisseminationand datasharingin thesub
region,3)satellitedatarequirementsandaccess,and4)estimatingforestbiomass.
Theconferencereportincludesinsectiontwoaninternationaloverviewoftheforestcarbonand
REDD issue, with a focus on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) under the United
Nations Conventionon ClimateChange (UNFCCC). Section threeincludesthe short papersand
abstractsprepared fromplenarypresentations(Appendix3).Sectionfourisasynthesisof the
workinggroupdiscussions,whilesectionfiveprovidesconclusionsandrecommendations.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

2 OVERVIEW OF CARBON AND REDD: THE NEEDS OF MRV


SYSTEMS
REDD-plus requirements for the Congo Basin countries / Quelles sont les
exigences techniques du REDD?
Philippe Mayaux and Frdric Achard
JointResearchCentreEC/ObservatoiredesForetsdAfriqueCentrale

Context
At the 15th Conference of Parties (COP15) of the United Nations Framework Convention on
ClimateChange(UNFCCC)heldinCopenhageninDecember2009,theneedtoprovideincentives
for the reduction of emission from deforestation and forest degradation was for the first time
mentionedinthefinaldeclarationoftheHeadsofStateandgovernments,referredasDecision2
of the COP15 (2/CP.15). This decision follows on Decision 2 of the COP13 (2/CP.13) on
approaches to stimulate action for reducing emissions from deforestation in developing
countries. The Copenhagen Accord recognizes the crucial role of reducing emission from
deforestation and forest degradation and the need to enhance removals of greenhouse gas
emission by forests and encourages the immediate establishment of a mechanism including
REDDplus(...)toenablethemobilizationoffinancialresourcesfromdevelopedcountries.
Decision 4 of the UNFCCC COP-15
Beyond the recognition of the crucial role of tropical forest and the agreement on the need to
provide incentives to such actions of Decision 2/CP.15, Decision 4/CP.15 provides
methodological guidance for activities related to Decision 2/CP.13 taken in Bali. In this short
summary,weproposetounderlinethesalientpointsofthismostrecentdecision(2/CP.15).
Decision 2/CP.13 invited Parties to further strengthen and support ongoing efforts to reduce
emissions from deforestation and forest degradation on a voluntary basis and has been
completed in Decision 4/CP.15 by requesting developing country Parties, (a) to identify
drivers of deforestation and forest degradation resulting in emissions and also the means to
addressthese;(b)toidentifyactivitieswithinthecountrythatresultinreducedemissionsand
increasedremovals,andstabilizationofforestcarbonstocks;.
In the case of the Congo Basin, humid forests are distributed in 3 main landuse categories of
equivalentarea:protectedareas(450,000km2),loggingconcessions(600,000km2),slashand
burn agriculture (440,000 km2), which means that in order to exploit the full benefit of a
potential REDD+ mechanism, the full forest domain should be monitored by the national
inventory(monitoringandreporting)systems.
Decision 4/CP.15 further recognizes that forest reference emission and forest reference levels
should be established transparently taking into account historic data and national
circumstances.
The core of Decision 4/CP.15 on methodological guidance deals with the establishment of
robust and transparent national forest monitoring systems and, if appropriate, sub
nationalsystemswiththefollowingcharacteristics:

combinationofremotesensingandgroundbasedforestcarboninventoryapproaches;

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

transparent,consistent,asfaraspossibleaccurateestimatestakingintoaccountnational
capabilitiesandcapacities;and

resultsavailableandsuitableforreviewasagreedbytheConferenceoftheParties.

Decision 4/CP.15 also invites Parties in a position to do so and relevant international


organisations to enhance the capacities of developing countries to collect and access, analyse
andinterpretdata,inordertodevelopestimatesandtoenhancecoordinationoftheactivitiesof
the different stakeholders. Finally, it recommends the effective engagement of indigenous
peoplesandlocalcommunitiesinmonitoringandreporting.
IPCC guidelines definitions
PartiesarerequestedtousethemostrecentIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC)
guidance and guidelines, as adopted or encouraged by the COPs, as appropriate, as a basis for
estimatinganthropogenicforestrelatedgreenhousegasemissionsbysourcesandremovalsby
sinks,forestcarbonstocksandforestareachanges.Itthatcontext,itisusefultoremindafew
basicdefinitionsagreedbytheinternationalcommunityandthatwillserveofreferenceforthe
futureagreementsandmechanisms.
For the Kyoto Protocol, forest have been defined in the Marrakesh accords as a minimum
landareaof0.05to1hamatchingthetwofollowingcriteria:(i)minimumheightatmaturityof2
to 5 m, (ii) minimum tree crown cover (or equivalent stocking level) of 10 to 30%. Each
individualcountryhasnowtodefinethethresholdscorrespondingtoitsdefinitionofforests.In
CentralAfrica,DRChasalreadydefineditsforestfortheKyotoProtocol,asminimumareasof1
ha,withaminimumheightatmaturityof5mandtreecoverof30%.Thisdefinitioncannowbe
adaptedtotheREDDcontext.
Subsequently, deforestation is defined as the direct humaninduced conversion of forested
landtononforestedland.Thereisnoofficialdefinitionofforestdegradationbut,inaREDD+
context, it corresponds to a loss of carbon stocks in forests remaining forests due to human
activities.
Estimation of emissions
InordertoproducethegreenhousegasesinventoriesintheLULUCFsector(LandUse,LandUse
ChangeandForestry),theIPCCguidelinesdefinethefollowingequationwithtwomajorterms:
Emissions=ActivitiesxEmissionFactor
whereActivityDatacorrespondtothe(Landuse)areachangesandtheEmissionFactortothe
emissions per hectare for the different processes of land use change. Usually emission factors
arecalculatedasthechangeincarbonstockcontentsbetweentwodifferentlandusecategories
(i.e.CstocksofforestsminusCstocksofgrasslands).CarbonstocksarecalculatedforallCarbon
pools(AboveGroundBiomass,Litter,Deadwood,BelowGroundBiomassorRoots,SoilCarbon).
TheIPCCguidelinesforeseedifferentoptionsformeasuringthetermsoftheequation,adapted
tothenationalcapacitiesandexpertise.Thefollowingtablessummarisetheprogressivelevels
ofaccuracythatcanbeachievedinthemonitoringsystems.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

Approach

Areachangeestimate(activitydata)

Approach1
NotsuitableforREDD
becauseonlynetchanges
areprovided

Total area for each land use category at two dates, but no
informationonconversion

Approach2
NotapplicableforREDD
becauselandusechanges
arenotidentifiableand
traceable

Forest

Forest

Degraded

Nonforest

Totalt0
191,171

Degraded

17,399

Nonforest

316,961

180,758 24,703
320,070

Totalt1

Tracking of conversion between landuse categories from


differentinventories

Approach3
ApplicableforREDD

Forest

Degraded

Nonforest

Totalt0

Forest

172,456

12,468

6,247

191,171

Degraded

6,157

9,986

1,256

17,399

Nonforest

2,145

2,249

312,567

316,961

Totalt1

180,758

24,703

320,070

Spatiallyexplicittrackingoflanduseconversion

Fortheemissionfactors,thethreeTierslistedintheIPCCGuidancefortheLULUCFsectorare
applicableforREDD.
Tier

Emissionfactor(ChangeinCstocks)

Tier1

IPCCdefaultfactors(EmissionFactorDatabase)
http://www.ipccnggip.iges.or.jp/index.html

Tier2

Countryspecificdataforkeyfactors

Tier3

Detailed national inventory of key C stocks, repeated measurements of key


stocksthroughtimeandmodelling

Situation in the Congo Basin


IntheCongoBasin,accurateestimatesoftheextentofdeforestationexistsinceafewyears(e.g.
Duveiller et al., 1998). A few other papers/chapters of this report describe the regional forest
monitoring systems developed by two groups of institutions: JRC/UCL/FAO/OFAC and
SDSU/OSFAC. It must be underlined that the regional deforestation rate of the Congo basin is
muchlowerthantheratesinthetwoothertropicalcontinentsfortheperiod19902000.Results
ofthenextperiod(200020052010)willbeavailableinanearfuture.
Fortheemissionfactors,thecurrentmeasurementsofcarboncontentofthedifferenttypesof
vegetation in Central Africa are extremely patchy and are not a representative dataset for the
diversityoftheCongoBasinforests,fromswampforeststomountainecosystems.Itillustrates
MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

the need for setting up regional field inventory databases by ecosystem type in order to
minimisethecostofdatacollectionandtoreducethevarianceoftheestimates.
Conclusions
InordertoestablishoperationalnationalMonitoring(andReporting)systemsintheperspective
ofapotentialREDDplusmechanismaseriesoffundamentalstepsmustbeputinplaceinthe
CongoBasin:

Ensuringtheprovisionofsatellitedataforareachangeestimates.

Setting up of REDDplus national teams with the right equipment and welltrained
humancapacities.

Buildinggroundbasedinventoriesofvegetationbiomassforallthecarbonpools.

Making information available at regional level in order to reduce costs and increase
accuracyoftheestimatesofcarbonemissions.

Thelinkagebetweenthepoliticalauthoritiesinchargeofthenegotiation(negotiators)andthe
technicalbodiesinchargeofforestmonitoringandinventories(foresters)mustbeimprovedin
order to guarantee to the COMIFAC countries the possibility to play a key role in the
international negotiations on climate change. To fulfil this objective, it is recommended to
reinforcethecapacitiesofthenationalforestryinventoryteamsandOFACatregionallevel(as
centremandatedbyCOMIFAC,infullrespectofthesubsidiaryprinciple).

Methodological Aspects for Forest Area Change Assessment through Remote


Sensing, REDD / Livre de rfrence Source book du REDD
Danilo Mollicone
UNREDDProgramme,FAO,Rome

Background and rationale for the Sourcebook


The sourcebook provides a consensus perspective from the global community of earth
observationandcarbonexpertsonmethodologicalissuesrelatingtoquantifyingthegreenhouse
gas (GHG) impacts of implementing activities to reduce emissions from deforestation and
degradation in developing countries (REDD). While international policies and mechanisms for
implementingREDDarestillunderdiscussionwithintheUNFrameworkConventiononClimate
Change (UNFCCC), it is emphasized that not only reduced emissions from deforestation and
degradation, but also forest conservation, sustainable forest management and enhancement of
forest carbon stocks are to be included in the agreement which will be discussed during the
Conference of the Parties of the UNFCCC in Copenhagen in December 2009. The UNFCCC
negotiationsandrelatedcountrysubmissionsonREDDhaveadvocatedthatmethodologiesand
tools become available for estimating emissions and removals from deforestation and forest
land with an acceptable level of certainty. Based on the current status of negotiations and
UNFCCC approved methodologies, the Sourcebook aims to provide additional explanation,
clarification, and methodologies to support REDD early actions and readiness mechanisms for
building national REDD monitoring systems. It compliments the Intergovernmental Panel on
Climate Change (IPCC) good practice guidelines for Land Use, LandUse Change and Forestry
(LULUCF). The book emphasizes the role of satellite remote sensing as an important tool for
monitoring changes in forest cover, provides guidance on how to obtain credible estimates of
MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

forest carbon stocks, and provides clarification on the IPCC Guidelines for estimating and
reportingemissionsandremovalsofcarbonfromchangesinforestcarbonstocksatthenational
level.
The sourcebook is the outcome of an adhoc REDD working group of Global Observation of
Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFCGOLD, www.fao.org/gtos/gofcgold/), a technical
panel of the Global Terrestrial Observing System (GTOS). The working group has been active
since the initiation of the UNFCCC REDD process in 2005, has organized REDD expert
workshops,andhascontributedtorelatedUNFCCC/SBSTAsideeventsandGTOSsubmissions.
GOFCGOLD provides an independent expert platform for international cooperation and
communicationtoformulatescientificconsensusandprovidetechnicalinputtothediscussions
andforimplementationactivities.Anumberofinternationalexpertsinremotesensing,carbon
measurement and reporting/accounting have contributed to the development of this
sourcebook.
Scope of the Sourcebook
Thissourcebookisdesignedtobeaguidetodevelopreferencelevelsandtodesignasystemfor
measurement, monitoring and estimating carbon dioxide emissions and removals from
deforestation, changes in carbon stocks in forest lands and forestation at the national scale,
based on the general requirements set by the UNFCCC and the specific methodologies for the
landuseandforestsectorsprovidedbytheIPCC.
Thesourcebookintroducesusersto:i)thekeyissuesandchallengesrelatedtomonitoringand
estimating carbon emissions from deforestation and forest degradation; ii) the key methods
providedinthe2003IPCCGoodPracticeGuidanceforLandUse,LandUseChangeandForestry
(GPGLULUCF) and the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories for
Agriculture,ForestryandOtherLandUses(GLAFOLU);iii)howtheseIPCCmethodsprovidethe
steps needed to estimate emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and iv) the key
issuesandchallengesrelatedtoreportingtheestimatedemissions.
The sourcebook provides transparent methods and procedures that are designed to produce
accurateestimatesofchangesinforestareaandcarbonstocksandresultingemissionsofcarbon
dioxide from deforestation and degradation, in a format that is userfriendly. It is intended to
complementtheGPGLULUCFandAFOLUbyprovidingadditionalexplanation,clarificationand
enhancedmethodologiesforobtainingandanalyzingkeydata.
Thesourcebookisnotdesignedasaprimeronhowtoanalyzeremotesensingdata,norhowto
collect field measurements of forest carbon stocks as it is expected that the users of the
sourcebookwouldhavesomeexpertiseineitheroftheseareas.
Thesourcebookwasdevelopedconsideringthefollowingguidingprinciples:

Relevance: Any monitoring system should provide an appropriate match between


known REDD policy requirements and current technical capabilities. Further methods
andtechnicaldetailscanbespecifiedandaddedwithevolvingpoliticalnegotiationsand
decisions.

Comprehensiveness: Thesystem shouldallowglobalapplicability withimplementation


atthenationallevel,andwithapproachesthathavepotentialforsubnationalactivities.

Consistency:EffortshavetoconsiderpreviousrelatedUNFCCCeffortsanddefinitions.

Efficiency: Proposed methods should allow costeffective and timely implementation,


andsupportearlyactions.

Robustness: Monitoring should provide appropriate results based on sound scientific


underpinningsandinternationaltechnicalconsensusamongexpertgroups.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

Transparency:Thesystemmustbeopenandreadilyavailableforthirdpartyreviewers
andthemethodologyappliedmustbereplicable.

References
GOFCGOLD, 2009, A sourcebook of methods and procedures for monitoring and reporting
anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and removals caused by deforestation, gains and
lossesofcarbonstocksinforestsremainingforests,andforestation.GOFCGOLDReportversion
COP151,(GOFCGOLDProjectOffice,NaturalResourcesCanada,Alberta,Canada)Availableat:
http://www.gofcgold.unijena.de/redd/

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

3 REVIEW OF REDDRELATED ACTIVITIES IN THE CONGO


BASINREGION
3.1 Overview

Carbon Stocks and Land Cover Change Estimates in Central Africa - Where Do
We Stand? / Etat des connaissances sur les stocks de carbone et leurs
variations dans les forts dAfrique centrale
Robert Nasia, Philippe Mayauxb, N Bayolc, A. Billandd
aCenterforInternationalForestryResearch(CIFOR)
bEuropeanCommissionJointResearchCenter(JRC)
cFortRessourcesManagement(FRM)
dCentredeCooprationInternationaleenRecherchepourleDveloppement(CIRAD)

Introduction
TheIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC)estimatesthat1.7billionmetrictonsof
CO2 are released annually to the atmosphere because of land use change and largely from
tropical deforestation, dwarfing the possible impact of possible forest CDM projects. The
magnitudeoftheemissionsfromdeforestationnotincludedintheKyotoProtocoltriggeredthe
ConferenceofParties(COP)totheUNFrameworkConventiononClimateChange(UNFCCC)to
initiateatwoyearprocesstoaddressissuesrelatingtoreducingemissionsfromdeforestation
indevelopingcountries.ThisprocesspeakedduringtheCOP13inBaliinDecember2007with
the Decision 2/CP.13 Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries:
approachestostimulateaction.Itisinterestingtonotethatittookmorethan10yearsforthe
internationalcommunitytoacceptthatreducingemissionsfrom deforestationorsequestering
carbonfromstandingforestsismoreeffectivethanthroughplantingtreesandreintroducethis
topic to the international climate negotiations. Put simply, without entering into ongoing
arguments about baselines or financial mechanisms, the idea behind REDD is to provide
financialincentivestohelpdevelopingcountriesvoluntarilyreducenationaldeforestationrates
and associated carbon emissions below a baseline. Countries that demonstrate such reduced
emissions would be able to sell carbon credits on the international carbon market or receive
financialcompensationinonewayoranotherfortheirgoodbehavior.
No matter which final REDD mechanism is chosen, we will need to know as accurately as
possiblehowmuchcarbon(C)is:

storedindifferentvegetationtypes(aboveandbelowground),

storedintheotherCpools(litter,deadwoodmatterandsoil),and

releasedthroughAFOLU(agriculture,forestryandotherlanduse)activities.

What information is available and what is missing?


Available:

Landcoverandlandusechangesderivedfromremotesensing(walltowallorsampling
based)

Genericallometricequationfortheestimationofabovegroundtreebiomass

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

10

Inventory data: Permanent Sample Plots, management inventories for several million
hectaresofforestconcessions

Missingorlargelyinadequate:

Agreedvegetationtypologyacrosstheregion

Agreedmethodsforthemeasureofforestdegradation

Inventorydataspecificallycollectedforcarbonstocksassessment:soilandbelowground
carbon,deadwoodmatter,litter

Allometric equations specifically designed for the region by vegetation or landcover


types

Adequatefielddataforvegetationoutsideofforestconcessionsorprotectedareas(peri
urbanareas,wetlands,floodedforests,montaneforests,etc.)

The available and adhoc estimates of the other information needed were used in the State of
Forest2008andthereadercanrefertothoseformoredetails.
About errors and uncertainties
Most of the estimates of C stocks in living vegetation are calculated on an unacceptably small
area of permanent sample plots (probably less than 300 ha for the whole region) and/or
calculatedbyallometricequationsderivedfromanevensmallersampleofdestructivebiomass
studies and extrapolated to use extensive forest inventories, which were never designed to
assess biomass but instead commercial volume. The uncertainties in building a biomass
equation, in deriving biomass using plot or inventory data are numerous and significant. It is
even more complicated to estimate the propagation of these errors from one stage of the
biomassevaluationprocesstoanotherandtothefinalresult.Therelationisnotsimple,errors
being additive or multiplicative and though some errors might compensate, the confidence
intervalofanybiomassestimationislikelytobedisturbinglylarge.
The use of satellite data has undoubtedly increased the accuracy of forest maps and of forest
cover change estimates. However, uncertainties remain in the current datasets and affect the
overallaccuracyofestimations.Newtechniquesanddatasetsthathavebeentestedarestillpart
oftheresearchdomain(likeradarsensors).Forestcoverchangesoccurataveryfinescaleand
requiretheuseoftimeseriesoffinespatialresolutionimages.Themethodsavailable(spectral
differences wall to wall, image segmentation on a limited sample) can be affected by several
sourcesoferrors(underestimationofsubtlechanges,inadequatesampling).
The direct assessment of carbon stocks by remote sensing still suffers from errors due to the
absenceofclearandunderstandablerelationshipsbetweenparametersinfluencingthecarbon
amount and the spectral and backscattering properties in the optical and radar domains.
Although these relationships have been demonstrated in the savanna domain with low to
medium biomass, the radar signal saturates at high biomass levels and the other parameters
influencingthespectralpropertiesofthevegetation(moisture,slope,leavestructure)leadto
significant instability in carbon estimates. New techniques such as LIDAR can improve the
quantification of carbon stock changes during logging operations, but there is still a need for
moreinvestigationbeforethattechnologymayprovidereliablefigures.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

11

Where are we now in our estimates for the region?


Carbonstockestimatesfortheregion
BasedontheavailableinformationonCstocksinsoilandvegetationandonlandcoverclasses,
theestimatedCstoredfortheregionis46billionMg.Anestimatebycountryandacomparison
withexistingpublishedliteratureisgivenintable1.
Table1.Estimatesofcarbonstocksfortheregionandcountriesbylandcovertypes(millionsof
tons).
DRC

Congo
Basin

886

16,082

27,299

1,000

1,761

857

770

117

119

3,203

3,263

4,033

383

886

18,056

29,949

Mosaicforest/
croplands

414

534

287

57

167

1,945

2,791

Mosaicforest/
savanna

628

145

20

2,437

3,059

3,955

73

10

54

1,625

3,403

Deciduous
woodland

684

1,658

1,812

4,149

Opendeciduous
shrubland,sparse
trees

108

199

31

258

760

1,770

Total

5,043

4,219

4,383

445

5,460

27,258

46,016

Total(Gastonetal.
1998)

3,131

2,822

3,892

349

3,740

16,316

Total(Gibbsetal.
2007)

3,454
6,138

3,458 3,063
5,472
4,742

268
474

Cameroon

Congo

Gabon

3,162

2,762

4,029

379

2.Swampforests

501

3.Submontane
forests(900
1,500m)

39

1.Closedevergreen
lowlandforests

4.Montaneforests
(>1,500m)
Totalhumidforests
(14)

Closeddeciduous
forest

Eq.Guinea

CAR

3,176 20,416

7,405
36,672

Emissions
Based on the estimation of deforestation between 1990 and 2005 (about 43,000 km2) and on
theaverageCstockofdensehumidforests(147Mg/hawithoutconsideringthefateoftheSoil
OrganicCarbon(SOC)),wecanestimatethattheregionhasreleasedapproximately0.63billion
Mg of C in 15 years. This is still a crude estimate based on available information and not
consideringthewoodClifecycle.
NomatterwhichREDDmechanismisadoptedwewillneedtobeabletoassesscarbonchanges
linkedtospecificAFOLUclasses.ThisisstilllargelyimpossibleintheCongoBasinduetothelack

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

12

of comprehensive studies on the effects of land use changes on carbon stock pools. Some
preliminary and pioneer studies, however, do exist that provide us an idea of the relative
magnitudeoftheprimarypotentialcases.Usingpublishedandunpublisheddatawehavebeen
abletoplotvariationsofCfromabovegroundlivingbiomasspoolsforfivelandusesystems:
1. Highgrade selective logging (one species, Entandrophragma cylindricum, constituting
95% oftheloggedindividuals)in asemideciduousrainforestmanagedwitha30year
rotation(LOG_EXT)
2. Intensive selective logging in a largescale permanent sample plot, same forest type as
abovebutwithahigherloggingintensity(LOG_INT)
3. Secondary succession in an area that was slashed and burned to plant dry rice,
abandonedandrevertedto40yearoldsecondaryforest(SECSUC)
4. Oilpalmplantation(130plants/ha),withreplantingevery20years(OILPAL)
5. Complete20yearshiftingcultivationcycleinSouthernCameroon(SHICUL)

14

19

24

29

34
400

Timeafterdisturbance(yr)

350

300

SECSUC

OILPAL

SHICUL

LOG_INT

LOG_EXT
200

250

A
b
o
v
e
g
r
o
t
u
/
n
h
d
a

150

100

b
i
o
m
a
s
s

50

Figure1.Temporalevolutioninabovegroundlivingbiomassofdifferentlandusesystems.
Figure 1 shows that except for selective logging and secondary succession after 20 years, the
overallabovegroundlivingbiomassfollowingdisturbanceremainsbelow100Mg/ha.Thisdoes
nottakeintoaccountthedeadwoodandlittercarbonpoolsbutthesearesmall(exceptforsome
shifting cultivation stages where many unburned logs remained on the forest floor) and come
essentially from the aboveground tree C pools. Oil palm plantations and shifting cultivation,
unlessabandonedandlefttoreverttoforest, representalossofabout7090%oftheoriginal
forestCstock.Thetwologgingexamplesshowafullbiomassrecoveryinabout20years.This
doesnotmeanhoweverthattheCstockwillhavereconstitutedtothesamelevel,assomeofthe
MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

13

growthcouldbecomposedoffastgrowinglightdemandingtreeswithlowerspecificdensities
orofsmallersizeshadetolerantspecies.Italsodoesnotimplythatforestqualitywillhavefully
recoveredafter30years,asforestcomposition,structureandfunctioningwillstillberecovering
aftersuchatimeperiod.
These examples demonstrate the magnitude of Cpool variations to be expected for the most
frequentlyencounteredlandusesystemsintheCongoBasin region.Agriculture,traditionalor
modern,seemstobethebyfarbiggestpotentialemitterofCasopposedtoselectiveloggingas
practicedintheregion.Itappearsthatincomplementtoprotectedareas,allocatingapermanent
forestestateunderSustainableForestManagementpracticesusingcontrolledselectivelogging
willcontributesignificantlytothereductionofemissionsfromdeforestationaswellasprovide
aneconomicvaluetotheforest.

Overview of REDD projects/ carbon quantification in Central Africa - Survey


Results / Aperu des Projets REDD et/ou de Quantification du Carbone
Forestier en Afrique Centrale
Carlos De Wasseigea, C. Mfukaa, M. Mbembaa et P. Mayauxb
aObservatoiredesFortsdAfriqueCentrale,AvenueSergentMoke,14.KinshasaRDC
bCentreCommundeRechercheCommissionEuropenne,Ispra,Italie

Introduction
LesfortsduBassinduCongosontaucurdenouveauxenjeuxdeservicesenvironnementaux.
En particulier, les ngociations autour du changement climatique et du rle des forts dans la
rgulationduclimatsontdepremireimportancepourlespaysdelaCOMIFAC.
Denombreuxprojetsderechercheetdedveloppementontrcemmenttinitissurcessujets,
couvrant la fois la sphre scientifique destimation des stocks et des flux de carbone et la
sphre politique de rtribution de ces services. Devant cette abondance de projets non
concerts,lerisqueexistequilyait(i)redondancedanscertainsdomaines,cequiensoipermet
de corroborer les rsultats, mais aussi (ii) absence dactivits de recherche dans certains
domainescruciaux.Desrsultatsquiseraienttropdiffrentsentameraientconsidrablementla
crdibilitdelargion.
La COMIFAC a donc dcid de lancer un exercice systmatique didentification des projets
existants ou planifis, ayant pour sujet gnral le processus REDD en Afrique Centrale, que ce
soitenamontpourlestimationdessurfacesaffectesparleschangementsdecouvertforestier
etlvaluationdesstocksdecarbone,ouplusenavalsurlesmcanismesdertributiondeces
servicesenvironnementaux.
Acette fin,laCOMIFACademandlOFACdentreprendrelamise enuvreetlesuividune
enqutesurlesprojetsREDD,lesprojetsMDPlislafortetlestudessurlaquantificationdu
Carbone en Afrique centrale. Lobjectif est didentifier dans la mesure du possible toutes les
initiatives dans lespace COMIFAC dans ces domaines. Etant convaincue que lchange
dinformations scientifiques ne peut que bnficier tous les pays de la rgion et aux quipes
scientifiquesquiralisentlesdiffrentsprojets,laCOMIFACsouhaitelapublicationdesprojets
sur le site de lObservatoire (www.observatoirecomifac.net ) qui doit en outre permettre la
bonnevisibilitdesquipesderechercheetgarantitlapaternitdesrsultatsscientifiques.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

14

Mthode
Linventaire desprojets adbut parle lancement dun questionnaire destinauxpromoteurs
de projets identifis comme contributeur important dans ces domaines. Les questions poses
portent sur les objectifs et les priorits, les rgions dtude, les partenaires techniques,
institutionnelsetfinanciers,lebudget,lesdonnesspatialesetdeterrainutilises,lesmthodes
dveloppes, les rsultats attendus, etc. Le questionnaire a t envoy sous forme de fichier
textecomplter,maisilconvientlavenirdelerendredisponibledirectementtraversune
interfaceinternet.Decettemanire,celapermettraderendrelesprojetsdirectementvisibles
la communaut internationale travers un site internet dynamique mis jour au fil des
questionnairesremplisenligneouretournslOFAC.
Rsultats
Acejour,14questionnairesonttremplispar14promoteursdeprojetsdiffrents.Prsdela
moiti des promoteurs font partie dONG (6). Les autres promoteurs sont des centres de
recherche (3), des bureaux dtudes (2), une Universit, une Administration nationale et un
bailleur.
La premire partie du questionnaire demande au promoteur didentifier par ordre de priorit
lesdomainesdactivitparmiunchoixde9domainesdanslequelsinscritsonprojet.Letableau
1montrelasynthsedesrponsescettepremirepartieduquestionnaire.
Tableau 1. Synthse des domaines dactivits prioritaires de 14 projets lis la REDD et au
carbone forestier en Afrique centrale. La deuxime colonne reprend le nombre de rponses
obtenues par domaine dactivit, la troisime comptabilise le nombre de fois que le domaine
dactivitatidentificommeprioritaire.
Domainedactivitplusieursrponsespossibles,avecordrede
priorit(1tantlaplushaute)

Nbre
Rponses

Priorit1

Suividucouvertforestier(dforestationetdgradation)

Mesuresdesstocksdecarbone

Dynamiqueforestire

Modlisation des dynamiques forestires (dont scnario de


rfrence)

ContexteInstitutionneletPolitique

Renforcement des capacits nationales et transfert de


technologie

10

Promotiondelaparticipationdescommunautslocales

ProjetdeterrainayantunpotentielREDD(projetpermettantla
rductiondesGESliesladforestationetladgradationsans
composanteMRV)

Projet Pilote REDD (projet visant la rduction mesurable et


vrifiable des missions de GES lis la dforestation et la
dgradationforestire)

Lesprincipauxenseignementsquelonpeutretirerdelanalysedecetableausontque:

le domaine Suivi du couvert forestier est cit dans 9 cas sur 14 mais il est aussi
chaque fois reconnu comme prioritaire (100% des rponses) et arrive en tte des
considrationsprioritaires,

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

15

lamesuredesstocksdecarboneestledeuximelmentquiressortcommeprioritaire
et galement cit dans 9 cas sur 14. Ce qui est une bonne chose vu ltat des faibles
connaissancesactuellessurlaquantificationdesstocksdecarboneforestieretdesflux
associs,

le renforcement des capacits et le transfert de technologie est un sujet trait dans 10


projets,maispourlamoitidecesprojetsnestpasconsidrcommeprioritaire.

Le formulaire contient galement une zone de texte libre pour la description des objectifs des
projets.Ceuxcirejoignentles lmentsreprisdansletableau1, maissontbienplus explicites
quantauxbutspoursuivis.Sansretranscrirelestextesinextenso,lalistecidessousenreprend
lesgrandesides:

Renforcementdescapacits

Garantirledroitdespopulationslocales

Aidelangociation,aidelacomprhensionduREDD

FaireladmonstrationdunprojetpiloteREDD

Remplacerdessourcesdapprovisionnementenboisdechauffe

ModliserlesmissionsdeGESdufaitdeladforestation

tablirdesscnariiderfrence

ElaborerunemthodologiedetldtectionvalidepourimplmenterleREDD

Amliorerlacartographiedeloccupationdusol

Commedjmentionnparlanalysedutableau1,laquantificationdesstocksetlestimationdes
fluxdecarbonesontdesproccupationsmajeuresdelapartdespromoteurs.Tousfonttatdun
manqueimportantdeconnaissanceceniveau.Ilsdclarentutiliserlatldtectionpourleurs
tudes (7 dentre eux) et/ou avoir des activits de terrain (6 dentre aux), notamment pour
ltablissement dquations allomtriques spcifiques pour la rgion, ce qui est reconnu
unanimementcommetantunmanquedinformationimportantpourlestimationdesstocksde
carbone.Cinqprojetsfonttatdanalysecombinantlafoisdesdonnesprovenantdinventaire
de terrain et des images satellites. Il convient de noter que les promoteurs qui font usage
dimagessatellitesfonttoususagededonnessatelliteshautersolutionspatiale,ycomprisles
projetsportergionalequipourcertainslesutilisentencombinaisonavecdesimagesbase
rsolutionspatiale,maishautersolutiontemporelle.
Lespromoteursdesprojetsontpourlapluparttablidespartenariatsavecdesacteurslocaux.
SontcitslaCOMIFAC(2projets),lesMinistresetadministrationsnationales(5projets)etles
universits (2 projets). Il est noter, dans ce dernier cas que les promoteurs ont mentionn
lUniversit de Kisangani (RDC), quipourle momentcanalise beaucoupdinitiativesentermes
derenforcementdescapacits.
La localisation des projets
Entermesdelocalisationdesprojets,ilconvientdedistinguertroisniveauxdintervention:(i)
le niveau rgional (exprim par exemple par lensemble des pays de la COMIFAC, ou les
pays forestiers du Bassin du Congo, notamment dans les rsums des prsentations de la
confrence),(ii)leniveaunational,quandunprojetconcerneunoudeuxpaysentieret(iii)le
niveaulocal,quandunprojetportesonactivitsurunezonelimite(uneairesprotges,une
concession forestire, une province, etc). Le but de la reprsentation cartographique de la
figure1estbiensrdunepartdelocaliserlesinterventionsenAfriquecentrale,maissurtoutde
montrer pour les 10 pays de la COMIFAC les lieux de concentration des projets REDD. Les

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

16

projetscomptabilisspourlafigure1sontdunepartceuxpourlesquelsdesformulairesontt
remplis, mais aussi les projets dont un rsum avait t reu lors de la prparation de la
confrencedeBrazzaville.Decefaitlenombredeprojetscartographisdpasseles14projets
recensslorsdelenqute.

Figure1. Localisation des projets recenss dans lespace COMIFAC. Les chiffres correspondent
auxnombredeprojetrecensspourunemmezone.Lescouleursfoncestraduisentunnombre
deprojetpluslevquelescouleursclaires.
OnremarquequelaRDCestnonseulementlepaysquireoitleplusdattentionpourleREDD
(suiviparleCameroun,leGabonpuisleCongo),maisaussiceluiolesprojetslchellelocale
sontlesplusprsents.
Les budgets
Les montants consacrs au REDD pour 12 des 14 projets, sont repris la figure 2. Certains
projetssonttotalementorientsversdesperspectivesgnralesderductiondmissiondegaz
effetdeserre,dautresdpassentlecadre duREDD maisprsententdesvoletsspcifiquesy
consacrs. Cela se traduit par une diffrence des montants allous aux activits REDD. De
maniregnrale,onretrouvedesprojetspetitbudget(infrieur500.000USD)etdesprojets
budgetconsquentprochedes2.000.000USDouplus.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

17


Figure2.BudgetconsacrauvoletREDD/Carbonepour12des14projets(enUSDollars).
Lamoitidesprojetsontunesourcedefinancementunique,lautremoitifonctionneavecdes
systmesdecofinancement.Lesfinancementsproviennentprincipalementetsanssurprisedes
bailleurs de fonds internationaux (7 projets), mais aussi de Fondations (2), organismes privs
(2)etdesfondspropres(1).
Conclusions
Cette enqute base sur lanalyse de 14 rpondants apporte des enseignements intressants.
Notamment, lanalyse des objectifs mentionns montrent que les aspects techniques et
scientifiqueslisauREDDsontdepremireimportancepourlesuccsdusystme.Ilsefaiten
effet queles pays dAfriquecentrale sesont lancs ttdans unprocessusde ngociation alors
queleschiffresencirculationpourlAfriquecentrale(tantsurlesstocksdecarbonequesurles
dynamiques et les changements doccupation des sols) taient dune pertinence et dune
prcision douteuse. Les scientifiques tentent prsent de pallier cet tat de fait, mais une
concertation entre eux est plus que jamais ncessaire. Lobjectif de cette enqute est bien de
mettre en visibilit les multiples initiatives relatives au REDD et de favoriser les interactions
entrelesacteurs,quilssoientdelasphredesscientifiquesoucelledespolitiques.
La place dun Observatoire pour centraliser les informations nest plus dmontrer. Cela est
dailleursinscritdansleplandeconvergencedelaCOMIFAC.LOFACadonccedoublerlequi
est(i)derecueillirlesinformationsrelativesauxprojetsencourset(ii)danalyseretdiffuserles
rsultatsetenseignementsentirer.Cetteenqutesepoursuitetalambitionderecensertous
lesprojetslisdeprsoudeloinauREDDenAfriquecentrale.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

18

The REDD + Readiness Process in the Democratic Republic of Congo / Le


Processus de prparation la REDD+ en Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo
Bruno Guay
Coordination Nationale REDD de la RDC, Ministre de lEnvironnement, Conservation de la
Nature et Tourisme / National REDD Coordination of the DRC, Ministry of Environment,
ConservationofNatureandTourism

Defaiblestauxdedforestation(0,20%)etdedgradation(0,12%)1,maisunesurfaceboisede
145 millions dha (selon la dfinition nationale), placentlaRDC dansles10 premiers pays qui
perdentlessurfaceslesplusimportantesdecouvertforestierauniveaumondialchaqueanne.
Devant lurgence du changement climatique, et lenjeu important li au maintien des forts de
RDC, le pays souhaite sengager rapidement dans une dmarche rsolument tourne vers
laction.CestpourquoilaRDCprparerunplandeprparation(RPP)2ciblantlesactivitscls
raliser au cours des 3 prochaines annes. Ce plan de prparation la REDD comporte 6
composantesprincipales:

Coordinationetconsultation

StratgieREDD

Niveauderfrenceetniveauderfrencedmission

Monitoring,reporting(notification)etvrification(MRV)

Plandetravailetbudget(22millionsdedollarssur3ans)

Cadredesuivietvaluation(nontraitici)

Coordination et consultation
LaprparationauREDDseraconduiteparlesstructuresnationalestabliesparledcretdu26
novembre2009,savoirpourleniveaunational,uncomitnational,uncomitinterministriel
et une coordination nationale3. Ce dcret prvoie galement la cration de trois structures
quivalentesauniveaudechaqueprovince.En2010et2011,uncoordinateurseramisenplace
danschaqueprovince.Laparticipationdelasocitcivileestcrucialetouslesniveaux,quece
soitlocal,provincialounational.DespartenariatssontdjformalissencesensavecleGroupe
deTravailClimatREDDdelasocitcivile.Lescapacitsdelensembledecesstructuresseront
renforcesdurantles2annesquiviennent,pourleurpermettredejouerlerleclquileura
tconfipourlaprparationdupaysetledploiementanticipdelastratgienationaleREDD.

1tatsdesForts2009
2 Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo / Ministre de lEnvironnement, Conservation de la
Nature et Tourisme / RPP de la Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo / soumis au Fond de
PartenariatpourleCarboneForestierle11janvier2010.www.forestcarbonpartnership.org.
3 Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo, Primature. Dcret No 09/40 du 26/11/2009 portant
cration, composition et organisation de la structure de mise en uvre du processus de
rduction de missions issues de la dforestation et de la dgradation des forts, REDD en
sigle
MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

19

Depuislamiseenplacedelacoordinationnationale.Desconsultationsonttralisesavecune
grande diversit dacteurs : autres ministres, parlementaires, universits, organisations de la
socit civile, ONG internationales, partenaires techniques et financiers, etc Des ateliers de
lancement provinciaux ont dj t tenus dans 4 provinces de faon aboutir fin fvrier un
plan daction dtaill et consensuel. En partenariat avec le Groupe de Travail Climat REDD et
dautresorganisationsdelasocitcivile,unambitieuxplanIECetdeconsultationsprovinciales
agalementtconstruitpourlestroisannesdeprparationdupayslaREDD,entre2010et
2012.
Dveloppement de la stratgie REDD+
Lanalyse prliminaire des causes de dforestation aboutit au constat que certaines causes de
dforestationsontaussidesfacteursralentissantledveloppementdupays(causespolitiqueset
institutionnelles par exemple), alors que dautres sont collatrales dun dveloppement
conomique (construction dinfrastructures par exemple). La stratgie nationale cherchera
adresser directement les premires, et accompagner les secondes de faon rduire leurs
impactsngatifssurlecouvertforestieretlesservicesenvironnementauxassocis.Lepartage
dun consensus sur les facteurs de dforestation est primordial pour mettre en place une
stratgieefficace,commepourmobiliserlesacteursduREDDautourdesmmesobjectifs.Des
analysescomplmentairesserontdoncmenespourmieuxcernerlescausesdedforestationet
de dgradation, la fois au niveau provincial et au niveau national, et seront partages pour
aboutirunconsensusnational.
Les travaux exploratoires sur le potentiel REDD + de la RDC, conduits en partenariat avec
McKinsey1ontpermisdidentifierdesprogrammesdactionsprliminaires.Cependant,leplan
dactionREDDnationalestbienplusquunesriedeprogrammes,etlestravauxdestroisannes
venir viendront le renforcer. Une stratgie nationale consensuelle, oprationnalise en plans
dactions,seradisponiblefin2012,suiteplusieurstudes,untravaildeveilleetunesrie
dactionspilotes.Laconstructiondelastratgienationaleseveutrsolumentoprationnelle,et
nouspartonsduconstatquunplandactiondoittretestavantdtrevalid.Ainsi,ds2010,
des projets pilotes sectoriels et intgrs gographiquement seront respectivement orients ou
dveloppspourservirdechampdexprimentationlastratgienationale(voirfig.1).
Puisque le mcanisme REDD+ sera bas sur la performance, ltablissement dun niveau de
rfrenceservantdebaseloctroidecrditsetledveloppementdunsystmeMRV(mesure,
reportingetvrification)permettantdesuivrelvolutiondesmissionslieslaREDDsontdes
lmentsessentielsdelaprparationdelaRDC.
Niveau de rfrence dmission et autres niveau de rfrence
Le pays sera appeler dvelopper un niveau de rfrence sur la base des (1) missions
historiques,(2)descirconstancesnationalesetdemodlesprospectifs(scnarioderfrence)
(voirfig.2).Pouranalyserlescirconstancesnationaleslepaysdevradunepartfaireuneanalyse
du contexte socioconomique du pays (emploi, ducation, sant) et valoriser les donnes
rcoltesdanslesprojetsdeterrainexistantsoencours.Dautrepartlepaysdevraconduire
uneanalysedesbesoinsdedveloppementfutur,auniveaunationaletprovincial.Cesdonnes
doivent permettre de construire et de calibrer un scnario de rfrence national faisant des
projections des missions. Il est obtenu partir de techniques de modlisation ayant une
composante spatiale (modle SIG) et une composante quantitative (impact des trajectoires de

1 Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo / Ministre de lEnvironnement, Conservation de la Nature et Tourisme /


PotentielREDD+delaRDC/dcembre2009.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

20

dveloppementsurladforestation).Alongterme,onviseledveloppementdunoutildaide
ladcisionpermettantdeguiderledveloppementetlaffinementdelastratgieREDD+.
Monitoring, reporting (notification) et vrification (MRV)
Le pays est aussi engag dans le dveloppement dun systme MRV rpondant aux lignes
directrices du Groupe Intergouvernemental dExpert sur le Climat (GIEC) (voir fig. 3). Ce
systmecomportetroiscomposantesprincipales(1)unsystmedesuividesterresparsatellite
permettant de produire les donnes dactivits, (2) un inventaire forestier national couvrant
lensembleduterritoiretraversdesmilliersdeparcellestemporairesetcentainesdeparcelles
permanentes permettant dvaluer les facteurs dmission et finalement (3) un inventaire
nationaldesGESautraversduquellereporting(notification)estfaitlaCNUCC.
Ledveloppementdecesdeuxdernirescomposantestechniques(MRVetniveauderfrence),
sappuiera sur les travaux de nombreuses institutions uvrant dans lespace COMIFAC et
bnficierontdunecooprationaccrueentrelesacteurspertinents.

DmarchedeconstructiondelaStratgieNationaleREDD2030
VeillenationaleetinternationalesurlesdiffrentesthmatiquesREDD
Entreteniretenrichirlaconnaissanceaufildeleau,actualiserlestudes
Etudes nationalesetbenchmarksinternationauxsurlesdterminantsanalytiquesclsdelastratgieREDD
Etude surles
causesetagents
delaDDenRDC
(RPPC.2a)

Etude
exploratoiredu
potentielREDD+
enRDC(RPP
C.2b)

Retour
dexpriencesur
lesalternatives
laDD(RPPC.2a)

Etude dimpact
environnementale
etsocialedela
REDD(RPPC.2d)

Analysenationale
desprogrammes
sectorielsencours
(RPPC.2b)

Etude surlecadre
demiseenuvre
etlarpartition
desrevenusdela
REDD(RPPC.2c)

Dmarcheparticipativeetconsultationscontinues
30/06/2010:
Stratgie
Prliminaire

ProcessusdeconstructiondelaStratgie
NationaleREDD2030

01/07/2012:Phasede
consolidationfinale

31/12/2012:
Stratgie
REDD2030

Dmarcheparticipativeetconsultationscontinues
ProgrammedexprimentationVolet1 projetspilotessectoriels
Denombreuxprojetsrpartissurleterritoirenational,prsentsdansles11provincesdelaRDC,
exprimententdesaspectsdesdiffrentsprogrammespropossdanslestroisvoletssectorielsde
lanalyseprliminairedupotentielREDD+enRDC
ProgrammedexprimentationVolet2 projetspilotesintgrsgographiquement
Decinq huitprojetsintgrsdansunezonegographiquedonne(province/territoire/secteur)
rpartissurles4cosystmesforestiersdelaRDC,exprimententlesdynamiquesentrelesdiffrents
programmespropossdanslesquatrevoletsdelanalyseprliminairedupotentielREDD+

Figure1.Ledveloppementdelastratgienationale.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

21


Figure2.LedveloppementduNiveaudeRfrence.

Emissions et absorptions forestires


GIES mthodes de base

Contexte

lments GIEC

lments
systme RDC

Donnes sur les


activit
Reprsentation du sol

Systme de
Surveillance des
Terres par Satellite

-Un systme oprationnelle


mur mur bas sur des
donnes satellites de
tldtection, avec une
mthode d'chantillonnage
pour valuer la
dforestation historique et
le taux de dgradation.

Spcifications
du systme

- Les changements dans la


superficie des forts doivent
tre valus afin de
rpondre aux exigences de
notification du GIEC
Approche 3.
- Toutes les donnes seront
prsentes et distribus
travers un systme SIG
bas sur le Web.

Facteur dmission
Rservoir de carbone

Inventaire Forestier
National

Variations de stocks
de carbone

Inventaire National
pour les GES

-Premier inventaire
national de carbone
forestier doit tre acheve
d'ici fin 2012.
-Future inventaire bas
sur un inventaire avec un
systme de prlvement
continu, par exemple
Inventaire forestier indien.
-Donnes sur les stocks
de carbone pour tous les
rservoir de carbone pour
tous les types de forts
principal du GIEC Niveau
2 et Niveau 3.
- Adoption d'une approche
d'chantillonnage stratifi
pour l'appui des exigences
de la stratification du
GIEC.

