- Wind tunnel Lab
- Aerodynamics Lab 2 - Airfoil Pressure Measurements
- Lift and Pressure Distribution of an Airfoil
- Aerodynamics Lab 3 - Direct Measurements of Airfoil Lift and Drag
- Wind Tunnel Lab Report
- Pressure Distribution Over Cylinder
- Experiment 5 Pressure Distribution on Circular Cylinder and Airfoil
- Experiment 3-Flow Past a Circular Cylinder
- Lab Report
- Aerofoil Experiment
- flow past a cylinder
- Wind Tunnel Experiment
- WIND TUNNEL LAB REPORT
- Pressure Distribution Around a Symmetrical Aerofoil
- Lab 2 Report
- Wind Tunnels
- ME 123 Lift and Drag Lab Handout
- Flow Past Cylinder
- Aerodynamics Lab Manual
- Drag Force in Flow Over a Body
- Aerodynamics Homework 5 Problem2
- Flow Past an Aerofoil Lab Manual
- HES5340 Fluid Mechanics 2, Semester 2, 2012, Lab 1 - Aerofoil and Pressure Cylinder Test by Stephen, P. Y. Bong
- Airfoil Theory
- Report Wind Tunnel_final
- Aerodynamic Lab Report 1
- Rate of Convergence
- Aerodynamics Lab Manual
- Fluent 2D Couette Flow[1]
- Drag Coefficient Report
- Structures Lab 1 - Cantilever Flexure Beam
- Nature and Property of Materials - Spring 04 Midterm 2
- Nature and Property of Materials - Spring 05 Midterm 2
- Nature and Property of Materials - Spring 05 Quiz 7
- Nature and Property of Materials - Spring 05 Quiz 2
- Nature and Property of Materials - Summer 04 Midterm 1
- Nature and Property of Materials - Spring 05 Quiz 5
- Nature and Property of Materials - Spring 05 Quiz 1
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Quizzes
- Nature and Property of Materials - Spring 05 Quiz 6
- Nature and Property of Materials - Spring 05 Midterm 1
- Nature and Property of Materials - Spring 05 Midterm 1b
- Nature and Property of Materials - Summer 03 Midterm 1
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Quiz 5
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Quiz 4
- Analysis of Engineering Systems - Homework 4
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Quiz 7
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Midterm 2
- Analysis of Engineering Systems - Homework 7
- Analysis of Engineering Systems - Homework 6
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Quiz 2
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Midterm 1
- Analysis of Engineering Systems - Homework 8
- Analysis of Engineering Systems - Homework 5
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Quiz 1
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Quiz 6
- Nature and Property of Materials - Fall 05 Quiz 3

Cylinder Lift and Drag

David Clark

Group 1

MAE 449 – Aerospace Laboratory

Abstract

The lift and drag coefficients are non-dimensional parameters which describe the forces acting on a

body in a fluid flow. A cylinder is an excellent specimen to study these forces due to the geometric

simplicity, as well as steady continuity across the entire body. Calculating these parameters can be an

arduous task, however maintaining steady, incompressible, and irrotational flow with negligible body

forces allow the use of the ideal gas law, Bernoulli’s equation, and Sutherland’s viscosity correlation.

Using the newly simplified expressions for Cl and Cd, the lift and drag coefficient, the results were

calculated using simple pressure measurements along with simple parameters describing the laboratory

testing conditions. The lift and drag coefficient of a cylinder with a diameter of 0.75 inches in flow with a

Reynolds number of 30,000 was 4.639x10-2 and 69.41 respectively.

2|Page

Contents

Abstract .................................................................................................................................................. 2

Introduction and Background................................................................................................................. 4

Introduction........................................................................................................................................ 4

Governing Equations .......................................................................................................................... 4

Similarity ............................................................................................................................................. 5

Aerodynamic Coefficients .................................................................................................................. 5

Equipment and Procedure ..................................................................................................................... 6

Equipment .......................................................................................................................................... 6

Experiment Setup ............................................................................................................................... 6

Basic Procedure .................................................................................................................................. 6

Data, Calculations, and Analysis ............................................................................................................. 7

Raw Data ............................................................................................................................................ 7

Preliminary Calculations ..................................................................................................................... 7

Results .................................................................................................................................................. 10

ANSYS CFD ............................................................................................................................................ 14

Conclusions........................................................................................................................................... 16

References ............................................................................................................................................ 16

Raw Data .............................................................................................................................................. 16

3|Page

**Introduction and Background
**

Introduction

The following laboratory procedure explores the aerodynamic lift and drag forces experienced by a

cylinder placed in a uniform free-stream velocity. This will be accomplished using a wind tunnel and

various pressure probes with a small brass cylinder as the subject of study.

When viscous shear stresses act along a body, as they would during all fluid flow, the resultant force

can be expressed as a lift and drag component. The lift component is normal to the airflow, whereas the

drag component is parallel.

