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Definition : (Left Module) Let M be a nonempty set. Then M is said to be

a left R-module over a ring R if (M , + ) is an abelian group together with a

scalar multiplication R × M M defined by ( r, x) → r x , ∀ r ∈R , x∈M

such that

(i) r( x + y ) = r x + r y

( ii ) (r + s) x= r x + s x

(iii ) ( rs) x = r ( s x ) , ∀ r , s ∈R and x , y ∈ M

Similarly, we can define Right module.

a right R-module over a ring R if (M , + ) is an abelian group together with a

scalar multiplication R × M M defined by ( x, r) → x r ,∀ r ∈R , x∈M

Such that

(i) ( x + y )r = xr + yr

( ii ) x (r + s) = xr + x s

(iii ) x( rs) = ( x r) s , ∀ r , s ∈R and x , y ∈ M

module and right R-module coincide and in that case , we simply say , M

is R-module .

(2) It should be noted that the distinction between a left R-module and a

right R-module is merely that of notation. The theory of right R-module can

be developed in the same manner as the theory of left R-modules. But this

does not mean that the study of all left modules over a particular ring R is

equivalent to the study of all right modules over R.

module M is said to be unitary R-module if 1. x = x , ∀ x∈M

Remark : (i) If R is a division ring , then

Right R-module = Right Vector space over R

2

Examples of Modules

Example 1. Every abelian group G is a module over the ring of integer ¢

under the scalar multiplication defined by ¢ × G G

( n , x ) →n x = 0 ( if n = 0 )

-x - x - x - ………- x ( n times if n < 0 )

of ¢ and 1.x = x , for all x ∈ G .

as the scalar multiplication. We generally denote RR for left R-

module R and RR for right R-module R.

left (right ) S-module in a natural way, namely w.r.t. multiplication in R.

ring of polynomial R[x] , is a sub-ring of R[x] . Thus R[x] is R-module .

multiplication R × I I defined by ( x , a ) xa, for all x ∈ R and a ∈ I .

the abelian group ( Rn , + ) ( under component wise addition ) is a left

(right) R-module under the external law of composition R × Rn Rn ,

defined by r( x1 , x2 , ……., xn ) = ( r x1 , r x2 , ……., r xn ) ,

for all r ∈ R , and ( x1 , x2 , ……., xn ) ∈ Rn .

the abelian group (M , + ) under the matrix addition can be regarded as left

R-module under the scalar multiplication R × M M defined by

3

Example 7. If ( M , + ) be an abelian group and R = End M , be the ring of

endomorphism , Then M becomes an R-module under the external law of

composition R × M M defined by ( f , x ) f ( x ) for all f ∈ R and

x∈M.

we notice that the concept of modules goes in a similar fashion as that of a

vector space over a field . We can also defined Sub-module , Quotient

module , Direct sum of sub-modules , finitely generated Module,

Module Homomorphism etc.

of M if N itself an R-module under the induced external operation .

then the abelian group ( M/N, + ) inherits an R-module structure from M :

R × M/N M/N defined by ( r , x + N ) rx + N .

Then R-module M/N called Quotient module of M by N .

sub-modules of M . Then M is called the direct sum of A and B if

(i) x = a + b , a ∈A , b∈B ( ii ) A ∩ B = ∅

and it is written as M = A ⊕ B.

generated if there exist a finite subset S of M such that M = < S > .

Where < S > = ∑ ii r x : where ri ∈ R , xi ∈ S

finite sum

mapping f : M N is called an R- homomorphism if and only if

f ( x + y ) = f ( x ) + f ( y) (ii) f ( r. x) = r . f ( x), for all r∈ R and x , y ∈M.

vector space can be carried over to the modules over commutative ring

without change with only difference , in case of module we talk of rank and

in case of vector space we call it as dimension.

4

Definition : (Free module ) An R-module M is said to be a free module if

and only if it has a basis .

commutative ring R, then the number of elements in the basis of M is called

the rank of M and is denoted by rankR(M) .

itself R admits R- basis , consisting of its unity element 1 or { u } , where u

be any unit in R . Thus RR ( or RR ) is a free module of rank 1.

Z- module with Z- basis { x }.

↑

( i-th place)

n

be the R- basis of R .

n n

( f : M R defined by ∑ i i ∑ = < { e ≤i : 1≤ i n}>

n

n f r x = ir e

i , W here R

i =1 i 1=

is R- isomorphism )

of n copies of R-module R i.e.

M ≅ ⊕ Rx , where M has basis X having n elem ents .

x ∈X

Let M = < X > and let F be free module with basis X . Then we have

F ≅⊕ Rx, with Rx

≅ ∈x

R for all X , we have

x∈X

5

F = ∑a xe x a x∈ R , a x= 0 for almost all x and e=x ∀

1, x

x∈X

Now , consider the map f : F M defined by f

∑a e

x∈ X

x x =

∑a x

x ∈X

x

Some Pathologies

over a field F

(2) Every L.I. subset of V can be extended to form a basis for V.