-Inventaire National pour


le secteur AFAF qui suit
les exigences de
notification des pays
Annexe-1 de la
CCNUCC.
- L'inventaire sera mis au
point par en suivant une
mthode dfaut du GIEC
perte - gain ou
variations de stock,
mais il pourrait aussi tre
dvelopp pour inclure
un modle de niveau 3.

Figure3.LedveloppementdusystmeMRVdelaRDC.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

22

3.2 Estimation and Analysis of Forest Cover Change


The FAO Global Forest Resource Assessment 2010 Remote Sensing Survey:
Monitoring Tree Cover and Forest Area Change Globally from 1990 to 2005 /
Application dans le cadre du FRA
Erik Lindquist
UnitedNationsfoodandAgricultureOrganization(FAO),Rome

Background and context


Change in the extent of tree cover and forest is a critical variable in quantifying carbon fluxes
globally.Toprovidestatisticallyvalid, regionalinformationonforestcoverchange,theGlobal
Forest Resource Assessment 2010 (FRA2010) is implementing a comprehensive Remote
Sensing Survey (RSS) in partnership with national experts, the European Commissions Joint
ResearchCentre(JRC),theUniversitCatholiquedeLouvain(UCL)andtheSouthDakotaState
University (SDSU). As part of the RSS, a Central African regional remote sensing survey
validation workshop was held as a side event to the main carbon monitoring meeting.
Participants at the workshop validated the land use classification for selected sample sites
withintheircountry.Thedocumentbelowdescribestheremotesensingsurveyingeneralterms
andglobalcontext.
Introduction
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has provided detailed
informationontheworldsforests,theirconditionandtheiruses,at5to10yearintervalssince
1946,basedondatathatcountriesprovidetoFAOinresponsetoaquestionnaire.FAOcompiles
andanalysestheinformationandpresentsthecurrentstatusoftheworldsforestresourcesand
theirchangesovertimeaspartoftheGlobalForestResourcesAssessment(FRA). Historically,
FRA reporting has evolved to reflect the major issues of concern at the time. Early reports
focusedontimberstocksinresponsetopostwarneedsforbuildingmaterialswhilemorerecent
emphasishasshiftedtodeforestationandconservationissues.
Forest cover dynamics change on local to regional scales but contribute to local, regional, and
globalimpactsonclimate,biodiversityandecosystemservices.FRAreportingprovidesdataon
tree cover and forests to policy makers, scientists and civil society that document these
dynamicsonnationalscales.Historically,however,thequantityandqualityofdataavailablefor
reporting varies widelyonacountrybycountry basis.Forestdefinitionschangefromplaceto
placebased onnationaldefinitions,culturalvaluesandthepurposeoftheassessment andthe
methodology used. Many countries also lack consistent, historical records and technical or
financialcapacitytoadequatelyreportonchangesinforestareaovertime.
The Global Forest Resource Assessment 2010 (FRA2010) is implementing a comprehensive
RemoteSensingSurvey(RSS)inpartnershipwithnationalexperts,theEuropeanCommissions
JointResearchCentre(JRC),theUniversitCatholiquedeLouvain(UCL)andthe SouthDakota
State University (SDSU). Satellite remote sensing offers the advantage of broad area coverage,
systematicobservations,andtheabilitytousestandardized,repeatableanalysestocharacterize
the Earths surface. It is one of the only comprehensive sources of information available for
manyofthelarge,forestedareasonEarth.Thoughremotesensingdoesnotreplacetheneedfor
fieldcollected data, it offers distinct benefits when conducting largearea surveys for broad
vegetationtypecategories.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

23

The RSS will examine both land cover and land use globally through a systematic sample of
remotelysensedimagery.LandcoverreferstothebiophysicalattributesoftheEarthssurface
andcanbedirectlydetectedfromaremotesensinginstrument;e.g.treecoverorlandoccupied
bytreevegetationinquantitiesdetectablebytheinstrumentused.Landuseinvolvesahuman
dimension orpurposecharacterizing a location andis typically onlyverified withlocal, expert
knowledge or data collected from field inspections, e.g. forest cover. Accurate information on
landuseiscriticaltounderstandthedriversofforestcover changeandhelpdevelopeffective
policies and strategies to reverse forest loss. By incorporating both land cover and use, the
remotely sensed imagery and classification process of the RSS will more adequately describe
bothphysicaltreecoverandthevariablydefinedforestarea.
Methods
Preprocessing,segmentationandclassification
TheRSSsamplinggridconsistsof13689systematicallydistributedsitesateveryintersectionof
landbased latitude and longitude between 75 degrees North and South in latitude (Figure 1).
The JRC will process nearly 4 000 sample sites pantropically and the FAO will process the
remaining sites globally. The United States Geological Surveys Landsat Global Land Survey
dataset (GLS) provided the imagery data for interpretation and classification. The GLS is a
spatiallyconsistentdatasetcomposedofthesinglebestLandsatimageacquisitioncoveringmost
of the Earths land surface and centered on the years 1975, 1990, 2000, and 20052.
Complementarysatelliteimagery(LandsatTM,ASTER,IRS)providedbyspaceagencies(INPE
Brazil, GISTDAThailand, GeoscienceAustralia and ISROIndia) or acquired through satellite
image providers has been used to fill a number of gaps (clouds, missing data) existing in the
initialLandsatGLSdatabase.TheinitialfocusoftheRSSistheGLS1990,GLS2000andGLS2005
datasets.

Figure1.Distributionofthe13689FRA2010RSSglobalsurveysites.FAOdesignatedtilesare
showninblueandJRCdesignatedtilesareinyellow.Insetshowsdetailofsamplesitesacross
Europe,N.Africa.
For each survey tile, Landsat optical bands 15 and 7 (also 8 in the case of ETM+) of the GLS
acquisitionswerecompiled.Thesewereclippedtoa20kmby20kmboxcenteredoneachone
degree latitude and longitude intersection to create imagery chips. This produced 56 219
individual imagery chips for the three time periods. The central 10km by 10km box of each

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

24

samplingtilewillbeusedforareacalculationsandstatisticalanalysis.Additionalimageryinputs
foreachchipincludeacloudmask,watermask,anddata/nodatamask.
The RSS used a multidate, multiresolution image segmentation approach and a nominal
minimummappingunitof5hectarestoclassifyeachsurveytile.NormalizedLandsatbands3,4,
and5fromtheGLS1990,2000,and 2005datasetsareusedforproducing theimagesegments
(orpolygons).Imagesegmentationwasperformedusingthecommerciallyavailablesoftwaree
Cognition3.Theresultwasasinglepolygonlayercontaininginformationfromthedifferenttime
periods of imagery. The polygon layer was classified separately for each time period using
Landsatopticalbands(15and7),resultinginthreelandcovermapsrepresenting1990,2000,
and2005.Changesinlandcoverovertimearecapturedinthepolygonsandreflectedinchanges
inlandcoverlabels.
Followinglandcoverclassification,alanduselabelwasautomaticallyassignedtoeachpolygon.
The FAOdeveloped Land Cover Classification System (LCCS)4 has been adapted for labeling
polygonsbylandcoverandincludesfivelandcoverclasses(plusnodata).Ninelandusecodes
havebeendevelopedforuseintheRSS basedon FRAdefinitions. Seetable1foralistofland
coverandlandusecategoriesusedintheRSS.Wherethereisachangeto/fromforest,amore
detailedlanduseandcoverclassificationoftheotherlandcategoryisundertaken.Themain
purposeoflabelingpolygonsbylanduseistoassessforestareachangeandthemajordriversof
thesechanges.
Table 1. Land cover (left column) and landuse (right column) classes to be used in the RSS.
Greyshaded classes represent a more detailed level of classification to be labelled where
possible.

LandCoverClass

LandUseClass

TreeCover

Forest

ShrubCover

Otherwoodedland

Herbaceous/
Other

Otherlandwithtreecover

Grassandherbaceous
cover

Agriculturalcrops

Builtuphabitation

Bareland

Wetlands

Wetlands

Water

Water

Nodata

Nodata

Validation
Polygons,prelabeledwithlandcoveranduseattributes,andtheremotelysensedimagerywill
beprovidedtocountriesandregionalexpertsforvalidation.Polygonlabelswillbecheckedfor
accuracy by national experts against each time period of imagery. Ancillary, countryspecific
data sets (such as forest inventory and vegetation type maps where available) and qualitative
information obtained from the Degree Confluence Project (www.confluence.org), Panoramio
andGoogleEarthwillalsobeusedforvalidation.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

25

Results and discussion


TheexpectedresultsoftheRSSincludesummarystatisticsoftreecoverandforestareachange
atglobalandregionalspatialscales.Forestareachangesbothpositive(afforestationornatural
expansion) and negative (deforestation) between time periods will be summarized by global
ecologicalzonesand atregionallevels.Whereforestareashavechangedtootherlandusesor
viceversa, the land use change over time will be further analyzed to provide insight into the
mainmechanismsdrivingthechanges.Pantropically,theFAOwillrelyontheresultsobtained
bytheconcurrentTREES3researchprogrammeoftheJRC.
TheRSSisagloballycomprehensive,systematicsamplingapproachcoveringonepercentofthe
landsurfaceoftheEarth.Systematicsamplingofmediumspatialresolutionimagerywaschosen
as a solution that achieves manageable data volumes, comprehensive coverage of sample plot
locations,andreturnsstatisticallyvalidresultsatregionalandglobalspatialscales.Landsatdata
was chosen as the preferred data source for the FRA RSS because it has a suitable pixel size
(30m)todetectsmallpatchesofforestchangeandbecauseithasthebesthistoricalarchiveof
globaldata7.Thecommendabledecisionin2008bytheUSGStoopentheentireLandsatarchive
forfreeuseovercomesoneofthemajorhistoricallimitationstouseofthesedata.
FAOanditspartnersisworkingcloselywithremotesensingandforestinventoryspecialistsin
nationalgovernmentsandwithawiderangeofnongovernmentalorganizationstocompletethe
RSS. The analysis and validation of land cover and use will benefit greatly from individual
country contributions including national data and local knowledge to help ensure accurate
results.FAOandJRCwillprovidecomputersoftwarefreeofchargetoallparticipatingcountries
forviewingtheimageryandlabellinglandcoverandlandusechanges.Theaccesstofreeremote
sensing data and software will particularly benefit developing countries with limited forest
monitoringdataorcapacity.
FAOhasalsobuiltawebbaseddataportaltofacilitatepublicaccesstotheLandsatimageryused
in the survey (http://geonetwork4.fao.org/geonetwork/srv/en/fra.home). Password protected
download and upload capabilities are provided to all participating countries enabling them to
accessandstoretheresultsofvalidationworkasitiscompleted.Uploadofancillarydatasuchas
photographsorotherinformationisalsofacilitated.TheRSSisscheduledforcompletionbythe
endof2011,intheInternationalyearofForests.
Conclusion
TheFRA2010RemoteSensingsurveyisasystematic,comprehensive,globalstudyoftreecover
andforest landusechangesfrom1990 to2000 to 2005. Itpresents a consistent methodology
formonitoringforestchangeatagloballevelthatcanbeexpandedformoredetailedstudies.
Itisexpectedthatthe survey willimproveunderstanding oftotal forest areachanged and the
processes driving forest cover change globally. This is information that governments, land
managers, researchers and civil society groups can use to make betterinformed decisions
regardingtheworldsforestresources.
If countries choose and have theresourcesto do so, the methodshave thepotential toform a
platform for developing more detailed reporting capabilities at a national level such as those
requiredonlanduseandlandusechangefortheUNFrameworkConventiononClimateChange
andtheKyotoProtocolandtheREDDmechanismcurrentlybeingnegotiated.
Literature cited
FAO, JRC and SDSU (2009) The 2010 Global Forest Resources Assessment Remote Sensing
Survey:anoutlineoftheobjectives,data,methodsandapproach.ForestResourcesAssessment
WorkingPaper155.PublishedbyFAOwithFRARSSpartners,Rome,2009.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

26

Gutman,G.,Byrnes,R.,Masek,J.,Covington,S.,Justice,C.,Franks,S.andKurtz,R.,2008.Towards
monitoring landcover and landuse changes at a global scale: The Global Land Survey 2005.
PhotogrammetricEngineeringandRemoteSensing,74,pp.610.
Baatz,M.andSchape,A.,2000.Multiresolutionsegmentation:anoptimizationapproachforhigh
quality multiscale image segmentation. In: Strobl, J., Blaschke, T., Griesebner, G. (Eds.),
Angewandte Geographische InformationsVerarbeitung XII. Wichmann Verlag, Karlsruhe, p.p.
1223,2000.
FAO,2005.LandCoverClassificationSystem(LCCS),Version2:ClassificationConceptsandUser
Manual.Ed.DiGregorio,A.http://www.fao.org/docrep/008/y7220e/y7220e00.htm
FAO 2007a. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2010, Options and recommendations for a
global remote sensing survey of forests. Forest Resources Assessment programme Working
Paper141.ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/010/ai074e/ai074e00.pdf.
Mayaux,P.,Holmgren,P.,Achard,F.,Eva,H.,StibigH.J.,andBranthomme,A.2005.Tropicalforest
coverchangeinthe1990sandoptionsforfuturemonitoring.Phil.Trans.R.Soc.B2005360,373
384
Williams, D.L., Goward, S. and Arvidson, T., 2006. Landsat: yesterday, today, and tomorrow.
PhotogrammetricEngineeringandRemoteSensing,72,pp.11711178.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

27

Observatory of Central African Forests: National and Regional Estimate of


Forest Cover and Forest Cover Change for 1990, 2000 and 2005 / La
cartographie forestire et le changement doccupation et utilisation du sol:
Description de la mthodologie
C. Ernsta, A. Verhegghena, C. Bodartb, P. Mayauxb, C. de Wasseigec, A.
Bararwandikad, G. Begotoe, F. Esono Mbaf, M. Ibarag, A. Kondjo Shokoh, H. Koy
Kondjoh, J-S. Makaki, J-D. Menomo Biangj, C. Musampah, R. Ncogo Motogok, G.
Neba Shul, B. Nkoumakalim, C-B. Ouissikan and P. Defournya
aEarthandLifeInstitute,UniversitCatholiquedeLouvain(UCLGeomatics),2/16CroixduSud,

B1348LouvainlaNeuve,Belgium.
Institute for Environment and Sustainability, Joint Research Centre of the European
Commission,Ispra,Italy.
cObservatoiredesFortsdAfriqueCentrale,Kinshasa,DemocraticRepublicoftheCongo.
dMinistredelEnvironnement,DpartementdesForts,Burundi.
e WorldResourcesInstitute/Projetd'AppuilaRalisationdesPlansd'AmnagementForestiers,
CentralAfricanRepublic.
fMinisteriodeAgriculturayBosques,EquatorialGuinea.
gWorldResourcesInstitute,Congo.
h Ministre de lEnvironnement, de Conservation de la Nature et du Tourisme, Direction
InventaireetAmnagementforestier,DemocraticRepublicoftheCongo.
IWorldResourcesInstitute,Gabon.
jMinistredelaFortetdelaFaune,Cameroon.
kINDEFORAPBataLitoral,EquatorialGuinea.
lWorldResourcesInstitute,Cameroon.
mMinistredelEconomieForestire/DGEFLAGRAC/UniversitOmarBongo,Gabon.
nCentreNationaldInventaireetd'AmnagementdesressourcesForestiresetFauniques,Congo
b

Introduction
Tropicalforests,althoughcoveringlessthan10%ofthetotallandsurfaceoftheEarth,represent
the largest terrestrial reservoir of biological diversity1, changes in these biome have major
impacts on climate change and biodiversity loss. The Congo Basin hosts the secondlargest
contiguous block of tropical forest after the Amazon2. To assess these impacts, dynamic forest
coverchangeismorethaneverachallenge.Today,opticalearthobservationsmethodsarefully
operational for forest type definitions, mapping and forest cover changes over local scale.
National and international decision makers need reliable, objective, verifiable according to
internationalstandardsanduptodateinformationtodefineandmonitorforestpoliciesandto
report to international conventions. Only satellite images can provide enough information on
processessuchas deforestationat thescale ofCongo Basin.Inthiscontextthe Observatory of
ForestsofCentralAfrica(OFAC)andtheForestResourcesAssessment(FRA2010)ledbyFAO,
invited each country to work together to estimate forest cover changes for years 19902000
2005(andlater2010).

1Duveilleretal.,2008
2FAO,2009.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

28

Methods
PilotStudy
Based on 390 sampling sites (10*10 km) systematicallydistributed every 0.5 over the whole
denselyforestedareasofCentralAfrica,apilotstudyhasbeenconductedbyDuveilleretal.1to
detectforestcoverchangefor19902000.Theapproachadoptedtoanalyzetheseextractswas
partlyautomated(multidatesegmentationandunsupervisedclassification)andpartlymanual
(interactivelabeling).Thedeforestationrateobtainedbythisstudyandcombinedwiththeone
fromHansenetal.1hasbeenpublishedinStateoftheForest20082.
Operational results
Selectionandpreprocessingofimagery
Thestudyconsistsof1168samplesofLandsat/Asterextractsat30mspatialresolutionof20x
20kmsystematicallydistributedevery0.5.Duetothelackofdataoncloudyregions,Equatorial
GuineaandGabonwasoversampledevery0.25.Thesatelliteimageryforaroundyears1990,
2000 and 2005 have been selected and preprocessed by Joint Research Centre (JRC). Four
important steps have been realized: imagery selection, radiometric calibration, correction for
hazeandacloudandshadowmaskifneeded.Anadvancedautomateddatapreinterpretation
have been designed and run by UCLGeomatics. The methodology is based on precedent
research of the laboratory related to change detection3 and to Congo Basin deforestation
estimates4.Theautomatedpreprocessingchaincanbedecomposedinthreeimportantsteps.A
multidate image segmentation is applied on each satellite pairs or triplet; groups of adjacent
pixels that show spectrally homogeneous and similar land cover change trajectories between
two dates are delineated into objects with a minimum size corresponding to the minimum
mappingunit(MMU)5.Twolevelsofsegmentationhavebeenimplementedmakingsurethatthe
smallerlevelisincludedinthelargestone.Thesmallerlevelcontains95%ofobjectswhichhave
aMMUof1haandwillbeusedfortheautomatedprelabelingandtheinteractiveinterpretation
bynationalexperts.Asforthelargestlevel(95%ofobjectwhichhaveaMMUof5ha),itwillbe
usedforchangeprocessesandstatisticscomputation.Theobjects(1haMMU)delineatedbythe
segmentationsteparethenclassifiedin20landcoverclassesbyanunsupervisedclassification.
Six land cover classes are prelabeled by the automatic chain based on old/coarse land cover
maps.Theresultinglandcoverlegendisthefollowing:

Treecover:thecanopydensityofthetreelayershouldbeatleast10%,andtreeheight
shouldbe5mormore

Shrubcover:anywoodyvegetationlayeroflessthan5mheight

Otherlandcover:Containslandcoverotherthantreeandshrubcover

Water

Cloudandshadow

Nodata

1Hansenetal.,2008.
2DeWasseigeetal.,2009
3Descleetal.,2006.
4Duveilleretal.,2008.
5Achardetal.,2009

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

29

Objects considered as outliers are flagged by a statistical objectbased method over twotime
intervals: 19902000 and 20002005. Outputs of the automatic process are a prelabeled land
covermapforeachdateandasetofobjectsconsideredaschangedbetweentwodates.
A collaborative approach
Involvementofnationalexpertsisanessentialpartoftheprocess.Inordertoenhancedcapacity
intheeightcountriesoftheCongoBasinformonitoring,assessingandreportingonforestsand
landusechangesandthankstothepositivefeedbackofthepilotUCLvalidationexperiencein
February2009,theOFACteamtogetherwithJRCEUandFAOinvited15nationalexpertswith
profound knowledge on regional context and an international team (Figure 2) to validate the
automaticpreinterpretationforlandcovermappingandthechangedetection.

Figure 2. National experts and international team at the regional validation workshop in
Kinshasa,2009.
The regional validation workshop was held at the Ecole Rgionale postuniversitaire
dAmnagemement et de gestion intgres des Forts et Territoires tropicaux (ERAIFT) in
Kinshasa(September2009).
After few days of training, national experts started the interactive interpretation thanks to an
objectbased validation tool developed by JRC (Figure 3). They had the opportunity to check,
adjust when needed the preinterpretation of each sample and to verify the objects flagged as
changed. 897 samples (two or three dates) were available and 443 (Figure 4) have been
validated by experts thanks to an intensive and fruitful work. Because of bad georeferencing,
compatibility problems with JRCvalidation tool or to multidate segmentation errors, some of
theextractspointswere markedaserror.Fewextractshavebeenvalidatedinsavannahareas
(southofDRC,northwestofCAR)duetotheprioritygiventoforestedlandscape.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

30


Figure3.ObjectbasedvalidationtooldevelopedbyJRC.

Figure4.Dataavailabilityandvalidationprocess.
Statistics computation
Thislaststepsleadstothefinalassignmentoflandcoverlabels.Thelandcoverinformationof
smallobjects(MMUof1ha)isaggregatedintolargestimageobjectwithaMMUof5hathanks
todecisionrulestakingintoaccounttheproportionofthedifferentlandcoverclasses.Thisstep
allowsfortwoadditionalvegetationclasses:

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

31

TreecoverMosaicHigh:theratiooftreecoverareawithintheobject(MMUof5ha)is
between40and70%;

TreecoverMosaicLow:theratiooftreecoverareawithintheobject(MMUof5ha)is
between10and40%.

Tree Cover
Tree Cover
Mosaic High

Other Land
Cover

Tree Cover
Mosaic Low

Tree Cover

Tree Cover
Mosaic High
Tree Cover
Mosaic Low

Figure5.Forestcoverchangeprocesses.
Thankstotheseadditionalclasses,complexlandcoverprocessescanbeextracted.Thisunique
exercise will estimate not only deforestation and reforestation but also degradation and
regeneration (Figure 5) which are particularly important in Central Africa. Very preliminary
resultshavebeenpresentedforforestcoverchangeestimateusingthecurrentlyavailabledata
set(Figure6).

Figure6.Preliminaryforestcoverchangeestimate.
Foreverysamplesite,thetransitionmatrixiscalculatedforthetwotimeintervals(ifavailable),
i.e. 19902000 and 20002005. Since each satellite image is not acquired at the same date but
around the first of June 1990, 2000 and 2005, land cover area and change matrix are linearly
extrapolatedtothesepivotdates.
Fromtheseverypreliminaryresults(Table2)onlynetchanges(grossreforestationminusgross
deforestation) have been extracted from the matrix. These results must be considered as
illustrative and should not be used as they are still too many missing samples and further
validationstillhastobecompletedfortheerrorssamples.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

32

Table2.Annualnetdeforestationratesbetween1990and2000andbetween2000and2005.

n(9000)

Net
deforestation
(19902000)

n(0005)

Net
deforestation
(20002005)

CentralAfrica

246

0.12%0.03%

115

0.35%0.16%

Conclusion and perspectives


A the time of this writing, only preliminary results are available but consolidated estimate for
the forest biome and at national level will be available soon. This unique exercise is a
combinationofadvancedearthobservationmethodsandofsignificantcontributionofnational
experts. . Once available, these statistics compiled by all are expected to serve as basis for
discussion on the reduction of CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (UN
REDD).Thisexperiencealsodemonstratestheimportanceofcapacity building andtechnology
transfer to countries in the Congo Basin as a necessary and feasible step for national and
regionalownership.
Bibliography
Achard,F.,Beuchle,R.,Bodart,C.,Brink,A.,Carboni,S.,Eva,H.,Mayaux,P.,Rai,R.,Simonetti,D.,
&Stibig,H.J.(2009).MonitoringForestcoveratglobalscale:TheJRCapproach.Proceedingsof
the33rdISRSEconference,48may2009,Stressa,Italy,4p.
Descle,B.,Bogaert,P.,&Defourny,P.(2006).Forestchangedetectionbystatisticalobjectbased
method.RemoteSensingofEnvironment,102,111
de Wasseige, C., Devers, D., de Marcken, P., Ebaa Atyi, R., Nasi, R., & Mayaux, Ph. (2009). The
Forests of the Congo Basin State of the Forest 2008, Luxembourg: Publications Office of the
EuropeanUnion.http://www.observatoirecomifac.net/edf2008.php
Duveiller, G., Defourny, P., Descle, B., & Mayaux, P. (2008). Deforestation in Central Africa:
Estimates at regional, national and landscape levels by advanced processing of systematically
distributedLandsatextracts.RemoteSensingofEnvironment,112,19691981.
FAO, 2009, State of the World Forests 2009, Food and Agricultural Organization of the United
Nations,Rome.http://www.fao.org/docrep/011/i0350e/i0350e00.htm
Hansen, M.C., Roy, D.P., Lindquist, E., Adusei, B., Justice, C.O.& Alstatt, A. (2008). A method for
integratingMODISdataforsystematicmonitoringofforestcoverandchangeintheCongoBasin.
RemoteSensingofEnvironment,112,24952513.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

33

Results and validation tools for FRA / Rsultat et outil de validation par les
experts nationaux des classes doccupation du sol et changement
Bruno Nkoumakali1, Christophe Musampa2
1Gabon
2RDC

Introduction
LesexpertsnationauxentldtectionetfortsdespaysduBassinduCongoonttconvis
unatelierdevalidationdelinterprtationdesdonnesdetldtectionpourlestimationetle
suivi du couvert forestier ERAIFT sur le campus de lUniversit de Kinshasa en Rpublique
dmocratique du Congo du 28 septembre au 9 octobre 2009. Cette invitation a t faite par
lObservatoire des Forts dAfrique Centrale, lquipe FORAF conjointement avec le Centre
Commun de Recherche (CCR) de lUnion Europenne et la FAO FRA2010. Ladite rencontre
rentre dans le cadre de lObservatoire des Forts dAfrique Centrale mis en place pour la
COMIFAC.AlinitiativedeForestResourcesAssessment(FRA)2010conduitparlaFAO,chaque
pays du Bassin du Congo est invit fournir des donnes destimation du changement du
couvertforestierpourlesannes199020002005obtenuespartirdelatldtectionspatiale.
Le prsent travail de validation constitue une approche essentielle de la nouvelle mthode
oprationnelle orienteobjet pour la cartographie des surfaces forestires et la dtection de
leur changement partir des donnes de tldtection haute rsolution (Landsat et Aster)
dveloppe par lUniversit catholique de Louvain (UCLGomatique). Nous allons voir tout
dabordladmarcheintgredece processusdevalidationetdelinterprtation desdonnes.
Ensuitenousprsenteronsletravaileffectu,loutildevalidationetnousnonceronsenfinles
perspectivesdecettecollaboration.
Une dmarche intgre au processus de validation et de linterprtation des donnes
Pour la premire fois, la FAO travers sont initiative FRA 2010, avec le concours du projet
FORAFetleCCRontconvilesexpertsnationauxentldtectionetfortsdespaysduBassin
du Congo pour un atelier de validation de linterprtation des donnes de tldtection pour
lestimationetlesuividucouvertforestier(cf.Tableau1).
Lquipe des formateurs de lUCL et du CCR a t complte par des membres de lOSFAC.
LAngola assistait en tant que pays observateur car ne faisant pas partie des pays du Bassin
Congo.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

34

Tableau 1. Les noms des experts nationaux en tldtection et forts des pays du Bassin du
Congo.
N Nomsetprnoms

Pays

IBARAMarcel

RpubliqueduCongo

OUISSIKAChrubinsBrice

RpubliqueduCongo

BEGOTOGrgoire

RCA

NKOUMAKALIBruno

Gabon

MAKAKJeanSylvestre

Cameroun

NEBASHUGideon

Cameroun

MENDOMOBIANGJeanDaniel Cameroun

MUSAMPAChristophe

RDC

KONDJOSHOKOAndr

RDC

10 KOYKONDJOHritier

RDC

11 NCOGOMOTOGORoberto

GuineEquatoriale

12 ESONOMBAFidel

GuineEquatoriale

13 BARARWANDIKAAstre

Burundi

14 MATEUSAndre

Angola

15 MANDEFrancisca

Angola

Prise en compte et niveau dimplication de lexpertise nationale


Limplication de lexpertise nationale pour la validation et linterprtation des donnes de
tldtection pour lestimation et le suivi du couvert forestier sest faite plusieurs
niveaux.Lexprience et la connaissance des experts locaux du terrain de leur pays a t
longuement sollicite. En effet, pour valuer le changement du couvert forestier entre 1990
20002005 sur base dextraits de 20 x 20 km dimages Landsat (fig 1), lapproche retenue par
lUCLestdetravaillersurunesegmentationmultitemporelledecesimages(troispartroisou
deux par deux selon la disponibilit des scnes). Le produit de cette segmentation est un
ensembledobjetscohrents,spectralementetspatialementidentiquespourlestrois(oudeux)
images (FAO FRA2010). Il arrivait que certaines images apparaissent non gorferences ou
prsentaientdesdfautstechniquesleurrendantparfoisillisibleetdifficiletraiter.

180Km

40Km

20Km

180 Km

1Echantillons

Figure1.Processusdextraitsde20x20kmdimagesLandsat.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

35

Le processus dextraits de 20 x 20 km dimages Landsat pour aboutir la segmentation


chantillonsestdrouldelamaniresuivante:
Unchantillontousles100km(chaque1degr)surunecarte1/200000.C'estuneimagede
Landsat(180x180km)quiestprisepourrfrenceetsubdiviseen4imagettesde20x20km.
Lasegmentationaboutitauregroupementdespixelsquasiidentiques:c'estlaclassificationnon
supervisen20classes(cluster).(G.Duveiller,P.DefournyB.Descle,P.Mayaux2008).
Delasegmentationonobtientlesclustersquisontcompossdespixelsunclusterestuneunit
depaysageagrgequireprsenteunhectaresurl'image.Ils'agitpourlesexpertsnationauxde
vrifier si les units de paysage sont homognes et correspondent une occupation du sol
commeleproposelalgendedelaFAOFRA2010.
Unhectareestcomposde3x3pixels(30x30m=90m2),uneimagedeLandsat(180x180km)
etsubdiviseen4imagettesde20x20km.Uneimagettede20x20kmestcomposedeplusieurs
pixels

Achaqueobjet(cluster)onattribueunelgendedehuit(8)strates,regroupeen20classes.Ces
objets(cluster)sontlesunitsdutravailpourlesprocessus decartographieetladtectionde
changementquelesexpertsnationauxdoiventvalideretinterprter.
Prsentation du travail effectu et outil de validation
Chaque Expert dispose dun jeu de donnes de son pays dj prtrait et segment par
lUniversitcatholiquedeLouvain(UCLGomatique).Cesdonnessontlesobjetsregroupsen
vingtclassespourlestroisdatesdobservation(199020002005).Unlabelestdonnchacune
de ces classes laide de cartes doccupation du sol prexistantes. La prise en compte de
lexpertise nationale intervient dans lidentification de ce label qui doit correspondre
exactementlaclassedoccupationdusolselonlalgendeproduiteparleCentreCommunde
Recherche(CCR)surlabasedeleurconnaissanceetexprienceduterrain(fig.2).

Figure2.LgendeproposeparCCR.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

36

Les experts nationaux sont chargs de vrifier ou de modifier la printerprtation de chaque


chantillondeleurspaysauniveaudesmicrosobjets(tailleminimalede1ha)laidedunoutil
devalidationspcialementdveloppparleJRC.
Chaqueexpertnationalat dabordformpendantdeuxjourslamanipulationdeloutilde
validationetinterprtationprcisedeloccupationdusoletduchangementenfortpartirdes
images (fig. 3). Sen suit une priode de travail intense pour valider et interprter les 897
chantillons.

Figure3.LinterfacedeloutildevalidationduJRC.
La responsabilit des experts nationaux dans la validation de 20 clusters pour les 897
chantillonsestprimordiale,carilsuffitduneerreurdapprciationdunobjet(cluster)ettoute
lacartographiedoccupationsetrouveerrone.Danscesens,lesexpertsnationauxsontaucur
de la dynamique de changement (dforestation, reforestation, rgnration, dgradation) qui
sera attribue au niveau de chaque macroobjet qui contient des microobjets changs. Les
produits finaux de cette chane de traitement sont ainsi : une carte doccupation du sol pour
chaque date, une cartographie des zones changes entre deux dates ainsi que quatre taux
associs ces changements pour chaque dynamique dcrite cidessus portent une partie des
empruntesdesexpertsnationaux.
Rsultats et perspectives
Rsultats
Les premiers rsultats attendus incluent les donnes statistiques synthtiques sur le travail
effectuparlesexpertsnationaux.Ilsagitbienentendudunombredchantillonsdedpartqui
tait de 1168chantillons desimages deLandsat (30m, 20*20km) etreprsentant lesclasses
doccupationdusol.AprsunlourdetlabeurtravailsurlecampusdelUniversitdeKinshasa
enRpubliquedmocratiqueduCongo,443chantillonsonttinterprtssur897disponibles.
Lesrsultatsdtaillsparpayssontprsentsdansletableaucidessus(Tableau2).(Defourny
P.2010)

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

37

Tableau2.Rsultatprliminairedunombredchantillonsinterprtsparpays.

Nomsdes
Pays

Extraits
Disponibles

RDC
Congo
RCA
Gabon

Extraits
Valids
Degrs
FRA9000

Extraits
Valids

Extraits
Erreurs

411

151

27

102

49

78

38

86

75

36

39

10

12

199

76

63

13

30

60

50

10

10

40

Guine
Equatoriale
Cameroun

Extraits
Extraits Extraits Valids
Degrs
Valids
Valids
FRA9000
900005 9000
05

119

80

45

35

23

Burundi

Rwanda

897

443

53

262

181

143

72

Total

Source : Defourny, P. et Ernst, C. 2010. Rsultats de lAtelier de validation de Kinshasa. UCL


Gomatique.
Les perspectives
Lesinitiativesimpliquantlexpertisenationaledanslavalidationdesprojetscommunslasous
rgion du Bassin du Congo sont rares et celle que nous avions vcue sur le campus de
lUniversit de Kinshasa en Rpublique dmocratique du Congo est fliciter et encourager.
Cestdanscesensquenousformulonscesrecommandationssavoir:

renforcer le rseau des experts nationaux en tldtection et le suivi du couvert


forestier;

adapterloutildevalidationdveloppparleJRCdautressourcesdedonnes;

formeretrenforcerlescapacitsenamont(segmentationLgende)etaval(validation
finale)delamthodedesexpertsnationauxdanscedomaine;et

appuyeretdveloppercetteinitiativedanslescolesdelaforesteriedelasousrgiondu
BassinduCongo.

Conclusion
Letravaileffectulorsdelatelierdevalidationdelinterprtationdesdonnesdetldtection
pour lestimation et le suivi du couvert forestier est une exprience louable, cest une tude
systmatique et exhaustive de la couverture forestire et des changements d'utilisation des
terres forestires de 1990 2000 et 2005. Elle s'appuie sur une mthodologie adapte la
surveillance desforts l'chellesousrgionale duBassin duCongo,maisaussimondiale,qui
peut tre tendue des tudes plus approfondies. Ce travail devrait apporter une meilleure
connaissance des changements de surface forestire. Ces informations pourront tre utilises
par les gouvernements, les gestionnaires, les chercheurs ou la socit civile pour la prise de
dcision concernant la gestion des ressources forestires de la sous rgion. Les activits de
formationetleschangesdeconnaissancemisesenuvreparlaFAO,leJRCetlespartenaires
apporteront des comptences techniques pour la surveillance des ressources forestires dans
lespaysduBassinduCongo.
Bibliographie

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

38

Defourny, P. et Ernst. C. 2010. Rsultats de lAtelier de validation de Kinshasa. Belgique, UCL


GomatiqueUniversitCatholiquedeLouvain(UCL),43pages
FAO FRA2010 2009. L'enqute par tldtection Evaluation des ressources forestires
mondiales 2010.Objectif, Donnes, mthode et approche. Rome, Document de travail n 155
16pages
G.Duveiller,P.Defourny,B.Descle,P.Mayaux2008.DeforestationinCentralAfrica:Estimates
atregional,nationalandlandscapelevelsbyadvancedprocessingofsystematicallydistributed
Landsatextracts.InSienceDirect,RemoteSensingofEnvironmentn112pp:19691981

Quantitative Analysis of Deforestation Drivers in DR Congo: Preliminary


Results / Analyse des causes de dforestation
Cline Delhage, Pierre Defourny
EarthandLifeInstitute/EnvironmentalSciences
UniversitcatholiquedeLouvain
CroixduSud2,bte16,1348LouvainlaNeuve,Belgium

Introduction
IntheframeworkoftheUNREDDProgram(ReducingEmissionsfromDeforestationandForest
Degradation in Developing Countries), a quantitative analysis of deforestation and forest
degradation drivers in DRCongoiscurrently carried out for theperiod19902005. The aim of
the overall study is to identify and quantify the influence of different variables explaining
changes in forest cover, i.e. deforestation and degradation, for the period 199020002005
acrosstheterritoryoftheDRC.
The institutional context in which the study is taking place includes the REDD National
Coordination(UNREDDprogramFAO,PNUDandUNEPpartnershipandCBFPprogramWorld
Bank)andtheREDDWorkinggroupofadministrationandnumerousNGOstakeholders(AWF,
CI,RainforestFoundation,WCSandWWF).
The objectives of this ongoing study are twofold. The first one is the identification and
quantification of the various drivers of deforestation and degradation for 199020002005
periodsatnationallevelforDRC.Thisshouldbuildanationalconsensusbasedonscientificand
quantitativeresults.Thesecondobjectiveistoprovideafieldsurveyprotocolforvalidationof
themajordriversandprocessesidentifiedbythequantitativestudy.Thesetasksarecurrently
achievedinclosecollaborationwithObservatoiredesFortsdAfriquecentraleandtheEUFORAF
consortium.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

39

Available data and statistical methods


The best available results about deforestation and degradation estimate in Congo Basin for
19902000 (Duveiller et al., RSE 2008)1 are provided by the UCLJRC pilot study which has
servedasbasisfortheFAOFRA2010approach(FAOetal.,2009)2.Asshowninthefigure1,
this study delivered deforestation, degradation, reforestation and regeneration rates based on
267 Landsat samples of 10 x 10 km in DRC. These results have been published in the
ObservatoiredesFortsdAfriquecentrale.AGISdatabaseforDRCcombiningthedatafromthe
Observatoire des Forts dAfrique, from the Rfrentiel Gographique du Congo, from the 1: 2
000000nationalmap(UCL2007)3 andfromtheDRClandcovermap(Vancutsemetal.,2009)4
wascompiledtodocumenttheroadandrivernetworks,thetopography,theprotectedareas,the
landcover,theforestandminingconcessions,theurbanareas.Inaddition,arecentpopulation
distributionmap(Kibambeetal.,2010)5wasalsoincludedaskeyvariable.
The current approach for the drivers analysis proceeds in two main steps. First an expert
knowledge based analysis was performed to highlight the main causes of deforestation and
forestdegradation.
Once the possible causes of deforestation and forest degradation were identified, they were
respectivelymodelledthankstoGISanalysisfromthecompileddatabasedescribedhereabove.
Such a spatial analysis allowed deriving 25 potential explanatory variables such as population
density, distance to village, land cover type, elevation, agriculture, road density All these
variables were grouped into five types of drivers: agriculture, demography, economy,
transportationandlandcover.
The relationships between the remotelysensed forest cover change and the potential
explanatory variableshave been systematicallyinvestigated. A systematic exploratory analysis
has been first completed for each variable separately. Based on these results, the second
statisticalapproachreliesonamultivariateanalysis.

1 Ref: Duveiller Grgory, Defourny Pierre, Descle Baudouin, Mayaux Philippe, Deforestation in Central Africa:
Estimates at regional, national and landscape levels by advanced processing of systematicallydistributed Landsat
extracts,RemoteSensingofEnvironment,112,2008,p.19691981.
2Ref:FAO,JRC,SDSU,UCL,2009.The2010GlobalForestResourcesAssessmentRemoteSensingSurvey:anoutlineofthe
objectives,data,methodsandapproach.ForestResourcesAssessmentWorkingPaper155.PublishedbyFAOwithFRA
RSSpartners,Rome,2009.
3 Ref: UCL, 2007. Carte gnrale de la Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo 1: 2000000, Presses Universitaires de
Louvain,ISBN2874630195,2medition.
4 Ref: Vancutsem C., Pekel JF., Evrard C., Malaisse F., Defourny P., 2009. Mapping and characterizing the vegetation
typesoftheDemocraticRepublicofCongousingSPOTVEGETATIONtimeseries.InternationalJournalofAppliedEarth
ObservationandGeoinformation,11,(1),6276.
5Ref:seethepaperincludedinthisvolume.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

40


Figure1.Spatialdistributionofforestcoverchangeprocessesthatoccurredbetween1990and
2000overtheCentralAfricanforest(Duveilleretal.,2008).

Preliminary results
Based on a collaborative effort involving various stakeholders, a conceptual framework
describing the main forest cover change processes observed in DRC (figure 2) has been
establishedaccordingtothealreadyproposedtemplate(GeistandLambin,2002)1.
The first exploratory analysis studying successively each explanatory variable consisted of a
statistical test on mean difference. These results shows at this stage that large deforestation
correspondstoahighdensityofpopulation,proximitytoroadsandvillages,proximitytolarge
surfaceoccupiedbyagriculturalzonesandmorefragmentedanddegradedforests.Deforested
areasareclosertocities,toroadsandtonationalborders.
Theaveragesofdeforestedsamplesandnochangesamplesarenotsignificantlydifferentwith
regards to the distance to rivers, the elevation and the presence of mining and forest
concessions.Itwasthenconsideredatthisstageofthestudythatthesevariablesdonotplaya
significantroleintheexplanationofthedeforestation.

1 Ref: Geist HJ., Lambin EF., 2002. Proximate causes and underlying driving forces of tropical deforestation.
BioScience.52:143150.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

41

Figure 2. Drivers of deforestation as identified for DRCongo (organized according the overall
frameworkproposedbyGeistandLambin,2002).
A second exploratory analysis computed univariate regression models relating each of the 25
variables with the deforestation process. These models show that variables representing the
agriculture driver, the population driver, the land cover driver, the economical driver and the
transportation driver are the most correlated with the change due to deforestation and forest
degradation(table1).
Based on these exploratory results, the variables explaining most of the forest cover change
were selected to perform the multivariate analysis. The first multivariate analysis was a
stepwiseregressionmodelusingallthe267samples.Aswecanseeinthefig.3amorethan50%
ofthesampleshavezerodeforestationanddegradation.Thuswetestedastepwiseregression
model using only the changed samples. This leads to a coefficient of determination R of 0.45
(fig.3b).Thisisbecausethezerosamplescontaininformationthatwecantjustsimplyignore.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

42

Table1.Coefficientofdeterminationfordifferentunivariateregressioncomputedbetweenthe
potentialdriverandthe19902000forestcoverchangeinDRCongo.
Explanatoryvariable

Driver

Variable

Agricultural

Rural complex area in sample


[%]

0,65 0,42

LandCover

Fragmentation[]

0,58 0,34

Demographic

Populationdensity[hab/km]

0,56 0,31

Agricultural

Distancetoruralcomplex[km]

0,51 0,26

Demographic

Villagedensity[vill./km]

0,44 0,19

LandCover

Degradedforest[%]

0,43 0,18

Agricultural

Distancetoagriculture[km]

Transportation

Roaddensity[]

Transportation

Distancetoroads[km]

0,35 0,12

Economical

Distancetocities[km]

0,33 0,11

Transportation

Roadoftype2insample[%]

0,42 0,18
0,35 0,12

0,32 0,10

TheTobitregressionmodelwasthenselectedtotakeintoaccounttheinformationinthezero
samples (fig. 3c). This Tobit model highlights ten variables that play an important role in the
deforestationanddegradationexplanation.Thesedriversareasfollows:presenceanddistance
to rural complex (agricultural driver), forest fragmentation (land cover driver), distance to
national borders (economical driver), occurrence of degraded forest (land cover driver),
distance to roads (transportation driver), occurrence of frequently used roads (transportation
driver),villagedensity(demographicdriver),distancetourbanareas(economicaldriver),and
distanceoflessusedroads(transportationdriver).
Thefigure3showedpromisingresultswhichconfirmedthattheGIScomputedvariablesseems
relevanttoexplaintheobservedforestcoverchangeprocessesandamultivariatemodelshould
allowexplainingasignificantpartofthedeforestationanddegradation.

Figure 3. Scatter plots of the multivariate regression model for (a) Change and unchanged
samples;(b)Changesamplesonly;(c)Tobitregressionmodel.
Furtherinvestigationalreadydemonstratedthatsubnationalmodelscouldbemoreefficientto
identify the key drivers. Preliminary results seem to show that all the drivers dont have the
MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

43

sameimportance in the different groups ofProvinces(Figure 4). Forinstance, thepresence of


rural complex plays a more important role in the Province of Mongala, Nord Ubangi and Sud
UbangiwhereasforestfragmentationisanimportantvariablefortheProvinceofSankuru,Kasai
andLulua.Thespatialdiversityofthekeydriverscouldappearofgreatinteresttodocument
the different situations and subsequently to define a more targeted strategy for the national
REDDprogram.

Figure 4. Spatial variation of the explanatory variables of the deforestation and degradation
processes.
Perspectives
The preliminary results of this deforestation drivers analysis clearly illustrate the great
potential of such a study based on a large number of samples well distributed across the
country. These results still have to be confirmed and complemented by indepth analysis and
shouldnotbeusedasfinaloutputofthestudy.Furthervalidationworkisalsoexpectedinthe
contexttheREDDnationalcoordination.
Moreresultsareexpectedtobedeliveredsoonandadditionalfeaturestested.Forinstance,an
accessibility model will be integrated as an input variable to explain the link between the
deforestation/degradationandtheaccessibilitytomarket.Themodelwillalsobeappliedforthe
new199020002005samples.Fromthesefindingspredictivemodelwillbederivedinorder
to simulate the expected deforestation and forest degradation across the DRC according to
differentscenarios.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

44

Central African Deforestation 2001-2004-2007 Mapped Wall-to-Wall with


Landsat 7 Data: New Methods Exploring the Recently Opened Landsat Archive
/ La cartographie du couvert forestier et de la dforestation en Afrique centrale
Mark Broich, Bernard Adusei, Matthew Hansen, Peter Potapov, and Erik
Lindquist
GeographicInformationScienceCenterofExcellence,SouthDakotaStateUniversity,Brookings,
SD57007,USA.

