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Aerodynamics Lab 1

Cylinder Lift and Drag

David Clark Group 1 MAE 449 – Aerospace Laboratory

Abstract

The lift and drag coefficients are non-dimensional parameters which describe the forces acting on a body in a fluid flow. A cylinder is an excellent specimen to study these forces due to the geometric simplicity, as well as steady continuity across the entire body. Calculating these parameters can be an arduous task, however maintaining steady, incompressible, and irrotational flow with negligible body forces allow the use of the ideal gas law, Bernoulli’s equation, and Sutherland’s viscosity correlation. Using the newly simplified expressions for C l and C d , the lift and drag coefficient, the results were calculated using simple pressure measurements along with simple parameters describing the laboratory testing conditions. The lift and drag coefficient of a cylinder with a diameter of 0.75 inches in flow with a Reynolds number of 30,000 was 4.639x10 -2 and 69.41 respectively.

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Contents

 Abstract 2 Introduction and Background 4 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................ 4 Governing Equations 4 Similarity ............................................................................................................................................. 5 Aerodynamic Coefficients 5 Equipment and Procedure 6 Equipment 6 6 6 7 Raw Data 7 Preliminary Calculations 7 Results 10 ANSYS CFD 14 16 16 16

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Introduction and Background

Introduction

The following laboratory procedure explores the aerodynamic lift and drag forces experienced by a cylinder placed in a uniform free-stream velocity. This will be accomplished using a wind tunnel and various pressure probes with a small brass cylinder as the subject of study. When viscous shear stresses act along a body, as they would during all fluid flow, the resultant force

can be expressed as a lift and drag component. The lift component is normal to the airflow, whereas the drag component is parallel. To further characterize and communicate these effects, non-dimensional coefficients are utilized. For example, a simple non-dimensional coefficient can be expressed as

=

1

2

Equation 1

where F is either the lift or drag forces, A REF is a specified reference area, ρ is the density of the fluid, and V is the net velocity experienced by the object.

Governing Equations

To assist in determining the properties of the working fluid, air, several proven governing equations can be used, including the ideal gas law, Sutherland’s viscosity correlation, and Bernoulli’s equation. These relationships are valid for steady, incompressible, irrotational flow at nominal temperatures with negligible body forces. The ideal gas law can be used to relate the following

=

Equation 2

where p is the pressure of the fluid, R is the universal gas constant (287 J/(kg K)), and T is the temperature of the gas. This expression establishes the relationship between the three properties of air that are of interest for use in this experiment.

Another parameter needed is the viscosity of the working fluid. Sutherland’s viscosity correlation is readily available for the testing conditions and can be expressed as

=

.

1 +

Equation 3

where b is equal to 1.458 x 10 -6 (kg K^(0.5))/(m s) and S is 110.4 K. Finally, Bernoulli’s equation defines the total stagnation pressure as

Similarity

= +

• 1
2

Equation 4

Using the previous governing equations, we can use the Reynolds number. The Reynolds

number is important because it allows the results obtained in this laboratory procedure to be scaled to larger scenarios. The Reynolds number can be expressed as

=

Equation 5

where c is a characteristic dimension of the body. For a cylinder, this dimension will be the diameter. As a result, the Reynolds number based on diameter is referenced as Re D .

Aerodynamic Coefficients

Three aerodynamic coefficients are used to explore the lift and drag forces on the test cylinder. First, the pressure coefficient expresses the difference in local pressure, the pressure at one discrete point on the cylinder, over the dynamic pressure.

=

1

2

Equation 6

The theoretical value for Cp can be calculated as = 1 − 4 180° −

Equation 7

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The pressure coefficient can be used in the determination of the 2-D lift coefficient, C l .

=

• 1

• 2

Equation 8

Finally, the drag coefficient can be expressed as

=

• 1

• 2

Equation 9

Equipment and Procedure

Equipment

The following experiment used the following equipment:

 • A wind tunnel with a 1-ft x 1-ft test section • Smooth, ¾ inch diameter brass cylinder with a pressure tap at mid-span • A transversing mechanism to move the pitot tube to various sections of the test section • A Pitot-static probe • Digital pressure transducer • Data Acquisition (DAQ) Hardware

Experiment Setup

Before beginning, the pressure and temperature of laboratory testing conditions was measured and recorded. Using equations 2 and 3, the density and viscosity of the air was calculated. The UAH wind tunnel contains cutouts to allow the brass rod to be mounted inside the test section. A degree wheel is rigidly attached to cylinder such that the angle at which the pressure tap is exposed in relation to the fluid flow can easily be adjusted and measured.