In particular , every non-zero vector can be extended to form a basis

for V.

(3) Every subset which span V contains a basis of V .

(4) Any two basis of V are either both finite or both infinite and their

cardinalities are equal and this common value is called the dimension

of V and is denoted by dimF( V ).

(5) If W be a subspace of a finite dimensional vector space V over a field

F, then W is also finite dimensional and dimF( W ) ≤ dimF( V ).

(6) Every subspace of a vector space is a direct summand of V ,

i.e. if W1 is any subspace of the vector space V , then there exist a

unique subspace W2 of V such that V = W1 ⊕ W2 .

The subspace W2 is called the complement of W1 in V.

Thus , in vector space the complement of every subspace exist and it

is unique .

(1) modules over arbitrary ring

(2) free modules over arbitrary ring and

(3) free modules over commutative ring

6

( I ) First of all , we show that not all modules are free module

Solution : Let G be a finite abelian group. Then G is a ¢ -module .

If possible , let G be a free module and let S be a basis for G over ¢ .

Let x ≠ 0 be any element of G such that n x = o , for some n ∈ ¥ .

[ Q G is a finite abelian group ∴ order of every element exist ]

Now , we have x = n1s1 + n2 s2 + ……….+ nr sr , for some s1 , s2 , …,sr ∈ S

and n1 , n2 , ……., nr ∈ ¢

0 = n x = n (n1s1 + n2 s2 + ……….+ nr sr ) = (nn1)s1+(nn2)s2+….+(nnr)sr

But S is L.I. set ⇒ nn1 = nn2 = ……..= nnr = 0

⇒ n1 = n2 = …….= nr =0 ⇒ x = 0 , a contradiction . Hence G has no basis

and so it is not a free module.

Example 1(ii) The module ¤ over ¢ is not a free module .i.e. ¤ is not a

free ¢ -module.

p

Solution : Let q (≠ 0 ) ∈ ¤ be any rational number . Then

p

n. q =0 ⇒ n=0 , where n ∈ ¢ .

p

∴ singleton set { q } is L.I. over ¢

Now , we show that any set containing two (or more ) rational no’s are L.D.

p r

Let q , be any two different rational numbers. Then we have

s

p r

(rq) . q − (ps) . = 0 , where rq , ps ∈ ¢

s

p r

⇒ { q , } is L.D. over ¢ .

s

7

Now , we show that no singleton set can generate ¤ .

1

To show this , let { p } , where p is a prime number generate ¤

1 1 1 1

As ∈ ¤ ∴ ∃ n ∈ ¢ such that n. p = 2 p ⇒ n=

2 2

1

But ∉ ¢ . Thus no singleton set in ¤ can generate ¤ .

2

Hence , we see that ¤ admits no basis over ¢ and so ¤ is not a free

¢ -module .

( 2 ) Next , we give an example to show that a free module has a L.I. set

which cannot be extended to a basis.

Now, {2} is L.I. over ¢ . As n.2 = 0 ⇒ n = 0 , where n ∈ ¢ .

Also , we note that 2 cannot generate ¢ over ¢

∴ if at all there is a basis S containing 2 . Then S must have atleast one

more element (say ) s . But, then we have s.2 − 2.s = 0 .

i.e. {2 , s } is L.D. subset of S and hence of ¢ ,which is absurd.

S which span M but S do-not contain a basis of M.

(m , n) =1 [ for example , S = {2 , 3 } ] . Then

∃ a , b ∈ ¢ such that 1 = a m + bn

∴ for any x ∈ ¢ , we have

x = x.1 = x .( a m + bn ) = (x a) m + (x b)n

⇒ ¢ = m ¢ + n ¢ i.e. S span M .

Also , we know that S is L.D. [ Q 2.3 −3.2 = 0 ]

∴ S is not a basis for ¢ . Moreover , m ¢ ≠ ¢ and n¢ ≠ ¢

⇒ S do-not contain any basis for ¢ .

basis having different cardinalities .

division ring D. Let R = EndR( M ) . Then R is a free module over R with

8

basis { 1R } . We shall show that for a given positive integer n ( say ) there

is an R-basis Sn = { s1 , s2 , ….., sn } for R having n elements .

Let S = { ek : k = 1 , 2 , 3 , ……} be a basis of M over D.

Define s1 , s2 , ……., sn ∈R .