Introduction
Detailedcontemporarymapsofforestcoveranddeforestationarecriticalforpolicythataimsto
regulateandreducedeforestation.Mappingforestcoveranddeforestationwithopticalremote
sensing data over Central Africa is challenging because of persistent cloud cover. Previously,
moderate spatial resolution walltowall maps were generated by compositing few selected
Landsatimageswithlimitedcloudcoverforthe1990and2000epochs1.Therecentopeningof
the EROS Landsat archive, the largest and longest record of remote sensing data at moderate
spatialresolution,providedanunprecedentedopportunitytocreatedeforestationmapsat60m
x60mpixelsizeandahightemporalresolution.
Methods
Wegeneratedimagecompositescenteredon2001,04,07anddeforestationmapsfor200104
and200407usingapproximately60ETM+imagesperpath/rowoverCentralAfrica.Persistent
cloudcover andscan gaps duetothe SLCoffstatemadeit necessary to compileimagery over
three years (e.g. the composite centered on 2001 used data from 19992002) to produce gap
free composites2. The number of images used for each composite is shown in Table 1. We
considered every cloudfree and cloud shadowfree observation of every pixel across 73
path/rows from 2000 to 2008. The data were passed through an automatic processing chain
consistingofdarkobjectsubtractionnormalization,acrosstracknormalization,cloudandcloud
shadow masking, forest classification, median compositing, and deforestation classification
usingadecisiontreealgorithm.

1Hansen,M.C.,Roy,D.,Lindquist,E.,Justice,C.O.,&Altstaat,A.(2008).AmethodforintegratingMODISandLandsat
dataforsystematicmonitoringofforestcoverandchangeintheCongoBasin.RemoteSensingofEnvironment,112,2
4952513.
2Lindquist,E.,Hansen,M.,Roy,D.P.,&Justice,C.O.(2008).Thesuitabilityofdecadalimagedatasetsformapping
tropicalforestcoverchangeintheDemocraticRepublicofCongo:Implicationsforthemiddecadalgloballandsurvey.
InternationalJournalofRemoteSensing,29,72697275.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

45

Table1.NumberofLandsatimagesusedtocreatethreeyearcomposites.
Compositecenteredon

Numberof
Imagesused

2001

1,272

2004

1,258

2007

1,200

All

3,730

Datavolume

~1.5TB

Results
We produced image composites and deforestation maps for the entire study area. The
compositesaregenerallygapfreeandonlyareasalongthecoastshowdatagapsduetoclouds
andscangaps.AnexampleofastudyareawidecompositeisshowninFigure1.Thecomposites
are spatially consistent and their spatial resolution of 60m x 60m allows the provision of
locallyandregionallyrelevantdeforestationinformation(Figure2).Deforestationinthestudy
areaisdominatedbysmallsubsistenceagriculturalclearingsthatcauseaslowencroachmentof
theruralcomplexintoareaswithprimaryforestcover.

Figure 1. Landsat image composite (5/4/7 RGB) centered on 2001. This cloudfree composite
provides a spatially consistent dataset between the Central African coast in the west and the
Ugandanboarderintheeast.Thepixelsizeof60mx60mallowstheprovisionoflocallyand
regionallyrelevantdeforestationinformation.TheareaoutlinedinredisshowninFigure2.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

46

Figure2.Landsatimagecomposite(5/4/7RGB)oftheareaaroundButa,DemocraticRepublicof
theCongo.Deforestation200104and0407isshowninredandyellow,respectively.
For selected Central African Regional Program for the Environment (CARPE1) landscapes we
calculated annual deforestation rates for the 20012007 interval. We compared deforestation
rates inside these landscapes with rates calculated within a 100km buffer zone around each
landscape (Figure 3). All annual rates (percent deforestation within the study area) were
<0.25%andratesinsidetheCARPElandscapeswere<=0.16%.Thedeforestationratesinside
SanghaTriNational andwithin the 100kmbuffer aroundthis landscape were similar, yet the
buffers around MaringaLoporiWamba and IturiEpuluAru showed higher rates than the
landscapesthemselves(Table2).Wedidnotyetprovideratesforthewesternpartofthestudy
areawherealowersignaltonoiseratioduetofewercloudfreeobservationsrequirerefinement
oftheprocessingalgorithm.

1
2

Figure3.AnnualdeforestationrateswerecalculatedforselectedCARPE2landscapes(red)anda
100kmbufferaroundtheselandscapes(yellow).Thelandscapesinvestigatedare1)SanghaTri
National,2)MaringaLoporiWamba,and3)IturiEpuluAru.

1http://carpe.umd.edu/
2http://carpe.umd.edu/

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

47

Table 2. Annual deforestation rates 20012007 within three CARPE Landscapes1 and within a
100kmbufferabouttheselandscapes.RefertoFigure3forlocationofthelandscapes.
Landscapename

%annualdeforestation

inside
landscape

insidebuffer

SanghaTri
National

0.12

0.11

MaringaLopori
Wamba

0.13

0.23

IturiEpuluAru

0.16

0.25

Conclusion
Theimagecompositesanddeforestationmapspresentedherearevaluableforpolicysupportas
they provide full cover information for Central Africa generated through a consistent,
automated, and reproducible method at an unprecedented temporal resolution of three years.
This temporal resolution and spatial consistency of our product is possible thanks to the now
freelyaccessibleLandsatarchive,therichestglobalarchiveofsystematicallyacquiredmoderate
spatialresolutionremotesensingimagery2.

11USGS/EROS.(2008).FreeLandsatScenesGoPublicbytheMillion

http://landsat.usgs.gov/products_data_at_no_charge.php

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

48

Transition to a regional mapping initiative : OSFAC / OSFAC vers un


monitoring rgulier des forts du bassin du Congo : Transition vers une
exploitation Rgionale
Landing Mane, Patrick Lola Amani, Guguy Mangono, Marcelline Ngomba, Eddy
Bongwele, Huguette Ngilambi
ObservatoireSatellitaldesFortsdAfriqueCentrale(OSFAC)

Introduction
LObservatoireSatellitaldesFortsdAfriqueCentrale(OSFAC)atcreLibreville(Gabon)en
2000. LOSFAC devint alors le Reprsentant pour lAfrique Centrale du rseau Global
ObservationofForestandLandCoverDynamics(GOFCGOLD).
En 2005, lOSFAC prend le statut dOrganisation Non Gouvernemental (ONG) vocation
rgionalebaseKinshasaenRpubliqueDmocratiqueduCongoetdisposedesPointsFocaux
dans tous les pays du Bassin du Congo (Cameroun, Centrafrique, Rpublique du Congo, Congo
RD,GabonetGuineEquatoriale).
Danslecadredesesactivits,lOSFACbnficiedusoutientechniqueetfinancierdelUniversit
du Maryland (UMD), de la South Dakota State University (SDSU), de la NASA et de Central
AfricanRegionalProgramforEnvironment(CARPE)(Figure1).

Figure1.OSFACoverview.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

49

OSFAC aujourdhui
Actuellement,lesactivitsdelOSFACconcernentessentiellementtroisdomaines:
1. lemonitoringducouvertforestieretdeschangementspartldtection;
2. ladissminationdesdonnessatellitesetproduitsdrivstraverslAfriqueCentrale;et
3. le renforcement de capacits des Institutions nationales et des Organisations
internationalesdanslesdomainesdelatldtection,lutilisationduSIGetduGPS.
Entantque reprsentant de GOFC GOLD,lOSFACjoueun grand rle danslamlioration dela
qualitetdeladisponibilitdesdonnesspatialesenAfriqueCentrale.
AtraversuneconventionaveclUniversitduMarylandetlaNASA,lOSFACapudisposerdune
banquededonnestrsfourniedimagessatellites(Landsat,ASTERetSRTM)couvranttoutle
Bassin du Congo et des produits drivs dont il assure la dissmination gratuitement dans la
sousrgion.
Dans le domaine du renforcement des capacits, lOSFAC assure des formations cibles de
diffrentsniveauxenSIG,tldtectionetGPSauxstructuresnationalesetinternationales.Ace
jour,OSFACdisposededeuxlaboratoires(SIGettldtection)etcomptesonactifplusde600
personnes formes (professionnelles et tudiants) dau moins 50 institutions (Photo 1). A
traversune conventionaveclUMD, lOSFACparticipeaumonitoringdela dforestationet des
changements du couvert forestier dans le Bassin du Congo en utilisant limagerie satellitaires
(Planche1).

Planche1.FormationauseinduLaboratoireOSFAC/UniversitdeKinshasa.
CestdanscedomainedumonitoringquelesactivitsdelOSFACvontsedvelopperdavantage
dansunfuturproche.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

50


Planche2.Cartesdeschangements19902000.
OSFAC demain
SidanslesdomainesdeladissminationdesdonnesetdurenforcementdescapacitslOSFAC
aengrangunegrandeetricheexprience;danslemonitoring desforts,ildoiteffectuerdes
avancessignificativeseugardauxnouvellesproblmatiquesenrelationavecleschangements
climatiques, les activits humaines de plus en plus importantes et les questions relatives la
RductiondesEmissionslieslaDforestationetlaDgradation(REDD).
Par consquent, les activits de lOSFAC vont de plus en plus sorienter vers une exploitation
rgionale des donnes satellitaires, savoir, le monitoring rgulier des forts du Bassin du
Congo.
Dans loptique dune ralisation de ses ambitions devenir un Centre dExcellence pour le
monitoring des forts par tldtection, lOSFAC i) modernise ses quipements de travail, ii)
identifieletypedeproduitsmettreladispositiondesutilisateursetdcideurs,iii)simplique
dansplusieursprojetsetprogrammesrgionauxetinternationaux.
Acquisitiondquipementspourlelaboratoiredetldtection
Depuis octobre 2009, lOSFAC a acquis de nouveaux quipements ddis essentiellement au
monitoringdesfortsduBassinduCongo.Ilsagitde:

Serveurs (avec LINUX OS) pour larchivage et le traitement de masse de donnes


satellitaires

Workstations(avecwindowsOS)pourlanalysedesdonnesenutilisantleSIG

UPSpourlaprotectiondumatrielinformatique

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

51

Logiciels de tldtection (PCI Geomatica) et Scripts pour le traitement numrique et


lanalysedesimages,etc.

Du point de vue ressources humaines, deux Ingnieurs assists par des stagiaires
professionnelles sinvestissent totalement dans cette activit de monitoring des forts par
tldtection.
MonitoringrgulierdesFortsetproductiondinformations
LeproduitissudesactivitsdemonitoringeffectuesparlOSFACporteradsormaislenomde
FACET (Fort dAfrique Centrale Evalue par Tldtection). Cet acronyme propos par
Matthew Hansen de la SDSU comprend les informations sur la superficie des forts, leur
structure,loccupationetlutilisationdusol,leschangementsdansletempsetlespace,etc.
Laccent sera particulirement mis lanalyse de ltendue du couvert forestier et des
changements(dforestation,reforestationetdgradation)enutilisantlamthodologieWallto
Wall dveloppe par les Universits amricaines de SDSU et UMD (Hansen et al. 2008). Cette
mthodologie a t entirement transfre au laboratoire de tldtection de lOSFAC et un
personnelformsonutilisation.
Certaines thmatiques de recherche viendront sajouter celles dj en tude, il sagit entres
autres, de lanalyse des sries temporelles (annuelles, pluriannuelles, etc.), des indicateurs du
changementetlamodlisationdeladynamiquedesfortsdAfriqueCentrale.
LOSFACsorientedeplusenplusversunmonitoringrgulierdesfortsduBassinduCongoet
versunpartenariatdiversifi.
OSFACversunpartenariatmultiple
Ensusdesespartenairestraditionnels,enloccurrencelesMinistresenchargedesfortsdans
les pays du Bassin du Congo, USAID/CARPE, UMD, SDSU, NASA, FORAF (OFAC), la sphre du
partenariatdelOSFACslargitdeplusenplus.Unecollaborationtroitesemetenplaceavec
plusieursinstitutionsnationalesetinternationales:

ForestMonitor:Cartographieparticipativedesespacesetdesressourcesforestiresdes
CommunautslocalesenRpubliqueDmocratiqueduCongo(RDC).

Congo Basin Forest Fund (CBFF) et WRI : Quantification des stocks de carbone et des
missionsdanslesfortsduBassinduCongo.

START:DissminationdesdonnesdanslecadreduProjetDataInitiativeforAfrica.

GrouponEarthObservation(GEO):Forestcarbontracking(Nationaldemonstrators).

Northern Research Institute Tromso (NORUT) : Combinaison des donnes optiques et


Radar(SAR)pourlesuividesfortshumidesduCongo.

EUROSENSE : Monitoring des forts et estimation du stock de carbone dans les forts
dAfriqueCentralepourleREDD.

Conclusion
Danslecourtetmoyenterme,lavisiondelOSFACpeutsedclinercommesuit:

Fournir des informations et produits fiables pour laide la prise de dcision dans le
cadredelagestiondurabledesfortsduBassinduCongo.

Poursuivre le renforcement de capacits des partenaires dans les domaines du SIG,


tldtectionetGPS.

DevenirunCentredExcellencedanslaproductiondedonnessurlecouvertforestieret
ladynamiquedespaysagesenAfriqueCentrale.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

52


Bibliographie
Hansen, M.C., Roy, D.P., Lindquist, E., Adusei, B., Justice, C.O., Altstatt, A. (2008). A method for
integratingMODISandLandsatdataforsystematicmonitoringofforestcoverandchangeinthe
CongoBasin.RemoteSensingofEnvironment,112(5),24952513.
CARPE, UMD, SDSU (2008) : A decade of change in forest of the Congo Basin, Central Africa.
(http://carpe.umd.edu/Plone/wherecarpeworks/landscapes).
OSFAC (2009) : Brochure de prsentation de lObservatoire Satellital des Forts dAfrique
Centrale.

3.3 Estimation of Forest Carbon

Mapping and Monitoring Forest Carbon in Central Africa: Fusion of Ground and
Space Measurements / Le suivi du carbone dans les forts du Gabon: Fusion
des donnes de terrain et spatiales
Sassan Saatchia,b , Lee Whitec , Edward Mitchardd, Simon Lewise, and
Yadvinder Malhif
aJetPropulsionLaboratory,CaliforniaInstituteofTechnology
bUCLAInstituteofEnvironment,US
cAgencieNationalParcsGabon
dSchoolofGeosciences,UniversityofEdinburgh,UK
eEarth&BiosphereInstitute,SchoolofGeography,UniversityofLeeds,UK
fEnvironmentalChangeInstitute,UniversityofOxford,UK

Abstract
Recent advances in the use of space technology to measure and monitor forest structure,
biomass, and the degree of degradation have created a suite of applications in mapping and
monitoring forest carbon for both scientific analysis and carbon offset and trading markets.
These applications have also created new demands and challenges to develop statistically
systematic and spatially distributed field inventory data to both develop and verify remote
sensing algorithms and products. In this presentation, we will cover, the recent available
technology, provide a synopsis of various approaches to combine field inventory and remote
sensing data, and demonstrate the applications for mapping and monitoring forest carbon in
CentralAfrica.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

53

Canopy Textural Properties from Metric Resolution Imagery : Validation,


Sensitivity and Perspectives within REDD / Suivi de la structure forestire
Nicolas Barbier1, Pierre Couteron2, Jean-Philippe Gastellu-Etchegorry3,
Christophe Proisy4
1AMAP,ULBFNRS
2IRDAMAP
3CNRSCESBIO
4IRDAMAP

Introduction
LorsdunrcentatelierYaound,lIRDainvitsesunitsetpartenairesenAfriqueCentrale
unerflexionsurlesrecherchesprioritairesquipourraienttremenesencommunautourdes
fortsdenseshumides.Aucoursdeschanges,ilestclairementressortiquelesenjeuxassortis
ces forts appelaient un accroissement des recherches linterface entre un grand nombre de
disciplinesscientifiquesintressesparleclimat(etsonchangement),lesproblmesdesant,
lrosiondessols,lescycleshydrologiquesetgochimiques,labiodiversit,lagestionforestire,
larchologieetlesscienceshumaines.Plusparticulirement,lenjeuquereprsententlesforts
tropicales par rapport au climat se traduit par lengagement de certains pays occidentaux
Copenhague de mettre disposition plusieurs milliards de dollars dans un fond destin
ralentirladgradationdesfortsetladforestationdanslespaysduSud(REDD).Ceciconfirme
lampleurdesenjeuxsocitauxetconomiquesdsormaisenbalance(UNFCCC1,draftdecision
COP15, 2009) qui au demeurant ne se limitent pas quau stockage du carbone (habitats,
biodiversit,populationslocales,etc.).EnAfriqueCentrale,denombreuxacteursinstitutionnels
simpliquentactivementsurleterraindanslamiseenapplicationduREDD(cf.atelierconjoint
deBrazzaville,24fvrier2010). Au niveaunational,leGabonsemblemontrerlavoie,etcest
activementengagdansunprocessusdvaluationdesesressourcesenCarbone.
Onlauradonccompris,lacapacitcaractriserltatdesfortsdensesdemanirerpteet
fiablelchelleduterritoiredunpaysoudunsouscontinentdevientunenjeuimportant.La
structure forestire et ltat de dgradation des forts(quelle peutpermettre de caractriser)
acquirentlestatutdinformationdebase,tantpourlesautresdisciplinesscientifiquesquepour
les dcideurs politiques et institutionnels. Pourtant, on en est pour le moment rduit
extrapolerlesdonnesissuesdinventairesforestiers,ncessairementlocalissdanslespaceet
le temps et qui ne dcrivent la structure quau travers de variables trs simples (lies au
diamtredesarbres,dbh).MalgrlesperspectivesdemisedispositiondesdonnesSPOT5et
dinstallation dune antenne de rception en Afrique Centrale ( Libreville), les limites des
donnes satellitaires proposes (rsolution spatiale, saturation du signal optique dans les
gammes de forte biomasse), ou le cot des mthodes aroportes (e.g. LiDAR), cf. ciaprs) et
ltat des techniques de traitement ne permettent pas de fournir une information fiable et
rptesurlesbiomassesariennesetltatdedgradation,dumoinslargechelleetdansles
limitesduneoprationnalitraisonnabledanslecontextedespaysduSud2.

1UNFCCC:UnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimateChange.
2R.DeFries,F.Achard,S.Brownetal.,EnvironmentalScience&Policy10(4),385(2007).

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

54

Au sein de lUMRAMAP1, une quinzaine de chercheurs sintressent au dveloppement


dapproches nouvelles pour caractriser, comprendre et modliser la structure 3D des forts
denses,etintgrercesmodlisationsaveclinformationdetldtection.
Etat de lart
Deux approchesdominent lheure actuellepour tenter dexplorerlastructure etla biomasse
desfortsdenseslargechelle.Lapremiresebasesurdesinventairesforestiers,coteuxet
peu reproductibles dans le temps, car les surfaces traites par chantillonnage peuvent tre
tendues.Ilssontengnralrestreintslamesuredesdiamtreshauteurdepoitrine(DBH)
pourlesindividusdeplusde10cmdeDBH2.Lesinterpolationsdanslespacepartirdetelles
donnes,endpitdeleurslimites,fontfoiauxyeuxdunepartiedelacommunautscientifique3.
Lautre approche se base sur des donnes optiques multispectrales (MODIS, Landsat, etc.) ou
radar (bande Uk, X ou L), de rsolution spatiale moyenne (dcamtrique hectomrique)4.
Cependant,cessignauxontclairementmontrleurlimitespourdtecterdesdiffrencesausein
defortsfortebiomasse(>250t/ha,voiremoins)5.
Unealternativeencorepeuexploitepasseparlutilisationdelinformationtexturaledisponible
dansdesimagesoptiquesdersolutionmtrique(pixelsprocheouinfrieurs1m;Quickbird,
Ikonos, GeoEye, Formosat, etc.). Correctement exploite, la texture permet de quantifier
lorganisation de la canope (rarement accessible du sol) quant au nombre, la taille et la
distributionspatialedescouronnesdesarbresdominantsetdestroues.Enraisondesrelations
allomtriques relativement gnrales, quoique encore explorer, qui rgissent lorganisation
des forts denses6, de tels indices texturaux, comme ceux issus de la mthode FOTO (Fourier
transformTexturalOrdination,voirFigure1)miseaupointlAMAP,permettentdobtenirde
bonnes corrlations, non seulement avec la distribution de taille des couronnes7, mais aussi
avecle DBH moyen, la densit, la hauteur8, ou mme la biomasse pige (Figure 2)9, (sans
saturationapparentejusqu500t/ha).Pouruneapplicationlargechelle,ilfautcependant(i)
vrifier la robustesse de ces corrlations, tablies aux travers dtudes de cas limites, sur de
grandes surfaces; (ii) tre mme demployer des images acquises dans des conditions
diffrentes.Ilestparticulirementimportantdepouvoirmitigerleseffetsdesanglesdeprisede
vue et de soleil, qui modifient la taille des ombres perues et donc la texture. Ces effets ont
cependantputrecaractriss,etrduits,aucoursdenosrecherchesantrieures8,permettant
lapublicationdelapremirecartedestructuredecanopepourlebassinAmazonien.Uneautre
approcheencoursdtude,estbasesurdesdonnesLiDAR(LightDetectionandRanging),et
prsente galement des aspects prometteurs. Les capteurs petite empreinte (rsolution

1BotaniqueetBioinformatiquedel'ArchitecturedesPlantes(http:/amap.cirad.fr)
2Y.Malhi,D.Wood,T.R.Bakeretal.,GlobalChangeBiol12(7),1107(2006).
3 J Penman, M Gytarsky, T Hiraishi et al. eds., Definitions and methodological options to inventory emissions from
dirext humaninduced degradataion of forest and devegetation of other vegetation types. (IPCC National GHG
InventoriesProgrammeIGES,2003).
4S.S.Saatchi,R.A.Houghton,R.C.D.S.Alvalaetal.,GlobalChangeBiol13(4),816(2007).A.Baccini,N.Laporte,S.J.
Goetzetal.,EnvironmentalResearchLetters3(4)(2008).
5G.M.Foody,IntJRemoteSens24(20),4035(2003);G.P.Asner,EnvironmentalResearchLetters4(3)(2009).
6B.West,B.J.Enquist,andJ.H.Brown,PNatlAcadSciUSA106(17),7040(2009).
7N.Barbier,PCouteron,CProisyetal.,GlobalEcolBiogeogr19(1),72(2010).
8P.Couteron,R.Pelissier,E.A.Nicolinietal.,JApplEcol42(6),1121(2005).
9C.Proisy,P.Couteron,andF.Fromard,RemoteSensEnviron109(3),379(2007).

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55

mtrique) sont pour linstant uniquement aroports. Si les informations sur la structure de
canope quils procurent sont extrmement riches et ont dmontr leur pertinence face aux
fortstempres,larptitiondansletempsetlespaceestobligatoirementtrslimitedansle
contextedespaysduSud,comptetenuducotdesurvol.Detellesdonnespeuventcependant
servirdebaselacalibrationdautresmthodessurdessitesderfrence.

Peaks at
dominant
frequencies

Figure 1. Illustration du fonctionnement de la mthode FOTO : A partir de donnes optiques


mtriques, la texture (structure spatiale) de la canope est quantifie dans des fentres d1ha
environ.Cettequantificationsefaitsurbasedupriodogramme2DdeFourier,quiquantifiela
proportion de variance explique par des fonctions priodiques de frquences variables dans
toutes les directions11. (a) Spectres radiaux (moyenne du priodogramme 2D dans toutes les
directions) pour des canopes grains contrasts. On voit que les spectres prsentent un pic
pour des frquences croissantes en fonction de la finesse du grain de canope. (b) Ordination
multivarie(ACP)dungrandjeudimagesdecanopesurbasedeleurspectresradiaux10.Laxe
dominant(abscisse)reprsenteclairementungradientdefinessedetexture.

Figure2.Corrlationentrelabiomassepigeinversesurbasedelatexturedecanopeetla
biomassemesuresurleterraindansdespeuplementsdemangroves(Guyane).11
Projet
Le prsent projet de recherche part du constat quune quantification large chelle de la
structure et de la dgradation des forts est indispensable pour tudier : (i) leur

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

56

fonctionnement, ce qui comprend les dterminismes environnementaux et les lois


dorganisationquilesrgissent;(ii)leurinteractionavecleclimat(e.g.cyclesducarboneetde
leau); (iii) leur interaction avec les socits humaines (exploitation/dgradation, sant); (iv)
leurcomposition (biodiversit vgtale).Lobjectif duprojet comprend le dveloppement etla
validationdemthodologiesoprationnellespourlamesuredelastructureetdeladynamique
des forts denses par tldtection et ncessite de comprendre le lien entre la structure
forestireetlinformation(signauxphysiquesdediffrentstypes)obtenuepartldtection.Les
progrs les plus probables court terme reposent sur lutilisation de donnes optiques de
rsolution mtrique, via des approches spatialement explicites (texture) comme la mthode
FOTO, qui quantifient lorganisation de la canope. Les approches employes dans les
recherches en cours consistent (i) mettre en relation les donnes de tldtection avec des
paramtres forestiers acquis au sol sur des superficies importantes, et (ii) modliser le
transfert du signal dans des peuplements de diffrentes structures modliss en 3D. Ce projet
ncessiteralappuidephysiciensdusignal(C.Proisy,IRDAMAP;J.P.GastelluEtchegorryetT.
LeToan,UMRCESBIO)etlacollaborationdebureauxdtudes(FRM),dinstitutions(UNREDD,
ministres, CIRAD, etc.) et dentreprises (forestires), impliqus dans la mise en uvre
damnagementsforestiersenAfriqueCentrale,etdtenantdesdonnesdinventaireforestier.
WP1Texturevalidation
Lobjectif densemble de ce WP est de faire le lien entre la texture, telle que quantifie par la
mthode FOTO, et le structure forestire mesure sur le terrain dans des types forestiers
diversifis. Un important chantier de validation de la mthode FOTO, a ainsi t entam par
lAMAP en Afrique Centrale (Cameroun, Gabon, RCA, Congo, RDC). Une trentaine dimages
optiquesdersolutionmtriqueontdjtacquises;dautresacquisitionssontencours.Surle
terrain, une collaboration avec le bureau dtude FRM (Montpellier) nous permet daccder
une large base de donnes dinventaires forestiers (14106 ha chantillonns 1%) couvrant
une gamme de couverts forestiers intacts et dgrads. Pour la conversion de ces donnes
dinventairesenbiomasse/carbone,desprotocolesdemesuresdestructivessontprvuslorsde
prochaines phases dexploitation forestire. Des travaux similaires sont dailleurs prvus par
diffrentesinstitutionsdelasousrgion,notammentauGabon.
WP2Quantificationdelatexturemodlisation
Lamodlisationresteunintermdiaireindispensablepourvaliderlapprocheetcomprendreses
limites,faceaucotdacquisitiondedonnesstructuralesprcises(etleslimitesintrinsques
lobservationdeterrain),surdessuperficiesimportantesetintervalledetempsrgulier,etsur
une priode compatible avec les dynamiques lentes des forts denses. Au cours des trois
dernires annes, nous avons pu simuler des peuplements tridimensionnels simples
(maquettes),pourensuiteobtenirdesimages2Ddelacanope,grceunmodleralistede
transfertdusignallectromagntique,DART1.Entermesdetexturedimages,lesrpliquesainsi
produites se sont avres suffisamment ralistes pour sinsrer de faon cohrente dans des
classificationstexturalesavecdevraiesimagesdecanope,bienqueseuleslestextureslesplus
simples (peuplements structures homognes) aient t reproduites. Une approche
complmentaireatdesebasersurunedescriptionprcisedelasurfacedecanopefournie
pardesdonnesLiDARaroportesetderecrerlquivalentdedonnesmtriquesoptiquesen
simulant le transfert du signal lumineux. ceci afin dtudier de manire systmatique la
distribution des effets instrumentaux sur la texture (notamment via les effets dombrage) en

1GastelluEtchegorry,J.P.(2008)MeteorolAtmosPhys102,187207.

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57

fonction des angles soleil et capteur (en introduisant la notion de Bidirectional Texture
DistributionFunction).

Pan Tropical Biomass Mapping in Support of Forest Monitoring / Une premiere


estimation de la biomasse ligneuse arienne dAfrique sur la base dimages
satellites et dinventaires forestiers
N. Laportea, A. Baccinia, S. Goetza, P. Mekuib, A. Bauscha
aWoodsHoleResearchInstitute(WHRC)
bMinistredesEauxetForts,del'EnvironnementetduDveloppementDurable(Gabon)

Rsum
L'Afrique a lun des plus grands blocs de fort humide tropicale au monde et possde un
potentiel dmissions de dioxyde de carbone (CO2) lev connatre avec une plus grande
prcision la quantit et la distribution du carbone dans ces forts aidera valuer plus
exactementlesmissionsdeCO2associesladforestationetladgradation.
En 2008, Le Woods Hole Research Center (WHRC) a produit une premire carte de la
distributiondebiomasseligneuseariennecouvrantlargiontropicaledel'Afriqueenutilisant
desimagessatellitesducapteurMODISlarsolutionde(1km)avecdesdonnesd'inventaires
forestiersrcents,couvrantlapriode20002003.Nousavonsdveloppunmodlestatistique
quiexplique82%deavariancedelabiomasseligneusearienneavecuneerreurquadratique
moyenne de 50.5 Mg/ha. La carte prsente un gradient de biomasse allant de 0 a 354 Mg/ha.
Nous avons trouv une corrlation leve (r2 : 0.90) entre notre carte de la biomasse et la
hauteur de la canope qui ont t drives de donnes lidar du Systme Laser Altimtrique
Goscience(GLAS).LesdonnesGLASsontmaintenantcalibresavecdesinventairesforestiers
rcents afin de dvelopper une nouvelle carte de la biomasse ligneuse arienne 500m de
rsolutionpour20062007.Cettecarteatprsente laCOP15deCopenhagueetellesera
distribue Cancun lors de la Confrence des parties (COP16). La carte de 20002003 est
accessiblecesiteinternethttp://www.whrc.org/africa/carbonmap2000.htm
Introduction
Les forts contiennent environ 80% des stocks globaux de carbone ligneux arien et 40% du
carbone total (sol, feuille, racines) et elles jouent un rle important dans le cycle du carbone
global1.Lesfortstropicalessontaussiunpuitdecarboneimportant2.EnAfrique,onestimeque
les forts denses humides fixent environ 0.63 MgC/ha/an3 mais la dforestation tropicale
mondialecontribueenvironuncinquimedutotaldesmissionsannuellesdesgazaeffetde
serred'origineanthropiquedansl'atmosphre.4

1HoughtonRA2005Glob.ChangeBiol.1194558
2StephensBBetal2007Science31617325
3Lewis,SimonL.etal,2009Nature45710031006.
4HoughtonR2007Annu.Rev.EarthPlanet.Sci.3531347

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58

L'Afriquealedeuximeplusgrandblocdeforttropicaledanslemonde,aprsceluidubassin
de l'Amazone, mais c'est un des moins connu en termes de stocks de carbone et des taux de
conversion des forts1. Cest en Afrique centrale, que les blocs de forts humides les plus
importants stendent, ils sont menacs par la dgradation associe l'exploitation forestire
industrielle2etladforestationpourl'agriculture3.
La tldtection a t utilise depuis longtemps pour tudier la structure forestire et la
biomasseligneusearienne.4,5Bienquelesobservationsobtenuespartldtectionnemesurent
pasdirectementlabiomasse,laradiomtrieestsensiblelastructuredelavgtation(taillede
lacouronneetladensitdesarbresetc.),latextureesttrssensiblel'ombreportedesgrands
arbres, donnant une rugosit du couvert plus importante, et la radiomtrie est corrles la
biomasse, en particulier dans les bandes infrarouges courtes. Par consquent, les mesures
obtenues par tldtection, rflectance spectrale, peuvent tre des prdicteurs utiles de la
biomasse6.Plusrcemment,lelidar(LightDetectionAndRanging)atutilispourcaractriser
avecsuccslastructureverticaledelavegetation,lahauteur,etd'endduireuneestimationde
biomasse.7,8
Donnes et mthodes
Zoned'tude
Lazoned'tudecouvreenviron20millionsdekmdAfriquetropicale.Largionsecaractrise
par un gradient de formations vgtales important allant des forts tropicales humides aux
savanessches.9,10
DonnesMODIS
Nous avons selection lesdonnes MODIS(NBAR) produit gratuit MOD43B4.V4pour cette
tude.LeproduitNBARatcorrigdesproblmesderflectancebidirectionnelle,etdeseffets
atmosphriques11.Ceproduitaunersolutiontemporellede16joursetunersolutionspatiale
de 1km. Les sept bandes spectrales de MODIS de la longueur d'onde 459 nm 2155 nm sont
utilises. Pour chaque bande spectrale la meilleure mosaque temporelle a t construite pour
lensembledelAfriqueencombinant4annesconscutivesdedonnesentre2000et2003,ceci
apermisdeproduireunemosaiquequinestpasaffecteparlesnuages.

1LaporteN.,S.Lin,J.LeMoigne,D.Devers,andM.Honzak(2004),TowardanIntegratedForestMonitoringSystemfor
Central Africa. In: Land Change Science: Observation, Monitoring, and Understanding Trajectories of Change on the
EarthSurface,RemoteSensingandDigitalImageProcessing,Vol(6),Ed.G.Gutman.ISBN:1402025629,p97110.
2Laporte,N.T.,J.A.Stabach,R.Grosch,T.S.Lin,andS.J.Goetz.2007.ExpansionofIndustrialLogginginCentralAfrica.
Science316:1451.
3HansenM.C.etal2008.Proc.NatlAcad.Sci.USA105943944
4DobsonMC2000J.For.98(6)413
5BacciniA,FriedlM,WoodcockCandWarbinghtonR.2004.Geophys.Res.Lett.31L1050
6ShugartHH,ChavezLBandKasischkeES2000For.Sci.4647886.
7LefskyMA,HardingDJ,KellerM,CohenWB,CarabajalCC,EspiritoSantoFDB,
HunterMOanddeOliveiraR.2005.Geophys.Res.Lett.32L22S02.
8DrakeBJ,DubayahRO,KnoxRG,ClarkDBandBlairJB2002RemoteSens.Environ.81378392
9LaporteN,GoetzS,JusticeCandHeinickeM1998Int.J.RemoteSens.19353750
10WhiteF.1983.TheVegetationofAfrica(LaChauxdefonds,Switzerland:UNESCO)
11SchaafCBetal.2002.RemoteSens.Environ.8313548
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PourlamosaqueMODISde20062007,nousavonsutilislammetechnique,maislesdonnes
sont la rsolution spatiale de 500m au lieu de 1km, cette mosaque sera lorigine de la
prochainecartedelabiomasseligneuseaeriennepourlAfriquedveloppeparleWHRC.
GLASmesureslidar
L'instrument GLAS bord du satellite (ICESat) est un capteur lidar. Initialement conu pour
l'observationdesglaciers1,ilchantillonnelasurfacedelaplanteavecuneempreintede65m
ausol.Lesmesureslidaronttutilisesdepuislongtempspourcaractriserlastructuredela
vgtation10 et la biodiversit2. Drake et al (2003) ont constat une corrlation forte entre la
biomasse ligneuse aerienne et la hauteur de la canope ainsi que l'nergie mdiane (home)
drivedesmesuresdelidarenforttropicale3.
Lesdonnesdinventairesforestiers
Pour la carte de 20002003, les biomasses ont t calcules partir d'inventaires forestiers
existants en Rpublique du Congo (ROC), au Cameroun et en Ouganda. Nous avons utiliss le
produitLandsatGeoCoverpourdterminervisuellements'ilyavaiteudeladgradationoudes
changements de loccupation des terres entre la priode de mesure des images MODIS et les
mesuresdeterrain.
Pourlacartede20062007,lesbiomassessonttiresdenospropresinventaires.Danscecas,la
mthode dchantillonage a t conue dans loptique de calibrer les donnes GLAS dont
lempreinteausolestde64m.Ilfautdoncabsolumentquelesparcellessoitdetailleinferieure
celle de lempreinte de mesure lidar pour la calibrer le plus prcisment possible. Plusieurs
centainesdepointsdemesuresnouspermettentalorsdedvelopperunmodlestatistiquequi
liedirectementlesbiomassesestimespartirdesinventairesforestiersaveclesdonnesGLAS.
Dans ce cas, la parcelle chantillonne est dune surface de 40m par 40 m, et tous les arbres
vivantsdeDBH>5cmsontmesurs.Deplus,leshauteursdes3arbreslesplusgrandspartir
du centre de la parcelle sont mesures. Le protocole est disponible en envoyant un courrier
lectroniquecetteadresse:biomass@whrc.org
RpubliqueduCongo
Nous avons utilis des mesures d'inventaire recueillies par la Congolaise Industrielle des Bois
(CIB)surlapriode20012003,portantsurquatreunitsd'amnagementforestierdanslenord
de la Rpublique du Congo. L'intensit d'chantillonnage tait de 1% pour les grands arbres
(diamtre dutroncde40cmetplus),0,5%pourarbres depetitetaille(danslagamme 2040
cm)et0,2%pourlesarbresenrgnration(520cmdelarge)4.Pourlesgrandsetlespetits
arbres, tous les individus ont t dnombrs; pour les arbres en rgnration seulement les
espces commerciales. Nous avons utilis lquation allomtrique de Brown5 pour driver la
biomassedesdonnesdinventaire.Autotal,942pointsd'chantillonnageonttretenus.

1ZwallyHJetal2002J.Geodyn.3440545.
2GoetzS,SteinbergD,DubayahRandBlairB2007RemoteSens.Environ.10825463
3DrakeBJ,KnoxRG,DubayahRO,ClarkDB,ConditR,BlairJBandHoftonM.2003.
Glob.Ecol.Biogeogr.1214759.
4 Wilks C 2003 An outside look at the CIB management inventory in northern Congo Technical Report Congolaise
IndustrielledesBois
5BrownS,PearsonT,MooreN,ParveenA,AmbagisSandShochD2005.Impactofselectiveloggingonthecarbon
stockoftropicalforests:RepublicofCongoasacasestudyTechnicalReport6WinrockInternational

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60

InventairesduCameroun
Ilss'tendentsurenviron200kmpar700kmdefortsdensehumide.Commedanslecasdela
Rpublique du Congo, les images Landsat GeoCover ont t utilises pour exclure les
chantillons o des changements du couvert forestier avaient pris place entre le moment des
inventaires (1994) et les acquisitions MODIS (20002003). Dans ce cas, les mesures
dinventairesavaienttdjconvertiesenbiomasseenutilisantlesquationsallomtriquesde
Brown1.Autotal,61pointsd'chantillonnageonttretenus.
Ouganda
Lesdonnesdebiomasseontttiresdelacartedelinventairenationaldelabiomasse2.Les
mesuressurleterrainonttrecueilliesentre1995et1999.Aprsuncontrledespointsavec
LandsatGeoCover,nousavonsretenu442pointsd'chantillonnagepournotreanalyse.
Mthodes
Un modle statistique de type Regression Tree a t utilis dans de nombreuses tudes de
tldtection.3,4 Ici le Random Forest, est utilis pour prdire la biomasse en intgrant les
chantillons de biomasse de lOuganda, de la Rpublique du Congo et du Cameroun avec les
mesures de rflectance des 7 bandes de MODIS sur la priode 20002003. Pour valuer la
prcisiondecemodle,unsouschantillondedonnesdebiomasseatrservafindefaire
unevalidationcroise.Nousavonsainsigard10%(154chantillons)desdonnes,quiontt
extraitesdefaonalatoire
Pour la carte de 20062007, nous sommes encore dans une phase de collection des donnes
dinventaires pour un chantillon de points de mesure lidar (GLAS). Des donnes ont dj t
collectes en Tanzanie, en Uganda, au Gabon et en Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo pour
lAfrique, ainsi que dans plusieurs pays de lAmazonie et de lAsie du sudest. La carte de la
biomassefinaleseradistribuepourlensembledestropiquesendcembre2010laCOP16.
Rsultats pour la carte de 2000-2003
Lacartedelabiomasseligneusearienne(Figure1)prsenteungradientdebiomasseallantde
0a354Mg/ha.LesvaleurslespluslevessontconcentresenAfriquecentrale,danslesforts
denses humides. Il faut cependant noter des biomasses importantes pour les forts sches au
suddelaRpubliqueDmocratiqueduCongo,enZambie,etenTanzanie.Lesbiomasseslesplus
faiblessobserventdanslesrgionssaheliennesauMali,BurkinaFasoetauSoudan.Danscette
rgion,lavgtationsecaractriseparuncouvertdarbresclairsemsdetailleplusrduiteque
ceuxdesfortsdenseshumides.Cepaysageestdominparlarflectancedusolnu.

1 Brown Estimating biomass and biomass change of tropical forests. A primer Technical Report 134 Food and
Agriculture
OrganizationofUnitedNations(FAO),RomeBrownS,PearsonT,MooreN,ParveenA,Ambagis
2DrichiP.2003.Nationalbiomassstudy2003TechnicalReportForestDepartment,POBox1613,Kampala,Uganda.
3HansenM,DubayahRandDeFriesR1996.Int.J.RemoteSens.17107581.
4SaatchiSS,HoughtonRA,AlvalaDS,SoaresJVandYuY2007Glob.ChangeBiol.1381637.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

61

Figure1.Cartedeladistributiondelabiomasse20002003.
Le modle statistique dvelopp pour cette carte explique 82% de variance de la biomasse
ligneusearienneavecuneerreurquadratiquemoyennede50.5Mg/ha.Nousavonstrouvune
corrlationleve(r2:0.90)entrenotrecartedelabiomasseetlahauteurdelacanopequia
tdrivedesdonneslidarduSystmeLaserAltimtriqueGoscience(GLAS);aveclesplus
grandsarbresassocisauxbiomasseslespluslevesetlesarbreslespluspetitsauxbiomasses
les plus faibles. Parce que la biomasse forestire est lie de la taille des arbres (DHP et la
hauteur)etlenombred'arbresparunitdesurface,lesmesureslidarsontdonctrsutilespour
estimer la biomasse. Nos rsultats sont cohrents avec ceux des autres tudes lidar de la
biomassedesfortstropicales.1
Cette carte nous permetde faire desestimations de stocksdecarbonepar type devgtation,
par pays ou pour lensemble de lAfrique centrale, dans le tableau cidessous nous avons
reproduit la table 12.7a. du chapitre 12 du rapport sur lEtat des forts dAfrique Centrale de
2008. Les estimations combinent notre carte de la biomasse ligneuse arienne avec une carte
destypesdevgtationdeMayauxetal(2004).2
LestockdecarbonetotalestimdanslebasinduCongopartirdelacarteMODIS(tableau1)
estde48gigatonnes;ilestde46gigatonnespourlerapportdeltatdesforts3.Aveclessentiel
ducarbonecontenudanslesFortdensehumidedebassealtitudeferme(54%)etlaclassede
mosaqueFort/savane(10%).

1LefskyMA,etal.2005.Geophys.Res.Lett.32L22S02.
2MayauxP,BartholomeE,FritzSandBelwardA2004J.Biogeogr.31117.
3NasiR.etal,2008.StateoftheForest2008:TheforestsoftheCongobasin.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

62

Tableau1.EstimationdustockdecarbonetotaldanslebasinduCongo.
Typedevegetation(1)

Surface
Km2
(2)

Fortdensehumidedebasse
altitudeferme
Fortdensedaltitude
moyenne

Carboneaerien
(0.47C/AGB)
(3)

R/S
(4)

Carbonedans
racines
(5)

Carbone
organiquesol
(6)

155458587

16331007160

0.235

3837786683

5907426304

11202854

1370017427

0.235

321954095.4

Fortdemontagne

2226266

202060411.9

0.235

47484196.8

Fortmarcageuse

13309942

1568144699

0.235

368514004.3

Mosaquedefort/terre
cultive

22609376

1838379240

0.275

505554291.1

Mosaquedefort/savane

54457481

2003950227

0.42

841659095.2

Fortdensedcidue

28916729

1145526991

0.275

Savanesboisesdcidues

62970922

1362919545

0.322

9990291

122301097.9

20032272

285322241.4

Savanesarbustivesdcidues,
arbrespars
Savanearbustivedcidue
ouverte
Savanesherbeusesfermes
Savaneherbeuseouverteavec
arbustespars
Savanesherbeusesouvertes
Savaneherbeuseparse
Marais,broussaillesetprairies
BasinduCongo

26076.22

425708455.2

2117.68

84598107.08
505777783.6

334.14
2442.44

859156292.9

3203.09

2069384289

4914.99

315019922.5

1098835703

2559.38

438860093.4

2392895046

4194.67

0.42

51366461.14

379631069

553.30

0.42

119835341.4

761226348.9

1166.38

9070093

87775261.15

0.42

36865609.68

344663546.9

469.30

314603

926326.90

0.42

389057.29

1975

0.42

12364

23729.20578

0.42

9966.27

0.42

13631530.8

1340156

TotalC
(millionsde
tonnes)

32456025.71

11954931.52

13.27
0

469844.4701
50925920.06

0.50
97.01
48142.37

NousavonsutilislesmmescoefficientsdeconversionqueNasietal,2008.
(1)Type de vgtations (Global Land cove 2000) (2) Surfaces de pays ( FAO, 2005) (3) AGC
carbonearien(facteurdeconversionpourpasserdelabiomasseaucarboneestde(0.47)(4)
RS ratio racine/tige ilvarie enfonction dutype de vgtation (5)R Carbone dans racines (6)
COScarboneorganiquedanssol.
Letableau2prsentelesrsultatsdesestimationsdestockdecarbone(enmillionsdetonnes)
poursix(6)paysdubasinduCongoetlescompareauxtudesdeNasietal.(2008)etdeGibbs
et al. (2007). De faon gnrale, notre mthodologie a produit des estimations qui paraissent
suprieures celles de Gibbs et al. (2007) et infrieures celles de Nasi et al. (2008). Ces
rsultats obtenus partir de la carte MODIS pourraient tre considrs comme des valeurs
moyennes des estimations de stock de carbone pour ces pays du basin du Congo. Nanmoins,
nous constatons de faon exceptionnelle quil y a deux (2) pays o nous avons obtenu des
valeurs plus leves par rapport aux tudes susmentiones, savoir la rpublique du Congo
(4455contre4219et3455)etdelaRpubliqueDmocratiqueduCongo(29507contre27258et
20418)(unites:millionsdetonnes).

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

63

Tableau2.BiomasseetstockdecarboneestimspartirdeMODISGLC2000parpays(millions
detonnes).
Name
Fort dense humide de basse altitude
ferme
Fortmarcageuse
Fortdensedaltitudemoyenne
Fortdemontagne

Cameroun

ROC

Gabon

R.CAF

2974.6

3523.7

1.2

887.4

14.3

1539.6

13.9

3.8

4.44

1958.1

137.3

0.01

23.5

3054.9

3862

Mosaquefort/terrescultives

286.9

Mosaquefort/savane

617
0

257.2
0.45
100.3
5.99

0
3551.9
190.8
0.36
20.3
4.63

311.2

RDC

2892.9

TotalFortdensehumide(14)

Fortdensedcidue

GuineeEq.