Basic Procedure

To ensure the working flow is relatively laminar and within a range acceptable for study, the procedure initiated flow with a Reynolds number of 30,000. The velocity at which the laboratory air must be accelerated was determined by solving equation 5 for velocity. First, the density and viscosity of the air must be calculated using equations 2 and 3 respectively.

Using the DAQ hardware, the difference in pressure between the pressure port and the reference pitot tube was recorded for every 15 degrees of cylinder rotation. The raw data from this step is included in the data section.

Data, Calculations, and Analysis

Raw Data

The following table catalogs the pressure read by the DAQ hardware for every 15 degrees of cylinder rotation. Three data sets were taken to ensure integrity.

 Angle (Θ) Data Set 1 Pressure (p) Data Set 2 Pressure (p) Data set 3 Pressure (p) 0 349 346 350 15 285 280 286 30 90 81 75 45 -175 -176 -176 60 -400 -395 -403 75 -450 -451 -452 90 -400 -403 -402 105 -370 -370 -370 120 -390 -385 -370 135 -400 -400 -395 150 -410 -413 -420 165 -425 -411 -431 180 -440 -420 -439 195 -420 -417 -420 210 -410 -416 -416 225 -400 -409 -395 240 -385 -399 -383 255 -370 -392 -371 270 -400 -396 -387 285 -450 -454 -422 300 -400 -405 -408 315 -175 -172 -172 330 85 85 90 345 288 288 288 360 349 348 351

Table 1

Preliminary Calculations

First, the density and viscosity of the air at laboratory conditions was calculated. This can easily be accomplished using equation 2 and 3.

=

99.5

=

287 296.15

= 1.171

Equation 10

=

.

1 +

=

1.458 × 10

296.15

.

1 +

110.4

296.15

= 1.828 × 10

Equation 11

For a Reynolds number of 30,000, the velocity of the airflow must therefore be

=

=

30000 1.828 × 10

1.171 1.905

× 10

= 24.59

Equation 12

This value is determined using the definition of the Reynolds number where c, the reference diameter, is

the known value of 0.75 inches (converted in the equation to meters.) For reference, the value for q can

be calculated as

=

1

2

=

1

2

1.171 24.59

= 353.95

Equation 13

All three data sets can be combined by averaging the three records for each angle.

 Angle (Θ) Pressure (p) 0 348 15 284 30 82 45 -176 60 -399 75 -451 90 -402 105 -370 120 -382 135 -398 150 -414 165 -422 180 -433 195 -419 210 -414 225 -401 240 -389 255 -378 270 -394 285 -442 300 -404 315 -173 330 87 345 288 360 349

Table 2

The value recorded by the DAQ represents the difference in pressure from the pressure port on the

cylinder to the pitot probe in the test section away from the cylinder. Inserting these values into

equation 6 will yield the pressure coefficient on the surface of the cylinder at the specified angle. For

example, the pressure coefficient for 0 degrees can be calculated as

, =

348

=

353.95 = 0.984

Equation 14

The theoretical value for Cp at this angle can be calculated using equation 7.

, , = 1 − 4 180° − = 1 − 4 180° − 0° = 1.000

Equation 15

Results

Using equation 6, the pressure coefficient for each 15 degree increment is given in the following

table.

 Angle (Θ) Cp Cp (theoretical) 0 0.984 1.000 15 0.802 0.732 30 0.232 0.000 45 -0.496 -1.000 60 -1.129 -2.000 75 -1.275 -2.732 90 -1.135 -3.000 105 -1.046 -2.732 120 -1.079 -2.000 135 -1.126 -1.000 150 -1.171 0.000 165 -1.194 0.732 180 -1.224 1.000 195 -1.184 0.732 210 -1.170 0.000 225 -1.134 -1.000 240 -1.099 -2.000 255 -1.067 -2.732 270 -1.114 -3.000 285 -1.249 -2.732 300 -1.143 -2.000 315 -0.489 -1.000 330 0.245 0.000 345 0.814 0.732 360 0.987 1.000

Table 3

A plot of Cp and the theoretical Cp over versus angle may better visualize the behavior of the

system. Cp Versus Angle
1.500
1.000
0.500
0.000
0
30
60
90
120
150
180
210
240
270
300
330
360
-0.500
-1.000
-1.500
-2.000
-2.500
-3.000
Cp
-3.500
Angle (Degrees)
Cp

Figure 1

The theoretical values for Cp match the measured values at low angles on the leading face of the

cylinder. The flow separates at approximately 50 degrees, which correlates to the value of 55 degrees

which is anticipated from empirical charts.

Using a simple numerical integration technique, the integral value for lift as expressed in equation 7

can be determined using the following table.