By specifying their values on S as in the table below :

s1 s2 s3 . .…………. sn

e1 e1 0 0 . ………. … 0

e2 0 e1 0 . .. ………… 0

: : : : :

: : : : :

en 0 0 0 ………. ….. e1

en +1 e2 0 0 . ………. …. 0

en +2 0 e2 0 . .. ………… 0

: : : : :

: : : : :

e2n 0 0 0 ………. …. e2

: : : : …………… :

: : : : …………… :

: : : : ………….. :

ekn +2 0 ek+1 0 . .. ………… 0

: : : : :

: : : : :

e(k+1)n 0 0 0 ………. … ek+1

: : : : …………. :

: : : : …………. :

: : : : ……………. :

9

n

i =1

i i = 0 , where α i ∈ R

Then evaluating on the successive blanks of n vectors namely ,

ekn +1 , ekn +2 , ……… , e(k +1)n , k = 0 , 1 , 2 , 3 ,……….., we get

α i ( ek+1 ) = 0 , for all k and 1 ≤ i ≤ n i.e α i = 0 , for all i.

⇒ Sn is linearly independent over R.

n

Also , if s ∈ R , then s = ∑α s

i =1

i i , where α i ∈ R

Thus Sn is an R- module for R . We note that S1 = { 1R } which is a

standard basis for R as R-module .

∴ For n ≠ 1 , we see that Sn be different basis for R-module R , whose

cardinality is n where as S1 = { 1R } is also standard basis for R-module R

whose cardinality is 1.

module having a sub-module which is neither free nor finitely generated

commutative ring .

Now, let M = R , then M is a free module with basis { 1 } .

Sub-modules of M are ideals of R .

∴ let N be the ideal of all polynomials with constant term Zero .

i.e. N = < X1 , X2 , ….. , Xn , …. > .

Now , we claim that N is not a finitely generated module .

If possible , let N be finitely generated module as an ideal in R and let

S = < s1 , s2 , …….., sr > be the generating set for N . It is clear that there

exists a positive integer n ≥ 0 such that si ∈ K[ X1 , X2 , ….. , Xn , ….],

which is a sub-ring of R .

Since Xi ∈ N , for all i .

r

∑a s i i

∴ we can write Xn+1 = i=1 , for some ai ∈ R

Since all si’ s are without constant terms

∴ if we take X1 = X2 = ……= Xn = 0 , we get

r r

i n +1 ,0,....).0 = 0

i =1 i =1

10

which is absurd , as N is not finitely generated , it cannot be a principal ideal

and hence it is not free because the only ideals of R which are free as R-

modules are non-zero principal ideals.

(7) Next , we give an example to show that to show that every sub-

module of a module need not be a direct summand and also that if

a sub-module is a direct summand then the supplement of it need

not be unique .

of ¢ is a sub-module of ¢ , but it is not a direct summand because a

supplement which is infinite cyclic group should be isomorphic to the

quotient group ¢ / < n > ( ≅ ¢ n ) , which is not possible .

Example : ( ii ) Let M = ¡ 2

= { ( x , y ) : x , y ∈ ¡ } be a ¡ -module .

Let M1 = { ( x , x ) : x ∈ ¡ } , M2 = { ( x , 2x ) : x ∈ ¡ } ,

M3 = { ( x , 3x ) : x ∈ ¡ } .

.

Thus , M = M1 ⊕ M2 and M = M1 ⊕ M3

M . But M2 ≠ M3 .

need not be unique.

NOTE : All these pathologies can be removed for a free module M over

a principal ideal domain R.

11

Let us show how this happen :- We know that :

with unity without zero divisors ) , in which every ideal is a principal

ideal i.e. generated by a single element.

ring R has a finite bases having equal number of elements i.e. has a

constant rank M.

over a PID R is finitely generated and that rank N ≤ rank M .

Let Nk = N ∩ span{ x1 , x2 , ……., xk }, where 1 ≤ k ≤ n .

Note that N = Nn and the result can be proved by induction on k.

Theorem 2. Every finitely generated torsion free module over PID is free

module .

Remark : This result need not be true integral domain i.e. torsion free

module need not free module in an Integral domain .

For example : Q over Z is a torsion free module because r m = 0 for

r∈Z and 0 ≠ m ∈ Q implies r = 0 . But Q over Z is not free module.

modules over a principal ideal domain which is a generalization of the

fundamental theorem of finitely generated abelian groups and roughly

states that finitely generated modules can be uniquely decomposed in

much the same way that integers have a prime factorization.

isomorphic to F n . If the field F is generalized to a principal ideal domain

R, the vector space turns into an R-module ; and it is not isomorphic to

exactly R n, but a quotient of it. This is the theorem below.

12

elements . Then M is direct sum of cyclic modules

M ≅ R n −r⊕ R/Ra⊕1 R/Ra⊕2 .........

⊕ R/Ra r

Where all ai’s are non-zero, non-units in R s.t. ai ai+1 and R/Rai ’s

are cyclic , for i =1,2,.., r-1.

special case, where R = F. Since fields have no non-trivial ideals and so

r = 0 and so every finitely generated vector space M over F is free of

dimension n.

abelian groups. ( Every finitely generated abelian group G is isomorphic to

.

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