1317.3

315

310.6

1321.7

53.5

31.63

0.032

1692.9

18864.7
2382.9
2604.1
2438.7

Savanesboisesdcidues

608

Savanes arbustives dcidues, arbres


pars

110

239

TotalparpaysWHRC

4677

4465

3807

371

4733

29507

Nasietal,200827

5043

4219

4383

445

5460

27258

Gibbsetal,20071

3454

3458

3063

268

3176

20418

39.2

2.89

15056.5

1455.5

0.03

231.48

2117.6
1099.5

Limitation du modle utilis


Ce modle tend sousvaluer les valeurs de biomasse leves et linverse surestimer les
biomasseslesplusfaibles.Cettetendanceestintrinsqueauxmodelesstatsitiquedetypearbre
de regression. Cette limitation en soit nest pas un problme pour la REDD puisquil est
recommanddavoirdesestimationsconservativesducarbone.
Le modle est aussi fortement influenc par le nombre dchantillons utiliss pour
lapprentissage et leur reprsentativit de lensemble des biomasses existantes, et donc de la
variabilitdelabiomasseenAfrique.Bienquenotrechantillonsoitreprsentatifdugradient
debiomasseenAfriquecentrale,ilseraitsouhaitablederajouterdesparcellespourleszonesde
faiblebiomasseenzonesahlienne.
Conclusions
Malgrleseffortspourtendredesmesuresdinventaires,notammentparlebiaisdelaFAO,il
existeactuellementpeudinventairespourlensembledespaysdelaCOMIFAC.Lesinventaires
sont limits et coteux. En attendant le dploiement dinventaire lchelle nationale pour
lensemble des pays de la COMIFAC, la combinaison dinventaires forestiers plus reduit, mais
representatifdelensembledesbiomassesavecdesimagessembleunboncompromis.
Ladisponibilitedunecartedeladistributiondelabiomasseetducarbonepourlespaysdela
COMIFACestunetapeimportantepourledveloppementdeleursactivitsdanslecadredela
gestion des resourcesnaturellesetaussidelaREDD.Cetteinformationestfondamentalepour
valuer avec prcision le flux de carbone provenant des activits de dforestation et de
dgradation.
Depluslenouveaurledel'Afriquedansl'conomiemondiale,enparticulierenrelationavecla
demande en nouvelles terres arables pour lagroindustrie, peut accrotre considrablement la
pressionsurlesressourcesnaturellesexistantes.Ilestdoncessentieldedisposerd'informations

1GibbsHK,BrownS,NilesJOandFoleyJA2007Environ.Res.Lett.2045023

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

64

fiablesetactuellessurladistributionspatialeducarboneafindepouvoirprdireavecplusde
prcisionlimpactdeschoixdedevelopmentconomiquessurlesfluxdecarbone.
Une nouvelle carte une resolution de 500m pour les annes 20062007 est en cours de
dveloppement laide de nombreux partenaires dans la region. Les donnes dinventaires
rcents pour lensemble des types de vgtation dAfrique centrale, permetront de mieux
calibrerlesdonnesGLASetdamliorerlacartedelabiomassersultante.
Remerciements
CestravauxonttfinancsparlaNASA(NNG05GD14GetNNS06AA06A),lesfondationsRoger
et Victoria Sant, Joseph Gleberman, et Linden. Les auteurs remercient aussi la Congolaise
IndustrielleduBois(OlivierDesmetetDominiquePaget)enRep.duCongo,leServiceForestier
National de l'Ouganda, et Miro Honzak pour avoir partag leurs jeux de donnes, et Claudia
CarabajaletMarcSimardpouravoirpartagleursconnaissancesconcernantlesdonnesGLAS
etleprogrammePlanetActionpourlesimagesimagesSPOTpourletravaildeterrainauGabon
etenUganda.

Canopy (Aerial) Carbon Stocks Measurement in Congo Basin Forest /


Estimation des stocks de carbone arien dans les forts du Bassin du Congo :
Cas des parcelles permanentes de lIturi et de la Salonga en RDC
Jean-Remy Makana
WildlifeConservationSociety

Introduction
Ladestructionetladgradationdesfortscontribuentpourprsde20%desmissionsdesgaz
effet de serre (GES) responsables du rchauffement climatique global (1GIEC 2007). Pour
attnuer lampleur des changements climatiques associs au changement de lutilisation des
terres,laconfrencedespartiesdelaCCNUCCde2007Baliaadoptunplandactionincluant
lamiseenplacedesapprochespolitiquesdoublesdincitationspositivesdansletraitementde
questionstouchantlarductiondesmissionsliesladforestationetladgradationdela
fort(REDD)danslespaysenvoiededveloppement.Toutefois,touteincitationpositivevisant
rduirelesmissionsdesgazeffetdeserre,enparticulierledioxydedecarbone(CO2),lies
auchangementdelutilisationdesterresdoitreposersurlacapacitmesureravecprcision
lesstocksdecarboneforestieret desuivrelechangementdestockoufluxdecarbonedansle
temps. Lestimation des missions de CO2 demande une connaissance des stocks (densit) de
carbone,tonnesdecarboneparunitdesurface,etdeltenduedechaquecatgoriedutilisation
desterresdansunezonedonne.Ainsi,lesdirectivesdelaCNUCCstipulentquechaquepaysqui
veut participer au mcanisme REDD doit dvelopper un systme robuste et transparent de
mesure(suivi),reportageetdevrification(MRV)desmissionsdesGESsurtoutsonterritoire
national. Ce systme MRV comprend deux composantes principales dont le suivi du couvert

1 GIEC, 2007. Bilan 2007 des changements climatiques. Contribution des Groupes I, II et III au quatrime Rapport
dvaluationduGroupedexpertsintergouvernementalsurlvolutionduclimat.GIEC,Gnve,Suisse,103pages.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

65

forestier,quisefaitparlanalysedimagessatellitaires(tldtection),etlamesuredesstockset
variationdesstocksdecarbonesurleterrain.
Importance des inventaires forestiers
Certainestechniquespermettentaujourdhuidestimerlabiomasseariennedesforts,etdonc
les stocks de carbone forestier, sur base dimages satellitaires de haute rsolution. Cependant,
les estimations les plus prcises des stocks de carbone forestier sont obtenues par les
inventaires forestiers, tandis que le monitoring des changements des stocks de carbone passe
par ltablissement des parcelles permanentes dans lesquelles les arbres sont mesurs
intervallergulier.Lesmesuresdeterrainprsententdoncdesavantagesquelestechniquesde
tldtectionnepeuventencoreoffrircejour.Premirement,lesmesuresdeterraindonnent
desestimationsplusprcisesquipermettentdedtecterlesvariationsspatiotemporellesune
chelleplusfinecapabledefournirlesinformationsrequisessurlimpactdesactivitshumaines
surleschangementsdesstocksdecarbone.Decefait,ellesserventaussitesteretcalibrerles
techniquesdemesurebasessurlanalysedimagessatellitairespourlacartographiedesstocks
de carbone grande chelle. Dans le contexte du processus REDD, les inventaires forestiers
dtaills sont requis pour quun pays puisse utiliser le niveau 3 du GIEC pour linventaire des
missionsdegazeffetsdeserreetaspirerainsiauniveaudecompensationlepluslev.
Deuximement,lesfortstropicalesjouent unrlecologiquebeaucoupplusimportantquele
simple fait de stocker le carbone. Il a dj t dmontr que les changements climatiques
peuventmodifierdefaonsignificativelesprocessuscologiquesnaturels.Destudesrcentes
indiquentuneaugmentationdestauxdecroissanceetdemortalitdesarbresetdeslianesdans
lesfortstropicales.Cephnomne,ainsiqueleschangementsdanslastructureforestireetla
composition floristique y associs sont supposs tre la consquence des changements
climatiques(1Lewisetal.2004; 2Chaveetal.2008).Seuleslesmesuresrptitivessurleterrain
peuventpermettreunetellevaluationdesimpactsduchangementclimatiquesurlastructure
etlacompositiondesforts.
Enfin,larussiteduprocessusREDDimpliqueentreautrelimplicationdesacteursresponsables
des changements de lutilisation des terres, en particulier les communauts locales qui
dpendentdesressourcesforestires.Lesmesuresdeterraintraverslesinventairesforestiers
permettent limplication des acteurs locaux travers lvaluation participative des ressources
naturelles, ce qui conduit au renforcement des capacits des communauts et facilite ainsi
lappropriationduprocessusREDDauniveaulocal.
Bien que prsentant des avantages indniables dans lestimation des stocks et les flux de
carbone forestier, les inventaires forestiers prsentent aussi quelques dsavantages dont les
plus importants sont les difficults lies la stratification et lchantillonnage, lampleur du
travaildeterrainetlescoutslevsyassocis,ainsiquelecontrledelaqualitdesdonnes.
Suivi des stocks de carbone forestier en Afrique Centrale
Une valuation de ltat des lieux des parcelles permanentes en Afrique Centrale a rvl une
grande disparit de couverture nationale et coclimatique (3Picard, 2007). Si certains pays

1 Lewis, SL, OL Phillips, TR Baker, J Lloyd, Y Malhi et al. 2004. Concerted changes in tropical forest structure and
dynamics:evidencefrom50SouthAmericanlongtermplots.Phil.Trans.R.Soc.Lond.B359:421436
2Chave,J,R.Condit,HCMullerLandau,SCThomas&CTFSGroup.2008.Assessingevidenceforapervasivealteration
intropicaltreecommunities.PloSbiology6(3):e45.doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0060045.
3Picard,N.2007.DispositifspermanentspourlesuividesfortsenAfriqueCentrale:untatdeslieux.CIRAD.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

66

commeleGabonetleCamerounpossdentdesrseauximportantsdeparcellespermanentes,la
Rpublique Dmocratique du Congo, la Rpublique Congo et la Rpublique Centrafricaine ont
trspeudeparcellespermanentes.Parailleurs,laquasitotalitdesparcellespermanentesdela
rgionsontsituesenfortsdenseshumidesdebassealtitudedeterreferme.Descosystmes
forestiersimportantscommelesfortssches,lesfortsmarcageuses,lesgaleriesforestires
etlesfortsdemontagneontfaitlobjetdetrspeudtudes.DansloptiqueduprocessusREDD
ilseraitaussiimportantdvaluerlesstocksdecarbonedanslescomplexesagricolesconstitus
desmatricesdeschampsactifs,desjachresoufortssecondairesdgesvariablesainsiquedes
lambeauxdefortsprimaires.
Parcelles permanentes de lIturi et de la Salonga
Les parcelles de lIturi, situes au nordest de la RDC, ont t tablies en 19941996 par la
Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) et le Center for Tropical Forest Science (CTFS) pour un
suivi des changements de la structure et de la composition forestire en fort primaire non
perturbes et pour comparer ces paramtres entre les forts monodominantes et les forts
mixtesdelargion.Touslesarbres1cmdhp(diamtrehauteurdepoitrine)etleslianes2
cm dhp ont t mesurs, cartographis, tiquets et identifis dans quatre parcelles de 10
hectareschacunedontdeuxsontsituesenfortsmonodominantesetlesdeuxautresenforts
mixtes(1Makanaetal.2004).Desinventairesetmensurationssubsquentsonteulieuen2001
et2007pourlesuividestauxdecroissance,demortalitetderecrutement.Lepremiertourde
mensurationsadurdeuxansetaconnulaparticipationdeplusde30personnespouruncout
total denviron $100,000. Les mensurations suivantes ont chaque fois t accomplies pendant
unepriodededouzemoisavecunequipedenviron25personnesetuncouttotalavoisinant
$130,000parcycle.
Les parcelles de la Salonga sont situes dansle plusgrand parc forestier dAfrique Centrale et
elles ont t tablies en 2007 sous linitiative conjointe de WCS, de WWF et de CTFS en
collaborationavecleMinistredelEnvironnement,ConservationdelaNatureetTourismedela
RDC(MECNT).Touslesarbres10cmdhpetleslianes5cmdhponttmesurs,tiquetset
identifis dans 17 parcelles dun hectare chacune rparties en forts primaires (9 parcelles),
forts secondaires vieilles (4 parcelles) et jeunes (4 parcelles). Pour raffiner lestimation de la
biomasse,lahauteurdetouslesarbresataussimesure.
Lestimation de la biomasse a t faite pour chaque arbre individuellement en utilisant des
quationsallomtriquesbasessurlediamtreetlahauteurdelarbre,etladensitdeboisde
lespce.Deuxmodlesallomtriquesonttutiliss.LemodlequiaservipourlIturinafait
appel qu deux variables, le diamtre et la densit du bois, tandis que celui utilis pour la
Salonga tait bas sur tous les trois variables (2Chave et al. 2005). Les deux modles se
prsententcommesuit:
BA1=xexp(1.562+2.148lnD+0.207lnD2+0.0281lnD3)
BA2=exp(2.977+ln(D2H),
oBAestlabiomasseariennedunarbre,estladensitdeboisdelespcezropourcent
dhumidit,Dlediamtrehauteurdepoitrine(1.30mdusol)etHlahauteurdelarbre.Pour

1 Makana, JR, T.B. Hart. C. Ewango, I. Liengola, J.A. Hart &R. Condit. 2004. Ituri Forest Dynamics plots, DRC. In: E.
Losos&E.Leigh(eds.)Tropical|ForestDiversityandDynamism:FindingsfromaLargeScaleNetwork.Universityof
ChicagoPress,Chicago,pp.492505.
2 Chave, J, C Andalo, S Brown, MA Cairns, JQ Chambers, D Eamus et al. Tree allometry and improved estimation of
carbonstocksandbalanceintropicalforests.Oecologia145:8799.

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lesindividusayantplusdunetige,labiomasseatcalculepourchaquetigesparmentetles
biomasses des diffrentes tiges ont t ensuite additionnes pour trouver la biomasse de
lindividu. Etant donn que le carbone reprsente plus ou moins 50% de la biomasse sche,
celleciatpardeuxpourobtenirlestockdecarbone.
Table1.Stocksetchangementdestocksdecarbone*dansquelquesfortstropicaleshumides.
Carbone(t/ha)

ChangementdeC
(tC/ha/an)

Fortprimairemonodominante

270.8

2.89

Ituri,RDCongo

Fortprimairemixte

198.9

3.32

Salonga,RDCongo

Fortprimairemixte

151.1

Salonga,RDCongo

Fortsecondaireveille(~40ans)

114.6

Salonga,RDCongo

Fortsecondairejeune(~10ans)

79.0

Lambir,Malaisie

Fortprimaire

248.6

3.56

Yasuni,Equateur

Fortprimaire

141.2

3.38

Palanan,Philippines Fortprimaire

145.0

2.40

Pasoh,Malaisie

169.9

3.48

Site(pays)

Typedefort

Ituri,RDCongo

Fortprimaire

*LesdonnesdelIturi,Lambir,Yasuni,PalananetPasohsonttiresdeChaveetal.2008

IlressortdutableaucihautquelesfortsprimairesdubassinduCongocontiennentdesstocks
de carbone assez considrable. Les forts monodominantes de lIturi, domines par
Gilbertiodendron dewevrei, sont particulirement riches en carbone. Les donnes de suivi de
changementdesstocksdecarboneenIturiindiquentuneaccumulationde~3tC/ha/an,cequi
suggrequecesfortssontpotentiellementunimportantpuitsdecarbone.
Conclusions et recommandations
Les mesures de terrain sont importantes car elles permettent de dtecter des variations
spatiales et temporelles de stocks de carbone que les autres techniques ne pourraient pas
rvler. On note une grande variation des stocks de carbone dans les diffrentes forts
congolaises tudies, et ces forts contiennent des stocks de carbone levs compares
dautres forts tropicales. Comme celles de lAmrique Latine, les forts du bassin du Congo
montrentaussiuneaccumulationsignificativedecarboneetconstituentainsiunpuitspotentiel
de carbone (1Lewis et al. 2009). La grande variation des stocks de carbone dans les forts du
bassinduCongorendmanifestelebesoindemultiplierlessitesdobservationpourobtenirdes
estimations plus fiables de la densit de carbone forestier travers lensemble des forts du
bassin.Pouryarriver,lesactionssuivantessontrecommandes:

La cration dune structure sousrgionale pour coordonner la mesure de carbone


forestierdanslebassinduCongo.

Lerenforcementdescapacitsdesinstitutionsgouvernementaleschargesdesforts.

Lastandardisationdesmthodespourlamesureducarboneforestier.

1Lewis,SL,GLopezGonzalez,BSonk,KAffumBaffoe,TRBaker,LOOjo,OLPhillips,JMReistma,LWhiteetal.2009.
IncreasingcarbonstorageofintactAfricantropicalforests.Nature457.doi:10.1038/nature07771

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68

Lextensiondurseau desparcelles permanentestouslestypesforestiersmajeurs dubassin


du Congo, dont les forts marcageuses, les forts sches, les forts de montagne, les galeries
forestires,lesfortssecondairesetlescomplexesagricoles.
Dvelopperdesquationsallomtriquespropresauxfortsdubassincongolaispouramliorer
lestimationdesstocksetchangementdesstocksducarboneforestierdelargion.
Ces actions sont dune importance cruciale pour les pays de lAfrique Centrale car elles
permettentdaffinerlesinformationssurlinventairedesmissionsdedioxydedecarbonelies
auxchangementsdutilisationdesterresafinderenforcerlespositionsdengociationsdespays
delaCOMIFAC.

Carbon Stock Estimation in Forest Concessions / La gestion et le suivi des


stocks de carbone et des missions associes dans les concessions
forestires en Afrique Centrale
Camille Lafona, Antoine Mugniera, Nicolas Bayolb, Bernard Cassagnec
a

Ingnieurchargdtudecarbone,FORETRESSOURCESMANAGEMENT
Directeurdtude,FORETRESSOURCESMANAGEMENT
cDirecteurdeFORETRESSOURCESMANAGEMENT
b

Introduction
En2010,lafortestaucentredesdbatssurlaluttecontrelerchauffementclimatique.Cette
placeestjustifie,carlafortdgageplusdegazeffetdeserrequelesecteurdestransports.La
dforestation,ladgradation,etplusgnralementlesactivitsdelhommeenfortreprsente
1520%desmissionsdegazeffetdeserre.Aujourdhuilopportunitestdonneauxpays
qui possdent des surfaces forestires dtre rcompenss pour la protection de ce
patrimoinetraverslesmcanismesdeRductiondesEmissionsliesleDforestationetla
Dgradationdesforts(REDD).
Dans ce contexte, les acteurs du secteur forestier, et notamment les socits forestires qui
jouent un rle prpondrant dans le cadre du REDD+, ont besoin doutils pour le suivi et la
gestion des stocks de carbone adapts aux dimensions de leur entreprise. Les concessions
forestires,quicouvrentapproximativement25%delasuperficieforestireduBassinduCongo,
jouissent de donnes dendromtriques de terrain prcises et exhaustives, acquises lors de la
prparationdesPlansdAmnagement.Environ18millionsdhadefortsontdjcouvertspar
desinventairesdamnagementforestier.
Cetarticleprsentelesoutilsdemesuredustockdecarboneetdesonvolutiondansletemps
dveloppsparFRMtraverslesexemplesdesUFABtouetMissaauNordCongo(595948ha).
Evaluation des stocks de carbone forestier et tude des caractristiques des forts
tropicales lchelle des concessions forestires
Ensebasantsurcesdonnesdinventairedamnagement(touteslestigesDHP>20cmou10
cmselonlescas,toutesessencesconfondues),FRMadveloppunoutildaidelagestiondu
carboneforestier,FORESTCARBONPRINTmoduleStock(FCPStock)quipermetdobtenirune
cartedesstocksdecarbonesurlaconcession,avecunersolutionfine,permettantdemettreen
avantlhtrognitspatialeducarbonecontenudanslabiomassearienneligneuse(cf.Figure
1). La connaissance des oprations forestiressur ces espaces permetde mesurer leur impact

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

69

sur les stocks et par consquent dorienter les mesures de gestion de manire diminuer
limpactdelactivitsurlesstocksdecarbone.

Figure 1. Cartographie des stocks de carbone de la biomasse arienne de deux concessions


forestiretotalisant594948ha(NordCongo)AveclacollaborationdeLikoualaTimberS.A.
FCPStock V.1 permet de calculer les stocks de carbone de la biomasse ligneuse partir de
donnesdinventairesdarbres>10cmdeDHPavec:

Une estimation des stocks de la classe de diamtre [10;20cm[ si le diamtre de


prcomptagecommence20cmdeDHP;

Lescalculssappuientsurunbasededonnededensitdesboisdeprsde1800espces
tropicales du monde entier. La prise en compte de la diversit floristique locale,
notamment pour les paramtres de densit des bois, permet daccroitre
considrablement la prcision des rsultats. Si la densit de bois dune essence est
inconnuealorsunevaleurdedensitmoyennedelafamilleoudugenreestapplique.

Lesrsultatssontexprimspar:

placette chantillon afin de raliser une cartographie de la rpartition des stocks de


carboneforestierdelazonedtude;

strate forestire ou type de fort si elles ont t dlimites au cours du plan


damnagement.

Loutil permet de produire toute une srie de rsultats (cartographie des densits des bois,
histogramme de rpartition des stocks de carbone) qui permettent damliorer la
connaissancedes forts etlesstocksde carbone quelles contiennent.Cesrsultatsprsentent
aussibienunintrt lchelle deconcession forestiresetdeprojetsREDDqudeschelles
plusglobalespourunemeilleureconnaissancedesbassinsforestiersdanslemonde.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

70


Figure 2. concessions forestires de Btou et Missa (Nord Congo)Avec la collaboration de
LikoualaTimberS.A..
Lhistogramme de la classe de diamtre [10;20cm[ apparat en transparence car les valeurs
affichessontissuesduneestimation,linventairedamnagementcommenantauseuildeDHP
20cmsurcesconcessions.
Groupe1=essencesobjectifs,groupe2=essencesdepromotion.
Mme si ce jour il nexiste pas dquation carbone valide pour son application en Afrique
Centrale, loutil a t conu de manire sadapter facilement toutes nouvelles avances
scientifiques,ettreutilisablesurtouslesbassinsforestiersdumonde.Lesrsultatsprsents
onttobtenusparapplicationdelquationallomtriquedveloppeparCHAVEetal.(2005)1,
calibrepartirdunchantillonnageremarquablede2410arbres.
Modlisation de la dynamique forestire en fonction des modes de gestion pratiqus
sur les concessions forestires
Un travail de modlisation, prenant en compte la diversit floristique lchelle locale, est
entrepris pour prdire lvolution de ce stock de carbone selon les diffrentes options de
gestion, permettant aux forestiers de choisir, en fonction du prix de vente de la tonne de
carbone,lessolutionslesplusrationnellesencomparantlesrsultatsconomiquesattendusde
diffrentsscnariosREDD+.
Loutilestencoursdeparamtrageetseraprsentaudbutdudeuximetrimestre2010.Dans
le contexte du REDD, il est vident que les lacunes actuelles concernant la connaissance de la

1CHAVE,J.,ANDALO,C.,BROWN,S.,CAIRNS,M.A.,CHAMBERS,J.Q.,EAMUS,D.,FLSTER,H.,FROMARD,F.,HIGUCHI,
N.,KIRA,T.,LESCURE,J.P.,NELSON,B.W.,OGAWA,H.,PUIG,H.,RIERA,B.etYAMAKURA,T.,2005.Treeallometryand
improvedestimationofcarbonstocksandbalanceintropicalforests.Oecologia,13p.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

71

dynamiquedesfortsdenseshumidesafricainesdoiventtrecombles.Lesrsultatsquiseront
prsentssappuientsurapprocheconversationnistedunesynthsedesconnaissancesactuelles
des donnes de mortalit, daccroissement et de recrutement des espces des forts denses
africaines.
FCPDynamicneconstituepasunoutildemodlisationabsolu,maisunoutildaideladcision
qui peut tre facilement amlior en fonction des avances concernant la connaissance de la
dynamiquedesfortsnaturellesdanslemonde.
Grcecesoutilsdemesuredesstocksdecarbonesouplesetadaptables,unnouveaumodede
gestion des forts denses humides peut se mettre en place, intgrant leur multifonctionnalit,
tant au regard des ressources en bois quelles constituent que des stocks de carbone quelles
contiennent.
Rsum de lintervention FRM au cours de latelier Monitoring des stocks et flux de carbone
dansleBassinduCongo,2au4fvrier2010,Brazzaville,Congo

Carbon and Agroforestry in Cameroon / Stockage de carbone dans les


agroforts cacao au Cameroun et perspectives pour lAfrique Centrale
Denis J. Sonwaa, Nathalie S.E. Eyohob,c, Bernard A. Nkongmeneckc,d
aCentre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR). Po Box 2008 Messa, Yaound Cameroon

Email:dsonwa@cgiar.orgdesonwa@yahoo.com
bInternational Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Sustainable Tree Crops Program (STCP), IITA

Cameroon,Pobox2008(Messa)YaoundCameroon.
cDpartement de Biologie et Physiologie Vgtales (BPV), Facult des sciences, Universit de
YaoundI,YaoundCameroun
dMuseEcologiqueduMillnaire,Bp8038YaoundCameroun

Introduction : Pourquoi sintresser aux agroforest?


LaforesteriepaysannejoueunrleimportantdanslagestiondesterresenAfriqueCentrale.Le
rcentrapportsurltatdesfortsduBassinduCongofaitressortirquelessixpaysdubassin
comptent86,11millionsdhabitantsen2005.Unebonnepartiedecespopulationsvitenzone
rurale sur les marges forestires ou elle pratique lagriculture et des activits de foresterie
paysannedanslesjachresetlesplantationsdeculturesprennescommelescacaoyres.Des
tudes dans le cadre du programme ASB ont permis davoir une ide sur les principaux types
doccupation de sol (ASB, 2002) que lon retrouve dans le Basin du Congo. Dans la zone de
rfrencedfiniepourcomprendrelesdynamiquesliesauxoccupationsdesol,lesagroforts
cacaooccupaientenvironlamoitidesdiffrentstypesdutilisationdesterresutilisesdesfins
deproductionagricole.Lessystmesagroforestiersbasedecacao,sontcresparmodification
ducouvertforestier(doncainsidelabiomasse)pourplanterlescacaoyersintroduire/maintenir
les plantes campagnes au cacaoyer (FAO, 2002). Cette transformation saccompagne dune
modification/dgradation de la biomasse forestire pour introduire dautres biomasses. Dans
un contexte ou lon veut comprendre les flux de Carbone lie aux diffrents types dutilisation
dessols,ilestdoncimportantdesintresseaumodedexploitationquiconcernelamoitides
terresproductivesagricolessurlesmargesforestires.Cettereviewprsentedonclesstocksde
carbonedanslesagrofortscacaoduCameroun,pourquoiilestncessairedesyintresseret
lesperspectivespourlAfriqueCentrale.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

72

Stock et flux de Carbone lies aux activits des petits paysans


Lesactivitsagricolessontconnuescommejouantunrledansladforestationsurlesmarges
forestires de lAfrique Centrale (Nasi et al. 2009). Les paysans amnagent/transforment la
biomasseforestirepourgrersurlaparcelleunebiomassenouvelle(culturesvivrires,arbres,
arbustes, etc.) dans la perspective de satisfaire les besoins du mnage et commercialiser le
surplus. Les tudes dans le cadre du programme ASB sont celles qui se sont de plus prt
intressesauxpetitspaysansetsesactivitssurlesmargesforestiresduBassinduCongo.Le
rapport de la phase 2 de cette tude globale qui avait une composante Basin du Congo tait
ralis dans le sud Cameroun (Partie Nord du Bassin du Congo). Pendant cette phase des
chercheursdusystmeCGIARappartenantaucentrederecherchecommelIITAetleCIFORont
travaillavecdescollguesdesinstitutionsnationales(commelIRADetlUniversitdeYaounde
1auCameroun)pourmieuxcomprendrelesmodesdegestiondeterresetlelienaveclesforts.
Lesinformationsproduitespendantcettephasesontaujourdhuicellequipermettentlemieux
davoiruneideprcisesurlesstocksdeCarbonesurlesmargesforestiresdubassinduCongo.
Les diffrents types dutilisation de sols identifis dans le cadre de ce programme sont : les
forts matures, les forts secondaires jeunes, les vieilles jachres, les cacaoyres en fort
secondaire, lesjeunes jachres, leschamps deculturevivrires, lesmarcagesforestierset les
autres types dutilisation de sol. Le Document de Nolte et al. 2001, donne les informations
suivante : 275, 208, 151, 179, 108 et 65 tonnes de carbone par Ha respectivement dans les
fortsmatures,lesfortssecondaires,lesvieillesjachres,lescacaoyres,lesjachresjeuneset
leschampsdesvillages delazonedAmbam(localitlaplusinclusedansleBassinduCongo
parmiles4retenusdanssontude).DanslespriphriesurbainescommeautourdeYaound
(Cameroun), les travaux de ce consortium signalent lampleur et lexpansion de lAgriculture
urbainequisecaractrisentparunefortepressionsurnonseulementlesforts,maisaussisur
les systmes agroforestiers (Gockowski et Ndoumbe2004; Sonwa et al. 2009). Marien(2009)
soulignequelacollectedesboisdnergiejoueaussiunrleimportantdanslatransformation
du couvert vgtal. Une pression forte se fait sentir autour des villes comme Kinshasa (RDC),
Kisangani(RDC),Brazzaville(Congo),etc.Laconsommationannuelledeboisdechauffeestde
0.99m3dquivalentbois(boisdefeuetcharbondebois)enAfriqueCentrale(StatistiqueFAO
citesparMarien2009).
Ces exemples dmontrent suffisance quil serait difficile de parler des aspects de flux de
carbone sans voquer la place du paysan. La manire avec laquelle ces diffrents mode
dutilisationdesolsontgresetlimplicationquecelaasurlesstocksdeCarbonemritedtre
connu pour mieux planifier les activits dattnuation sur les marges forestires. Dans le
contexte du Sud Cameroun par exemple, il est ncessaire de connaitre avec plus de dtails les
diffrents pools forestiers dans les cacaoyres qui ont dj t reconnu comme tant
pourvoyeusesderevenusauxmnages.
Stock de carbone des agroforts cacao au Cameroun
Quelques tudes existent sur les stocks de carbone dans les systmes agroforestiers cacao au
Camerounaudeldeceuxmentionnsplushaut.Sonwa(2004)trouvedesstocksdecarbonede
243 t/ha dans les cacaoyres. Dans cette tude, les plantes associes aux cacaoyers, les
cacaoyers,lalitireetlesracinesstockentrespectivement70,13,4et18tonneparha(t/ha).
37t/hadecarbonesontstocksdanslesolsouscacaoyres.Lesboisduvredehautevaleur
(ConstituesdesespcesgnralementexportesduCameroun),lesplantesconsommesetles
plantes mdicinales contribuent respectivement pour 30, 15 et 7% des stocks de carbone des
plantesassociesauxcacaoyers.DanslazonedeKumba,destudesplusrcentesparEyoho(
paratre; et Eyoho et al. 2009) permettent davoir des informations sur dautres parties du
Cameroun.CettetuderalisedansleSudouestduCamerounmontrequelesagrofortsdans
la priphrie urbaine de Kumba stockent moins de carbone que celle du Centre et du Sud
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Cameroun.Ceci semblese justifier par la structuredes plantationsdu Sudouest, diffrente de


cellesdesautrespartiesdupays(commeleCentreetleSudetmmelEst).Lesplantationsde
cettezonesontconnuescommeayantgnralementmoinsdecouvertforestierquecellesdes
autrespartiesdupays.DanslapriphriedeKumba,lescacaoyresdeplusde40ansstockent
86.5tonnesdecarboneparhaaudessusdusol,danslescacaoyersetlesplantesassociesaux
cacaoyers,contre68.2pourlesplantationsdemoinsde25ans.Lacontributionduboisduvre
au stockage de carbone passe de 13 t/ha dans les plantations de moins de 25 ans 19.3 t/ha
dansceuxdeplusde40ansdanslescacaoyrespriurbainesdeKumba.
Cesdiffrentesinformationsmontrentquelesplantesassociesauxcacaoyersparmilesquelles
les arbres forestiers jouent un rle non ngligeable dans le stockage de carbone. Les stocks
varient suivant les zones cologiques. Les facteurs qui influencent la nature et le nombre des
arbres impacte indirectement sur les stocks de carbone. Avec lAge et la stabilit du systme
(quivalent de lagroclimax selon la terminologie de Janssens et al.) les cacaoyers tendent
stockerunmaximumdecarbone.
Pourquoi prendre en considration des systmes comme les agroforts cacao dans
les activits dattnuation?
Les systmes comme les agroforts cacao surtout quand ils atteignent certains ges ont une
structuresimilairecelledesforts.Ellesremplissentdonclesfonctionscologiquesdelafort
avec une magnitude cependant faible. Elles ne stockent par exemple que 60% ducarboneque
lon a dans les forts matures. Les plantes associes aux cacaoyers procurent des produits
consommsparlespopulations,lesplantesmdicinales,lesrevenus,etc.(Sonwaetal.2001).
Lessystmesagroforestiersprocurentdelemploieetdesrevenusquipermettentdesatisfaire
les besoins de sant, dducation des enfants, etc. Ces formations agroforestires sont
ncessaire au bien tre des populations en zone rurale. Certaines des plantes associes aux
cacaoyers sont souvent exploites par extraction des PFNL sans quil ny ait perturbation de
manire consistante des stocks de carbone. Les systmes comme les cacaoyres sont
gnralement gres pour une longue priode, ce qui garantie aussi une longue priode de
stockagedecarbone.Endfinitive,lessystmesmultistratescommelescacaoyressontutiles
aux petits paysans (Sonwa et al. 2001), ceux qui sintressent la conservation de la
biodiversit(Sonwaetal.2007&2009a)etaustockagedecarbone(Sonwaetal.2009b;Eyoho
etal.2009).
Au niveau du Cameroun les systmes agroforestiers base de cacao ont t identifis comme
devantfairepartirdesprojetsMDPdanslazonedetransitionfortssavane.Dansceszonesl
ltablissement des agroforts cacao permettrait de transformer des espaces dgrades en
agroforts qui auraient alors un rle de stockage de carbone, mais aussi de satisfaction des
besoins de populations (production de cacao, des PFNL et des Bois duvre). Ltablissement
dessystmesmultistratesdanslecadredesprojetsMDPconstituentdoncunepisteexplorer.
Dans les zones priurbaines comme autour de Yaound, il est bien tabli que si des efforts ne
sontpasfaitslAgricultureitinrantesurbrlisetlurbanisationrampantemenacedeszonesde
biodiversit, et les systmes agroforestiers (Voir Sonwa et al. 2009). Dans un contexte comme
celuillesagrofortspeuventdonctrsbienfairepartirdesactivitsREDD++.Demmedans
des contextes ou le REDD++ est applique les agroforts sont de nature jouer des rles
importants pour maintenir ou augmenter les stocks de carbone dans les paysages forestiers
dgradesoupotentiellementdgradables.CequiestapplicableauCamerounpeutaussiltre
dans dautre partie de lAfrique Centrale avec des systmes multistrates appropris chacune
deszonescologiques.
Comment avancer?
Autantquepossible,ilestncessairedecontinuermenerdestudessurlesagrofortscacao
et/ou sur des systmes qui leurs sont similaires (ex : systme cafiers) dans les marges
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forestires. Mais il faut autant que possible augmenter la productivit de ces systmes
multistrates et encourager en leur sein la domestication des plantes forestires locales. Il est
ncessairedeclarifierlesaspectsdetenurefoncireetmmedaccslarbre.Lescontraintes
lies"quiestpropritairedelarbre?"Entraventencorelaplantationetlagestiondesarbres
dans le Bassin du Congo. Il est aussi utile de penser au PES (Payement pour Service
Environnementaux) autre que le carbone. Dans cette perspective autant que possible il faut
valoriserlefaitquecessystmessontutilespourlabiodiversit.Pourfaciliterlagestiondurable
decesespaces,ilestncessairedamliorerlesoutilsdegestiondecesformations.Aveclappuie
de lUSAID et des compagnies de chocolat, le STCP (Sustainable Tree Crops Program
www.treecrops.org ) travaille dans cette perspective sur lAfrique Centrale et de lOuest.
Quelquesoutilsfiablesdeformation(ExmanueldeformationsurlesFarmersFieldSchool)
existent grce au STCP et mritent dtre vulgarises dans la sousrgion. Les activits du
domaine3duCIFOR(i.e.Improvinglivelihoodsthroughsmallholderandcommunityforestry)
visent lamlioration du bien tre des paysans dans les zones forestires. Cette activit
concerne aussi bien les activits forestires paysannes lies aux efforts dattnuation des
changementsclimatiques.Avanceraveclesaspectsdattnuationetdeconsidrationdespetits
paysansdoitpouvoirsefaireavecuneperspectivelargedeplanificationintgreduterroir.Ceci
devraitltrepoursatisfairepasseulementlesaspectsderductiondesmissionsdecarbone,
maisaussilapromotiondubientredespopulationsriverainesdesmargesforestires.
Conclusion
Les paysans de par leurs activits quotidiennes jouent un rle important dans les flux de
carbonesurlesmargesforestires.Danslessystmesagroforestiers,lescomposantesligneuses
forestires jouent un rle important dans le stockage de carbone. Les systmes agroforestiers
offrentlavantagedtretabliepourunelonguedure,cequiimpliqueunstockageducarbone
longterme.Ilseraitdoncdifficiledenvisagerdesaspectsdufluxetstockagedecarbonedans
lasousrgionsansvoquerlesactivitsdeforesteriepaysannelexempledeltablissementet
lagestiondescacaoyres.Lesprogrammesdattnuationont doncintrtplacerlespaysans
deszonesforestiresaucentredeleursactions.
Rfrences
ASB (2000). Alternatives to slashandburn : Summary report and synthesis of phase II in
Cameroon.ASBCoordinationOffice,ICRAF,Nairobi.
Eyoho E. N.S. Sonwa D.J., Weise S.F., Nkongmeneck BA. 2009. Carbon storage in cocoa
agroforest at the periurban area of Southwestern Cameroon: an opportunity to mitigate
climatechange.NewsletterNo.8ofCARBOAFRICA:Quantificationunderstandingandprediction
ofcarboncycleandotherGHGgasesinSubSaharanAfrica
GockowskiJ.etNdoumbeM.2004.Theadoptionofintensivemonocrophorticultureinsouthern
Cameroon.AgriculturalEconomics,volume30,issue3,p.195202.
MarienJN2009.ForetPriurbainesetboisnergie:quelsenjeuxpourlAfriqueCentrale?In
Wasseige,C.;Devers,D.;deMarcen,P.;EbaaAtyi,R.;Nasi,R.;MayauxPh.(eds)LESFORTS
DU Bassin du Congo. Etat des FORTS 2008. Pp 199216. Office des publications de lUnion
Europenne.
Nasi,R.;Mayaux,Ph.,Devers,D.;Bayol,N.;EbaaAtyi,R.;Mugnier,A.;Cassagne,B.;Billand,A.
Sonwa,D.2009.UnaperudesstocksdecarboneetleursvariationsdanslesfortsduBassindu
Congo.InWasseige,C.;Devers,D.;deMarcen,P.;EbaaAtyi,R.;Nasi,R.;MayauxPh.(eds)LES
FORTS DU Bassin du Congo. Etat des FORTS 2008. Pp 199216. Office des publications de
lUnionEuropenne

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Nolte, C., KottoSame, J., Moukam, A., Thenkabail, P.S., Weise, S.F., Zapfack, L. 2001. Land use
characterizationandestimationofcarbonstockinthealternativetoslashandburnbenchmark
areainCameroon.Resourceandcropsmanagementresearchmonograph28.IITA,Ibadan.
Sonwa,D., Weise, S.F.,Tchatat,M., Nkongmeneck,B.A.,Adesina,A.A., Ndoye,O.&Gockowski,J.
2001. The role of cocoa agroforests in rural and community forestry in Southern Cameroon.
Rural Development Forestry Network Paper, 25g: 110. Overseas Development Institute,
London.
SonwaD.2004.Biomassmanagementanddiversificationwithincocoaagroforestsinthehumid
forest zone of southern Cameroon. PhD Thesis. Institut fur Gartenbauwissenschaft der
RheinischenFriedrichWilhelmsUniversitatBonn.112p.
Sonwa, D. J, Nkongmeneck, B. A., Weise, S., Tchatat, M., Adesina, A. & Janssens, M. J. J. (2007).
Diversity of plants in cocoa agroforests in the humid forest zone of southern Cameroon.
Biodiver.Conserv.16(8):23852400.
Sonwa,D.J.,Nkongmeneck,A.,Weise,S.F.,Tchatat,M.&Janssens,M.J.J.(2009a).Treediversity
of the cocoa agroforest around Yaound (southern Cameroon). In: X. van der Burgt, J. van der
Maesen&J.M.Onana(eds),SystematicsandConservationofAfricanPlants,pp.691699.Royal
BotanicGardens,Kew.
Sonwa,D.J.;Weise,S.F.;Nkongmeneck,B.A.;Tchatat,M.;Janssens,M.J.J.(2009b).Carbonstockin
smallholder chocolate forest in southern Cameroon and potential role in climate change
mitigation. IOP Conf. Series: Earth and Environmental Science 6 (2009) 252008
doi:10.1088/17551307/6/5/252008

3.4 REDD Projects

The GEO Initiative on Forest Carbon Tracking: Towards the Implementation of


a Global Forest Carbon Tracking System
Giovanni Rum
GEOSecretariat,Geneva

Abstract
National bodies, space agencies and research institutions are working together within the
intergovernmentalGroupforEarthObservations(GEO),tofacilitateaccesstosatellite,airborne
andinsitudata,toestablishtechnicalstandardsandtocreatetheappropriateframeworkforthe
implementationaglobalforestcarbontrackingsystem,basedonanetworkofnationalsystem.
Institutionsfrommorethan20Countriesarecurrentlyinvolved.
The presentation provides a general introduction to the objectives, plans and activities of the
Group on Earth Observations, and then an overview of the GEO FCT task, by describing the
objectives, activities and progress of the GEOs effort to demonstrate the feasibility of this
System,todevelopitsbuildingblocksandtorealizeitsvisionforimplementation.
AlsoreviewedistheGEOFCTapproachforacquisitionandprocessingof,useraccesstoSatellite
data for forest carbon tracking and their related information products. The presentation

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

76

explainswhatapproachhasbeenretained,themechanismsputinplaceandthepreliminaryand
available results to ensure: coordination of satellite data acquisition, data processing to users
andassociatedcapacitybuilding,andaccesstodataandproducts.

The Role of National Demonstrators in the GEO Forest Carbon Tracking Task
Michael Brady
NaturalResourcesCanada,CanadianForestService,mbrady@nrcan.gc.ca

Introduction
The Group on Earth Observations (GEO) established the forest carbon tracking (FCT) Task in
2008 to provide operational support to countries wishing to establish a national system for
forest monitoring and carbon reporting. The main goal of the GEO FCT Task is to support
countries on the path towards the establishment of sovereign national Monitoring, Reporting
and Verification (MRV) systems, and the formation of a global network of MRV systems that
complywithinternationalagreementsandguidelines(e.g.UNFCCC,IPCC).Suchaglobalnetwork
of national MRV systems would operate under internationally agreed standards and
transparency,toassistinverificationandnationallevelreporting,andtoaddresstheneedsof
policymakers.TheFCTTaskisorganizedundertheGrouponEarthObservations(GEO)2009
2011WorkPlan,TaskCL0903b.
TheFCTTaskhasidentifiedthefollowingkeyelementsasessential:easyaccesstoacontinuous
supplyofmidresolutionEarthobservationsatellitedata;sufficientinsituforestmeasurements
for emission verification; appropriate methods to estimate and predict future national or sub
nationalcarbonstocks;andspatialdatainfrastructure,GraphicalInformationSystems(GIS)and
webdelivery systems to produce reports according to prescribed accounting and reporting
rules.AdetaileddescriptionoftheFCTTaskcanbefoundatwww.geofct.org.
ThispaperexplainstheFCTTask,withemphasisonnationaldemonstratoractivities,including
those in the Congo Basin. Activities discussed below include: collaboration with satellite data
providers for input to thematic processing; analyzing satellite and in situ data and developing
optimal multisensor procedures for thematic product generation; generating prototype
productsoverselectedverificationsites;andvalidatingthematicproducts.
2009-2010 National demonstrator countries
TheTaskhasestablishedsevenreferencedemonstrationareasNationalDemonstrators(ND)
for developing and testing approaches and methods in three major tropical forest regions:
Southeast Asia, Africa and South America (Figure 1). Countries including Australia, Brazil,
Cameroon,Guyana,Indonesia,MexicoandTanzaniaarealreadytakingpartintheTaskasNDs.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

77


Figure 1. Network of seven National Demonstrator countries in three major tropical forest
regionsofSoutheastAsia,AfricaandSouthAmerica.In2010thenetworkofNDswillexpandto
includeseveralothercountries.
TheNDsareareaslargeenoughtodemonstratethewalltowallcapabilityandtheyeachcontain
several verification sites, where the in situ/aerial measurement are available and higher
resolution/higher temporal frequency satellite data will be acquired. Several other countries
have expressed interest in playing this role from 2010 onwards. About 3.8 Million km2 of
forestedterritoryandmorethan50VerificationSitesinthesevencountriesareinvolvedinthe
20092010demonstration.
Establishment of the national demonstrators
TheGEOFCTTaskteam,togetherwiththeGEO,recognizethattoensurerapidprogressbythe
TaskintheleaduptopostKyotonegotiations,theselectionofprioritiesforlargescaleNDsand
forvalidation/measurementreferencesitestherein,wouldprimarilybebasedonthefollowing
generalcriteria(Held2009):
ThechoiceofNDswillbebasedonentirecountries(orlargeregionswithin),wheretheircentral
governments have formally stated an interest or intent to implement national forest carbon
monitoringverificationandreportingsystems.
If needed, external donor countries and/or donor organizations would have been already
identified for longterm involvement and support of capacity building, field measurement and
satellitedataacquisitionandanalysis,andmonitoringsystemimplementation.
National government institutions (e.g. environment/forest ministries or forest management
authorities)wouldhavecommittedlocalexpertcapabilityandaccesstofielddata,insupportof
thespecificFCTinsitumeasurementandvalidationactivities.
NDCountrieswouldpreferablyalreadyhaveongoingnestedforestinventory,sciencevalidation
testsites,andcommittedtomakethisdataavailabletotheTaskteam.
Priority would be given initially to cloudaffected areas (e.g. Borneo, Congo Basin, Amazon
Basin), with active forest management, including deforestation aforestation activities and
forest degradation, so that repetitive, walltowall, accurate widearea forest mapping
capabilitiescanbedemonstrated
IntheCongoBasin,CameroonwasselectedasaND.ThroughitsapplicationtotheForestCarbon
Partnership of the World Bank, its government has formally stated the intent to implement
nationalforestcarbonmonitoringverificationandreportingsystems.ThroughitsroleasanND,
Cameroonintendstoaddressthefollowingcriticalgapsininfrastructureforforestmonitoring:

Ecologicalmonitoringsystemisstillembryonic

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

78

TheNationalinstituteofcartographynotequippedwithsatellitedata

Fewspecialistsinsatellitedataanalysesandinsitumeasurements

REDDpilotprojectshavejuststarted

ByengagingwiththeTasktheNDgovernmentsandagenciesalsohaveseveralresponsibilities.
Theseincludeassisting andprovidingsupportinkindand with appropriatelocalpersonnelin
thefieldvalidationoftheFCTsatellitedataproducts.Ifavailable,NDsaretoprovideaccessto
forest inventory data of multiple sites for the purpose of ecosystem carbon model
parameterizationandsubsequentvalidation/verification.TheNDisalsotoprovidesupportfor
local personnel to take part in capacitybuilding activities. The final and most important
responsibility is for NDs to implement forest monitoring and carbon accounting systems (if
appropriate)aspartofgovernmentemissionsreportingprograms.
Coordinated ND activities
Each ND performs similar activities as part of the GEO FCT Task. These are described briefly
below.
Datainventory
CommondescriptionshavebeencompiledforeachND,whichincludetwogeneralareas:
1.ReadinessforNationalCarbonAccountingandREDD.
AnexampleofthistypeofinformationisthatfoundinCameroonsREDDreadinessprocesson
goingwiththeWorldBankCarbonPartnershipFacility.
2.Extensivedataavailable,including:

LandUse/LandCovermaps,Changedetection

Satelliteimagery(bysensortype,andspatialandtemporalextent)

NationalForestInventory

Delineationofforestarea

Each ND identifies the forested areas within the national boundary, which will be addressed
under REDD. The forest boundary information provided to the Task is used to delineate the
acquisitionofEarthobservationdata(bothcurrentandarchived).
AcquisitionofcurrentEarthobservationdata
A key component in the establishment of longterm national monitoring systems for Forest
CarbonTrackingisthedevelopmentofanoperationalsatellitedataacquisitionstrategyandplan
that provides coordinated and consistent multisensor acquisitions, by both optical and SAR
sensors, over the global forest cover on a repetitive basis, for linkage to integrated forest
inventoryandemissionsmodelingframeworks.ThefirstTaskphase(June2009May2010)is
intended to demonstrate coordinated acquisitions over the seven NDs and associated
verificationsites.TheCEOSagencieshavebeenrequestedto:

AcquireOpticalandSARdataduringSummer09overall7NDs

Providearchiveddata/productsforpastyears

AcquisitionswithbothRadarandOpticalinstrumentsareongoing

TheFCTNDsBrowsersummarizesofthe2009dataacquisitionsforeachofthedemonstrators
(http://www.geofct.org/nationaldemonstrators).
Identificationofverificationsites

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79

EachNDhasidentifiedanumberofverificationsiteswithintheforestboundary,whichservethe
followingpurposes:

DemonstrateverificationinformationneedsandactivitiesforRSforestproducts.