To further characterize and communicate these effects, non-dimensional coefficients are utilized.

For example, a simple non-dimensional coefficient can be expressed as

=

1

2

Equation 1

where F is either the lift or drag forces, AREF is a specified reference area, ρ is the density of the fluid, and

V is the net velocity experienced by the object.

Governing Equations

To assist in determining the properties of the working fluid, air, several proven governing

equations can be used, including the ideal gas law, Sutherland’s viscosity correlation, and Bernoulli’s

equation. These relationships are valid for steady, incompressible, irrotational flow at nominal

temperatures with negligible body forces.

The ideal gas law can be used to relate the following

=

Equation 2

**where p is the pressure of the fluid, R is the universal gas constant (287 J/(kg K)), and T is the
**

temperature of the gas. This expression establishes the relationship between the three properties of air

that are of interest for use in this experiment.

4|Page

**Another parameter needed is the viscosity of the working fluid. Sutherland’s viscosity
**

correlation is readily available for the testing conditions and can be expressed as

=

.

1+

Equation 3

**where b is equal to 1.458 x 10-6 (kg K^(0.5))/(m s) and S is 110.4 K.
**

Finally, Bernoulli’s equation defines the total stagnation pressure as

1

= +

2

Equation 4

Similarity

Using the previous governing equations, we can use the Reynolds number. The Reynolds

number is important because it allows the results obtained in this laboratory procedure to be scaled to

larger scenarios. The Reynolds number can be expressed as

=

Equation 5

**where c is a characteristic dimension of the body. For a cylinder, this dimension will be the diameter. As
**

a result, the Reynolds number based on diameter is referenced as ReD.

Aerodynamic Coefficients

Three aerodynamic coefficients are used to explore the lift and drag forces on the test cylinder.

First, the pressure coefficient expresses the difference in local pressure, the pressure at one discrete

point on the cylinder, over the dynamic pressure.

=

−

1

2

Equation 6

**The theoretical value for Cp can be calculated as
**

= 1 − 4 !"

#180° − '(

Equation 7

5|Page

**The pressure coefficient can be used in the determination of the 2-D lift coefficient, Cl.
**

1

) = * #'( !"#'(+,

2

Equation 8

**Finally, the drag coefficient can be expressed as
**

1

. = * #'(/ #'(+,

2

Equation 9

**Equipment and Procedure
**

Equipment

The following experiment used the following equipment:

•

A wind tunnel with a 1-ft x 1-ft test section

•

Smooth, ¾ inch diameter brass cylinder with a pressure tap at mid-span

•

A transversing mechanism to move the pitot tube to various sections of the test section

•

A Pitot-static probe

•

Digital pressure transducer

•

Data Acquisition (DAQ) Hardware

Experiment Setup

Before beginning, the pressure and temperature of laboratory testing conditions was measured and

recorded. Using equations 2 and 3, the density and viscosity of the air was calculated.

The UAH wind tunnel contains cutouts to allow the brass rod to be mounted inside the test section.

A degree wheel is rigidly attached to cylinder such that the angle at which the pressure tap is exposed in

relation to the fluid flow can easily be adjusted and measured.

Basic Procedure

To ensure the working flow is relatively laminar and within a range acceptable for study, the

procedure initiated flow with a Reynolds number of 30,000. The velocity at which the laboratory air

must be accelerated was determined by solving equation 5 for velocity. First, the density and viscosity of

the air must be calculated using equations 2 and 3 respectively.

6|Page

Using the DAQ hardware, the difference in pressure between the pressure port and the reference

pitot tube was recorded for every 15 degrees of cylinder rotation. The raw data from this step is

included in the data section.

**Data, Calculations, and Analysis
**

Raw Data

The following table catalogs the pressure read by the DAQ hardware for every 15 degrees of cylinder

rotation. Three data sets were taken to ensure integrity.

Angle (Θ)

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

180

195

210

225

240

255

270

285

300

315

330

345

360

Data Set 1

Pressure (p)

349

285

90

-175

-400

-450

-400

-370

-390

-400

-410

-425

-440

-420

-410

-400

-385

-370

-400

-450

-400

-175

85

288

349

Data Set 2

Pressure (p)

350

286

81

-176

-395

-451

-403

-370

-385

-400

-413

-411

-420

-417

-416

-409

-399

-392

-396

-454

-405

-172

85

288

351

Data set 3

Pressure (p)

346

280

75

-176

-403

-452

-402

-370

-370

-395

-420

-431

-439

-420

-416

-395

-383

-371

-387

-422

-408

-172

90

288

348

Table 1

Preliminary Calculations

First, the density and viscosity of the air at laboratory conditions was calculated. This can easily be

accomplished using equation 2 and 3.

7|Page

=

99.5234

27

=

= 1.171 ;

6

:

287

296.158

278

Equation 10

>? 27

.