 Angle (Θ) Cp Cp * sin(Θ) trap 0 0.984 0.000 1.556 15 0.802 0.207 2.425 30 0.232 0.116 -1.764 45 -0.496 -0.351 -9.963 60 -1.129 -0.977 -16.564 75 -1.275 -1.231 -17.747 90 -1.135 -1.135 -16.089 105 -1.046 -1.010 -14.581 120 -1.079 -0.934 -12.976 135 -1.126 -0.796 -10.361 150 -1.171 -0.585 -6.708 165 -1.194 -0.309 -2.317 180 -1.224 0.000 2.299 195 -1.184 0.306 6.686 210 -1.170 0.585 10.402 225 -1.134 0.802 13.155 240 -1.099 0.952 14.873 255 -1.067 1.031 16.090 270 -1.114 1.114 17.407 285 -1.249 1.207 16.471 300 -1.143 0.990 10.015 315 -0.489 0.346 1.674 330 0.245 -0.122 -2.498 345 0.814 -0.211 -1.580 360 0.987 0.000 0.000

Table 4

The Cp is repeated from the previous calculations. As sample calculation is given in equation 13. The

third column is the product the Cp for the corresponding angle and the sine of the angle. The fourth

column, labeled as the trap, is expressed as

=

+

• 2 × | + |

Equation 16

To numerically integrates the integral of equation 7, Cl can be calculated as.

 = − 1 2 = 4.639 × 10

Equation 17

The lift coefficient lends some insight into the accuracy of the experiment. Since no lift is anticipated

for a stationary cylinder in steady flow, and deviation from a lift coefficient can be attributed to error.

A similar procedure can be used to determine the drag coefficient. The table below is used to

numerically integrate equation 7.

 Angle (Θ) Cp Cp * cos(Θ) trap 0 0.984 0.984 13.191 15 0.802 0.774 7.313 30 0.232 0.201 -1.128 45 -0.496 -0.351 -6.865 60 -1.129 -0.564 -6.706 75 -1.275 -0.330 -2.474 90 -1.135 0.000 2.030 105 -1.046 0.271 6.075 120 -1.079 0.539 10.015 135 -1.126 0.796 13.576 150 -1.171 1.014 16.252 165 -1.194 1.153 17.824 180 -1.224 1.224 17.756 195 -1.184 1.144 16.178 210 -1.170 1.013 13.614 225 -1.134 0.802 10.138 240 -1.099 0.550 6.194 255 -1.067 0.276 2.072 270 -1.114 0.000 -2.425 285 -1.249 -0.323 -6.710 300 -1.143 -0.571 -6.878 315 -0.489 -0.346 -1.002 330 0.245 0.212 7.487 345 0.814 0.786 13.301 360 0.987 0.987

Table 5

An expression to numerically integrate the integral of equation 8 can be created using numerical

integration techniques. C d can be calculated as

 = 1 2 = 69.41

Equation 18

where the trap can be calculated as

=

+

• 2 × | + |

Equation 19

ANSYS CFD

Below are screenshots taken fr om inputting the geometric and laboratory conditio ns into ANSYS

CFD 11. The explanation into the se tup and validity of these results is beyond the scop e of this lab,

however the results visually describ be the phenomenon that results from the flow arou nd the cylinder.

The first image is the vector fie ld of the flow perpendicular to the length of the cyl inder. The

separation, as well as the disturban ce behind the cylinder is clearly visible. Figure 2

The second image rotates the v iew to display an isometric view of the body. The c olor gradient on

the body represents the pressure o n the surface of the cylinder. Figure 3

The final image displays the pre ssure gradient across the aft side of the body. Figure 4

Conclusions

The lift and drag coefficient of a cylinder with a diameter of 0.75 inches in flow with a Reynolds

number of 30,000 is 4.639x10 -2 and 69.41 respectively.

References

“Aerodynamics Lab 1 – Cylinder Lift and Drag”. Handout

Raw Data

 Aero Lab 1 Group 1 Fall 07 R= 287 p 99500 b= 0.000001458 t 23 S= 110.4 rho 1.171 u 1.828E-05 q 354 V 24.59
 Angle (Θ) Data Set 1 Pressure (p) Data Set 2 Pressure (p) Data set 3 Pressure (p) 0 349 350 346 15 285 286 280 30 90 81 75 45 -175 -176 -176 60 -400 -395 -403 75 -450 -451 -452 90 -400 -403 -402 105 -370 -370 -370 120 -390 -385 -370 135 -400 -400 -395 150 -410 -413 -420 165 -425 -411 -431 180 -440 -420 -439 195 -420 -417 -420 210 -410 -416 -416 225 -400 -409 -395 240 -385 -399 -383 255 -370 -392 -371 270 -400 -396 -387 285 -450 -454 -422 300 -400 -405 -408 315 -175 -172 -172 330 85 85 90 345 288 288 288 360 349 351 348