Demonstrate CalVal information needs and parameterization for carbon modelling


(stocksandfluxes).

RemotesensingdataisbeingacquiredovertheverificationsitelocationsprovidedbytheNDs
(Table1)onamonthly/bimonthlybasisin2009andearly2010.

Table1.Listof200910verificationsitesforthesevenNDsintheFCTTask.
Sitedescriptionanddatacollection
The verification sites are intended to reflect the range of forest types and land uses to be
includedinnationalcarbonemissionsmodelingandaccounting.Standarddescriptionsforeach
verificationsiteinclude:

Studyareaandlanduseactivities

Partnersworkinginthearea(local,nationalandinternational)

Fieldwork(byagency)

AvailableGISandRSinformation

References

Theverificationsitesareintendedtoprovidedetailedinsitusitemeasurementdata,whichisto
beusedforcalibrationandvalidationoftheremotelysensedEarthobservationdataovertheND
countries.Aswell,theverificationsitedataistoincludethedetailedcarbonpoolmeasurement
data that will be required for Carbon budget modeling and associated Carbon emissions
estimates(Table2).

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Table2.ExampleofinsitumeasurementsfromtheNDverificationsitesinMexico.

Processing and support


TherearetwomainfunctionalelementsforprocessingsupportandFCTproductdevelopment,
including: (i) a network of processing support agencies and (ii) the FCT demonstration phase
portal(www.geofct.org)
Supportincludes:

InterfacingwithsatellitedataprovidersandprocessingtoLevel1

Scientificanalysisofsatelliteandinsitudata

Developmentofoptimalmultisensorprocedures

CollaborationwithotherNDproductdevelopmentteams

Generationofprototypeproductsoververificationsites

Thematicproductvalidation

Capacity building
The development of human and technical capacity in the countries involved is a critical
componentoftheFCTTask,asanincreasingnumberoftropicalforestcountriesareexpectedto
become part of the GEO network and to eventually contribute to a Global Forest and Carbon
MonitoringSystem.
Withthe assistance ofdonorcountries,UNbodiesandNGOs, itisbroadlyenvisioned thatthe
Taskwillquicklymovefroma20092010technicalcapabilitydemonstrationontomoredirect
andactivesupportfortheestablishmentofmultipleoperationalnationalforestMRVsystemsin
subsequentyears.
WithMexico,Guyana,Brazil,Cameroon,Tanzania,IndonesiaandAustraliaalreadytakingpartin
theTaskasNDs,andadditionalcountrieslikelytojointheTaskinthefollowingyearsstarting
from 2010, the building of human and technical capacity in the countries involved is a critical
component of the Task, as the capabilities and capacity of the GEO Task progresses, and an
increasingnumberoftropicalforestcountriesareencouragedandwelcomedtobecomepartthe
GEO network that is the Global Forest and Carbon Monitoring System. Coordination activities
arealreadyinplacewithUNREDDandwiththeForestCarbonPartnershipoftheWorldBank.
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Data acquisition and product development


SatellitedataacquisitionstartedinJune2009.Progresstodateisimpressiveanditwillresultin
theavailabilityofanunprecedentedsetoftimeconsistentobservationsfromdifferentsensors
(opticalandradarSAR)overthesameareas.
Toreachdemonstrationgoalsfor20092010andbeyond,theTaskhasestablishedaNetworkof
Processing Facilities, made up of agencies in GEO member countries and international
participating organizations, which will ensure provision of consistent annual, midresolution
forestchangetimeseriesproductsforeachoftheNDs.TheNDcountriesareanintegralpartof
therelevantregionalfacility:theybringtothepartnershiptheirinsitudataandtheirpractices
for forest monitoring, and they receive knowledge and training on technical and operational
issues.
The 20092010 demonstration is expected to be completed in late spring 2010, when a
coordinated review of products derived from different sensors/processing tools will be
performed,togetherwithanassessmentoftheiraccuracyandcomparability.Thereviewwill
alsoproviderecommendationsontheoverallapproach,standardandguidelines,aswellasfor
theplanningofthe20102011demonstration.
Summary of the benefits for national demonstrators

Inclusion of the nominated ND into new satellite data acquisition plans by major
internationalspaceagencies.

Collectionofbordertoborder(orlargeregion)fullcoveragedataacquisitionwithboth
optical and synthetic aperture radar data at multiple times throughout the life of the
Task.

Satellite data freely available to incountry institutions, wishing to use it for multiple
purposes.

Satellite data processed from selected satellite data sets into agreed forestchange
products(asperFCTguidelines).

Providedthenationalgovernmentsandtheirrelevantinstitutionsprovideapproval,and
thenecessaryfundingisavailablefromsupportingNGOsordonorgovernments.

Collaborations with local experts and international teams on groundtruthing and


validationofsatellitedataproducts.

In country capacitybuilding activities to transfer data, methods and analysis tools to


nationalinstitutions.

Assistance,ifrequested,inestablishmentofnationalforestcarbonaccountingmethods
andsystems.

References
Held,A.(ed.)2009.GEOForestCarbonTrackingGuidanceonNationalDemonstratorActivities,
BenefitsandResponsibilities.TaskReport.Geneva:GEOSecretariat.
Acknowledgements
The development of the GEO FCT Task is being led by governments with a strong interest in
forest carbon monitoring: Australia, Canada, Japan and Norway. The Committee on Earth
Observation Satellites (CEOS) and the UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) are two
other lead partners, while institutions in GEO member countries, Global Observation of Forest
andLandCoverDynamics(GOFCGOLD)andtheECJointResearchCentreplayimportantroles.

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Development and Implementation of GSE FM REDD Pilot Projects in the Congo


Region / Projet REDD au Cameroun
T. Haeusler a, J. Amougoub, S. Gomeza, R. Siwea, G. Rammingera, and J. SeifertGranzinc
aGAFAGGermany,bMinistryofEnvironmentandNatureProtectionCameroon,cFANBolivia

Introduction
TheGlobalMonitoringforEnvironmentalandSecurity(GMES)initiativeisajointventureofthe
European Space Agency (ESA) and European Union (EU) which began in 2003; the initiative
aims at providing a response to dynamic and growing global information needs. The GMES
ServiceElementonForestMonitoring(GSEFM),specificallysupportedbyESAwhichisledby
GAFAG, Germany provides operational forest services to support environmental policies and
internationalConventionssuchastheUnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimateChange
(UNFCCC).Since2005,therehasbeenanevolvingpolicyprocesswithintheUNFCCC,targetedat
supporting developing countries to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation
(REDD),suchthattheycanalsobefinanciallycompensatedforthesereductions.Partiesagreed
to a two year process of evaluation of REDD within the Subsidiary Body for Scientific and
Technological Advice (SBSTA) activities. Many countries have therefore taken initiatives to
develop REDD demonstration activities (pilot projects) and to work on methodological issues,
technology transfer and capacity building which are all required for successful REDD
implementation.
The GSE FM expanded the service provision for the development of REDD Pilot Project in
Cameroon in2007. The REDD Pilot Projectin Cameroonhas theoverall aim at integrating the
application of Earth Observation (EO) technologies with the policy formulation. The project
intendstoestablishbaselineprojectionsofemissionscausedbydeforestationinawalltowall
approach. Key methodological issues that are being addressed in the pilots include estimation
andmonitoringofforestareas(usingremotesensingmethods),establishingreferenceemission
levels, and assessing both national and sub/national approaches. Innovative institutional
arrangements/mechanismssuchastechnologytransferwithsouthsouthcooperationbetween
BoliviaandCameroonhaveprovidedvaluablecontributionstofacilitatetheprocess.Thispaper
will present a summary of key achievements in the Cameroon project as well as new GSE FM
REDDinitiativesintheRepublicofCongoandGabon.
Cameroon GSE FM REDD pilot project
Cameroon has been actively involved in the REDD process since its inception in the UNFCCC
climatedebate:participationsinCOPmeetings,submissionstoSBSTAviaCOMIFAC,elaboration
and approval of the World Bank RPIN and currently elaborating the RPP. Therefore the
implementation of the GSE FM REDD Pilot Project was strongly supported by the Ministry of
Environment and Nature Protection (MINEP), who are responsible nationally for the UNFCCC
reporting. A key aspect of the pilot project is the userdriven approach and stakeholder
involvement in both the framework structures for project implementation as well as the
technical issuesthatneed to be resolved. Thisis reflectedin thefollowingmain tasksthat are
beingundertakeninastepwisemannerintheCamerooncase:
Stakeholder Analysis: A country specific User Requirement /Analysis to identify the needs of
stakeholdersintermsofspecificpolicydrivers;workingpracticesand decisionmakingcycles;
statusofgeospatialinfrastructureaswellasthetechnicalspecificationsforreporting.

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Implementation framework for REDD: Legal and institutional framework for REDD at a
national level
Reference scenarios/Estimating deforestation: How much has a country emitted in the past?
How much is it likely to emit in the future? To address this issue a twotier remote sensing
analysiswillprovideforestareamapsandforestcoverchangemaps(199020002005)forthe
wholecountry.
Emission Accounting: This is based on a comprehensive biomass inventory, the use of the
IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC)defaultmethodologiesandvalues,landuse
changepolicyscenariosagreedamongststakeholders,andspatiallyexplicitprojectionsoffuture
deforestationanddegradation.
CapacityBuildingforREDD:Specificcapacitybuildingprogrammeswillbeconductedtoensure
that project results, methodologies and lessons learned are provided in a manner to best
support the work of national and regional cooperations and to inform the multilateral
negotiationsundertheUNFCCC.
AscommoninmostcountriesthereisadivisionofnationalresponsibilitiesrelatedtotheREDD
process in Cameroon; the Le Ministre de lEnvironnement et de la Protection de la Nature
Ministry of Environment and Nature Protection (MINEP) is responsible for the reporting
requirementsoftheUNFCCCwhilsttheMinistredesFortsetdelaFauneMinistryofForestry
and Wildlife (MINFOF) is responsible for the management and monitoring of the forest
resources.Thusitwasimportanttodeveloptherelevantinstitutionalarrangementswithclear
roles and responsibilities between these Ministries as well as other public sectors for the
implementation of the REDD1. A national REDD Steering Committee was proposed by the
stakeholdersasaviablemechanismfortheneededorganisationalframework,andthisstructure
is now operational. The first steering committee meeting was held in Mbalmayo November
2009anditwasagreedthataprerequisiteforasuccessfulimplementationofREDDnationally
willrequiretheconsolidationandanactiveinvolvementofallstakeholders:relatedministries;
civilsociety;indigenouscommunityetc.TheneedtosensitizethesestakeholdersontheREDD
mechanismwasstronglyemphasized2.
EO data (national coverage) for Cameroon was acquired for the periods 1990, 2000 and
2005/2006:fullcountrycoveragewithLandsatfor1990and2000,andDMCdatafor2005/06.
Progress towards producing the forest mask (forest/noforest maps) for these epochs and
mapping the related land use change between these time periods have been made, as well as
settingupanemissionaccountingtobebasedonacomprehensivebiomassinventoryhasbeen
developed. Forest/nonforest maps were produced for the years 1990; 2000; and 2005. The
areas wherelandusechangehasoccurredwerefurtherclassifiedintothefiveIPCCcompliant
landcoverclasses:cropland,grassland,wetland,settlementandothers.

1 Haeusler, T., S. Gomez, J. SeifertGranzin and J. Amougou,, 2009, REDD Pilot Projects in Cameroon and Bolivia:
ContributiontotheUNFCCCPostKyotoProtocolProcess,ISRSE33SymposiumProceedings,2009,Stress,Italy
2CompterendudelaRunionduComitdePilotageduProjetPiloteREDD,17.et18.Novembre2009Mbalmayo,
Cameroun

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Figure1.ExampleofforestareamapproducedforEasternProvinceofCameroonbasedonDMC
2005satellitedata.
OneofthekeyactivitiesoftheREDDPilotinCameroonisasouthsouthcooperationbetween
BoliviaandCameroonintermsoftechnologytransfer.InthiscontexttheFundacinAmigiosde
laNaturaleza(FAN)inBoliviawhohaveestablishedexperienceinbiomassaccountingfromNoel
Kempff Climate Action Project, the worlds first certified REDD activity, as well as Amazonia,
Bolivias first subnational indigenous REDD program are supporting the REDD Pilot in
Cameroon. The REDD technical developments in Bolivia are being tested and adapted to the
Cameroonian conditions and the technology transfer is done via training of local Cameroon
counterparts in MINEP/MINFOF. A first cooperation was initiated in March 2009 with a
stakeholderworkshopconductedinYaound,CameroonwhereFANpresentedthemethodsand
protocols for the biomass accounting. In collaboration with MINFOF/MINEP counterparts, the
protocolwasadaptedfortheCamerooniancase.Anationalstratificationofforestintegratingthe
differentforestmanagementsystemswasalsodiscussed.Stratificationmapswithvaryinglevels
ofcomplexitieswereestablishedbasedonthethreeIPCCtierlevelsrespectively.Theworkshop
wasfollowedbyfieldworkandtrainingofthelocalcounterpartsinsettingupthefieldplotsas
well as field measurements (see Figure 2). Results of the fieldwork were used to develop a
national biomass map which will further be an input for the GEOMOD modelling. The main
objectiveofthefieldsurveywastoassessbiomassandcarbonimpactsduetoselectivelogging
in a certified forest concession (PALLISCO forest concession) within the largest forest stratum
(closed evergreen lowland forest). For this 67 carbon impact zones (CIZ) plots were installed
and measured in the logging gaps of the annual harvestable area AAC 43 of PALLISCO forest
concessioninthesoutheasternCameroon.Toestimatecarbonstocksinmatureforest67paired
(or witness) plots were installed and measured at 50 m from the CIZ plots. To measure the
impactofloggingroads,skidtrailsandloglandingsoncarbonstocks,therespectiveareaswere
measured.

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85


Figure2.BiomassmeasurementsinSouthEastCameroon,withsouthsouthcooperation.
Carbonimpactsbyloggingwereestimatedasadamagefactorof1.34tCandtheextractedwood
was(67%)higherthantheresidualdamagedbiomass.Meanbiomassstockinclosedevergreen
lowland forest stratum was326.12 (tC/ha), which is higherthan biomass stock estimationsin
the Democratic Republic ofCongo and Bolivia, duetothe higher numberoftrees perplotand
treesdiameterinCameroon.Themeanwidthofloggingroadsinthestudyareawashigherthan
BolivialoggingroadsinLaChontaforestconcession,causingmoreimpactsonbiomass.
ThetechnologytransferandcapacitybuildingexerciseshavebeenperformedinEOapplications
for deforestation mapping; and carbon stock estimation from field inventories. Initially, in
countryhumanandinfrastructuralcapacitytomonitorandassessforestareaandcarbonstock
changes was evaluated, and the training modules tailored to match incountry needs. The
capacitybuildinghasbenefittedvastlyfromthesouthsouthcooperation
New GSE FM REDD pilots: Republic of Congo and Gabon
The successful implementation of the GSE FM REDD Pilot Projects in Cameroon and Bolivia
provided a substantial basis in terms of understanding the policy processes and the technical
requirementsforcountriesinvolvedintheREDDprocess.ThishasledtoESAfurthersupporting
fromDecember2009,theGSEFMREDDexpansiontoadditionalcountriesintheCongoregion
GabonandtheRepublicofCongo.TheGSEFMREDDserviceswillfocusonspecificaspectsofthe
REDDprocessrelatedtoforestmonitoringandcannotfulfiltherequirementsforanentireREDD
programme which includes the Carbon accounting, the issue of Carbon trading (market and
fundbased approaches for financing REDD) and its impact on the management of forest
resourcesaswellasthelivelihoodsoflocalstakeholdersandindigenouscommunitiesasthese
areallbeyondthescopeoftheESA
The main products of the services will be the deforestation and degradation products/maps
based on high resolution satellite data. Production of the Forest/NonForest Maps will be
conducted for 3 points in time the years 2008, 2000 and 1990. Additionally the following
productswillbebased/derivedontheseForestMaps:

Deforestation Maps (Classes: Deforested Areas, No Data) for the time periods between
19902000and20002008.

The new land use in the change polygons of both periods according to IPCC 2006: 5
classes:cropland,grassland,settlements,wetlands,otherlanduse.

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86

InadditiontotheseproductsandservicestheGSEFMwillprovidebasicconceptualtrainingto
the counterparts on the methods used, as this again has been deemed an important user
requirementbythecounterparts.
Throughout the implementation of the programme the main guidelines for provision of these
serviceswillbebasedontheIntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC),GoodPractice
Guidance (GPG) of 2006. The user is thus guaranteed that there is a standardised
service/productbeingproduced anddeliveredasaunifiedapproachtoservicequalitycontrol
willbeapplied.ServicequalitycontrolintheGSEFMfollowsdefinedtechnicalspecificationsof
products,aswellastheproduction,qualitycontrolandverificationprocessesincludingrelevant
standards.
Acknowledgements
We would like to acknowledge the work of the Institute for Digital Image Processing of
Joanneum Research, Graz Austria for all technical contributions related to satellite data
processingandforestandlanduseclassificationsontheCameroonPilotProject.Additionallywe
wouldliketothankESA,theGTZCOMIFACandKfWforfinancialsupportfortheprojects.
WealsoappreciatethesupportoftheNationalREDDCoordinatorandtheUNFCCCFocalPoints
of Cameroon, the Republic of Congo and Gabon for facilitating the REDD activities in their
respectivecountries.

REDD+ in the Democratic Republic of Congo and the Congo Basin: A


Measurement, Reporting and Verification System to Support REDD+
Implementation Under the UNFCCC / Le REDD et le dveloppement dun
systme MRV en RDC
Danae Maniatisa, Danilo Molliconea, Erik Lindquista, Christophe Musampab,
Andr Kondjo Shokoc, Vincent Kasulud, Sebastien Malele Mbalae
aFoodandAgriculturalOrganisationoftheUnitedNations,ForestryDepartment;
bDivision

Gomatique, Direction Inventaire et Amnagement Forestiers (DIAF), Ministre de


l'Environnement,ConservationdelaNatureetTourisme,RpubliqueDmocratiqueduCongo.
cDivision Inventaire Forestier, Direction Inventaire et Amnagement Forestiers (DIAF),
Ministre de l'Environnement, Conservation de la Nature et Tourisme, Rpublique
DmocratiqueduCongo.
dDirectionduDveloppementDurable(DDD),Ministredel'Environnement,Conservationdela
NatureetTourisme,RpubliqueDmocratiqueduCongo.
eDirection Inventaire et Amnagement Forestiers (DIAF), Ministre de l'Environnement,
ConservationdelaNatureetTourisme,RpubliqueDmocratiqueduCongo.

Abstract
REDD+ countries will have to establish a Measurement, Reporting and Verification (MRV)
systeminordertoassessanthropogenicforestrelatedgreenhousegasemissionsbysourcesand
removalsbysinks.Anationalforestinventory(NFI)isonecomponentofsuchandMRVsystem.
FollowingtheUNFCCCsSubsidiaryBodyonScientificandTechnologicalAdvice,themostrecent
IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange(IPCC)guidanceandguidelineshavetobeusedasa
basis for estimating anthropogenic forestrelated greenhouse gas emissions by sources and
removalsbysinks,forestcarbonstocksandforestareachanges.

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87

Thepresentationhasthreeobjectives:(i)toclarifytheUNFCCCMRVframeworkinwhichaNFI
hastobedeveloped;(ii)topresentapreliminarymethodologicalapproachforanMRVsystem
forDRCtoassessandtoreportcarbonstockchangesonforestlandatleastataTier2level;and
(iii)basedon(ii),topresentthebasicelementsforaharmonisedregionalMRVapproachinthe
Congo Basin where each country would have a sovereign national system but with a regional
approach such an approach would be developed in consultation with regional stakeholders
suchastheCOMIFAC,theCongoBasinForestFundandsoforth.
Keywords:carbonstockchange,carbonpools,emissionestimate,activitydata,emissionfactor,
accuracy

The REDD Project in Republic of Congo / Le projet REDD carbone en


Rpublique du Congo
Georges Claver Boundzanga a and Fred Stolleb
aMDDEFE
bWRI(WorldResourcesInstitute)

Introduction
At the COMIFAC meeting WRI and the MDDEFE together presented the CBFF funded REDD
projectQuantifyingcarbonstocksandemissionsintheforestsoftheCongoBasin.Effortsto
provide payments for ecosystemservices(e.g., UNFCCCREDDor other mechanisms)or utilize
other economic instruments may create incentives for curbing deforestation and, if designed
appropriately,helpaddresstheneedsofforestdependentcommunities.However,countriesin
the Congo Basin region are not well poised to employ these mechanisms for several reasons,
including:(1)Countrywidedataonforestcoverchangeisnotgatheredinasystematicfashion,
(2) methods and systems for detecting forest degradation (the dominant form of land use
change in the region) are absent, (3) information on forest carbon stocks and flows is absent,
and(4)thereisalackoftechnicalcapacitytogatherthisinformation.
TheWorldResourcesInstitute(incollaborationwithanumberofpartners)proposestoaddress
these technical and capacity challenges. The proposed project will improve detection and
quantification of deforestation and forest degradation and the associated carbon stocks and
emissionsintheCongoBasinforestswithapilotintheRepublicofCongo.Wewillalsobuildthe
capacityfortheentireregionbybuildingcapacityasOSFACinDRCandgovernmentagenciesto
conductmeasurementandmonitoringonanongoing,consistentbasis.
Objective
This project will assist the Republic of Congo in improving its readiness to join potential
payment schemes by providing data, methods and assistance in developing national forest
carbon accounting strategies and developing reference forest carbon emission levels. The
methodologies,capacity,andresultswillbereplicableinotherCongoBasincountries.
Activities
Toachievetheseoutcomesandresults,theprojectwill:

Apply and institutionalize modern methods for detecting, measuring, and monitoring
forest degradation in the Republic of Congo. WRI and partners will train OSFAC,

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88

governmentagencies,andotherstakeholdersonhowtoapplythesemethodsandutilize
theinformationfortheirforestmanagement,climatechange,andotherstrategies.

Quantifytheforestcarbonemissionsfromlandusechange(forestlossanddegradation)
in the Republic of Congo, using the most uptodate methodologies and following IPCC
Good Practice Guidance. This analysis will include Congo Basinwide update of forest
coverchangefrom20052010andfillinadditionaltimestepsgoingbacktothe1990s.
WRI and partners will conduct training sessions on the carbon accounting
methodologiesandconductoutreachtostakeholders(OSFAC).

Outline policy options and incentives for curbing forest degradation and associated
emissions.

Project partners
SDSU:Willupdateregionaltreecoverchangeestimatestoprovideahistoryofforestchangein
theCongoBasinregionfrom1990sto2010.Foraselectsubnationalstudyarea,SDSUwillusea
combinationofLandsatandhighresolutionimagery(e.g.,SPOT)toproduceareaestimatesfor
forestdegradationwithreduceduncertainty.
Imazon: Will apply its Normalized Difference Fraction Index method (a lowcost, semi
automated method to evaluate the degree of forest canopy disturbance) and share Amazon
experience.
WinrockInternational:Willapplyleadingmethodsofaerialvideographyfordetailedandhighly
accurate estimates of forest biomass. Will collaborate with WRI to produce detailed carbon
accountingofforestcarbonstocksandchangesfortheRepublicofCongo.
OSFAC:Willbetrainedtobecomearegionalcenterofexcellenceondetectingforestdegradation
andforestcarbonaccountingthatwillservetheCongoBasinregion.

3.5 Field Projects and other Environmental Services

Forest Carbon Sinks in Ibi Bateke / Le puits de carbone forestier Ibi Bateke :
tat davancement et perspectives davenir
Olivier Mushiete, Ruphin Ngabulongo, Dany Mulabu
Novacel

Introduction
LaCommissionpourlesFortsdAfriqueCentrale(COMIFAC)aorganisunAtelierrgionalsur
leMonitoringdesstocksetfluxdecarbonedansleBassinduCongoquiaeulieuBrazzaville,
RpubliqueduCongo,du2au4fvrier2010.Latelierestdestintousceuxquisintressent
au suivi du changement de lutilisation du sol, de l'occupation du sol et leur relation avec la
quantificationdecarbonedansleBassinduCongo,commeNovacel.Celleciaparticiplatelier
pour prsenter son projet puits de carbone agroforestier Ibi Bateke : systme de monitoring,
conceptionetmiseenuvre.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

89

Lebutdelatelier
Les perspectives postCopenhague pour les pays dAfrique centrale furent entre autre,
linscription de la problmatique des forts tropicales au cur des proccupations de la
conventionsurleclimat,notammenttraverslemcanismeREDD.
CetatelierarunilespaysdubassinduCongoafindeprsenterltatdesconnaissancessurles
stocksdecarboneetleursvariationsdanslesfortsdelargion.
Novacel
Depuissafondation,NovacelsattacheassurerdanslargionduplateaudesBatekeenRDCun
dveloppementruralintgrdansledomainedelagriculture,delasylvicultureetdellevage
aubnficedespopulationslocales.
Le but estla prservation des ressources naturellestout en leur ajoutant de la valeur sans les
mettre en danger. Ainsi, par une succession continue et bien agence defforts progressifs, le
bientredeshabitantsenseraamlior.

Figure1.PlateaudeBateke
AvecsonPuitsdeCarboneAgroforestierIbiBateke,Novacelconvertitlasavanepeuproductive
en une source de biomasse renouvelable. Cette faon de faire est aujourdhui un savoirfaire
uniquedeNovacel.

Figure2.Savanel'tatnaturel
decarbone.

Figure3.Savanetransformeenfort.puits

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

90

LaproductiondesactivitsdeNovacelestsoumiseaurythmedesplantationsetdesrcoltes.Les
plantationsfontlobjetdunengagementglobalconsigndanslePDD.Cetengagementsetraduit
pardesobjectifsannuelsdfinissurunesaison(deseptembremaidelannesuivante).
Rsultats de latelier
AfindeparticiperlaREDD,lespaysforestiersdoiventtreenmesuredestimerlesmissions
degazeffetdeserreliesladforestationetladgradationforestire.
LesexigencestechniquesduREDDsonttellesquilfautfaire:

LeSuividucouvertforestierviatldtection

LaMesureducarbonesurleterraindanslesdiverscosystmesforestiersdelaRDC

Le dveloppement dune mthodologie pour mesurer la dgradation et recueillir des


donnessurlextractionduboisnergie

Lacrationdunsystmegestiondelinformationintgranttoutelinformation

LaProductionduninventairedesGES

Lerenforcementdecapacit

LamajoritdintervenantslorsdelAtelierontdonnunmessageselonlequellesystmeREDD
enRDCongoestplusavancquedansdautrespaysdelargiondAfriqueCentrale.
Suivi du puits de carbone Ibi
Le suivi du Puits de Carbone Agroforestier Ibi Bateke est couvert par le Protocole [CQSS05 :
SuividuPuitsdeCarbone]
Au plus tard trois mois avantle dbutdela campagne demesuresdesuivi (c'estdire dbut
mai),onprocdeunestratificationdudomaineplantdepuisunan(c'estdireavantledbut
de la grande saison sche de lanne prcdente). On entend par Domaine lensemble des
sousblocs compltements plants. Un sousbloc partiellement plant est laiss pour lanne
suivante. On vrifie que les rapports de plantation (fiches hebdomadaires dvaluation)
correspondentbienlaralit.Onporterauneattentionparticulireauxendroitsolesarbres
onttabattus(defaonprogrammeounon)etauxendroitsolesplantationsontchou.
Une fois les strates dtermines, on procde au contrle sur le terrain des parcelles
nouvellementplantesetleurrelevGPS.Lescoordonnesdupolygoneetlessurfacesrelles
dessousblocsdudomaine.Onendduitlasurfacedechaquestrate.Ontablitunecartedes
stratesquimontreclairementlappartenancedessousblocsleurstraterespective.
Unefoislescoordonnesrellesdessousblocsetlasurfacedesstratesdtermines,onprocde
la dtermination du nombre des placettes en fonction de la surface des strates selon
lalgorithme Winrock. Les valeurs de moyenne et dcarttype sont celles reprises de la
campagnedesuividelanneprcdente.
Unefoislenombredeplacettesdtermin,oncomparecenombreaveclesplacettesexistantes
desannesprcdentesdanschaquestrate.Silenombredeplacettesexistantesestsuprieur
ougalaunombrequirsultedelalgorithmeWinrock,ongardetouteslesplacettesexistantes.
Silenombredeplacettesutiliserestsuprieuraunombredeplacettesexistantes,oncrede
nouvellesplacettespourcomblerladiffrence.
Onlocaliselesnouvellesplacettesdanslesstratesdefaonalatoire.Lesystmeretenuestcelui
des localisations alatoires de placettes (plutt quune grille rgulire partir dun point
alatoirederfrence).Unpointderfrencealatoireestfixpourchaqueplacette.Cepoint
estcartsi

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

91

Laplacettetabliepartirdecepointsortdelasurfacedelastrate

Laplacettetabliepartirdecepointrecouvrepartiellementuneplacetteexistante

Onrpteloprationdedterminationalatoiredanschaquestratejusquobtenirlenombre
de placettes demandes. Donc, au domaine dIbi, le systme de suivi du puits de carbone
agroforestierIbiBatekeestconuetmisenplacedemaniremesurerlecarbonesurleterrain.
Laplacettemesure10x25m,commeindiquauPDD.Lestransectssonttirspartirdupoint
derfrencecommeindiqusurleschmacidessous.
Unmoisavantledbutdelacampagnedesuiviproprementdite,onprocdeauplacementdes
nouveaux points de rfrence sur le terrain laide des coordonnes GPS. Lemplacement est
marqudanslesoldemanirenonvoyantelaideduntubesemienterrquinedpassepasde
plusdequelquescentimtresdelasurfacedusol(enfonctiondelavgtationdelendroit.
Juste avant la campagne de suivi, on procde sur un espace plat et dgag au montage de la
placettelaidedescordeauxtalonnsetonvrifielesdimensionsobtenues.Encasdedrive,
onprocdeauxajustementsncessaires.
Une formation est donne lquipe de mesures pour rafrachir ses connaissances depuis la
campagneprcdente.

Figure4.AtelierduFondsBiocarbonesurlesoutilsSMARTIbivillage.
Lecaschant,desmesuressontprisestitredexercicepoursassurerdubonfonctionnement
delquipeetdelafiabilitdesrsultats.
Les mesures de terrain se droulent par lquipe forme cet effet selon le prescrit de la
Procdure[CQSS05:SuividuPuitsdeCarbone]

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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Figure5.Mesuredelabiomasseexistante.

Par ailleurs, la majorit des projets prsents latelier suivent le couvert forestier via la
tldtection.
Lamajeuredifficultlaquelleestbutecettergionquantlvaluationdestocksdecarbone
est le manque dquations allomtriques pour les espces de la rgion tropicales, alors que la
ditergionesttrsricheenespcesvgtales.
Aujourdhui, un des soucis majeurs dans le suivi de carbone est ltablissement des quations
allomtriques pour les espces de la rgion tropicales. Un facteur limitant de la mise place
correctedusystmeREDD.

Explaining and Predicting the Impact of Global Change on Forest Biodiversity


in the Congo Basin: The CoForChange Project / Impact du changement global
sur la biodiversit forestire du bassin du Congo
S. Gourlet-Fleury, N. Bayol, I. Bentaleb, F. Benedet, A. Billand, L. Bremond, J.F. Chevalier, J.-L. Doucet, B. Engelbrecht, N. Fauvet, C. Favier, V. Freycon, J.-F.
Gillet, V. Gond, A. Laraque, P. Mayaux, J.-M. Moutsambot, R. Nasi, A.
Ngomanda, Y. Nouvellet, B. Sonk, M. Swaine, J. Tassin, J.-P. Tathy, O. Yongo,
K. Willis
CIRAD

Abstract
The Congo Basins tropical moist forests are critically affected by current climate and
anthropogenic changes. How, why and where will tree species survive increasing pressure in
thisregionisachallengingissue,whichrequiresanurgentclarificationandintegrationoftree
ecological strategies to produce decisionmaking tools essential for sound management and
conservationpolicies.
MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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The CoForChange project, funded by three european agencies in the context of the EraNet
Biodiversa,gathersaninterdisciplinaryconsortiumlinking14institutesfromfourEuropeanand
four African countries, and an international organization. The project started in January 2009
andisinvolving:(i)crossanalysingsatelliteimagery,extensiveforestinventories,mapsofthe
mainenvironmentalfactorstoproduceacomprehensivevegetationmap;(ii)assessingcritical
tree species functional traits through field experiments; (iii) linking the status of the current
structure/composition/diversity of forests with past climatic and anthropogenic disturbances;
(iv) integrating knowledge in a vegetation model to predict the impact of various policy and
climatechangescenarios.Besidesstrengtheningawidepoolofknowledgeontheecologyofthe
Congo Basins forests, and providing scientific advances in this field, the project will produce
thematic maps and databases helping the prioritization of environmental activities and
regulationintheregion.

Congo River Watershed Hydrology in Interaction with Carbon Stocks and


Fluxes / Interaction entre lhydrologie et les stocks et flux de carbone dans le
bassin du fleuve Congo
Yolande Munzimi
SouthDakotaStateUniversity

TheCongoRiverWatershed Hydrology interactsstrongly with Carbon Fluxesin the Basinand


beyond. Recent studies have demonstrated that theamount ofrunoff volume producedon the
surface considerably depends on carbon flux to the atmosphere1. Other studies suggest that
freshwater inputs from large rivers [similar to the Congo] into the Ocean, impact significantly
the oceanic carbon cycle in the tropical Atlantic2. However, the impact of the river on the CO2
budget is still poorly documented. On the other hand, it has been reported that reliance on
traditional biomass as the main source of energy in the form of wood for woodfuel (fuelwood
and charcoal), is particularly high in subSaharan Africa, where biomass accounts in some
countriesfor7090%ofprimaryenergysupply3.Thewoodenergybasedsystemthatisfavored
inheavilyforestedcountriesresultsinlossesofterrestrialcarbonthroughforestremoval.
TheCongoRiverWatershedHydrologyisworthinvestigatingwithinthecontextofCarbonstock
andfluxmonitoringintheCongoBasin.Indeed,inviewoftheaforementioned,parameterssuch
asrunoffvolumecanserveasaproxyvariableforstraightforwardcarbonquantificationinthe
Congo Basin,recognizing thesignificant correlation between runoff volume and carbonfluxto

1Felzer,B.S.,etal,2009,Importanceofcarbonnitrogeninteractionsandozoneonecosystemhydrologyduringthe
21stcentury,JournalofGeophysicalResearch,114,G01020
2Krtzinger,A.,2003,AsignificantsinkofCO2inthetropicalAtlanticOceanassociatedwiththeAmazonRiverplume,
GeophysicalResearchLetters,30(24),2287,doi:10.1029/2003GL018841
Ternon, J.F.,etal,2000,AseasonaltropicalsinkforatmosphericCO2 intheAtlanticocean:theroleoftheAmazon
Riverdischarge,MarineChemistry,68(3),183201
Takahashi,T.,etal,2002,GlobalseaairCO2fluxbasedonclimatologicalsurfaceoceanpCO2,andseasonalbiological
andtemperatureeffects,DeepSeaResearch,49(910),16011622
3Karekezi,S.,2002,PovertyandenergyinAfricaAbriefreview,EnergyPolicy,30,915919

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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theatmosphere.Allthingsbeingequal,consistentrunoffanalysescouldbeparticularlyusefulin
situationsinwhichotherevidenceofCO2islimited.
Concerns about forest and consequently carbon depletion due to energy production with
biomass can also be addressed by Congo water resources exploitation. Indeed, thanks to the
stabilityoftheirregime,theCongoRiveranditstributariescansolveenergyproblems,beinga
potential asset to supply hydropower. In this century, as the world seeks to mitigate carbon
emissions, noncarbon producing electricity generation is defined as green and renewable.
ThismakesCongohydroelectricityanattractivenotion.Yet,duetotheadverseeffectsoflarge
scalehydropower,smallscalehydropower(SHP)isconsideredgreener.Preliminaryestimates
of the clean development mechanism (CDM) potential of SHP projects indicate that there is a
vasttheoreticalpotentialofCO2mitigationbytheiruse.Moreover,the(CDM)undertheKyoto
Protocolallowsdevelopingcountriestogenerateemissioncreditsforindustrializedcountriesby
greenhouse gas emission reduction projects such as SHP. It should be noted that,
hydroelectricityhasbeenoneofthemostsuccessfulprojecttypesinthecarbonmarkettodate.
UnderthecurrentNASAfundedprojectentitledHydrologicalResponsetoLandCoverandLand
UseChangeintheCongoBasin,anattemptismadetoquantifyCongowatershedflowsandto
assess the hydropower potential of the river network using remote sensing in shortage of
groundbasedhydrologicaldata.Temporalandterrestrialsatellitebaseddataareingestedinto
the USGS Geospatial Streamflow Model (GeoSFM) for daily flow generation. The model is
parameterized with global terrain, soil and land cover data and run operationally with
precipitation and evapotranspiration datasets1. Initial research on the Congo Basin compared
streamflow estimated with GeoSFM against available historical mean streamflow data. While
initialresultswerepromising,somediscrepancieswererevealed,attributedtotheaccuracyof
theinputdataandthenoncalibrationofthemodel2.Anotherkeyfindingwasthattheexisting
parameterization of land cover using coarse resolution data (1 kilometer) was inadequate to
accuratelycharacterizerainfallrunoffprocessesintheCongo.
In attempt to improve the agreement between modeled flows from satellitederived data and
observedflowdatafromhydrometricfieldstations,higherresolutionLandCoverandElevation
datahavebeenusedforthecentralpartoftheCongoRiverwatershed.TheLandCoverdataset
incorporates wetland data delineated for the core area of the Congo Basin. The wetlands
characterization was made with Landsat (TM) and ETM+, JERS1 radar and SRTM data, all
resampledtoacommon57mresolutiongrid3.ThenewLandCoverdatasetincludesalsothree
savannah classes (woodland, parkland and grassland) extracted from a MODerate Resolution
ImagingSpectroradiometer(MODIS)250mderivedlandcoverproduct4andthreeotherclasses
(intact forest, degraded forest/rural complex and water) extracted from a Landsatderived
forestprobabilityandforestcoverchangeproductfromcirca1990to2005.Itshouldbenoted

1Asante,K.O.,etal,2008,Alineargeospatialstreamflowmodelingsystemfordatasparseenvironments,Journalof
RiverBasinManagement,6(3):233241
2 Munzimi, Y., 2008, Satellitederived Rainfall Estimates (TRMM products) used for Hydrological Predictions of the
CongoRiverFlow,START/USNSF/USCCSPReport
3 Bwangoy, J., et al, 2010, Wetland mapping in the Congo Basin using optical and radar remotely sensed data and
derivedtopographicalindices,RemoteSens.Enviro.,114,Issue1,15,7386
4Hansen,M.,etal,2008,AmethodforintegratingMODISandLandsatdataforsystematicmonitoringofforestcover
andchangeintheCongoBasin,RemoteSens.Enviro.,112,2495513
5Lindquist,E.,etal,2008,Thesuitabilityofdecadalimagedatasetsformappingtropicalforestcoverchangeinthe
DemocraticRepublicofCongo:implicationsforthegloballandsurvey,Intern.JournalofRemoteSensing,29(24):7269
7275
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thatsincetheaccuraterepresentationofwetlanddistributionisrestrictedinthecoreareaofthe
watershed,thewetlandmapactsasalimitingfactorforsettingthewindowextendofthenew
LCLU used for the present hydrological analysis (that is approximately an area of
1,176,000km2).
AsfinerresolutionelevationdataallowforimprovedGeoSFMstreamandsubbasindelineation,
Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (NASA SRTM) 90 meters elevation data were used as the
primary input for terrain analysis and surface topography basin characterization in place of
GTOPO30elevationdata(30by30resolution,approximately1km2attheequator).Standard
ArcView GIS functions are used to delineate hydrologic modeling units for GeoSFM. A
minimum drainage area threshold of 324 km2 is used for stream initiation resulting in 1760
riverreacheseachabout26kminlength.
Satellitederived precipitation from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (NASA TRMM) is
the primary input for the GeoSFM water balance module. The 0.25o TRMM 3B42 product has
complete spatial coverage for Africa. TRMM records are available for a relatively long time
period(19982008)andareextensivelyused.Paststudiesthathaveexploredtheadequacyof
satellitederived Rainfall Estimates through intercomparison and validation processes have
demonstrated enhanced performance over other estimates in Africa when employing TRMM
data(Dinkuetal2008).Thearchiveofdailygridsusedinthisstudycovers2001to2007.
SoildatafromtheDigitalSoilMapoftheWorld(FoodandAgricultureOrganization1998)and
the WorldSoil File (Zobler, 1986)are usedtodetermine predominant soil parameters ineach
catchment.
NOAAGDASGlobalDailyReferenceEvapotranspiration(GDET)datasetproducedbyUSGSEROS
areusedinconjunctionwithTRMMprecipitationdatatogeneratewaterbalance.1oGDEThas
fullspatialcoverageofAfrica.Thearchiveofdailygridsusedinthisstudycoversfrom2001to
2007.
Results
Streamflowhydrograph:PreviousimplementationofGeoSFMfortheCongoBasindemonstrated
someinconsistenciesinthemonthlyhydrographs.Whencomparedtohydrometricstationsdata,
the seasonality of the flow was generally captured. But, for most of the stations, there was a
substantial underestimation of flow discharge. The water balance generated from TRMM
precipitation and GDAS evapotranspiration data is assumed to be consistent due to the
acceptable level of accuracy of TRMM1. No validation of USGS GDASbased daily reference ET
has been performed specifically in Africa due to the unavailability of field data sets. But
conclusivevalidationperformedintheUSshowsveryhighcorrelationsbetweenstationbased
ET and GDASET (~ 0.99)2, suggesting the reliability of using GDAS reference ET for regional
waterbalancestudiesinmanypartsoftheworldandtheirpotentialforlargescalehydrological
applications. This conclusion led us to deduce that the major source of inconsistency in the
hydrographwasnotduetothewaterbalancebutotherparametersofthemodel.Thatexplains
ourfocusonimprovingLandCovercharacterizationoftheCongoBasinasamajormodelinput.
We assume that at equal water balance, finer resolution LCLU data will provide improved
hydrological characterization (Figures3, 4). Indeed, finerresolutionLCLU datacontributetoa

1 Dinku, T., et al, 2008, Comparison of global gridded precipitation products over a mountainous region of Africa,
InternationalJournalofClimatology,vol28,12,16271638
2Senay,G.,etal,2008,GlobalDailyReferenceEvapotranspirationModelingandEvaluation,JAWRA44,vol4,969979

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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better spatial distribution of Land Cover classes leading to a better spatial distribution of
hydrologicalparameters(Table2).

Figure1.SRTMderivedstreamorderin6classes(from6to12)andtheircorrespondingcover
areas that directlyimpactrunoff generation. Table1 describesthe dominantcover type found
aroundeachorderclass.

Rural Complex
Evergreen Forest
Grassland
Herbaceous Wetland
Woodland
Water Bodies
Wooded Wetland

Figure 2. Coarse and fine resolution Land Cover data in the core area on the left the CLCC
coarseresolutionproduct,ontherightthemultisourceenhancedfineresolutiondata.According
to expert knowledge, the 6 classes of interest, particularly the wetland and the rural complex
classes,aremoreaccuratelyrepresentedinthefineresolutiondatamap.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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Table1.StreamordercharacteristicsSlopeanditsstandarddeviation(Std).
Order

MeanSlope

Std

DominantCover

1.00875

1.52

DenseForest

0.77203

1.25

DenseForest

0.87809

1.40

DenseForest

1.10107

1.46

DenseForest

10

0.92230

1.49

WoodedWetland

11

0.45311

1.03

Waterbodies

Table2.HydrologicalParameters(velocityandManningcoefficient)forthe6LandCoverclasses
(adaptedfromtheUSGSGeoSFMtechnicaldocument).
LandCoverclass

Velocity

Manning

RuralComplex

0.33790

0.040

Grassland

0.67578

0.050

DenseForest

0.23652

0.120

WaterBodies

0.59130

0.035

HerbaceousWetland

0.47300

0.050

WoodedWetland

0.23652

0.050

Figure 3. Hydrographs at Lulonga At equal water balance, two different GeoSFM simulated
hydrographs are generated with coarse (blue) and with fine (green) land cover and elevation
data. A significant increase of flow discharge can be observed on the green hydrograph.
However,increaseoccursonlyforpeakflowandnotforlowerflowcorrespondingtodryseason.
Unfortunately, without any gauge data in this area, it is impossible to evaluate the simulated
flow.

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simulated

Figure 4. Hydrographs at Kinshasa Station At equal water balance, two different GeoSFM
simulatedhydrographsaregeneratedwithcoarselandcoverandelevationdata(left)andwith
finelandcoverandelevationdata(right).
A significant increase of flow discharge can be observed on the right hydrograph in figure 4.
However,sincetheflowaccumulationgridwasrunonlyinthecoreareaoftheBasin,itdoesnot
includeallupstreamsubbasins.Thus,theflowsimulatedatKinshasaislikelyunderestimated.
Implications are, with a basinwide fine resolution land cover data, the simulated flow might
overestimatetheflowasobservedinthisstation.Thatwouldnecessitateacalibrationprocessto
adjust the simulated flow to the observed one. Another observation is related to the increase
occurring only for the peak flow. For the lower flow corresponding to the dry season at
Kinshasa, the flow magnitude is still the same with either coarse or fine resolution data. That
might suggest the necessity to improve the GeoSFM algorithm that transforms water balance
intorunoffduringthedryseason.
Hydropower Assessment: In the absence of calibrated simulated flow, gross hydropower
potentialhasnotbeenestimatedfortheBasin.However,atesthasbeenperformedtoestimate
hydropowerpotentialforthemonthofOctoberintheareaofstudy.Weusethesimulatedpeak
flowaggregatedforthemonthofOctoberandaheadgridgeneratedwithSRTM90meters.The
Hydropowerpotentialiscalculatedbyapplyingthepowerequationbelowtotheflowdischarge
andtotheheadavailablealong100metersonthereach
Power [L2MT3] = Head [L]* Q[L3T1]* p[ML3]* g[LT2]*0.001, (P: hydropower potential (KW); H:
head(m);Q:flow(m3/s);p:waterdensity(1000kg/m3);g:gravitationalacceleration(9.81m/s2)

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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Figure5.OctoberStreamdischargeandgrosshydropowerpotential.
Discussion
TheuseofhighresolutionLCLUandDEMdata(forthecentralpartoftheBasin)improvesthe
flow magnitude but only during the rainy season. This suggests the necessity to calibrate the
modeltobetterfitlowperiodflowconditions.Thereareflowlosses,particularlyduringthedry
season, caused by evaporation from the ground, transpiration by vegetation and seepage of
surfacewatertogroundwater.Groundwatercantakeweeksormonthstoappearasstreamflow,
and is a major component of the streamflow during dry periods. Next efforts will focus on
incorporating this component in the GeoSFM algorithm to improve the calibration of the
hydrological model. The next efforts will also consist in the completion of Basinwide
multisource high resolution Land Cover data set that will serve for Basinwide Hydrological
modelimplementation.

Conservation Prioritization, Livelihood Improvement and Potential for Carbon


Credits in the Maringa-Lopori-Wamba Landscape, Democratic Republic of
Congo / Dveloppement territorial et utilisation du sol dans le paysage
Maringa-Lopori-Wamba
Jef Dupaina, Janet Nackoneyb, Florence Bwebwea, Charly Facheuxa, Nicolas
Grondardc, David Williamsa, Bruno Guayc
1AfricanWildlifeFoundation;
2UniversityofMaryland;
3ONFInternational

The74,000km2MaringaLoporiWamba(MLW)landscapeislocatedinEquateurandOrientale
provincesinnorthernDemocraticRepublicofCongo(DRC)(Figure1).Itwasidentifiedin2002
by the Congo Basin Forest Partnership as a priority area for conserving biological diversity,
improvingpeopleslivelihoods,anddevelopingsustainableforestrypracticeswithin.Toassist
withthesetasks,aconsortiumofpartnersfrom severallocalandinternationalinstitutionsled
bytheAfricanWildlifeFoundation(AWF),havebeenworkingtogethertobuildthefoundation
for sustainable land use planning. The MLW Consortium, which was established with support
fromtheUnitedStatesAgencyforInternationalDevelopments(USAID)CentralAfricanRegional
ProgramfortheEnvironment(CARPE),includessuchpartnersastheWorldAgroforestryCentre
(ICRAF),theTropicalSoilBiologyandFertilityInstituteoftheInternationalCentreforTropical
MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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Agriculture (TSBFCIAT), the University of Maryland (UMD), and the Universit Catholique de
Louvain (UCL). Other project partners include the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), the DRC
government,andaselectionoflocalcommunitybasedorganizations.

Figure1.MaringaLoporiWamba(MLW)landscape.
Theprojectrespondstoacrucialneedtobetterunderstandmajordriversofdeforestationand
subsequent reduction of biodiversity in the Landscape while ensuring the wellbeing of local
communities. The project is currently beginning work exploring potential for future REDD+
efforts.MLWisoneofthepoorestandremoteareasofDRCwherehumanpopulationsdepend
directly on the benefits of their surrounding ecosystems. Our project aims to improve human
wellbeing in the MLW landscape by providing economically and environmentally sustainable
alternative livelihood strategies which minimize forest degradation and fragmentation. The
primary mechanisms for achieving this objective are participatory land use planning, coupled
with increasing economic returns from agriculture. Since 2006, the Consortium has been
working with local community, state, and national government institutions on strategies for
reductionsinforestconversionandavoideddeforestation.Centraltothesestrategiesisbuilding
knowledge assets for livelihoods, providing incentives for enhanced agroforestry and
agriculturalproductivityonconvertedlands,anddevelopingasustainablelanduseplanforthe
landscape. Theconsortiumhasengagedinparticipatorylanduseplanningin MLW whichhas
been based upon consultation with local and state institutions. Activities have included the
development ofspatiallyexplicit models for conservationlanduse planning,consultation with
localstakeholders,andassistancewithonthegroundintensificationoftreeandcropsystemsin
alreadyfarmedareas.
Deforestation monitoring and conservation prioritization
Our project has employed the use of spatial data and models to monitor patterns of
deforestationintheMLWLandscapeandtoidentifytheareasofhighestconservationpriority.
The landscape harbors an array of terrestrial mammals, including the bonobo ape (Pan
paniscus), the Congolese peacock (Afropavo congensis), and the forest elephant (Loxodonta
cyclotis),amongothers.Thelandscapealreadyhastworecognizedprotectedareas:theLomako
Faunal Reserve and the Luo Scientific Reserve. Biological surveys conducted in both reserves
indicatepresenceofthebonobo ape (listedasEndangeredasof 1996on theIUCNRedList of
Endangered Species). One goal of the project is to harness remote sensing tools to monitor

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slashandburnactivityfromhumansettlementandagricultureintheprotectedareasaswellas
in remote forested areas. Locations of active fire points detected by satellite imagery are
mapped using data from the Fire Information for Resources Management System (FIRMS,
managedbytheUniversityofMaryland)andassistinunderstandingandquantifyingtheextent
of human encroachment across the MLW landscape. We also employ analysis of satellite
imagerytomonitorpastandcurrentpatternsofdeforestationinthelandscape.
Another goal of the project is to understand the spatial distribution of human activity in the
landscape to help pinpoint the areas of highest conservation potential as well as locations of
wildlife corridors connecting the protected areas as well as an array of larger, lessdisturbed
forestblocks.AmulticriteriamodelwasdevelopedusingGIStoolstoidentifythespatialextent
ofhumanthreatstobiodiversity.Theinverseoftheresultwasthenusedtoidentifytheleast
disturbed forest habitats and to model the locations of the wildlife corridors connecting them
(Figure 2). We will use these modelled outputs to inform management and future landuse
planningintheMLWLandscapeandmonitortheimpactsofhumanactivityintheseareasover
time.

Figure2.Leastdisturbedforesthabitatsandlocationsofwildlifecorridors.
Participative land-use planning and zoning
Participative landuse planning is being employed in the MLW Landscape to meet the goals of
reducing deforestation from slashandburn agriculture, improving management of natural
resources, and reducing poverty. At the macro, or landscapelevel, participatory approaches
have been used to propose land areas for various uses including protected areas, production
forest,communitybasednaturalresourcemanagement(CBNRM),andexpansionofagricultural
activities. These proposals are subject to actual ratification by appropriate authorities and
stakeholders,buttheydoprovideavisionforthefutureofthelargerlandscape.InSeptember
2009,anagreementwassignedbetweentheDRCMinistryofEnvironment,NatureConservation
and Tourism (MECNT) and AWF designating the MLW landscape as a pilot site for landuse
planningandzoning.MLWisthefirstregionintheDRCthathasbeenformallyrecognizedasa
pilotsiteforzoning.
Using a combination of spatiallyexplicit modelling and participatory approaches, the project
team has begun to identify the spatial extent of areas best suited for inclusion in a proposed

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RuralDevelopmentZone(RDZ).TheRDZisprimarilyintendedtoconstrainthespatialextentof
futureagriculturalactivitywhiletakingareasofconservationpriorityintoaccount.Landthatis
notpartoftheruralcomplexesshouldthenbecomepermanentforest,devoidofslashandburn
agriculture but made available for collection of nontimber forest products for human
livelihoods. This planning model, created using a spatial conservation planning tool called
Marxan, considers a host of factors influencing future agricultural suitability including
assumptionsabout futurepopulationgrowthandagriculturalactivity,theinfluenceofexisting
agricultural areas, human accessibility, and the locations of areas important for conservation
prioritization.Figure3showsinredtheexistingruralcomplexes,andinorangetheproposed
areasmostsuitableforfutureagriculturalexpansionto2015,withconservationneedsinmind.

Figure3.Existingruralcomplexesandproposedareasmostsuitableforagriculturalexpansion.
SOIL: Micro-zoning for livelihood improvement and poverty reduction
Through the Sustainable Opportunities for Improved Livelihoods (SOIL) project, the MLW
program is engaging with local communities in 17 villages situated within a 2,000 km2 study
siteineasternMLW(Figure4)formicrozoningandlivelihoodimprovementatboththevillage
and household level. The study site was chosen for this particular focus because it contains a
largecenterofslowlyexpandingagriculturalproductioninadditiontoalargewildlifecorridor
importantforconnectivitybetweenMLWstwoprotectedareas.ThemainobjectiveoftheSOIL
programistoincreasehouseholdwellbeingfor4,200householdsinthestudyareabyproviding
economicallysustainablealternativelivelihoodsthatmitigatenegativeenvironmentalimpactsof
existinglivelihoodsstrategies,notablyforestconversionanddegradation.

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Figure4.MLWprogramisengagingwithlocalcommunities.
TheprojectteamisusingparticipatorymappingstrategiescoupledwithGPSdatacollectionto
delineate active agricultural boundaries on satellite images for the villages in the study area.
Thisworkwillhelpinformourunderstandingofcurrentlandmanagementpracticesinorderto
develop appropriate and complimentary participatory land use planning strategies, including
defining the boundaries of the RDZ. The work will also inform our understanding of land use
bothinsideandoutsidethevillageagriculturalcenter.
Theprojectwillthenworkwitheachofthevillagesunderaquidproquoagreement,providing
supportforagriculturalintensificationandincreasedaccesstomarketswithintheagreedlimits
of each villages identified RDZ. This support includes, but is not limited to, support for agro
forestry,distributionofgermplasm,seedsandnaturalfertilizerstoeachvillage,providingdirect
agriculturaltrainingforapplication,providingproductstorageandenhancedmarketaccess,and
providing training in product transformation and quality to increase market competitiveness
and enterprise. The SOIL project has also deployed household surveys for 200 households
within the 17 villages. The surveys include qualitative and quantitative information about
householdcharacteristicsandwellbeing,foodproductionandfarmingtechniques,marketsand
marketaccess.Thesurveyswillserveasabaselineforfutureprojectplanning,monitoringand
evaluation.
Modeling future impacts of deforestation and examining potential for carbon credits
An emerging objective of the SOIL program is to provide a costeffective foundation for
designing systems for monitoring, reporting and verifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
reductions and carbon stock enhancements attributable to the SOIL program. Two major
activities undertaken in the SOIL project are relevant to this aim: reduction of GHG emissions
from deforestation through constraining the extent of forest conversion to the dedicated RDZ;
andcarbonsequestrationthroughtheestablishmentofagroforestrysystems.Opportunitiesfor
undertakingREDD+initiativeswillalsobeinvestigated.
To accomplish this objective, baseline data will be collected and satellite imagery will be
analyzedtoassesscarbonsequestrationandGHGemissionslinkedtothedifferentlandusesin
the SOIL study site. Data used will include biomass estimates from intact, managed and
secondaryforests,agriculturalareasandagroforestrysystems,timeseriesremotesensingdata
onhistoricalagriculturalrotationandforestconversion,andareviewoftherelevantliterature.
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ThepotentialimpactoftheSOILprogramonGHGemissionsreductionandcarbonsequestration
canbeestimatedbycomparingamodelledbusinessasusualscenariooflandusechangewitha
projectscenariodefinedbytheSOILmicrozoningplan.Abusinessasusualscenarioforforest
change in MLW has already been developed using Idrisi's Land Change Modeler extension for
ArcGIS.ThemodelshowsprojectedlandcoverchangesinMLWforeach10yearintervalfrom
20002050.Itillustratesthespatialextentofforestlossaslocalcommunitiesopenupformerly
primary forest, away from roads and centres of habitation to pursue expanding agricultural
livelihoods. The MLW and SOIL team hope to reverse this trend through the defined project
activities,monitoredbysatelliteimageanalysisovertime.

Towards Land Use Dynamics Modeling: A Case Study of the Democratic


Republic of the Congo / Dynamique dutilisation du sol et distribution de la
population humaine en RDC
Jean-Paul Kibambe Lubamba and Pierre Defourny
EarthandLifeInstitute/EnvironmentalSciences
UniversitcatholiquedeLouvain
CroixduSud2,bte16,1348LouvainlaNeuve,Belgium
Keywords:Populationdistribution;Accessibility;Landuse;spatialmodeling;DRC

Introduction
Human population distribution and accessibility to main markets appear among high ranked
drivers of land use dynamics including forest cover change. Unfortunately, central African
countries as the DRC often lack reliable and detailed data related to above mentioned drivers.
Thecurrentresearchillustrateshowthepopulationdistributionandaccessibilitymeasurescan
bederivedusingspatialmodelingtechniques.
Estimating human population distribution presents many challenges. Typically, population
modelers are faced with limited data availability, both in quantity and quality. As population
datamostlyrelyonlargescalecensuscampaigns,theytendtobeinconsistentacrosstemporal
and geographic scales. For developing countries which often lack proper resources to support
nationalcensuses,thisisamajorproblem1.Inaddition,countrylevelpopulationinformationis
often aggregated to areas sometimes covering thousands of square kilometers. One major
challenge in population distribution modeling consists in the appropriate assignment of
populationcountsfromsourcezones(i.e.,theaggregateddata)toanothersuperimposedsetof
(target) zones or to a regular grid of cells. This assignment has been generally addressed by
arealinterpolation,definedasaseriesoftechniquestotransformdatafromonesetofzonesto
another2.
Accessibility models have been widely implemented using GIS software, mostly in a data rich
contextabouttraveltimebyroadtypes,timetableinformationforpublictransportation,precise
locationofrailwaystations,exhaustiveroadandrailwaydatabasescoveringallthestudyarea,

1Mennis,2009
2GoodchildandLam,1980

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etc.However,inmanydevelopingcountries,suchinformationisreallyscarce(andmostofthe
time unavailable) which prevents the implementation of a reliable accessibility model1.
Meanwhile, there is an urgent need in those countries for operational accessibility models as
manyprojectsconductedintheseregionsrelyontheevaluationoftheaccessibilitytohealthcare
centersforabetterpublichealthmanagement2,tomaincitiesormarketsforlandusedynamics
assessmentorinfrastructures development3ortoprimaryandsecondaryschoolsforimproving
theeducationalsystem4.
To overcome these limitations originating from the lack of detailed population and transport
system data in developing countries, the present research proposes a set of spatial modeling
techniquesforestimatingthehumanpopulationdistributionandtheaccessibilitytomaincities
at the DRC national scale. Both population distribution and accessibility can afterwards be
combinedwithotherimportantlandinformation(e.g.,protectedareasandforestconcessions)
tosupportanoverallmodelingscheme(seeFig.1)suitabletoinvestigatelandusedynamics.

Pop. Counts by admin. level

DRC Land cover

Road and River Network

Friction surface

Multimodal Network
analysis and Cost
Distance Algorithm

Areal Interpolation

Human Population
Distribution

Other land
information

Accessibility to the nearest city

Modeling

Land use dynamics

Figure1.Overallmodelingframework.
Mapping human population distribution
Assumingthattheobservedhumanpopulationoverasourcezoneisstronglyrelatedtotheland
cover patterns, population densities per unit of each land cover class can be computed by
regressingsourcezonecountsonlandcoverareas.Thesedensityestimatescansubsequentlybe
usedtoestimatepopulationsoveranyotherareasandatanyotherspatialscale,providingthat
thecorrespondinglandcovercompositionisknown.
Letusdenoteyiastheobservedpopulationovertheithadministrativeunitamongnunits.Letus
consideraset{l1,,lk}oflandcoverclasses,andletusdenotexi1,,xikthecorrespondingareas(in

1Tanseretal.,2006
2MurawskiandChurch,2009
3Castellaetal.,2005
4Vasconcellos,1997

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106

km2) covered by each land cover class in this unit. Assuming that densities are spatially
invariant,asimplelinearregressionmodelcanthusbewrittenas:

yi 1 xi1 ... k xik i

1,..., n

(1)

Whereiisthepopulationdensity(inhabitants/km2)andwhereireferstothecorresponding
errorintermsofpopulation.Itisworthnotingthatthisregressioncorrespondstoanointercept
modelinthesensethatanullareanecessarilyyieldsazeropopulation.Theestimationofiis
straightforwardinaclassicalordinaryleastsquareframework.
Aslinearregressiononlyaimsatminimizingthesumofthesquaredi,thereisnocontrolover
the total estimated population as resulting from the model. The current research circumvents
this limitation by introducing linear constraints using the Lagrangian formalism. These
constraints include the total population and the percentage of the total population in specific
land cover classes when the information is available. For DRC, it is generally agreed that the
urban population represents about 30% of the population total1. The remaining 70% were
considered in the present study as spreading over the other land cover classes. By taking into
account these two specific constraints, the solution of the resulting system is given by the
Equation2below:

X ' X sa sb X ' y

0 0 a (0.3) yT
s'a
s'
0 0 b (0.7) yT
b

(2)

withyT=thetotalpopulation,sa=(s1,0,,0)andsb=(0,s2,,sk),wheres1denotesthetotal
urbanarea,respectively,whereass2,,skrefertototalareasforvariousotherclasses.a andb
being Lagrangian multipliers. The resulting human population distribution for DRC is then
comparedtoexistingdatasetsanddiscrepanciesbetweenobservedandpredictedpopulations
attheDRCTerritoryadministrativelevelareexploredusingsimulations.
Estimating accessibility to nearest markets or cities
The use of isochrones in accessibility models appears to be one of the most appropriate
approaches for creating an accessibility surface2. An isochrone in GIS can be seen from two
perspectives:asalineofconstanttimeorasasurfacecomposedofareaslyingwithinasetof
range time values. Both isochrone types can be computed using network analysis tools, given
that the network dataset (and related travel times by segments) and origin (and destination)
pointsareprovided.Thevalueofanisochronelineisdirectlyrelatedtotheinputtraveltimeof
the corresponding network segment and its distance from the destination point. However, the
valueofanisochronesurfaceissomehowmitigatedwhenmovingawayfromnetworkaxes,orin
areas of sparse input data (i.e., a coarser street grid)3. Clearly, the underlying land cover (or
otherlandcharacteristicsasthetopography)shouldplayaroleinthecalibrationofisochrone
surfacevaluesbetweennetworksegments.
Thecurrentresearchdevelopedamethodologywhichtakesafulladvantageofnetworkanalysis
tools (e.g., the ESRITM Network Analyst extension for ArcGIS) and uses an updated DRC
multimodal transport system (roads and rivers) for deriving isochrone lines. Those isochrone

1BAfd/OCDE,2008
2Brainardetal.,1997
3Brainardetal.,1997

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107

linesareafterwardsintegratedintoamodelwhichinvolvesfrictionsurfacesforcomputingthe
accessibility to main cities. The resulting accessibility surface presented here below (see Fig.
2(b))onlyillustratesthemultimodalsimulationforpedestriansandnonmotorizedboats.
Results and discussion
TheDRCpopulationdensitiesat1squarekilometerareestimatedbylandcoverclassesusinga
constrained linear regression model. Figure 2(a) shows the resulting human population
distribution forDRC at national scale.Estimated densities arein goodagreement with general
considerations about DRC human population distribution. For example, the model depicted a
density of about 90 inhabitants/km2 for mountain forests in the quite populated regions of
NorthandSouthKivu.ThisisaDRCspecificcasewhilemountainousecosystemsareelsewhere
associated to very low human population densities. It is worth noting that Kinshasa being a
particularcaseofurbanareawasdiscardedduringtheconstrainedregressionprocess.
From Figure 3(b), it can be seen that spatially varying densities (simulated based on a
multivariateGaussianhypothesis)haveindeedanimpactontheresults,butthisvariabilityisfar
fromexplainingwhatisreallyobserved.Alsobasedonsimulations,thepresentresearchshows
how a confusion matrix originating from the land cover classification can serve for evaluating
theimpactofclassificationerrorsonthepopulationdensityestimates.Whilethecorresponding
errors were quite limited and were not expected to notably change the estimations for the
specificDRCcasestudy(seeFig.3(c)),itmightprovetobeusefultoaccountfortheminother
circumstances.
Thoughonemayofcourseimagineawidearrayofpotentialsourcesofothererrors,itisunlikely
that they can account for the observed discrepancies (see Fig. 3(a)), so the problem should
probablybefoundonthesocalledcensuscountsside1,whicharemerelyprojectionsfromthe
1984DRCcensusdata.

1DeSaintMoulin,2006

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108

(b)
( )

Figure 2. (a) Estimated spatial distribution of human population and (b) Accessibility to main
citiesassimulatedfromamultimodalnetwork.
Preliminary results of the accessibility modeling showed that combining a networkbased
analysiswithfrictionsurfacescanovercomelimitationscomingfromthesingleuseofacoarse
transportation network as input data when estimating the accessibility of given destinations.
However,therearestillsomeissuesoncalibratinghow(andhowmuch)thesecomplementary
land information (e.g., the topography) acting as friction surfaces, impact the accessibility to
targetedlocations.

(b)

( )

( )

Figure 3. DRC population estimates from constrained model vs. (a) observed population per
administrativeunits,(b)populationestimatesfromsimulatedspatiallyvaryingdensities,and(c)
populationestimatesusinglandcoverconfusionmatrix.
Perspectives
The results obtained from the constrained regression weighted areal interpolation provide
probably one of the best approximations of the population distribution at a 1km spatial
resolution for DRC. The current results also demonstrate the effectiveness of combining a
networkbasedaccessibilityanalysiswithfrictionsurfacestoproviderealisticestimationsofthe
accessibility to DRCs main cities. Further integration of these results in an overall spatially
distributedmodeldesignedforlandusedynamicssimulationshouldsupportthediscussionof
landandinfrastructuredevelopmentatnationallevel.

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109

References
1. Mennis, J., 2009. Dasymetric Mapping for Estimating Population in Small Areas. Geography
Compass,3(2),727745.
2. Goodchild, M.F. and Lam, N.S., 1980. Areal interpolation: A variant of the traditional spatial
problem.Geoprocessing,1,297312.
3.Tanser,F.,Gijsbertsen,B.,andHerbst,K.,2006.Modellingandunderstandingprimaryhealth
care accessibility and utilization in rural South Africa: An exploration using a geographical
informationsystem.SocialScience&Medicine,63(3),691705.
4. Murawski, L. and Church, R.L., 2009. Improving accessibility to rural health services: The
maximal covering network improvement problem. SocioEconomic Planning Sciences, 43 (2),
102110.
5.Castella,J.C.,etal.,2005.Analysisofvillageaccessibilityanditsimpactonlandusedynamics
inamountainousprovinceofnorthernVietnam.AppliedGeography,25(4),308326.
6. Vasconcellos, E.A., 1997. Rural transport and access to education in developing countries:
policyissues.JournalofTransportGeography,5(2),127136.
7. BAfd/OCDE, Perspectives conomiques en Afrique 2008. , 2008. , Technical report,
OrganisationdeCooprationetdeDveloppementsEconomiques.
8, 9.Brainard,J.S.,Lovett,A.A.,and Bateman, I.J., 1997. Using isochrone surfacesintravelcost
models.JournalofTransportGeography,5(2),117126.
10. De Saint Moulin, L., 2006. Analyse par territoire et ville des rsultats de lenrlement des
lecteursetdurfrendumsurleprojetdeconstitution.CongoAfrique,NumroSpcial402403,
929.

3.6 Regional Acquisition of Satellite Data

Satellite Data Accessibility for Forest Monitoring in Central Africa / Accs aux
donnes satellitaires
Landing Man,a Michael Brady,b Chris Justicec and Alice Altstattc
aSatelliteObservatoryoftheForestsofCentralAfrica(OSFAC)
bNatural

Resources Canada/Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC

GOLD)
cUniversityofMaryland

Introduction
Earthobservationsatellitedataareanecessityforthesuccessfulmonitoringofforestcoverand
execution of programs relating to the Reduction of Emissions due to Deforestation and Forest
Degradation (REDD). The satellite data used for forest cover monitoring vary in spatial
resolution (1 Km to submeter), image acquisition frequency (daily to monthly), spectral
characteristics (including optical and radar) and data access costs (Table 1). A general
observation is that access to satellite data, although improved in the last few years, remains
limitedinmanyregionsoftheworld.Themainconstraintsinclude:

highcostofpurchasingimages,

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110

absenceofreceivingstationsforsystematicdataacquisition,

persistentcloudcoverintropicalzones,and

pooraccesstoInternetandlowbandwidth,whichrestrictdatadissemination.

Satellite data play a key role for monitoring land cover and forest dynamics, including the
evaluationofbiomassandestimationofcarbonstocks,etc.Comparedtothecollectionofdataon
the ground, the use of satellite data has additional benefits such as simultaneous coverage of
largeareas,thepossibilityofregularupdatingofchangesinlandcover,wideareaaccessibility,
andrelativelylowcosts.
Since January 2008, the US Department of Interior/US Geological Survey has been providing
terraincorrectedLandsatdataovertheInternetforfree.Royetal(2010)reportonthesizeand
proportionoftheUSLandsatarchivethatisoverAfricabyeachLandsatsensoranddiscussthe
current bandwidth constraints on users accessing free Landsat data over the Internet from
Africa.Inspiteofthequantityofdatacollectedsincethelaunchingofthefirstearthobservation
satellites,theshareofdataforAfricaremainsmodest(Table2).
Table1.Characteristicsofearthobservationsatellitesdataavailableforforestcoveranalysisin
Africa.
Satellite

Sensor(s)

SpatialResolution RevisitFrequency ApplicationScale1

Optical
NOAA2

AVHRR3

1km

daily

GlobalNDVI4

SPOT5

VEGETATION

1km

daily

Global

Terra/Aqua MODIS6

250m1km

daily

Global,Regional

Envisat

MERIS7

300m1km

3days

Global,Regional

CBERS28

CCD,IRMSS,WFI9

20260m

5/26days

Regional,Local

IRSP610

LISS,AWiFS11

5.856m

5/24days

Regional,Local

Landsat5/7

TM/ETM+12

1560m

16days

Regional,Local

SPOT4/5

HRVIR/HRG13

1020m

26days

Regional,Local

Terra

ASTER14

1590m

Ondemand

Local

EO1

ALI15

1030m

16days

Local

Radar

Orbitoverpass16

ERS217

SAR(Cband)18

30m

35days

Regional

Envisat

ASAR(Cband)19

30m

35days

Regional

ALOS20

PALSAR21(Pband)

788m

46days

Regional

RADARSAT

SAR(Cband)

25m

24days

Regional

1RegionalcorrespondstotheentireCongoBasinandlocalcorrespondstotheCBFPlandscapelevel;2NationalOceanic
and Atmospheric Administration satellite series; 3Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer; 4Normalized
DifferenceVegetationIndex; 5SatellitesPourlObservationdelaTerresatelliteseries; 6ModerateResolutionImaging
Spectrometer; 7 Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer; 8China Brazil Earth Resources satellite; 9CCD High
Resolution, Infrared MultiSpectral Scanner, Wide Field Imager; 10Indian Remote Sensing Resource1 satellite;
11LinearImagingSelfScanner,AdvancedWideFieldSensor;12ThematicMapper/EnhancedThematicMapper;13High
ResolutionVisibleandInfrared,HighResolutionGeometric;14AdvancedSpaceborneThermalEmissionandReflection
Radiometer;15AdvancedLandImager;16Revisitfrequencydependsonmodeandincidenceangle.;17EuropeanRemote
Sensing satellite; 18Synthetic Aperture Radar; 19Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar; 20Advanced Land Observing
Satellite;21PhasedArraytypeLbandSyntheticApertureRadar.

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Table2.AvailabilityofglobalLandsatscenesintheUSLandsatarchivesandpercentagethatare
overtheAfricacontinent(asofSeptember2009)(Royetal2010).
Sensor

ArchiveTotal

ImagesoverAfrica

Percent

MSS13

288,874

10,580

3.66

MSS45

225,432

18,099

8.03

TM45

795,711

47,519

5.97

ETM

930,271

117,247

12.60

Total

2,240,288

193,445

8.63

Due to the current significance of global issues such as climate change and the associated
environmentalandsocialimpacts,regionalandinternationalinitiativesarebeingestablishedto
improvetheavailabilityandaccessibilityofsatellitedata.Someoftheseinitiativesaredescribed
below.
DMC international imaging
DMC International Imaging Ltd (DMC) promotes and sells imagery from a suite of small earth
observationsatellites.TheDisasterMonitoringConstellationwasdesignedasaproofofconcept,
capableofmultispectralimagingofanypartoftheworldeveryday.Althoughitsobjectiveisto
support the logistics of disaster relief, DMCs main function is to provide independent daily
imagingcapabilitytothepartnernations:Algeria;Nigeria;Turkey;UK;andChina.
DMChasstartedtheacquisitionandtheprovisionofsatellitedatacoveringtheCongoBasinfor
EUFP7projects.Atestingandvalidationstageofthesedataforforestmonitoringisongoing.
SPOT image initiative
In support to international programs on climate change and particularly to REDD, the French
government plans to openthe archivesof SPOTimagery. Archived imageryof different spatial
and radiometric resolution willbe made availabletousers,free of charge. The access to these
images will be allowed to all, nevertheless, with preference for initiatives connected with the
objectivesofREDD.
Libreville satellite data receiving station
ThegovernmentsofGabon,FranceandBrazilplantoinstall,beforetheendof2012,asatellite
datareceivingstationatLibreville,Gabon.Thestationwillallowthesystematicreceptionofdata
fromseveralsatellitessuchasSPOT,CBERS,etc.Inprinciple,thistypeofacquisitioncouldhelp
topartlyresolvethecurrentproblemofcloudcontaminationinopticsatellitedataovertropical
zones.Infact,withthesystematicacquisitionofsatellitedata,theprobabilityofobtainingcloud
freeimagesismaximized.
Initiative GeoNetCast
TheprimaryobjectiveoftheGEONETCastsystemsetupbyGrouponEarthObservation(GEO)is
thedisseminationofenvironmentaldataandderivedproducts.GEONETCastisanearrealtime,
global network of satellitebased data dissemination systems designed to distribute space
based, airborne and in situ data, metadata and products to diverse communities
(www.earthobservations.org/geonetcast.shtml). The initiative involves the EUMETSAT, the
UnitedStates,China,andtheWorldMeteorologicalOrganization.TheGEONETCastsystemwill
holdacentralplaceinthecosteffectivedatadistributionsystemviaasatellitenetwork.
In Central Africa, several national meteorological services are already equipped with PUMA
receiving stations which could be used as part of the GEONETCast program. Currently,
EUMETSATprovidestransmissioncoverageacrossAfrica.

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GOFC- GOLD regional network data initiative


Regional Network Initiative of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics
(GOFCGOLD) is currently one of the most active programs working for the improvement of
quality and availability of land observation data (http://www.fao.org/gtos/gofc
gold/networks.html). In order to carry out this program, eight regional networks located in
SouthAmerica,inAsiaandinAfricahavebeenestablished.
For Africa, four regional networks are involved in the Regional Data Initiative: (1) Miombo
(Angola, DR Congo, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe); (2) OSFAC (DR
Congo, Congo Brazzaville, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic and Equatorial Guinea);
(3) SAFNET (Botswana, Namibia, Swaziland, Lesotho, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe,
Mozambique, Tanzania, Uganda, Malawi, Angola, Sudan, RD Congo and Madagascar); and (4)
WARN (Benin, Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Togo,
SierraLeone,Liberia,IvoryCoastandCapeVert).
Krankina (2009) and Roy et al (2010) describe the Africa Data Initiative, which took place in
AprilandMay2009.Specialistsfromthefournetworks,visitedseveralagenciesandinstitutions
intheUnitedStateswithearthobservationprograms.AttheEROSDataCentre(EDC)inSouth
Dakota, the specialists received training and subsequently obtained on hard media extensive
LandsatandMODISdatafortheirnetworkregionofinterest.Thedatawerebroughtbacktothe
respectivenetworkcentresandthenmadeavailabletonetworkmembersthroughouttheregion
forscientificstudiesortovalidatetheresultsofthematicanalyses.
In addition to data access, the Regional Data Initiative supports capacity building in the
processing of satellite data for network members. Technical support is provided by START,
NASAandGOFCGOLD,inpartnershipwithUSGS,UNEPandSDSU.Itisalsosupportedbyseveral
other national and international institutions such as: Canadian Forest Service, Canadian Space
Agency,EuropeanUnion,EuropeanSpaceAgencyandtheGlobalTerrestrialObservingSystem
GTOS(sponsoredbyFAO,WMO,UNEP,UNESCO,ICSU).
Satellite observatory of Central African forests network
InthesphereoftheRegionalDataInitiative,theSatelliteObservatoryoftheForestsofCentral
Africa (OSFAC), which represents GOFCGOLD in Central Africa, provides satellite data and
availablebyproductsforfree.Threetypesofdataarecurrentlybeingdistributed:Landsat(TM,
ETM+),ASTERandSRTM(Figure1),aswellasderivedforestandlandcoverproductsforthe
region.
TheOSFAChasnationalFocalPointsorPointsofContact,inchargeofthedistributionofsatellite
data, and which represent nearly all member countries of the Commission of the Forests of
CentralAfrica(COMIFAC):Gabon,DemocraticRepublicofCongo,CongoBrazzaville,Cameroon,
Central African Republic and Equatorial Guinea. In addition to providing a mechanism for the
distribution of data and data products, OSFAC provides training in remote sensing and GIS.
OSFAC maintains a close working relationship with DIAF, within the DRC Ministry of
Environment,andispoisedtoenhanceitsrelationshipswithotherCOMIFACcountryministries
through the OSFAC Focal Points. OSFAC also works closely with the Observatoire des Forts
d'AfriqueCentrale(OFAC),contributingtotheStateoftheForestReport,andworkswithother
NGOSonregionalforestmonitoringactivities.Theseworkingrelationshipscontributetotheuse
anddisseminationofsatellitedataandproductsintheregion.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

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Figure1.ThethreetypesofsatellitedatadistributedbyOSFAC.
Conclusions and recommendations
TheaccessibilityoftheearthobservationdatacanbeimprovedinAfricaprovidedthat:

data producers continue to make the access to satellite data easier and in favorable
conditions(e.g.,preprocessed)forusers,particularlyindevelopingcountries;

an effective data distribution system is created within regional centers, such as the
GOFCGOLD OSFAC Regional Network, which will facilitate effective collaboration with
otherexistingnetworkssuchasGEONETCAST,OFACFORAF,GLCN,etc.;

radardataandassociatedtraininginitsuse,ismadeavailable,especiallyinzoneswith
persistentcloudcover,asasupplementtoopticaldata;

satellitedatareceivingstationsareestablishedintheCongoBasinregionwherethereis
activedemandforearthobservationdata;

agenciesareencouragedtoconsiderfreeandopendistributionofdataandovercomethe
currentobstaclestodataaccess,withspecialconsiderationofthelimitationsofInternet
networkaccessandlowbandwidthinAfrica;

installationofnewfibreopticcablescontinues,whichwillopenupaccesstobroadband
connectivityandInternetuse;

donors and international projects are encouraged to coordinate their various satellite
and in situ forest mapping and measurement activities to minimize duplication and
maximizesharingofinformationintheCongoBasin.

Bibliography
Krankina O. N (2009) Report on GOFCGOLD Regional Network Data Initiative Africa Pilot
Workshop, 23 April 8 May, 2009, Sioux Falls, U.S.A. GOFCGOLD Regional Networks Report.
Edmonton:
Natural
Resources
Canada.
http://nofc.cfs.nrcan.gc.ca/gofc
gold/Other/DataInitiative_AfricaPilot_report.pdf
OSFAC (2009) Brochure de prsentation de lObservatoire Satellital des Forts dAfrique
Centrale.Kinshasa:OSFAC.
Roy, David P, Junchang Ju, Cheikh Mbow, Philip Frost, Tom Loveland (2010) Accessing free
LandsatdataviatheInternet:Africa'schallenge.RemoteSensingLetters,Volume1(2):111117.

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Pan-Tropical ALOS/PALSAR Mapping in Support of Forest Carbon Tracking /


Le suivi des forts tropicales avec PALSAR
Josef Kellndorfera, Wayne Walkera, Jesse Bishopa, Tina Cormiera, Katie
Kirscha, Greg Fiskea, Francesco Holeczb, Allessandro Baccinia, Scott Goetza,
Skee Houghtona, Nadine Laportea
aTheWoodsHoleResearchCenter,Folmouth,Massachusetts,USA
bSARMAP,Switzerland

Robustforestmonitoringtools,basedonthebroadrangeofavailabledatasources,areneededif
Central African nations are to develop effective monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV)
systems to support the tracking of forest carbon under mechanisms now being negotiated to
reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD). In 2006, the Japan
Aerospace ExplorationAgency(JAXA)launchedtheAdvanced Land Observing Satellite(ALOS)
featuring the Phased Array LBand Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR). The ALOS/PALSAR
sensor has emerged as an invaluable data source for ingestion into MRV data streams for a
numberofreasonsincluding:(1)theabilityofradartooperatedayornightwhilepenetrating
clouds and other atmospheric particulates including haze and smoke, (2) the long operating
wavelength(23.6cm),whichissensitivetoforeststructureandmoisturecharacteristics,(3)a
dedicatedglobalobservationstrategyprovidingwalltowall,i.e.,spatiallyexhaustive,imagingof
allforestedecosystemsatleasttwiceannuallyduringnarrow,threetofourmonthobservation
timeframes,(4)andanoperatinglifetimeexpectedtoexceed10years(i.e.,beyond2016).While
thesecharacteristicscomplementverywellthefeaturesofexistingEarthobservationplatforms,
thespaceagenciesofJapan,Argentina,Brazil,China,Germany,andtheUnitedStatesareactively
involved in mission planning that would extend operational monitoring by LBand radar well
into the future, thereby ensuring longterm data continuity. In addition to supporting fine
resolution(15m)mappingofforestandlandcover,PALSARdataalsohasthepotentialtofeed
intobiomassestimationsderivedfromthefusionoffieldandmultisensorremotelysenseddata
aswellasemissionsestimateswhencoupledwithcarbonstockmapsoremissionsmodels.
Pan-tropical mapping of forest cover
A mapping effort to generate consistent pantropical maps of forest cover and aboveground
carbon stocks is currently underway at the Woods Hole Research Center
(http://whrc.org/pantropical). This effort includes the compilation of an ALOS/PALSAR
databasethatnowincludes16,000+finebeamdualpolarimetric(FBD)PALSARscenes(Figure
1).Theobjectiveistoconstructaconsistentca. 2007pantropicaldatabase,includingwallto
wall coverage of all COMIFAC countries (Figure 2), using the first full year (2007) of PALSAR
dualpolarimetric data to produce a baseline forestcover map product against which
subsequentobservationscanbecomparedandchangesinforestandlancovercanbeassessed
(Figure 3). A walltowall PALSARbased map of forest cover spanning the entire pantropical
beltwillbemadepubliclyavailableinlate2010.

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Figure 1. Dualpolarimetric (HH/HV) Lband ALOS/PALSAR mosaic of the pantropical belt
superimposed on a 2002 global MODIS composite. The PALSAR mosaic consists of 16,189
individual70x70Km2scenes.
Pilot study: Xingu River headwaters, Mato Grosso, Brazil
In this pilot study, we evaluated the suitability of modern spaceborne radar data for the
production of walltowall maps of tropical land cover with special emphasis placed on
applications of forestcover mapping across large geographic extents.1 The Xingu headwaters
region,representativeofmanyareasalongtheAmazonsagriculturalfrontierhasmoreareain
dense humid forest (~221,000 km2) than 90% of the worlds tropical nations.2 The region is
currentlybeingconsideredforaREDDpilotproject,whichwouldbeintegratedintothestates
plan for meeting its obligations under the Brazilian National Climate Policy. Additionally, the
XinguheadwatershasbeenselectedbytheGrouponEarthObservations(GEO)ForestCarbon
Tracking(FCT)taskasoneofseveralkeysitesacrossthetropicswhereadvancedmethodsfor
combining highresolution imagery and insitu forest data are being demonstrated in order to
advancethedevelopmentofnationalMRVsystems(www.geofct.org).

1Walker,W.S.,C.M..Stickler,J.M.Kellndorfer,K.M.Kirsch,andD.C.Nepstad.InReview.Largeareaclassificationand
mappingofforest anlandcoverintheBrazilianAmazon:acomparativeanalysisofALOS/PALSARandLandsatTM
datasources.Submittedto:JournalofSelectedTopicsinAppliedEarthObservationsandRemoteSensing.
2Stickler,C.M.,D.C.Nepstad,M.T.Coe,H.O.Rodriguez,D.G.McGrath,W.S.Walker,B.S.SoaresFilhoandE.A.Davidson,
2009.ThepotentialecologicalcostsandcobenefitsofREDD:acriticalreviewandcasestudyfromtheAmazonregion.
GlobalChangeBiology15:28032824

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Figure 2. ALOS/PALSAR mosaic of Central Africa including all COMIFAC contries. The mosaic
consists of approximately 1,600 PALSAR scenes with approximately 75% coverage from the
periodJuneAugust,2007,andnearly95%coveragefromJuneOctober,2007.

Figure 3. Landcover classification results. (a) Twoclass PALSARbased categorical map of the
Xingu River headwaters region distinguishing forest (green) from nonforest (beige); overall
classification accuracy = 92.4 1.8%. (b) Overall accuracies associated with 20 separate
PALSARandLandsatderivedlandcoverclassifications.
Forthepurposesofouranalysis,twospatiallyandtemporallyconsistentimagemosaicsderived
from ALOS/PALSAR and Landsat TM data were generated for a 387,000km2 region in the
southeastern Brazilian Amazon encompassing the headwaters of the Xingu River (Figure 3a).
Eachmosaicwassubjectedtoanempiricaldecisiontreealgorithmwiththeprimaryobjectiveof
classifyinglandcover(a)atfivedifferentlevelsofclassaggregation(15,10,7,6,and2classes)
and (b) using two different predictorvariable subsets (spectral and spectral/ancillary
variables).ThroughacomprehensivecomparativeanalysisinvolvingtwentyseparatePALSAR
andLandsatbasedclassifications, weconfirmthepotentialofPALSARasanaccurate(>90%)
source for mapbased estimates of forest cover based on data and analyses from a large and
diverseregionencompassingtheXinguRiverheadwatersinsoutheasternAmazonia(Figure3b).
Pairwise spatial comparisons among maps derived from PALSAR, Landsat, and PRODES, the
BrazilianAmazondeforestationmonitoringprogram,revealedahighdegreeofspatialsimilarity.
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Conclusions and future work


Giventhatalongtermdatarecordconsistingofcurrentandfuturespaceborneradarsensorsis
nowexpected,ourpilotstudyresultspointtotheimportantrolethatspaceborneimagingradar
canplayincomplementingopticalremotesensingtoenablethedesignofrobusttropicalforest
monitoring systems. Our results confirm that modern spaceborne radar can contribute
significantlytothegenerationofaccurate,mapbasedestimatesofforestcoveracrossexpansive
anddiverseregionsliketheXinguheadwaters,withaccuraciesnearlyequalingthoseproduced
by Landsat, the most widely used sensor, and PRODES, the most highly regarded system, for
monitoringtropicaldeforestation.
Further research is needed in other parts of the humid tropics to determine if comparable
results can be achieved. Regions such as Central Africa, where finescale (! 1 hectare)
anthropogenicforestdisturbanceresultsinamoreheterogeneousmosaicoflandcoverclasses
thanthosetypicalofAmazonia,arekeyareaswherenewresearchshouldfocus.Additionally,as
stateoftheart radar data become increasingly available to the forest monitoring community
(several sensors are now in operation or are planned), further research on the topic of multi
sensoractive(radar/lidar)andpassive(optical)datafusionisneeded.

DMCii Global Forest Services / Les donnes de DMCii


J. Paul Stephens, Owen Hawkins
DMCInternationalImagingLtd,Guildford,UK,www.dmcii.com

Introduction
REDD+ funding requires countries to have an operational system for monitoring of national
forests to provide actionable information on which to base forest management. Satellite
mappingisanessentialtooltoprovidetimelyreliablemanagementandmonitoringdata.
In the Congo Basin the work of The Central African Regional Program for the Environment
(CARPE) has provided valuable decadal maps of the Congo Basin Forests based upon satellite
data.Howeverthepersistentcloudcoverandtheuseofsinglesatellitespreventedmappingat
morefrequenttimeintervalsthan510years.
The advent of REDD+ now requires annual or 6monthly walltowall monitoring of these
resourcessothatForestDepartmentscanhavetimelyinformationonwhichtotakeactionfor
forestmanagement,andinternationalfundingagencieshaveobjectiveinformationonwhichto
base decisions. The most efficient and comprehensive way to provide this information is
throughtheacquisitionofsatelliteimagery.
New technologies such as Synthetic Aperture Radar are still at the research and development
stage, so optical imagery provides a triedandtested way to monitor forests. Monitoring
tropical forests at this frequency requires multiple satellites to avoid cloud, and this is made
possible using the international Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC). The five optical
imaging satellites built by Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd. (SSTL) work together to provide
rapid repeat imaging capability. They are individually owned and operated by the DMC
Consortiummembernations;Algeria,Nigeria,China,SpainandUK.

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SincethefirstDMCsatellitewaslaunchedin2002,theconstellationhasprovidedacommercial
imaging service coordinated by DMC international Imaging Ltd (DMCii). The company,
establishedattherequestoftheconsortium,coordinatesthekeyfunctionsof:

Calibration&validationofdatatomatchLandsatradiometry

DisasterresponsepartoftheInternationalCharter;Space&MajorDisasters

Commercialimagingcampaignstofinancethesystem

Data continuity has been ensured with the launch of both new (Spain) and replacement (UK)
satellitesintotheconstellation.Themultispectralsensorshavebeenupgradedfrom32metres
gsd to 22metres, doubling the number of pixels per hectare. Two additional satellites are
scheduledforlaunchinQuarter42010forNigeria,includinganadditional22msatellite,anda
very high resolution satellite with 2.5 metre panchromatic, 5m multispectral and 32m
multispectralimagers.Thediagrambelowshowsthedatacontinuitytimeline.

Figure1.DatacontinuitytimelineoftheDMCiiconstellation.
The success of SSTL small satellites has been in building on the rapid improvements in
terrestrial computing power to continuously improve priceperformance ratios. The following
diagram shows how the addition of the latest generation of DMC satellites increased
dramaticallytheoverallcapacityoftheconstellation.

Figure2.CapacityimprovementsintheDMCiiconstellationsince2002,andprojectedto2015.

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Since2005DMCiihassuccessfullydeliveredmonitoringinannualandmonthlytimescalesofthe
worlds largest tropical forest in the Amazon Basin, as part of the Brazilian Space Agencys
exemplaryPRODESprogrammeformonitoringdeforestation.

Figure3.AmazonBasindeforestationmap(INPE).
The constellation has also delivered timely coverage of 38 countries in Europe within tightly
specified dates, and within 6 months has almost completed the first annual coverage of sub
SaharanAfricaasacoredatasetforEuropesGMESprogramme(Figure4).DMCiidataisalso
usedinEurope,NorthandSouthAmericaforprecisionagricultureandlandcovermapping.
ThelatestincreaseinDMCiicapacityprovidestheabilitytodeliverglobalmonitoringofforests
onaregularannualbasis.ThesecondlargesttropicalforestintheworldcoverstheCongoBasin,
and DMCii will cover the region under the GMES programme in 2010 as shown in Figure 4.
DMCiiisalsomappingforestsinIndonesia.

Figure4.DMCiiAfricacoverageOct'09Jan'10commissionedbytheEuropeanGMES
programme.
The satellite data can be used to derive clear cut maps or to analyse degradation using multi
temporaldatasets.

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Figure5.Multitemporalforestchangeanalysis.
Thedataenablesanalysisofclearcuts,loggingtrails,andwithmultitemporaldatacanderive
otherchangessuchasdegradation,regrowth,burntareas,andflooding.
Witharesolutionof22metres32metresthedataprovidesexcellentlevelofdetailandbenefits
fromtheverywideareacoverageachievedbythe650kmwideimageswath.
DMCii now proposes, through the Congo Basin Forest Fund, a long term service plan to
sustainablyprovideCOMIFACwith:

AcomprehensivetrainingandawarenessbuildingpackageforstakeholdersintheCongo
Basin with focus on capacity building with the Observatoire Satellital des Forets
dAfrique Central (OSFAC). Training events will include satellite data processing and
mapproductionandfieldtrainingformapinterpretation.

A project to develop government involvement in sustainable provision of forest


information.

Fostering of SouthSouth cooperation between COMIFAC and their Brazilian


counterparts,INPE,IMAZONandIBAMA.

AnnualandbetterthanannualbasinwideimageryoftheCongoBasinforests.

MoreregularsurveyofPriorityLandscapesandotherkeyareas.

Printedanddigitalforestmaps,specifiedtomeetREDD+requirements.

Harmonisation with existing projects to meet their data needs, including CARPE and
ObservatoiredesForetsDAfriqueCentral(OFAC).

LicensingofalDMCdataforanyuserglobally,tostimulateuptakeandremovebarriers
toexploitation.

Focusoncollaborationwithexistingactorsintheregion.

Partners,cofundingbodiesandstakeholdersinclude;

UNFAO,EuropeanSpaceAgency,CIFOR,WorldResourcesInstitute,ECFORAF(OFAC),
OSFAC,CARPE,IUCN,JaneGoodallInstitute,GMESREDD

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DGofEnvironment(RC)

AssociationCongolesepourlaPreservationdesForets

InstitutionCongolesepourlaConservationsdelaNature

MinistryofFaunaandForest(Cameroun)

GeographicalInstituteofBurundi

FurtherstakeholdersinGabon,GuineaEquatoriale

Otherforestresponsibleorganisations

Summary
Duringtheperiod2010onwardsthereisaREDD+requirementforregularbetterthanannual
opticalmappingoftheCongoBasinandothertropicalforests,inordertomonitorandmanage
degradationanddeforestation.
AreviewofavailablesatellitesystemsshowedthattheDisasterMonitoringConstellation(DMC),
establishedin2002,istheonlysuitableoperationalsystemwhichprovidesthecapacity,image
resolutionandqualityofcalibrationtoprovideconsistentandtimelyinformationforCOMIFAC
in the period from 2010 to 2014. The launch of additional DMC satellites for Nigeria in 2010
ensuresdatacontinuity.
Integratingthisdatawithcapacitybuildingintheregionthroughlocalorganisationswilldeliver
regular maps of the entire basins forests and the training to produce and interpret these to
effectively participate in the REDD+ process. DMCii is working with OSFAC and international
organisations such as World Resources Institute and CARPE to integrate sustainable annual
satelliteimagingintothemappingandmanagementofCongoBasinForests.

An Earth Observation Ground Station and Research Laboratory for Long Term
Monitoring in Central Africa / Le spatial au service de la surveillance de
lenvironnement et de la gestion durable des forts en Afrique centrale
Jean-Marie Fotsinga, Benot Mertensb, Laurent Durieuxa, Frdric Huynha,
Christian Thomasc, Claudio Almeidad, Etienne Massardeet Lee Whitef
aInstitutderecherchepourledveloppement(IRD,France)
bBureaudtudeEGEO(Montpellier,France)
cConsultantantennestation(ExCNES,France)
dInstitutnationalderecherchesspatiales(INPE,Brsil)
eConseillerlaPrsidencedelarpubliqueduGabon
fAgencenationaledesparcsnationauxduGabon(ANPN)

Introduction
Les forts du bassin du Congo et dAfrique centrale reprsentent le second massif forestier
mondial aprs lAmazonie. Avec les forts dAsie du SudEst, les trois massifs concentrent la
quasitotalit des forts tropicales de la plante. Aujourdhui la contribution de ces forts au
suivi des stocks et flux de carbone est au cur des dbats scientifiques sur les changements
climatiques.Lamiseenvidencedesrelationsdirectesouindirectesentrelvolutiondesforts,
leurcontributionauxvariationsdesteneursengazeffetdeserre(GES)delatmosphreetles
modifications du climat passent par une bonne connaissance des mcanismes en jeu sur ces
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fortsetleurvolutionsouslactiondemultiplesfacteursaupremierrangdesquelslesfacteurs
anthropiques.Cette connaissance ncessitede disposer dinformations fiableset continuessur
cesespaces.
Denombreusestudesontmontrquelerecoursauximagesissuesdestechnologiesspatiales
dobservation de la Terre est indispensable pour lamlioration des connaissances sur les
mcanismes de suivi des forts. Mais le constat gnral actuel est que laccs aux donnes
spatialesestencoretrsdifficiledansbeaucoupdergionstropicales,etplusparticulirement
enAfriquecentrale.PourtantdesinitiativesexistentcommecellesdurseauGlobalObservation
ofForestandLandsCoverDynamics(GOFCGOLD)qui,autraversdesactivitsdelObservatoire
SatlitalledesFortsdAfriqueCentrale(OSFAC)tentederemdiercettesituation.Cependant,
lesconditionsclimatiqueslieslapermanenceetlafortenbulosit,lafracturespatialedu
fait de labsence de station de rception directe des images et la fracture numrique
imputable au faible accs Internet, limitent considrablement les possibilits daccs aux
donnes satellites de qualit exploitable. Cest dans ce contexte que sinscrit le projet de
Surveillance Environnementale Assiste par Satellite dnomm SEAS Gabon. Ce projet qui
ambitionnedemettrelespatialauservicedelenvironnementetdelagestiondurabledesforts
dAfriquecentraleviseinstallerLibrevilleuneantennederceptionmultisatellitesassocie
uncentredecomptencergionaleetinternationaleentldtection.
Leslignesquisuiventprsententdefaonsynthtique:i)lecontexteetlhistoriqueduprojet,
ii)lesobjectifsetrsultatsattendus,iii)ledispositiffonctionneletlesactivits.
Contexte et historique du projet
DanslecadredelaCommissiondesFortsdAfriqueCentrale(COMIFAC),lespaysdubassindu
Congosesontengagsdepuisplusieursannesdanslamiseenuvredunepolitiqueconcrte
et concerte damnagement durable des forts publiques, politique dimportance capitale au
regard du rle de la rduction des missions de GES isues de la dforestation et de la
dgradation des forts (REDD) pour la limitation des risques du changement climatique. La
possibilit de participer activement la dfinition de linclusion des forts dans les futurs
mcanismes de ngociations sur le climat, discuts notamment Copenhague en dcembre
2009,vadpendreprincipalementdelacapacitdespaysdAfriquecentraleproduire,partir
de mthodes et techniques de mesures fiables, les informationsncessaires la dfinition des
politiques, mesures et actions nationales visant rduire les missions de GES issues de la
dforestation et de la dgradation des forts. Faute de comptences suffisantes, ces pays
risquent dtre absents ou rduits de simples spectateurs des dbats sur le choix des
rfrences mthodologiques et technologiques des mcanismes de limitation du risque
climatique, au moment o ces discussions peuvent avoir des implications importantes sur la
maniredetraiterlethmedesfortsdanslecadredelaConventionetduProtocoledeKyoto.
Ainsi, lacquisition de comptences scientifiques et techniques suffisantes en matire de suivi
desfortsreprsenteun enjeu dterminantpourcespays.Ilatdmontrquelessentielde
ces comptences, particulirement celles ayant trait au suivi du couvert forestier, porte sur
lutilisationdestechnologiesspatialesdobservationdelaTerre.Cependant,laccsauxdonnes
exploitablesdanscespaysestconfrontunefortecomplexitrsultantdelacombinaisonde
plusieursfacteursdordrehistorique,structurel,technologiqueetnaturel.
Linstallationdunestationderceptiondedonnesissuesdediffrentssatellitesdobservation
de la Terre, dans des zones africaines stratgiques, permettra lacquisition systmatique
dinformationstemporellesetspatialesdistinctes,facilitantainsilesuividucouvertforestieret
de ses dynamiques. La garantie dune rception multisatellitaire, laccs libre et continu aux
donnes commela capacitationtechnique etscientifique, exigent un engagement international

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tant en termes dinvestissements technologique et financier quen terme dinstallation


dinfrastructuresadquates.
Suite aux expriences russies de la France et du Brsil, tant dans le dveloppement de
technologiesspatialespourlobservationdelaTerrequedanslutilisationeffectivedesdonnes
obtenues, pour lvaluation et le suivi des ressources naturelles, il existe une volont forte de
dveloppercestechnologiesdansdespaysoellessontencoreinsuffisantesouinexistantes.
LeGabonoffredesatoutsindiscutablestelquesonpositionnementgographiquequipermetde
couvrirlensembledesfortsdubassinduCongoetquiestenparfaitecomplmentaritavecle
rseau dantennes de rception CBERS prvu en Afrique tout en tant une composante
essentielledurseaudesplatesformesSEASanimparlUnitESPACEdelIRD,etsurtoutune
stabilit politique indispensable tant en terme dinvestissement que de scurit des
quipements.Depluslengagement historique du Gabon dans une politique forte et cohrente
en faveur dun dveloppement conomique compatible avec la prservation des cosystmes
forestiers et ses bonnes relations politiques avec les pays voisins en font une proposition
cohrenteunprojetcaractrergionalsurlagestiondurabledesforts.
Lanne 2009 a t marque par de nombreuses rencontres entre les partenaires du projet et
pardesprisesdedcisionsofficiellesmarquantes:
Enmars,enliaisonavecsonengagementdanslagestiondurabledesfortsetdansleprocessus
REDD (notamment avec sa participation au Forest Carbon Partnership Facility FCPF), le
gouvernement du Gabon a dcid la ralisation dune tude de faisabilit dun projet
dimplantationdestationderceptiondimagessatellitesquipourraittrefinancsurlaccord
de conversion de dette avec la France et un financement de lAgence Franaise de
Dveloppement(AFD).
En avril, la Direction gnrale de lenvironnement du Gabon (Ministre des Eaux et Fort, de
lEnvironnement et du Dveloppement Durable MEFEDD) participe au symposium de
tldtectionorganisNatal(XIVSBSR)parlInstitutbrsilienderecherchesspatiales(INPE),
avec lappui de lAFD, de lIRD, du Centre National dEtudes Spatiales (CNES), du reprsentant
franais de GMES et du GEO (Group on Earth Observations) et de lAmbassade de France au
Brsil.
Enjuin,leMinistredelEnvironnementdugouvernement duGabonoraniseLibreville,avec
lappuietlaparticipationdelAFD,delIRD,duCNESetdelINPE,unatelierpourlelancement
officielduprojetdimplantationdestationderceptionsatellitaire,projetdornavantdnomm
SEASGabon.Desministresgabonaisparticipentcesminaire,ainsiquelesAmbassadeursde
France et du Brsil au Gabon. Le partenariat entre le Brsil et la France apparat ainsi
prometteurpourlacooprationaveclespaysdAfriquecentrale.
Endcembre,leprojetSEASGabonquiconcrtisecepartenariatestofficiellementannonclors
de la confrence des Parties Copenhague (CPO15) et approuv par le Comit dOrientation
Stratgique du mcanisme de conversion de la dette GabonFrance. La volont du Gabon
investir dans ce type dinfrastructure dmontre lintrt de cette coopration tripartite et
lengagementdesinstitutionsdestroispayssurunenouvelleformedecooprationSudSud.
Objectifs du projet et finalits
LeprojetdeSurveillanceEnvironnementaleAssisteparSatellite(SEASGabon)apourobjectif
dedvelopperunpledecomptenceentldtectionpourlagestiondurabledesterritoiresau
GabonetenAfriquecentrale.Cepleestconstituduneplateformetechnologiquecomprenant
une antenne de rception directe dimages satellitaires optique et radar haute rsolution
associe uncentrecomptenceentraitement dimageset gomatiqueddiauxapplications

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delobservationdelaTerreetenparticulierlagestiondurabledesressourcesforestiresdu
GabonetenAfriquecentrale.
Lesobjectifsspcifiquesduprojetsont:

implanteruneplateformetechnologique:stationderceptionenbandeXpermettant
laprogrammationetlacquisitiondesdonnesoptiquesetradarsdehautersolutionen
tempsquasirel;

installer une chane de rception, de traitement et de stockage des donnes multi


satellites permettant dassurer le suivi du couvert forestier en adquation avec les
exigencesdelalgislationnationaleetdesconventionsinternationales;

mettre en place une infrastructure permettant la diffusion dans la sousrgion des


donnesspatialesentempsquasirel;

dvelopper des programmes de recherche pluridisciplinaires et des projets pilotes


dapplicationimpliquantdespartenairesnationauxetinternationaux;

accompagner les institutions de formation existantes par la mise en place dactions de


formation spcifiquespour accrotre lescapacits nationalesetrgionaleset crerune
expertiseenAfriquecentrale;

assurerlinnovationetlestransfertsenAfriquedemthodesetsavoirfairedvelopps
parlespartenairesenAmazonie.

Ce projet se traduira par la cration dun centre de comptence en tldtection pour la


recherche,laformationetledveloppementdeservicesoprationnelspourlesuividesfortset
delenvironnementenAfriquecentrale.
Cecentreauravocation:

Regrouper des quipes de recherche nationale et internationale, des capacits de


formation dans le cadre de partenariats public/priv dans le domaine de la fort
notamment.

Construire des modules de formation qualifiants ( la carte) et intgrs dans les


formations diplmantes pour crer un Master international en Tldtection,
EnvironnementetFortsTropicales.

Dvelopper et faire vivre des observatoires de lenvironnement par le spatial au


service du dveloppement durable dans le cadre dune coopration rgionale avec les
institutionsdespaysdelazoneAfriquecentrale.

Dispositif fonctionnel et activits


Implante Libreville au Gabon, lantenne de rception directe fera lacquisition des images
prises par certains satellites lors de leur passage dans sa zone de couverture, soit un cercle
denviron2800kmderayon.Cettezonecomprend,outrelestatsforestiersdAfriquecentrale
delaCOMIFAC,unepartiedespaysdAfriquedelOuestetdAfriquedelEst(Figure1).
Cette plateforme technologique (PFT) de rception multisatellites permettra daccder une
constellationdesatellitesdobservationdelaTerreetdacqurirdesimagesoptiquesetradars
delafilireCBERS,SPOT,Pliades,ENVISAT,LANDSAT,Radarsat,ALOS.LaPFTetlecentrede
comptence(CC)rgionalserontenliaisondirecteaveclescentresderessourcesnationaux(CR)
installs dans les pays partenaires via le rseau Internet trs haut dbit ou un rseau
dantennessecondairesspcifiques.

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125

PlateformederceptiondirectedessatellitesLibreville

Limiteducerclederceptionduneantenne15

Limiteducerclederceptionduneantenne10

Limiteducerclederceptionduneantenne5(casnominal)

Figure 1. Implante Libreville au Gabon, lantenne de rception directe fera lacquisition des
images prises par certains satellites lors de leur passage dans sa zone de couverture, soit un
cercledenviron2800kmderayon.
Lapolitiquedaccsauxdonnesserabasesurleprincipedelagratuitconformmentaux
engagements pris par les Gouvernements Gabonais, Franais et Brsilien et dans le but de
conforter le ple dexcellence Gabonais, le rendre attractif tout en favorisant les dynamiques
rgionalesetlerenforcementdescapacitsdespaysAfricainsdisposerdelamatrisedeleurs
territoires.
LarceptiondesatellitesCBERSsinscritdanslecadredunepolitiquergionale,meneparle
Brsil et la Chine, de distribution gratuite des donnes lensemble des pays de la zone de
rception de lantenne (programme CBERS4Africa). La France, au travers de laccord AFD
EADS/Astrium,souhaitequelastationSEASGabonpuisseintgrerdescapacitsderceptionde

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la filire SPOT pour assurer la continuit des acquisitions engages en 2010 pour disposer de
donnes SPOT gratuites dans le cadre de REDD et REDD+ pour lensemble des rgions
forestirescouvertesparlecerclederceptiondelantenneduGabon.Desngociationsseront
engages avec dautres agences spatiales pour dfinir dautres modes daccs aux donnes
dautres satellites dans le contexte particulier du dveloppement durable des pays du Sud et
danslecadredinstallationscaractrescientifiqueettechnologique(CNESESAGISTDAJAXA
NASA)etenfonctiondesrponsesaucahierdescharges(Landsat,IRS,ALOS,etc.).
Cespartenariats,quiferontlobjetdtudesetngociationsspcifiques,permettrontdegarantir
laccs dimportantes sries dimages diverses rsolutions pour couvrir les besoins en
donnes, long terme, pour contribuer durablement la mise en place dobservatoires de
lenvironnement pour le dveloppement durable. Do la ncessit de dvelopper une
infrastructure daccs aux donnes spatiales au travers dun portail daccs via catalogue, sur
projets pour optimiser la programmation ventuelle des satellites ou au travers de centres de
ressourcesnationaux(sousrservedeleurmiseenplace).Ainsi,leprojetcherchedvelopper
lacooprationrgionaledanslesdomainesprioritairesdespaysdAfriquecentraleetfavoriser
linnovationetletransfertdesavoirfaireetdetechnologiespourlamiseenplacedeservicesde
suivietdesurveillanceduterritoire.
Surleplanscientifiqueettechnique,ceprojetsaccompagneratoutdaborddunrenforcement
des quipes locales et proposera rapidement des programmes de formation spcifiques tant
nationaux que rgionaux. Des programmes rgionaux de recherche et dapplications pilotes
pourrontalorstremisenplaceainsiquunobservatoiredelenvironnementetdesforts.Ces
programmes couvriront des thmatiques telles que la gestion forestire, lamnagement des
territoires,lagriculture,lesuividumilieumarinetctier,lasurveillancepidmiologiqueetla
gestiondesrisques.Enfin,cettedynamiquederechercheetdeformationetlaccsauxdonnes
permettrontdactualiserlacouverturecartographiquemultithmatiquenationaleetrgionale.
Ledveloppementconomiqueenavaldelastationserafavorisparunepolitiquedinnovation
(projetsdeR&D),dincubationdentreprisesetdinstallationdentreprisesprivesdanslecentre
de comptence pour mettre en uvre des services (observation de la Terre, cartographie,
environnement) en appui la gestion des ressources naturelles et de surveillances
environnementales.
Surleplanscientifiqueettechnique,ceprojetsaccompagneratoutdaborddunrenforcement
des quipes locales et proposera rapidement des programmes de formation spcifiques tant
nationaux que rgionaux. Des programmes rgionaux de recherche et dapplications pilotes
pourrontalorstremisenplaceainsiquunobservatoiredelenvironnementetdesforts.Ces
programmes couvriront des thmatiques telles que la gestion forestire, lamnagement des
territoires,lagriculture,lesuividumilieumarinetctier,lasurveillancepidmiologiqueetla
gestiondesrisques.Enfin,cettedynamiquederechercheetdeformationetlaccsauxdonnes
permettrontdactualiserlacouverturecartographiquemultithmatiquenationaleetrgionale.
Ledveloppementconomiqueenavaldelastationserafavorisparunepolitiquedinnovation
(projetsdeR&D),dincubationdentreprisesetdinstallationdentreprisesprivesdanslecentre
de comptence pour mettre en uvre des services (observation de la Terre, cartographie,
environnement) en appui la gestion des ressources naturelles et de surveillances
environnementales.
Conclusion
Au travers du projet SEAS Gabon, la coopration tripartite BrsilFranceGabon offre aux
professionnelsgabonaislaccsauxtechnologiesetserviceslesplusavancesentermesdesuivi
forestier,favorisantledveloppementdurableauGabondontlexplorationdesfortsconstitue
unpointimportantdesapolitiqueconomique.AuBrsil,lesimagesCBERSsontactuellement
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utilisespar lINPE danslecadre de leurprogramme de suividu taux annuel dedforestation


brutdelAmazonieLgale(PRODES).Deplus,lINPEsestengagfaciliterlchangedexperts
et de scientifiques afin de promouvoir le transfert du savoirfaire technique et scientifique du
Brsil. En dfinitive, linstallation dune antenne de rception directe des images Libreville
assurera aux pays dAfrique centrale un accs continu aux donnes satellitaires de qualit et
contribueraitainsiunemeilleurequantificationdesstocksetfluxdecarbonedanslesfortsde
la sous rgion. La mise en place de la station SEAS Guyane, en contexte similaire, a permis de
raliserlapremiremosaqueorthorectifiedelaGuyaneetdequantifierlacontributiondela
forttropicalefranaiselmissiondesgazeffetdeserredanslecadredesengagementsdu
protocoledeKyoto.
Ltatdavancementetlecalendrierduprojetprvoientleschancessuivantes:i)mars2010:
dpt du document projet pour le Comit technique du mcanisme de conversion de dette, ii)
mai2010 :finalisation deltudedefaisabilitetducahierdescharges,iii)mars2010 aot
2011:a)miseenplacedelaplateformetechnologique(antenneetquipements),b)formation
desoprateursetdesformateursetc)constructionetquipementducentredecomptence,iv)
dcembre2011:rceptiondirectedesimagesetinaugurationducentredecomptence.

The National Institute for Space Research of Brazil (INPE) and Advances in
Space to Monitor Tropical Forest / Les donnes CBERS pour lAfrique
Claudio Aparecido de Almeida and Alessandra Rodrigues Gomes
INPE(BrazilNationalInstituteforSpaceResearch)

The National Institute for Space Research (INPE) is regarded as a global benchmark in space
research and development for the tropical forest regions. Over 21 years, develops monitoring
relatedproject for the Brazilian Amazon, especially the Project for Mapping the Amazon
Deforestation (PRODES), Near Real Time Deforestation Detection Project of the Brazilian
Amazon (DETER) and Design Detection Wood Extraction and Selective Thinning
(DETEX/DEGRAD).
WhereasPRODES(Figure1)producesonayearlybasisratesofAmazondeforestationbasedon
Landsat and CBERS sensors, DETER (Figure 2) produces deforestation alerts every 15 days
CBERSandMODISdatawithlowresolutionalsousedbytheBrazilianInstituteofEnvironment
and Renewable Natural Resources (IBAMA) for monitoring these areas and DETEX/DEGRAD
(Figure 3) maps the selective logging and forest degradation after a sequence of digital
processing.

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Figure1.PRODESProject.

Figure2.DETERProject.

Figure3.DETEX/DEGRADProject.
Furthermore, INPE has missions in the field of earth observation, which include control and
receptionofsignalsfromdifferentsatellites,datadistribution,whichmeansknowledgeandnew
possibilitiesinthespace.Inthesatellitefield,wetookpartintheCEOSvirtualconstellationwith

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CBERS, Amazon, SabiaMar and GPMBR. In soil has been developed to control units and
systems,receptionanddistributionofsatellitedata(Figure4).

Figure4:Receptionandsatellitecontrolcenter

Figure4.
ThefreedatadistributionpolicyisadoptedbyINPEsince2004andby2008representingatotal
of 1 million images produced for different purposes. The areas of space weather, numerical
weather prediction, astrophysics, global change, satellite technologies, space technology,
geographic information systems and remote sensing also aim to provide access to knowledge
throughinnovativeproductsandservicestosociety.
The Regional Center of the Amazon - INPE
The Brazilian Amazon has more than 5 million square kilometers and by 2008, approximately
700,000km havealreadybeen deforested and were observed by monitoringprojects (Figura
5).CurrentlythismonitoringiscarriedoutinSoJosdosCampos,southeasternBrazil,where
theheadquarterofINPEisbased.

Figure5.DeforestationintheBrazilianAmazon.
To sort out some logistics related issues such as difficulty in carrying out field work,
disseminationofscienceandtechnology,andparticipatemoreactivelyinpoliticalactionsinthe
region,theRegionalCentrewasestablishedintheAmazoninBelem,Par,andNorthBrazilina
strategicareaoftheBrazilianAmazonforest.
It is expected to transfer to this center the monitoring projects (PRODES, DETER, DETEX/
DEGRAD)andactivelyparticipateinthetrainingofBraziliantechnicianswhoworkinstateand
municipalagencies,andalsofromothercountriestoworkintropicalforestintheircountry.

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ThenewfacilityofINPEwillbeinauguratedinthesecondtermof2010andwillhaveacapable
structureofhousingmorethan40researchers,20fellowsandwillbeequippedwithtraining
room,videoconferencing,libraryandauditorium.ThisstructurewillincorporateGuamScience
andTechnologyPark.Belmbeinginsertedinthelocalcommunity,aswellastakingpartinthe
localpeopletrainingoftheregion(Figure6).

Figure6.INPEofficecomplex.
CBERS program
DuetotheimportanceofEarthObservation,INPEdevelopstheCBERSprograminpartnership
withtheChineseAcademyofSpaceTechnology(CAST),amodelofcooperationbetweennations
inthesouthernhemisphere(SouthSouthCooperation)forthedevelopmentandtransferofhigh
technology.Theprogramstartedoffin1988andhasalreadylaunched3satellitesintoorbitand
plans a few more satellites and operating for at least another 12 years. The data are freely
availableviathewebtoallregisteredusersinBrazilandneighboringcountries(Figure7).

Figure7.CBERSSatellite.
In2009aprotocolwassignedbetweenBrazilianandChineseforthefreedistributionofCBERS
images also the entire African continent, a program known as "CBERS for Africa." Due to it, 5
antennas will be installed for receiving data (plus Palomas, Egypt, Malindi, Gabon and South

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Africa)thatwillcoverthecontinentandallowfreedistributionofimages(Figure8).TheAfrican
continenthasreservesoftropicalforeststhatshouldbemonitoredastotheirexploitationand
CBERSdatawillassistinthistask.

Figure8.CBERSroleintheworld.
In addition, training courses are planned in the system developed by Brazil and African
countries with technical training required minimum area of computer science and forestry.
Thus, each country may conduct its own monitoring and assisting in monitoring and
improvementsinconditionsofoccupationoflandintheirareas.
Infact,INPEusesspacetechnologyandenablesdataacquisitionatnochargetothembecoming
a useful back to society. Thus, each country should be able to monitor their tropical forests,
calculatedeforestationratesandalsoenablemoreadvancedstudiesintheenvironmentalarea.

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4 SYNTHESIS
Building on the scientific and technical presentations during the conference plenary sessions,
fourworkinggroupsaddressedthefollowingthemes:1)monitoring,reportingandverification
(MRV) systems in support of REDD, 2) capacity building, information dissemination and data
sharing in the subregion, 3) satellite data requirements and access and 4) estimating forest
biomass.Thekeypointsandrecommendationsofeachthemearepresentedbelow.

4.1 Systems for REDD Monitoring, Reporting and Verification


The breakout group on monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) in support of REDD
discussedanumberofissuesandassembledalistofrecommendationsforimplementingMRV.
Thefollowingoverviewtopicswerediscussed:technical;communicationandcoordination;and
regionalcapacitycontinuity,andsynergy.Thefollowingdescribestheconsensusviewpointof
thebreakoutgroup.
Technical issues
A first point concerned the maturity level of various proposed MRV methods. It is important
that implementing agencies, as well as funding groups, understand which methods are in the
researchdomaincomparedtothosethatarematureenoughforoperationalimplementation.At
present, all researchers present their methods without regard to operational considerations.
Thisissuealsoconcernsdatasourceswhichdatasources,suchasimagery,areoperationally
acquired, processed and made available? A recommendation would be to review the general
methods to create an assessment of methodological maturity for the various MRV approaches
currentlybeingadvocated.
With regards to land use, and landuse change and forestry (LULUCF), five forestrelated
activities have been identified in the REDD+ context (FCCC/AWGLCA/2009/L.7/Add.6): (i)
deforestation,(ii)forestdegradation,(iii)conservation,(iv)sustainablemanagementofforests
and(v)enhancementofforestcarbonstocks.Technicalmethodsforincorporatingall5activities
underREDD+havenotbeensubstantivelyaddressed.ThisisunderstandableasREDD+isanew
construct.However,formalassessmentsofhowMRVswillmateriallyaddresstheseissuesare
needed.
The group stressed the need to be able to provide data for REDD+ with known accuracy and
uncertainty (a technical ability that currently exists) as required in the IPCC Guidance and
Guidelines.AlthoughtheIPCCGuidanceandGuidelineshavenotbeenspecificallydevelopedfor
REDD+, they provide the necessary information on the accuracy and uncertainty information
required with certain types of data. Again, this topic needs to be better understood and
addressed.
Communication and coordination
The group stressed the need for consiliance across all scales of institutional responsibility at
regional and national scales. For example, the political will at the highest levels must be
reflectedinthecapacityandunderstandingatthescaleofMRVimplementation.Inotherwords,
national willingness to engage and advance MRV activities must be reflected through clear
communication and concrete support at the level of MRV implementation. Political will alone
willnotleadtoactionontheground.Disconnectsinthisregardwillcriticallylimitanyproposed
MRV.
MechanismsandforumsfortransparentcommunicationbetweenandamongCOMIFAC,national
governments, donors, and NGOs are required. For example, the responsible agency for

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producing activity data for MRV monitoring from each country should be formally identified,
with focal points named and involved in periodic reporting duties. Transparency in the
institutional arrangements will facilitate sharing of data and methods, targeting of support
activities, and overall improved efficiency of MRVrelated activities. Improved regional
communicationwillalsobenefitREDD+programs,datasharingprograms,accords,etc.
Regional capacity, continuity and synergy
The group believes that central Africa should have an MRV equal to or superior than that of
othertropicalregions.Thiswillrequireconsiderableeffortinbuildingcapacityandrequirelong
term commitments and vision. Given the limited capacity at present, methods that are well
supported and efficient in implementation will be needed. Of particular concern is the
continuityanddepthofinstitutionalexpertise.Forexample,MRVimplementationwillrequirea
range of skill sets, from advance degree expertise in MRV methods and adaptation, down to
technicaldegreepracticalexperienceinforestrymensuration.Thedepthofskillatalllevelsis
shallowinCentralAfrica.WithaplethoraofactivitiesanticipatedfortheregionrelatedtoMRV,
it is important that institutional capacity be retained and not repeatedly lost due to new
sponsoredactivitiesbythirdparties.Expertcontinuitywillensurecapacityisretainedoverthe
longtermasdepthinexpertiseisdeveloped.
Capacity should not improve in a piecemeal fashion at the regional scale. Annual workshops
within the region should be held to inform and share MRV implementation expertise. As it is
known that regional integration will afford methodological efficiencies, it is important that all
responsibleinstitutionsgrowincapabilitytogether.MRVimplementationplansthatemphasize
regionalsynergiesareadvocated.
Translating technical methods for inregion implementation will be a challenge. Whether
nationalagenciesorNGOs,advancedcomputinghardwareandsoftwarerequirementswillneed
to be installed and maintained, as will any proposed in situ measurement infrastructure.
Additionally, costs for various methods are highly variable, and the longterm costs of any
recommendedMRVmustbeconsidered.
In summary, the MRV breakout group recognized the need for operational methods that are
efficientandabletobeimplementedoverthelongterm.Toachievethis,improvedregionaland
national communication, coordination and synergy must be promoted. By doing so, an
improved use of resources for building capacity and ensuring longterm continuity may be
achieved.

4.2 Regional Networks for Data Dissemination and Capacity


Building
The working group assessed the main challenges and obstacles to data sharing, information
dissemination and capacity building in the central Africa subregion. Salient points were
summarized into short term actions and medium term recommendations to be implemented
undertheleadershipofCOMIFAC.
A generalized synthesis of the discussions on capacitybuilding, networking and data
managementisprovidedbelow.
Capacity building
Theneedwasidentifiedforcapacitybuildinginnationalstructures/institutionsbasedonclearly
definedthemesandasapartofamonitoring andevaluationsystemofforestinformationuse.
Initiativeswillrequiretheidentificationofrelevantbeneficiaryministriesandindividualswithin
those ministries such as Forest and Environment Ministries as recipients of capacitybuilding
inputs.Thereisalsoaneedtofacilitatecapacitybuilding;information,exchange,training,etc,of
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community levels stakeholders regarding Carbon concepts. As well, university curriculums


shouldbestrengthenedinrelationtocurrentknowledgecontextsofforestcarboninrelationto
climatechange.
COMIFAC should sponsor the forest networks to carryout a competence, dynamic needs
assessment(currentsituationsateachpointintime),againstachecklistofrequirements,then
developastrategyforfillingthegaps,relevanttotheidentifiedneedsandcapacities.Fromthis,
an overview inventory could be prepared of service providers/trainers to meet the identified
needsforcapacitybuildinginthedifferentareasofassessingforestcarbon.Theinformationon
trainingopportunitiesshouldthenbemadeavailabletopotentialusers,suchasstudentsandthe
generalpublicrequiringtrainingandotherformsofsupport(e.g.scholarships..).Oncetraining
activitiesareunderway,thefollowingshouldbeconsidered:

Ensure that means are put at the disposal of institutions receiving training to enable
them use skills acquired through training (e.g., making available freeware to potential
usersasastartingpoint.

Ensure formalization of skills development (e.g. certificate training) and seek ways
which encourage human resources to stayon. Develop strategies to sustain capacity
withininstitutionsoncedeveloped,inothertoaddressleakagesoncetheseoccurwithin
institutions.

Encourage skills development to reflect other dimensions of forest measurements


beyondcarbon.

Human resources and network strengthening


Thereisanopportunityforlinkingandlearninglessonsfromexistingnetworks.Actionscould
include identifying existing networks, analyzing their functioning and evaluating the need for
strengthening. For instance,if thereare projects that can be linked to the network in orderto
betterevaluatestrengths,weaknessesandopportunities.
Arelatedtopicdiscussedwashowdoregionaleffortsatnetworkingbetweenprojects,benefit,
link to and relate to higher level networks (e.g. global networks) or other networks? How do
regional networks communicate (e.g. by publishing their metadata on websites) learning from
existing networks (e.g. www.afritron.org, biodiversity network of Madagascar). It was
recognized that there is need to consider a data sharing (policy), guidelines and codes of
conduct,withinandbetweennetworks
Data type, quality, availability and harmonization
There is a need for a common understanding of carbon quantification methods in the region.
Issues include: harmonization of datasets across countries; format, completeness standards,
collectionmethods,gapanalyses,structuring,uniformization,etc(refertoMRVWorkinggroup).
Commondefinitionswouldalsobehelpfulfordataneedsandtypesacrosscountries,availability
andneedsforqualitycontrol.
An agreed suggestion is to establish a credible system of data validation and standardization
(e.g., creative commons licenseOFAC; refer also to OFAC userfriendly procedures for
validation), to include meta data standards; rights, methods used, limits to accuracy, error
margin, protection, etc. Incorporation of questions of property rights in data collection
protocols,disseminationstrategieswasalsodiscussed.
Depending on data type (e.g. satellite, allometric data, inventory, socioeconomic data,
infrastructure,forestcoverchange),thereisaneedtodeterminewhattypeoforganizationscan
manageandhaveresponsibilityfordissemination.

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Thefollowingarethekeyactions,tobecarriedoutundertheleadershipofCOMIFAC,neededto
overcomethechallengesandobstaclestodatasharing,informationdisseminationandcapacity
building:
Shortterm(1218months)actionpointsundertheleadershipofCOMIFAC:

Facilitate quantitative/qualitative needs assessment (based on current situation of


regional capacity), per country/geographic site, against a checklist of preestablished
requirements.

Ensure synthesis of regional capacity needs assessment and develop roadmap for
meetingthem.

Prepare an overview and inventory of service providers in the domain of carbon


quantification.

Evaluaterolethatexistingnetworks(suchasRIFFEAC)canplayincarryingoutsomeof
thesetasks.

Ensurethesharingofinformationpresentedandgeneratedbyregionalworkshops(such
as the proceedings of current conference, State of Forest report, etc..) in the most
effectiveandefficientwaypossible,atnationallevels,throughbothelectronicmediaand
appropriatepublicforums.

Help reenforce mechanisms for uptake of recommendations of conference by relevant


State structures, via the COMIFAC country focal points while ensuring that all other
mechanismsandentrypointsintogovernmentarefullyserved.

Analyze the organizational structure of relevant national ministries and departments,


including COMIFAC focal points and network members, to ensure better alignment of
capacitybuildingsupportinitiativeswithnationalpriorities.

Recommendedmediumtermactions(23years)undertheleadershipofCOMIFAC:

COMIFAC should ensure centralization of regional data and lateron assume


responsibilityforitsdissemination,workingasaClearingHouseMechanism.

OFAC should be officially integrated into the functional structure of COMIFAC as a


technicaldirectionandoperationaldepartment.

GOFCGOLD should strengthen and extend its support to COMIFAC countries by


providing regular and updated satellite datasets through focal persons of the OSFAC
network.

Mechanism and support should be sought to improve internet connectivity


within/betweentheCOMIFACcountriesforinformationsharinganddissemination.

The capacity of existing national and regional networks needs to be evaluated to help
themmaintainacomprehensivemetadatasystem.

OFACandOSFACshouldseekwaysthroughwhichtostrengthenthecapacityofnational
institutionsininformationanddatadissemination.

4.3 Satellite Data Requirements and Access


Problem identification
ThereareanumberofconstraintstosatellitemonitoringoftheforestsofCentralAfrica:

TherehasbeenverypoordataacquisitionfortheCongoBasin.Thisisprimarilydueto:
(1) a lack of ground receiving station in Central Africa; (2) lack of full acquisition over

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CentralAfricabycurrentlyoperatingsatellites;and(3)lowdemand(duetoprohibitive
costs) for commercial satellite images for Central Africa which has led to low levels of
acquisitionbythesesatellitesovertheregion.

Access to or diffusion of the available imagery and derived products remains a major
challenge. Major obstacles affecting access to imagery/derived products include: (1)
low internet bandwidth; (2) lack of an effective distribution network; (3) high cost of
commercialdata3)datapolicieswhichprohibitdatasharing,4)lackofawarenessand
informationastowhatisavailableandhowtoaccessthedata.

Applicationofavailableimagerytothesubjectofforestmonitoringisrendereddifficult
by: (1) insufficient coverage from optical systems that suffer from consistent and
significant cloud cover in many areas of the Congo Basin; (2) lack of availability of
currentsoftwaretoanalyzethedataanddataformatswhichvaryconsiderablyandcan
be incompatible with available software, (3) the learning curve for routine use of
microwavedataissteepfewproductslittleusetodate;(4)veryfewtrainedremote
sensing professionals in the region; (5) very few applicable derived products and/or
ready to use satellite imagery (i.e. processed to a level of usability without advanced
traininginRS).

Current activities / Short term solutions (<3 years)


The current and nearterm availability of imagery for Congo Basin is summarized by satellite
sensorinTable1(derivedfromconferencepresentations3742,Appendix3).Therearesome
activitieswhichareeitherunderwayorplannedfortheneartermtopartiallyaddresstheimage
availabilityissueslistedabove,notably:
1. CurrentDataInitiative.NASA/USGShaveprovidedtheLandsatGLS(orthorectified)data
sets for the Congo Basin, using the best available date for 2000, 2005 and is in the
processofdeveloping2010.ThisincludedaspecialarrangementwiththeUniversityof
RomeandESAtoactivatetheMalindiGroundStationforperiodiccampaignstoincrease
theacquisitionsfortheeasternpartoftheBasin.Thesedataarefreelyavailabletoall.
2. Current Data Initiative. Through the USAIDCARPE program, the acquisition of high
resolutiondatafromLandsat7andASTERhavebeenincreased.TheLandsatdatahave
been made broadly available through OSFAC (http://osfac.net/). The ASTER data are
availabletoCARPEanditsPartnerPrograms.
3. CurrentDataInitiative.ESAiscurrentlysponsoringfullBasincoverageofdatafromthe
DMCii satellite. Currently data use is restricted to EU FP 7 projects. DMC are Seeking
morefundingtomakethisdatasetfreelyavailable.
4. RecentandCurrentDataInitiatives.RecentforestcoverandchangemapsfortheCongo
BasinderivedfromsatellitedatahavebeendevelopedbyUCL
http://ionia1.esrin.esa.int/index.asphttp://www.observatoire
comifac.net/docs/confCOMIFACcarbon/Jour1/Defourny_OFAC_Forestcover
change_v2.pdf;andSDSU(http://www.observatoire
comifac.net/docs/confCOMIFACcarbon/Jour1/Hansen_deforestation.pdf)whichis
availableathttp://carpe.umd.edu/resources/maplibrary/.Tabulatedestimatesof
ForestCoverandChangearebeingmadeavailableroutinelythroughtheCongoForest
Partners,StateoftheForestreport(http://carpe.umd.edu/resources/sof/)
5. Data acquisition for Central Africa. If realized, the Libreville ground receiving station
(under an agreement between the governments of France, Gabon and Brazil) has the
potential to substantially increase the capture of imagery for Central Africa from
multiple moderate resolution satellites. As it stands, the Libreville ground receiving

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

137

station is primarily for Gabon, but discussions are underway to make data acquired
through this downlink available for the Congo Basin region. CBERS data is set to
increase for the region in the near future with launch of CBERS 3 and downlink to
groundreceivingstation(planned).
6. Accesstodataorderivedproducts.BothWRIandOSFAChavecarriedoutcoordinated,
efforts to distribute available satellite imagery (Landsat, ASTER and ALOS) and some
derivedproductstocollaboratorsacrosstheregion.Todate,thishasmostlybeendone
viaCDsandharddrivetransfersthuslaborintensive.OSFAChasplanstostrengthen
itsregionalcapacityandincreaseimageryandderivedproductsdissemination.Landsat
archive is now open, greatly increasing access to this dataset, however, low internet
bandwidth restricts direct image downloads from Central Africa. GEO has plans to
support image and derived product dissemination for areas within in its National
Demonstratorcountriesinthenearfuture(GEOnetcast).TheLibrevillegroundreceiving
stationplanstoputinplaceamoresystematicmeansbywhichcollaboratorswillbeable
toaccessmultisourceimagescomingthroughtheirnetworkthoughtheexactmeans
bywhichthiswilloccurremaintobedefined.
7. Application of available imagery to the subject of forest monitoring. Limited training
events have occurred in the region notably by OSFAC, SDSU, ERAIFT and FAO FRA.
Several nationals from Central Africa region have recently or are currently pursuing
advancedRSdegreesinEuropeandUSA.Overallthough,regionalRScapacityremains
low.AnumberofderivedproductshavebeendevelopedbySDSU,JRC,UMDandefforts
are underway by these institutions and others (e.g. OSFAC, ALOSPALSAR regional
mosaic) to increase the amount and availability of these products. Radar has been
applied to forest monitoring in Central Africa on several occasions (e.g. Saatchi/Lewis,
WHRC), but remains mostly at an academic research level with little to no broad
applicationwithintheregion.AccesstoErdasImaginesoftwarehasbeenfacilitatedby
WRItotechnicaldepartmentsofMinistriesofForestryacrosstheregion,butthenumber
ofpostswiththeselicensesremainsfarfromadequateatpresent.
However, these efforts remain largely inadequate to meet demand for satellite based
monitoring.Comparedtoothertropicalregions,CentralAfricaisseverelyunderservedwithdata
andcapacitytouseRSdataislaggingbehind.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

138

Table1.CommentsoncurrentandneartermavailabilityofimageryforCongoBasin.
Generalcategory

Sensor(s)

Notes/CommentsfromGroup

OpticalHigh
resolution(<5m)

Geoeye;
Quickbird;
Ikonos; Digital
Globe;
DMC
(2.5m),others

Generally, need to push harder as a community to have


imagespurchasedandmadeavailabletoothers.GEOwill
becoordinatingacquisitionofsomeoftheseimagesover
their National Demonstrator sites. Could push for this
underaREDDfundingmechanismforkeysites.
Landsat5:directacquisitiononly,peoplearestill
usingit.OnlystationinthisregionisMalindi.
Lifespanisextremelylimitedandradiometricissues
exist.Lackofreceivingstationlimitsdata
acquisition.
Landsat7:SLCoffissueremainsandhampersits
application.Currently,notgettingcompleteLandsat
acquisitionwhichisproblematic.
Archivecurrentlyopenandfree.Dataaccessis
unrestrictedandusehasgreatlyincreased.
LDCMOLIwillhavethermalsensoronsame
platform,onlineexpectedin2012
MorepublicationscomingoutofAVNIR(10m)
/Prism(2.5)data
DatapolicyisrestrictivebutCongoBasinforest
monitoringinstitutionscouldpotentiallyaccessthis
archiveforfreethroughcollaboratingresearch
institutesinEurope/USA(e.g.viaPIs)
2moresatelliteslaunchthisyear(22m);addsto
32malreadyavailable
SimilarfilterstoLandsat(2,3,4)butnoSWIR.
Largeswathacquisition(650km)
Storeandforwarddatacollectionmethods.Could
participateindirectdownlink(e.g.Libreville
receivingstation)toconsistentlycovertheregion.
Hopingtogetamoreorlesscloudfreemosaicover
subSaharanAfricawithEC/ESAinnearterm.
Wouldliketohaveenoughfundingtomakethis
datasetfreelyavailable.ESAexpectedtoextend
theirfundingandthusthisdatawouldbecomefreely
available
CurrentlywithCBERS2B,2.5m.
CBERS3willbelaunchedin2011,willhaveone5m
sensor,one20msensor,one60msensor(widescan)
OpenaccesstoCBERSforAfricabutneedsground
stationdownlink.CongoBasincannothaveaccess

Landsat

Optical
Moderate
resolution(10
50m)

ALOSAVNIR

DMCii

CBERS

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

139

Generalcategory

Sensor(s)

Notes/CommentsfromGroup

SPOT

ASTERSWIR

Radarsat
Radar/Microwave

ASAR(Envisat)

ALOSPALSAR

TerraX

withoutreceivingstation.
InBrazil,usingCBERSforforestmonitoring,works
fine.CurrentuseofCBERSinAfricaTobe
determined
OnboardenergysupplyissuewithCBERS2
Spot4nolongercommercial,dataarchivewillbe
madeavailablesoonthroughESA.GEOwilltake
actiontogetthisdata.Datadistributionmodalities
tobedetermined.
Spot5remainscommercial.Lifespanisthrough
2015.
Spot6willhavesamecharacteristicsofSpot5and
settolaunchin2013
SpotannouncementtoprovidecompleteCongo
BasinCoverageforREDDstudiesdetailsondata
availabilityandsharingremainTBD.
Globalcoverageover23yearperiod
NASAPIsandtheirpartnerprojects/programscan
getfreeaccesstolimitedamountofdatathrough
request
1.6channelnolongerworking
Noreplacementforeseen(thermalcapabilityon
NASAHySpIri)
Fordatacaptureneedtoformallyrequestturningon
overregionofinterest(beingdonebyUMd/CARPE)
DEMfreelyavailablethroughGEO,USGS,etc.Could
highgradethisandmakeavailablethroughOSFACor
othernetwork.

Disseminatedbycommercialentity,broaderaccess
toarchiveneedstobenegotiatedwithCanadian
Government
Restrictionsonitsuse
Access is through demand (proposal) only, if accepted,
this data can be shared within project
partners/collaborators
JapanesehavereleasedrecentlyforCentralAfrica
WalltoWallPalsarcoverage(50m)for200709
thisdataisfreelyavailabletothepublicthrough
theirwebsite.
DedicateddatacontinuitywithALOS2
German,highres(1m;Xband)
Commercial,negotiatewithDLR(?)

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

140

Generalcategory

Sensor(s)
CosmosSkymed

General
situation

Current

Derivedproducts
Future

Notes/CommentsfromGroup
Constellationof3satellites
Commercial,negotiatethroughItalianSpaceAgency
TryingtogetitavailablethroughGEOforNational
Demonstrators
MicrowaveDatacontinuitylooksgoodoverall
Needtofocusbetteronaccessanddisseminationof
higherorderproductsofknownaccuracy
Aregionaldevelopmentandtrainingunitisneeded
forgeneratingmicrowavederivedproductsfor
CentralAfrica
LongTermwewouldAdvocateopenaccesstothe
higherresolutiondata

LandCover/vegetationtype
Forestcoverchange
%treecover
CoarsebiophysicalvariablesLAI,fire,burnedarea
Biomass
Landuse(1m)
Vegetationstructureandheight

Recommendations
NearTerm(executingagencyinparentheses)

OpenupSPOT(ESA,CNES)andASTER(Miti,USGS)archivesfortheCongoBasinforfree
andopenaccess.

Landsat7requestfull(everyscene)acquisitionovertheCongoBasin(USGS).

ContinueproducingALOSPALSARmosaicthrough201011(JAXA).

DMCtoacquireandmakefreelyavailabletoCongoBasinpartnersanannualwalltowall
compilation(including2010,2011)(ESA,CBFF).

SPOTCongoBasinCoverageAnnouncementwelcomedbutshouldminimizeobstacles
toaccess(licensing)givingfreeandopenaccessforforestmonitoring(CNES).

GEONETCAST to be tested for moderate resolution data dissemination capability (GEO


Sec,NOAA,Eumetsat,OSFAC).

Support a center of excellence and training for remote sensing capacity in general and
microwaveapplicationsinparticular(REDDreadinessUNREDD/GEO).

Test use of high resolution data for REDD applications in Central Africa (commercial
vendors/GEONDandFCTtask).

AnadhoctechnicalworkinggroupisneededonCentralAfricasatellitedataacquisition
andavailabilityforthenext35yearsi.e.thisstudyexpandedinthecontextofforest
andcarbonmonitoring(COMIFAC/CBFP/OSFACtechnicalsubgroup).

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

141

MidTerm(35years)

Standardizedproducts(preprocessing)andderivedproducts(validatedproducts)e.g.
LDCM,Sentinel2CEOS/GEO.

Gabon(Libreville)GroundStationmultisourcesatelliteacquisitionfortheBasin.Free
andopenaccesstothedata.Datadistributionapproachestoovercomelimitedinternet
bandwidth. Put in place a mechanism (e.g. an advisory board) for ensuring regional
objectives of the ground station meet the regional user needs (DFID, France, Gabon,
Brazil).

Increaselevelofcoordinationfordatacontinuityandmoderateandhighdataacquisition
(GEO,CEOS).

AnOpenDataPolicyneedstobeelaboratedandputinplacefortheGEOSS(GEO).

Thereisneedforacoordinatedinternationalmoderateresolutionacquisitionstrategy
tobringtheCongoBasinundercontinuousobservation.

4.4 Advances in Estimating Forest Biomass


Problem identification
The absence of known allometric relations for timber from Central Africa (including large
diametertreesandrootfraction)isamajordifficultyforestimatingforestbiomassstocks.These
gapsarepartlyduetothefactthattheacquisitionofdataistraditionallydifficulttofinanceanda
lackofinterestbydonorsforthistypeofstudywithlowimmediatereturn.Whatlittledataare
availableareoftennotsharedduetoproblemsassociatedwithownershipandlackofprotocol
fordatasharing.
ThissituationmaybeimprovedthroughREDDasthereisincreasedawarenessoftheneedfor
field data to better determine carbon stocks. Rules for data sharing are being developed
includingimplementationofacreativecommonslicensing.
The working group noted that efforts to centralize data on allometric relations for Central
African
timber
are
underway.
Initiatives
by
AfriTRON
(http://www.geog.leeds.ac.uk/projects/afritron/) and OFAC (http://www.observatoire
comifac.net/?l=en ) are making metadata for forest inventory data available centrally. Work
carried out by Fort Ressources Management (FRM) and COFORCHANGE
(http://www.coforchange.eu/)haveusedexistingforestryinventorydatatomakepreliminary
estimatesofforestcarbonstocks.
The group also noted efforts underway to: calibrate remote sensing and biomass data (see
studies conducted by Sassan Saatchi, Simon Lewis et al., presentation no. 22), combine optical
and radar data (Laporte et al. presentation no. 25), and use LiDAR (ICESat / GLASS) data to
determinethetexturalpropertiesofopticaldatametricresolution(Barbieretal.,presentation
no.24).

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5 CONCLUSIONSANDRECOMMENDATIONS
Building on the scientific and technical presentations and synthesis discussions during the
conference, four thematic areas of importance emerged: 1) monitoring, reporting and
verification(MRV)systemsinsupportofREDD,2)capacitybuilding,informationdissemination
anddatasharinginthesubregion,3)satellitedatarequirementsandaccessand4)estimating
forestbiomass.Thekeypointsandrecommendationsofeachthemearepresentedbelow.

5.1 Development of MRV Systems in Support of REDD


National GHG emissions directly related to land use and land cover change can be estimated
using satellitederived land cover and land use change maps, in combination with insitu
measurementsderivedfromactivitiessuchasnationalforestinventories.Tobeuseful,suchfield
measurementsshouldincludethefivecarbonpoolsofaboveandbelow groundbiomass,dead
wood,andorganicmatterinlitterandsoil.
TheconferencehighlightedtheneedforaharmonizedapproachtoregionalREDD+activities.To
besuccessfulitwasagreedthat:REDD+activitiesshouldcomplywithUNFCCCguidelines;MRV
systemsshouldbeintegratedintonationalpoliciesandlegislation;countriesshouldbeableto
carryoutMRVindependently;andcountriesshouldintegratethe"safeguards"embeddedinthe
textoftheUNFCCCagreementonlongtermcooperativeaction.
Thereisneed to establish a roadmap for MRVprojects across thesubregion underCOMIFAC.
TheroadmapshouldbeundertakeninpartnershipwithnationalinstitutionsinchargeofMRV,
withthesupportoftheUNREDDDRCpilot.
Conference recommendations derived from the synthesis discussions in section 4.1 on MRV
include:

A formal assessment should be conducted on how MRVs will address the five forest
related activities (deforestation, forest degradation, conservation, sustainable
managementandenhancementofcarbonstocks)identifiedinREDD+.

ThereneedstobeacleardistinctionbetweentheMRVmethods, anddatasourcesthat
are,orcanbe,operationalandthosethatrequirefurtherresearch.

Data provided for REDD+ activities should be presented with known accuracy and
uncertainty.

Political commitment to engage and advance MRV activities must be reconciled at all
levels through clear communication and concrete support at the implementation level.
MechanismsandforumsfortransparentcommunicationbetweenandamongCOMIFAC,
nationalgovernments,donors,andNGOsarerequired.

CentralAfricashouldhaveanMRVsystemequaltoorsuperiortothoseofothertropical
regions.Thiswillrequireconsiderableeffortinbuildingcapacityandrequirelongterm
commitmentsandvision.

MRV related activities should foster and not erode the depth and continuity of
institutionalexpertise.

5.2 Building Capacity, Sharing Data and Disseminating Information


The conference identified the need to compile a regional inventory of training courses and
service providers in the areas of remote sensing, land cover, forest biomass assessment and

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

143

carbon quantification. Such courses could well serve the REDD process. The OFAC and OSFAC
arewellsuitedtocompilesuchaninventoryonbehalfofCOMIFACandRIFFEAC.
Theconferenceidentifiedadetailedlistofbothshorttermandmediumtermrecommendations
inSection4.2.Keyrecommendationsinclude:

Facilitate quantitative/qualitative needs assessment (based on current situation of


regional capacity), per country/geographic site, against a checklist of preestablished
requirements.

Prepare an overview and inventory of service providers in the domain of carbon


quantification.

Ensurethesharingofinformationpresentedandgeneratedbyregionalworkshops(such
as the proceedings of current conference, State of Forest report, etc..) in the most
effectiveandefficientwaypossible,atnationallevels,throughbothelectronicmediaand
appropriate public forums. COMIFAC should ensure centralization of regional data and
lateron assume responsibility for its dissemination, working as a Clearing House
Mechanism.

OFACandOSFACshouldseekwaystostrengthenthecapacityofnationalinstitutionsin
informationanddatadissemination.

5.3 Improving Access to Satellite Data


Satellite data access for the Congo Basin is limited by data acquisition strategies, distribution
policies and cost structures, and inadequate infrastructure for data dissemination. Efforts to
improve the situation were noted: a satellite receiving station is scheduled to become
operational Libreville in the next 2 years. The team responsible for establishing the receiving
station is well aware of the technical requirements to transfer data from Gabon to other
countries. Proper mechanisms for data transfer and sharing will be critical for successful
functioning of the regional receiving station. This is an important issue to be addressed. In
addition(i)DMCiicoverageforCentralAfricaisbeingfinalizedfor2010,(ii)Franceannounced
theavailabilityoffreeSPOTsatelliteimagesforREDD+activitiesintheCongoBasin,(iii)CBERS
data will be made freely available to users in Central Africa and (iv) two blanket coverages of
ALOSPALSARdatahavebeenmadeavailabletothescientificcommunityandthiscoveragemay
beextendedwithdatafromAVNIR2andPRISM.
Most radar images and very high resolution optical images are expensive and need to be
availableatlowercosttobewidelyused.GEOintendstonegotiatewithdataproviderstolower
thecostofimageswithveryhighspatialresolution.
Accessibility(bothphysicalandintermsofdistributionpolicy)andthelocalcapacitytoprocess
theimagesareconsideredthemainimpedimentstooptimaluseofremotesensingtechnology.
Despite recent efforts in training and improving the dissemination of data undertaken by
differententities(e.g.,OSFAC,OFAC,WRI,WWF,WCS),demandforgeographicinformationfrom
satelliteimageryiswidelyunsatisfied.Currently,partnershipswithinternationalteamsforthe
processingofsatelliteimageryisthebestoptiontoguaranteesufficientinformationqualityfor
REDDmonitoringactivitieswhichincorporateremotesensing.
Networks for sharing satellite data should be strengthened. The roles of OSFAC, OFAC, GOFC
GOLDandGEOshouldbeclarified;nationalcenters,networknodesshouldbestrengthenedas
wellasthelinktoCOMIFAC.DataandinformationshouldbesharedthroughtheOSFACandFAO
FRA (Forest Resources Assessment) focal points. An updated list of focal points will be
establishedbyOSFAC.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

144

Strategies and means of disseminating information to end users must be reconsidered. The
network should include a data committee comprised of national focal points whose purpose,
amongotherthings,istofacilitatethesmoothflowofdataandimagestoendusers.
Theconferenceidentifiedadetailedlistofbothshorttermandmediumtermrecommendations
inSection4.3.Keyrecommendationsinclude:

An adhoc technical working group on Central Africa satellite data acquisition and
availability in the context of forest and carbon monitoring, is needed for the next 35
years.

Thereisneedforacoordinatedinternationalmoderateresolutionacquisitionstrategyto
bring the Congo Basin under continuous observation. For example, Landsat 7
acquisitions should be increased. High resolution data should be tested for REDD
applicationsinCentralAfrica.

Open data policies need to be encouraged and put in place, e.g., for SPOT, ASTER and
DMCii data. An open data policy should be established for the proposed satellite data
groundreceivingstationinGabon.

The dissemination of standardized (preprocessed) and derived products would


facilitatetheuseofthedata.Mechanismsfordatadisseminationtoandwithintheregion
mustbeestablished,e.g.,GEONETcastshouldbetestedforthispurpose.

A center of excellence and training for remote sensing capacity in general and
microwaveapplicationsinparticularshouldbesupported.

5.4 Challenges of Estimating Forest Biomass


The absence of known allometric relations for timber from Central Africa (including large
diameter trees and root fraction) presents a major difficulty for estimating forest biomass
stocks.Thesegapsarepartlyduetothefactthattheacquisitionofdataistraditionallydifficult
to finance and not usually acquired even where national forest inventories are in place. What
littledataareavailableareoftennotsharedanddifficulttocompareduetodifferingcollection
protocols.
ThissituationmaybeimprovedthroughaREDDmechanismasthereisasexplicitrequirement
for field data to determine carbon stocks. The conference also noted efforts underway to
calibrateremotesensingandbiomassdata,andtocombineoptical,radarandLidardata.
Recommendationsderivedfromtheworkinggrouponbiomassestimation(section4.4)include:

Efforts be made to harmonize protocols for estimating the carbon content in different
compartments (aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, litter, dead wood, soil
organiccarbon).

Conductacensusofrelevantdataandareviewofexistingwork,todevelopanoverview
of existing allometric relations, a spatial metadata assessment of studies on carbon
stocksandpermanentstandsandinventories.

Legalmechanismsbeexploredforthesharingofdata.

Further research beundertaken oncalibratingbiomassestimatesfrom remotesensing


and field data. A preliminary synthesis of the existing methods and comparison of
existingmapsshouldbeproduced.

AnetworkofpermanentplotsbeestablishedintheregionforREDD.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

145

5.5 Other Key Points


REDD project inventory
OFAC has initiated an ongoing inventory of REDD projects and projects related to the
quantificationofstocksandflowsofcarbon(presentation7).Theinventoryaimstoenableusers
toshareexperiencesandinformationonmethodsusedanddatacollected.Resultsareavailable
ontheOFACwebsite.ThisinitiativewillcomplimenttheworkofnationalREDDcoordinators.
The majority of initiatives and projects focussing on REDD and the quantification of forest
carbonhavespecificwebsites.ItwasrecommendedthatOFACestablishawebportalwithlinks
totheseinitiatives.
Ministries and administrations in charge of forests have been requested to produce a chart of
contactpersonsforREDD.
Scientific committee
TheconferencerecommendedthatascientificcommitteebeestablishedaspartofCOMIFAC,to
overseethevariouscomponentsofREDD.Thecommitteeshouldbecomposedofinternational
andregionalexpertswhowillmonitorstudiesandREDDprojectstakingplaceinCentralAfrica.
Thecommitteewouldalsoactasanadvisorybodytothecountryfocalpointsandanimportant
interlocutorthroughCOMIFACtotheinternationalcommunity.
Organizational matters
Clarification is needed regarding roles of OSFAC (Observatoire Satellital des Forts d'Afrique
Centrale) and OFAC (Observatoire des Forts d'Afrique Centrale). This is partly due to the
similarityofacronyms.Forclarification,therolesarerestatedhereasfollows:

OSFAC is mandated to (i) make available (free or under certain conditions) satellite
images to any user who so requests, (ii) provide training in remote sensing and
geographicinformationscience,andiii)providesatellitederivedforestcoverandforest
coverchangeproducts.

OFAC is mandated to establish a database in order to provide information on forest


cover change, monitoring the recovery of biodiversity and monitoring the economic
valueofforests.ItalsocoordinatesthepublicationoftheStateoftheForestsreports.

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

146

6 APPENDICES
Appendix 1. Conference Participants

Name

FirstName

Country

Organization

Email

Almeida

Cludio

Brazil

INPE

claudio@dsr.inpe.br

Altstatt

Alice

US

UMD

aaltstat@umd.edu

Aquino

Andr

US

WorldBank

adeaquino@worldbank.org

Armath
Amougou

Joseph

Cameroon

MINEP

joearmathe@yahoo.fr

Bararwandika

Astre

Burundi

DpartementForestier

bararwandika@yahoo.fr

Barbier

Nicolas

Belgium

IRDULB/FNRS

nbarbier@ulb.ac.be

Bayol

Nicolas

France

ForetRessources
Management

NBAYOL@frmfrance.com

Beck

James

US

USForestService

jpbeck@fs.fed.us

Begoto

Grgoire

CAR

WRI

begotogreg@yahoo.fr

Blanger

Lyna

DRC

WRI

lynabel2000@gmail.com

Bokelo

Didier

DRC

PNUD

didier.bokelo@undp.org

Bongwele

Eddy

DRC

OSFAC

ebongwele@osfac.net

Boundzanga

Georges
Claver

Congo

Ministredu
DveloppementDurable
del'EconomieForestire
etdel'Environnement

bouzgege@yahoo.fr

Brady

Michael

Canada

NaturalResourcesCanada

Michael.Brady@NRCan.gc.ca

Broich

Mark

US

GeographicInformation
ScienceCenterof
ExcellenceatSDSU

Mark.Broich@sdstate.edu

Bulongo

Nzomisi

Novacel

Burren

Christian

Madagascar WCS

chburren@yahoo.fr

Bush

Glenn

US

WHRC

glenn_bush@yahoo.com

Bwebwe

Florence

DRC

AWF

fbwebwe@awfafrica.org

Cottam

Andrew

UK

UNEPWCMC

Andrew.Cottam@unep
wcmc.org

D'Annunzio

Remi

Italy

FAO

remi.dannunzio@fao.org

DeMarcken

Paya

US

WWFUS

Paya.DeMarcken@wwfus.org

DeWasseige

Carlos

DRC

OFAC/FORAF

cdewasseige@foraf.eu

Defourny

Pierre

Belgium

UCLGeomatics

pierre.defourny@uclouvain.be

Dimanche

Luc

CAR

MinistredesEaux,Forets, lucdimanche@yahoo.fr
ChasseetPche

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

147

Cont...
Name

FirstName

Country

Organization

Email

DisubiNgalula Clotilde

DRC

Ministerede
LEnvironnement,
ConservationdelaNature

cloclodisubi2004@yahoo.fr

Dupain

Jef

DRC

AWF

jdupainawfdrc@micronet.cd

Durieux

Laurent

France

InstitutdeRecherchepour
leDveloppement

laurent.durieux@ird.fr

EbaaAtyi

Richard

DRC

FORAF

rebaa@foraf.eu

Ekman

Lars

Angola

ForeignAffairs,Norwegian le@mfa.no
EmbassyinAngola

EsonoMba

Fidel

EG

INDEFOR

fidelindefor@yahoo.com.ar

EyangEffa

Edwige

Gabon

InstitutdeRechercheen
EcologieTropical

erlymarjo@yahoo.fr

Flynn

John

US

USAID

joflynn@usaid.gov

Fotsing

JeanMarie

France

IRD

jeanmarie.fotsing@ird.fr

Garde

Xavier

Cameroon

IRD

xavier.gard@ird.fr

Gomez

Sharon

Germany

GAFAG

sharon.gomez@gaf.de

Gourlet
Fleury

Sylvie

France

CIRAD

sylvie.gourletfleury@cirad.fr

Guay

Bruno

DRC

CoordinationNationale
REDDRDC

onfi.rdcongo@yahoo.fr

Hansen

Matthew

US

SouthDakotaState
University

Matthew.Hansen@sdstate.edu

Husler

Thomas

Germany

GAFAG

thomas.haeusler@gaf.de

Hawkins

Owen

UK

DMCiiLtd

O.Hawkins@dmcii.com

Healey

Sean

US

USForestService

seanhealey@fs.fed.us

Ibara

Marcel

Congo

WRI

marc_iba@yahoo.fr

Itsoua
Maszous

Gervais
Ludovic

Congo

Ministrede
DveloppementDurable
del'EconomieForestire
etdel'Environnement

imadzous@yahoo.fr

Justice

Chris

US

UniversityofMaryland

justice@iluci.org

Kabamba

Flicien

DRC

CODELT

fellykabamba@yahoo.fr

Kagombe

Temothee

Cameroon

DlguRgionalMINEP

Kalala

Didier

DRC

AvocatsVerts

contact@avocatsverts.cd

KasuluSeya
Makonga

Vincent

DRC

Ministrede
l'Environnement,
ConservationdelaNature

kaseyamak@yahoo.fr

Kibambe

JeanPaul

DRC

UCL

jean
paul.kibambe@uclouvain.be

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

148

Cont...
Name

FirstName

Country

Organization

Email

KondjoShoko

Andre

DRC

DIAF/Ministrede
l'environnement

kondjosh@yahoo.fr

Konzi

Bob

CAR

Expertnational
climat,membreducomit
REDD

bkonzi@hotmail.com

KoyKondjo

Hritier

DRC

DIAF/Ministrede
l'environnement

emilekondjo@yahoo.fr

Laporte

Nadine

US

WoodsHoleResearch
Center

nlaporte@whrc.org

Lembe

Gaspard

Congo

CNIAF

lembegas@yahoo.fr

Leroy
Saudubray

Virginie

DRC

AFD

leroysaudubrayv@afd.fr

Lewis

Simon

UK

UniversityofLeeds

s.l.lewis@leeds.ac.uk

Lindquist

Erik

Italy

FAO

Erik.Lindquist@fao.org

LolaAmani

Patrick

DRC

OSFAC

pamani@osfac.net

Lumande

Joseph

DRC

ERIAFT

jozefkasa@yahoo.fr

Lumbuenamo

Raymond

DRC

WWF

rlumbuenamo@wwfcarpo.org

Lusenge

Thierry

DRC

WWFPEVi

tlusengewwfpevi@gmail.com

Mahonghol

Denis

DRC

ProgrammedesNations
Uniespour
l'Environnement

denismahonghol@yahoo.fr

Makak

Sylvestre

Gabon

WRI

smakak2000@yahoo.fr

Makana

JeanRemy

DRC

WCS

jmakana@wcs.org

Malanda

Marie
Pascale

DRC

Ministrede
l'Environnement,
ConservationdelaNature

Mambeta

Roger

DRC

WRI

mambeta2roger@yahoo.fr

Mande

Francisca

Angola

IDF

chica.mande@yahoo.com.br

Mane

Landing

Senegal

OSFAC

lmane@osfac.net

Mangoni

Guyguy

DRC

OSFAC

gmangoni@osfac.net

Maniatis

Danae

Italy

FAO/UNREDD

Danae.Maniatis@fao.org

Maschler

Thomas

Germany

AFC/GTZ/ProPSFE

thomas.maschler@gmx.net

Masselink

Joel

DRC

WCS

jmasselink@gmail.com

Mateus

Andre

Angola

FAO

mateusngamba@yahoo.fr

Mayaux

Philippe

Italy

CommissionEuropenne
CentreCommunde
Recherche

philippe.mayaux@jrc.ec.europ
a.eu

Mazzocchetti

Florence

DRC

AWFRDC

fmazzocchetti@awfafrica.org

Mbemba

Martin

DRC

FORAF

mmbemba@foraf.eu

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

149

Cont...
Name

FirstName

Country

Organization

Email

Mbile

Peter

US

WRI

Mbumba

Clment

DRC

Ministrede
l'Environnement,
ConservationdelaNature

Medjibe

Vincentde
Paul

US

UniversityofFlorida/WCS

medjibe@ufl.edu

Mehlman

Patrick

DRC

ConservationInternational ptmehlman@yahoo.com

MekuiBiyogo

Andrana
Paola

Gabon

WoodsHoleResearch
Center

pamekui@yahoo.fr

Memiaghe

Herve
Roland

Gabon

WCSGabon

memiagheh@hotmail.com

Mendomo
Biang

JeanDaniel

Cameroon

MinistredesFortsetde
laFaune(MINFOF)

medax2002@yahoo.fr

Mercier

Corentin

AFD

Mertens

Benoit

Belgium

IRD

benoit.mertens@gmail.com

Mthot

Pierre

US

WRI

PMETHOT@wri.org

Mfuka

Confiance

DRC

FORAF

cmfuka@foraf.eu

Midoko
Iponga

Donald

Gabon

InstitutdeRechercheen
EcologieTropical(IRET)
CentreNationaldela
RechercheScientifiqueet
Technologique
(CENAREST)

dmiponga@gmail.com

Minang

Peter

Kenya

WorldAgroforestryCenter a.minang@cgiar.org
(ICRAF)

Mollicone

Danilo

Italy

FAO

Danilo.Mollicone@fao.org

Muke

JeanLuc

DRC

AvocatsVerts

jeanlucmuke@yahoo.fr

Mukongo
Shabantu

Remy

DRC

CEEAC

remymuk@yahoo.fr

Mulabu

Mupaka

Novacel

Munzimi

Yolande

DRC

GeographicInformation
ScienceCenter/South
DakotaStateUniversity

yolandemunzimi@gmail.com

Musampa
Kamungandu

Christophe

DRC

DirectionInventaireet
AmnagementForestiers
(DIAF)Ministrede
l'Environnement

christophemusampa@yahoo.fr

Nackoney

Janet

US

UniversityofMaryland

jnackoney@iluci.org

Nasi

Robert

Indonesia

CIFOR

r.nasi@cgiar.org

NcogoMotogo Roberto

EG

INDEFORAPBataLitoral

ncogom@hotmail.es

NebaShu

Cameroon

WRI

gideon.nebashu@iucn.org

Gideon

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

150

Cont...
Name

FirstName

Country

Organization

Email

Ngilambi

Huguette

DRC

OSFAC

maniguetteae@yahoo.fr

Ngomba

Marceline

DRC

OSFAC

mngomba@osfac.net

Ngombo
Vangu

Chrispin

DRC

ASARECA/INERA

ngombovangu@yahoo.fr

Ngono

Gregoire

Cameroon

CentreSpcialisde
RecherchesurFortet
Environnement
(CEREFEN)

gregoire.ngono@gmail.com

Nguinda

Pierre(?)

AfricanDevelopmentBank

Nkoumakali

Bruno

Gabon

DirectionGnraledes
EauxetForts/Gabon

nkoumakali_bruno@yahoo.fr

Nosombo
Mosombo

Blandine

DRC

Universitdekinshasa

blandinensombo@yahoo.fr

Ouissika

Chrubin
Brice

Congo

Ministredu
DveloppementDurable,
del'EconomieForestire
etdel'Environnement

ocherubins@yahoo.fr

Oyo

Pierre

Congo

Ministredu
DveloppementDurable,
del'EconomieForestire
etdel'Environnement

ninonoyo@yahoo.fr

Palmeri

Virginie

US

WHRC

ambougou2@yahoo.fr

PereiraGalvao AndreLuiz

ABC

PinaCortez

Leticia

Cameroon

ProjetGTZd'appuila
COMIFAC

leticia.pina@gtz.de

Poulson

John

US

WoodsHoleResearch
Center

jpoulsen@whrc.org

Robiglio

Valentina

Cameroon

IITA,International
InstituteforTropical
Agriculture,ASB
Partnershipfortheforest
margin

v.robiglio@cgiar.org

Routier

Jean
Baptiste

France

ONFInternational

jeanbaptiste.routier@onf.fr

Rum

Giovanni

Switzerland GEO(GrouponEarth
Onservations)Secretariat

grum@geosec.org

Rybock

Demian

US

UniversityofMaryland

drybock@gmail.com

Saatchi

Sassan

US

Instituteof
Environment/UCLA

sassan.saatchi@jpl.nasa.gov

Sannier

Christophe

France

SIRS

christophe.sannier@sirs
fr.com

Schorlemer

Dietmar

Cameroon

ProjetGTZd'appuila
COMIFAC

dietmar.schorlemer@gtz.de

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

151

Cont...
Name

FirstName

Country

Organization

Email

Senguela

Yvon
Patrick

CAR

MinisteredesEaux,Forets, yvon_seng@yahoo.fr
ChasseetPeche

Severin

Pongui
Brice

Congo

RPPREDDCongo

Siwe

Ren

Germany

GAFAG

rene.siwe@gaf.de

Sonwa

Denis

Cameroon

CIFOR(Centerfor
InternationalForestry
Research)

d.sonwa@cgiar.org

Starkey

Malcolm

Congo

WCS

mstarkey@wcs.org

Steil

Matthew

US

WRI

MSteil@wri.org

Stephens

Paul

UK

DMCiiLtd

p.stephens@dmcii.com

Stolle

Fred

US

WRI

fstolle@wri.org

Tadoum

Martin

DRC

COMIFAC

tadoum@yahoo.fr

Tchikangwa

Bertin

Cameroon

WWF

btchikangwa@wwfcarpo.org

Thompson

Scott

US

WRI

sthompson@wri.org

Tunguni

Jacques

DRC

COMIFAC/DRCdelegation

Twagirashyaka

Felin

Congo

WCS

ftwagirashyaka@wcs.org

Wattelier

Emilie

EUDelegation

White

Lee

Gabon

ANPN

lwhite@uuplus.com

Wong

Minnie

US

UniversityofMaryland

mwong@hermes.geog.umd.ed
u

Zasy

Germain

DRC

Ministrede
l'Environnement,
ConservationdelaNature,
EauetFort

zasygermain@yahoo.fr

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

152

Appendix 2. Conference Agenda


2February2010
Opening:MonitoringCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin
9:159:22
Welcomeandintroduction
9:239:28

BREAK
9:349:39
9:409:55
9:5610:11
10:1210:30

OpeningSpeech

CarbonbudgetchallengesandopportunitiesforEU
Carbonbudgetchallengesandopportunitiesfor
CARPE
Commongroundforresearchandconference
objectives
REDDPostCopenhagenperspectivesforCentral
Africacountries

BREAK
11:0911:20
REDDtechnicalrequirements
CarbonandREDD
11:2111:39
CarbonandLandCoverChangeinCentralAfrica
11:4011:59
Methodologicalaspectsforforestareachange
assessmentthroughremotesensing,REDD
11:5912:12

EmilieWattelier(EU)
JohnFlynn(USAID)
PhilippeMayaux(JRC),
ChrisJustice(UMD)
RaymondLumbuenamo
(WWF)
PhillipeMayaux

OverviewofREDDprojects/carbonquantification
inCentralAfricaSurveyResults
UNREDDinDemocraticRepublicoftheCongo
Q/Asession

RobertNasi(CIFOR)
DanieloMollicone,FAO
GOFCGOLD
CarlosDeWasseige,
FORAF
BrunoGuay(ONFi)

Quantitativeanalysisofdeforestationand
degradationdriversinD.R.Congo

ErikLinquist(FAO)
PierreDefournyandC.
Ernst(UCL)
BrunoNkoumakalo,
ChristopheMusampa
PierreDefournyand
ClineDelhage(UCL)

12:1212:25
12:2612:48
BREAK
ForestandLandCoverMonitoring
2:082:22
TheFRARemoteSensingSurvey:Globalcontext
2:232:47
ObservatoryofCentralAfricanForests:National
andRegionalEstimateofForestCoverandChange
2:483:06
ResultsandvalidationtoolsforFRA
3:073:24

MartinTadoum
COMIFACSecretary
PrincipalPrivate
Secretaryofthe
Sustainable
DevelopmentMinistry,
RepublicofCongo

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

153

Cont...
BREAK

4:345:41

LandcoveranddeforestationmappinginCentral
Africa
Descriptionofmethodsandresults
NextSteps:Advancedmethods
MappingWetlandExtent

ConservationlandUsePlanning
InteractionsBetweenHydrologyandCarbon
StocksandFluxes
Transitiontoaregionalmappinginitiative:OSFAC
Q/Asession

MattHansen(SDSU)
ErikLindquist(SDSU)
MarkBroich(SDSU)
JeanRobertBwangoy
(SDSU)
JanetNackoney(UMD)
YolandeMunzimi
(SDSU)
LandingMane(OSFAC)

3February2010
MethodsandProjects
8:409:05
TheGEOForestCarbonTracking(FCT)Task
9:059:25

9:259:45

9:4510:00
10:0010:20

GiovanniRum(GEO
Secretary)
NationalDemonstrationintheGEOFCTTask
MichaelBrady(Natural
ResourcesCanadaand
GOFCGOLD)
MappingandMonitoringCarboninGabonForests SimonLewis
(UniversityofLeeds)&
SassanSaatchi(NASA)
CanopyTexturalPropertiesfromMetricResolution BarbierNicolas(IRD
Imagery
ULB/FNRS)
BiomassandCarbonMappinginCentralAfrica
NadineLaporte&
usingRemoteSensingandForestInventories
AndranaMekuiBiyogo
(WHRC)

BREAK
11:0511:25
11:2511:45
11:4511:55

REDDProjectinCameroon
REDDMRVSystemDevelopmentinD.R.Congo
Canopy(Aerial)CarbonStocksMeasurementin
CongoBasinForest
11:5512:05 EvaluatingtheEffectsofReducedImpactLogging
onForestCarbon
12:0512:25 CarbonStockEstimationinForestConcessions
12:2513:00 Q/Asessions
ProjectsandOtherEnvironmentalServices
2:102:20
TheCongoBasinForestFund(CBFF)
2:202:30
CarbonandAgroforestryinCameroon
2:302:37
ForestCarbonSinksinIbiBateke
2:372:53

REDDCarbonProjectinRep.ofCongo

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

ThomasHaeusler(GAF)
DanaeManiatis(FAO)
JeanRemyMakana
(WCS)
VincentMedjibe(WCS)
NicolasBayol(FRM)

PierreNguinda(BAD)
DenisSonwa(CIFOR)
OlivierMushiete
(NOVACEL)
GeorgesBoudzanga
(MDDEFE)&FredStolle
(WRI)

154

Cont...
2:543:08
3:083:19
3:193:29

ImpactofGlobalChangeontheForestBiodiversity
oftheCongoBasin
LandUsePlanningintheMLWLandscapeandits
PotentialforCarbonCredits
LandUseDynamicsandPopulationDistribution:
CaseStudyoftheDemocraticRepublicofthe
Congo
Q/Asessions

3:303:55
BREAK
SatelliteDataandRegionalAcquisition
4:254:40
SatelliteDataAccess
4:404:53
4:545:10
5:105:15
5:155:31

JeanPaulKibambe&
PierreDefourny(UCL)

LandingMane(OSFAC),
MichaelBrady(NRCan)
PanTropicalBiomassMappinginSupportof
NadineLaporte
ForestMonitoring
(WHRC)
DMCiiGlobalForestServices
PaulStephens(DMCii)
ProvisionofSPOTDataforForestCoverAnalysisin CorentinMercier(AFD)
theCongoBasin
AnEarthObservationGroundStationandResearch JeanMarieFotsing
(IRD)
LaboratoryforLongTermMonitoring,Libreville,
Gabon

BREAK
5:315:40
CBERSDataforEarthObservationinAfrica
5:406:00
Q/Asession
6:006:10
WorkinggroupsIntroduction
4February2010
WorkingGroupParallelSessions
8:3011:00
Workinggroupsessions:
1)Coordinationandinformationdisseminationof
REDDactivitiesintheregion
2)Regionalnetworksandcapacitybuilding
3)Satellitedataandreceivingstationsintheregion
4)BiomassandCarbonstockestimation
11:3012:30 Continuedworkinfourworkinggroups
BREAK
1:302:30
Plenary:workinggroupsummarypresentations
Synthesis,PerspectivesandConclusions
2:303:15
Panelsession:perspectives,priorities,strategies
andfuturesteps

3:304:00
4:004:53

SylvieGourletFleury
(CIRAD)
JeffDupain(AWF)

Synthesisandsummaryofactions
ConcludingstatementfromCOMIFACandclose

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

ClaudiaAlmeida(INPE)

ChrisJustice(UMD)

JohnFlynn(USAID),
RaymondLumbuenamo
(WWF),Danillo
Molicone(FAO),
GuillaumeErnst
PhilippeMayaux(JRC)
MartinTadoum
(COMIFAC)

155

Appendix 3. List of Presentations


Thepresentationslistedbelowareavailableat:http://www.observatoire
comifac.net/carbonCconfBrazza.phpandhttp://osfac.net/workshop/presentations.html

No.

Title

Author

CarbonbudgetchallengesandopportunitiesforEU

EmilieWattelier

Conferenceobjectives

ChrisJustice/PhillipeMayaux

REDDPostCopenhagenperspectivesforCentralAfrica RaymondLumbuenamo
countries

REDDtechnicalrequirements

PhillipeMayaux

CarbonandLandCoverChangeinCentralAfrica

RobertNasi

Methodologicalaspectsforforestareachange
assessmentthroughremotesensing,REDD

DanieloMollicone

OverviewofREDDprojects/carbonquantificationin
CentralAfricaSurveyResults

CarlosdeWasseige

UNREDDinDem.RepublicoftheCongo

BrunoGuay

TheFRARemoteSensingSurvey:Globalcontext

ErikLinquist

10

SegmentationmethodsinFRA

PierreDefourny

11

ResultsandvalidationtoolsforFRA

BrunoNkoumakaloand
ChristopheMusampa

12

Quantitativeanalysisofdeforestationanddegradation PierreDefourny
driversinD.R.Congo

13

Landcover&deforestationmappingincentralAfrica

MattHansen

14

Descriptionofmethodsandresults

ErikLindquist

15

NextSteps:Advancedmethods

MarkBroich

16

MappingWetlandExtent

JeanRobertBwangoy

17

ConservationlandUsePlanning

JanetNackoney

18

InteractionsBetweenHydrologyandCarbonStocks
andFluxes

YolandeMunzimi

19

Transitiontoaregionalmappinginitiative:OSFAC

LandingMane

20

TheGEOForestCarbonTracking(FCT)Task

GiovanniRum

21

NationalDemonstrationintheGEOFCTTask

MichaelBrady

22

MappingandMonitoringCarboninGabonForests

SimonLewisandSassan
Saatchi

23

REDDCarbonProjectinRep.ofCongo

GeorgesBoudzangaandFred
Stolle

24

Canopytexturalmonitoring

BarbierNicolas

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

156

Cont...
No.

Title

Author

25

BiomassandCarbonMappinginCentralAfricausing
RemoteSensingandForestInventories

NadineLaporteandAndrana
MekuiBiyogo

26

REDDProjectinCameroon

ThomasHaeusler

27

REDDMRVSystemDevelopmentinD.R.Congo

DanaeManiatis

28

Canopy(Aerial)CarbonStocksMeasurementinCongo
BasinForest

JeanRemyMakana

29

EvaluatingtheEffectsofReducedImpactLoggingon
ForestCarbon

VincentMedjibe

30

CarbonStockEstimationinForestConcessions

NicolasBayol

31

TheCongoBasinForestFund(CBFF)

PierreNguinda

32

CarbonandAgroforestryinCameroon

DenisSonwa

33

ForestCarbonSinksinIbiBateke

OlivierMushiete

34

ImpactofGlobalChangeontheForestBiodiversityof
theCongoBasin

SylvieGourletFleury

35

LandUsePlanningintheMLWLandscapeandits
PotentialforCarbonCredits

JeffDupain

36

LandUseDynamicsandPopulationDistribution:Case
StudyoftheDemocraticRepublicoftheCongo

JeanPaulKibambeandPierre
Defourny

37

SatelliteDataAccess

LandingManeandMichael
Brady

38

PanTropicalPALSARMappinginSupportofForest
Monitoring

NadineLaporte

39

DMCiiGlobalForestServices

PaulStephens

40

ProvisionofSPOTDataforForestCoverAnalysisin
theCongoBasin

CorentinMercier

41

AnEarthObservationGroundStationandResearch
LaboratoryforLongTermMonitoring,Libreville,
Gabon

JeanMarieFotsing

42

CBERSDataforEarthObservationinAfrica

ClaudiaAlmeida

43

CoordinationandinformationdisseminationofREDD
activitiesintheregion

WorkingGroup1

44

Regionalnetworksandcapacitybuilding

WorkingGroup2

45

Satellitedataandreceivingstationsintheregion

WorkingGroup3

46

BiomassandCarbonstockestimation

WorkingGroup4

47

Synthesisandsummaryofactions

PhilippeMayaux

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

157

Appendix 4. List of Acronyms

AFOLU

Agriculture,forestryandotherlanduses

ALOS

AdvancedLandObservingSatellite(ownedbyJAXA)

AR4

AssessmentReport4IPCC4thassessmentreport,publishedNov
2007

ARR

Agriculture,ReforestationandRevegetation

ASTER

AdvancedSpaceborneThermalEmissionandReflectionRadiometer
(NASA)

BAD

BanqueAfricainedeDeveloppement

CB

Capacitybuilding

CBD

ConventiononBiologicalDiversity

CBERS

ChinaBrazilEarthResourcesSatelliteProgram

CC

CarbonCredits

CDM

CleanDevelopmentMechanism

CEOS

CommitteeonEarthObservationSatellites

CER

CertifiedEmissionReduction(units)

COMIFAC

TheCentralAfricanForestCommission

COP

ConferenceoftheParties

DMC

DisasterMonitoringConstellation(surveysatellites)

EC

EuropeanCommission

EF

EmissionFactor

ESA

EuropeanSpaceAgency

FAO

UnitedNationsFoodandAgricultureOrganization

FCPF

ForestCarbonPartnershipFacilityoftheWorldBank

FRA

ForestResourceAssessment

GEO

GroupofEarthObservation

GHG

GreenhouseGas

GLCN

GlobalLandCoverNetwork(FAO)

GOFCGOLD

GlobalObservationsofForestandLandCoverDynamics

GPG

GoodPracticeGuidance

GW

GlobalWarming

INPE

NationalInstituteforSpaceResearch(Brazil)

IPCC

IntergovernmentalPanelonClimateChange

IRS

IndianRemoteSensingSatellite

JAXA

JapanAerospaceExplorationAgency

LC

LandCover

LULUCF

LandUse,LandUseChangeandForestry

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

158

MERIS

MediumResolutionImagingSpectrometer(ESA)

MODIS

ModerateresolutionImagingSpectroradiometer(NASA)

MRV

Monitoring,reportingandverification

NASA

NationalAeronauticsandSpaceAdministration

NETS

NationalEmissionsTradingScheme

NFMA

NationalForestMonitoringAssessmentReportofFAO

NGO

NonGovernmentalOrganisation

NIR

NationalInventoryReport

PRP

ThePrincesRainforestsProject

REDD

Reducingemissionsfromdeforestationandforestdegradation

REDD+

Reducingemissionsfromdeforestationanddegradation,conservation
ofexistingcarbonstocksandenhancementofcarbonstocks

RIFFEAC

ForestrySchoolsInCentralAfricaNetwork

RPIN

ReadinessProjectIdeaNote(submittedbycountriestoFCPF)

RS

RemoteSensing

SPOT

SatellitePourl'ObservationdelaTerre(France)

SRTM

ShuttleRadarTopographyMission

UNEP

UnitedNationsEnvironmentalProgram

UNFCCC

UnitedNationsFrameworkConventiononClimateChange

USGS

UnitedStatesGeologicalSurvey

VCF

VegetationContinuousFields

VCM

VoluntaryCarbonMarket

VCS

VoluntaryCarbonStandard

WSSD

WorldSummitonSustainableDevelopment

MonitoringForestCarbonStocksandFluxesintheCongoBasin,24Februry2010

159