. <1.458 × 10 : A B#296.15 8( C

27

=

=

= 1.828 × 10

110.4 8

:

1+

1+

296.15 8

Equation 11

**For a Reynolds number of 30,000, the velocity of the airflow must therefore be
**

27

#30000( <1.828 × 10

:

: A

=

=

= 24.59

27

**<1.171 ; A #1.905 × 10>
**

:(

:

Equation 12

**This value is determined using the definition of the Reynolds number where c, the reference diameter, is
**

the known value of 0.75 inches (converted in the equation to meters.) For reference, the value for q can

be calculated as

1

1

27

:

E =

= <1.171 ; A 24.59 = 353.9534

2

2

:

Equation 13

All three data sets can be combined by averaging the three records for each angle.

8|Page

Angle (Θ)

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

180

195

210

225

240

255

270

285

300

315

330

345

360

Pressure (p)

348

284

82

-176

-399

-451

-402

-370

-382

-398

-414

-422

-433

-419

-414

-401

-389

-378

-394

-442

-404

-173

87

288

349

Table 2

The value recorded by the DAQ represents the difference in pressure from the pressure port on the

cylinder to the pitot probe in the test section away from the cylinder. Inserting these values into

equation 6 will yield the pressure coefficient on the surface of the cylinder at the specified angle. For

example, the pressure coefficient for 0 degrees can be calculated as

,.GH =

∆

34834

=

= 0.984

E 353.9534

Equation 14

**The theoretical value for Cp at this angle can be calculated using equation 7.
**

,.GH,JKGLMGJNOP) = 1 − 4 !"

#180° − '( = 1 − 4 !"

#180° − 0°( = 1.000

Equation 15

9|Page

Results

Using equation 6, the pressure coefficient for each 15 degree increment is given in the following

table.

Angle (Θ)

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

180

195

210

225

240

255

270

285

300

315

330

345

360

Cp

0.984

0.802

0.232

-0.496

-1.129

-1.275

-1.135

-1.046

-1.079

-1.126

-1.171

-1.194

-1.224

-1.184

-1.170

-1.134

-1.099

-1.067

-1.114

-1.249

-1.143

-0.489

0.245

0.814

0.987

Cp (theoretical)

1.000

0.732

0.000

-1.000

-2.000

-2.732

-3.000

-2.732

-2.000

-1.000

0.000

0.732

1.000

0.732

0.000

-1.000

-2.000

-2.732

-3.000

-2.732

-2.000

-1.000

0.000

0.732

1.000

Table 3

**A plot of Cp and the theoretical Cp over versus angle may better visualize the behavior of the
**

system.

10 | P a g e

Cp Versus Angle

1.500

1.000

0.500

0.000

30

60

90

120

150

180

210

240

270

300

330

360

Cp

-0.500 0

-1.000

-1.500

-2.000

-2.500

-3.000

Cp

-3.500

Angle (Degrees)

Figure 1

The theoretical values for Cp match the measured values at low angles on the leading face of the

cylinder. The flow separates at approximately 50 degrees, which correlates to the value of 55 degrees

which is anticipated from empirical charts.

Using a simple numerical integration technique, the integral value for lift as expressed in equation 7

can be determined using the following table.

11 | P a g e

Angle (Θ)

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

180

195

210

225

240

255

270

285

300

315

330

345

360

Cp

0.984

0.802

0.232

-0.496

-1.129

-1.275

-1.135

-1.046

-1.079

-1.126

-1.171

-1.194

-1.224

-1.184

-1.170

-1.134

-1.099

-1.067

-1.114

-1.249

-1.143

-0.489

0.245

0.814

0.987

Cp * sin(Θ)

0.000

0.207

0.116

-0.351

-0.977

-1.231

-1.135

-1.010

-0.934

-0.796

-0.585

-0.309

0.000

0.306

0.585

0.802

0.952

1.031

1.114

1.207

0.990

0.346

-0.122

-0.211

0.000

trap

1.556

2.425

-1.764

-9.963

-16.564

-17.747

-16.089

-14.581

-12.976

-10.361

-6.708

-2.317

2.299

6.686

10.402

13.155

14.873

16.090

17.407

16.471

10.015

1.674

-2.498

-1.580

0.000

Table 4

**The Cp is repeated from the previous calculations. As sample calculation is given in equation 13. The
**

third column is the product the Cp for the corresponding angle and the sine of the angle. The fourth

column, labeled as the trap, is expressed as

QR4N =

#'( ∙ !"#'( + #'( ∙ !"#'(

N

2

NTU

× |'N + 'NTU |

Equation 16

**To numerically integrates the integral of equation 7, Cl can be calculated as.
**

X

1

) = − W QR4N = 4.639 × 10>

2

N

Equation 17

The lift coefficient lends some insight into the accuracy of the experiment. Since no lift is anticipated

for a stationary cylinder in steady flow, and deviation from a lift coefficient can be attributed to error.

12 | P a g e

**A similar procedure can be used to determine the drag coefficient. The table below is used to
**

numerically integrate equation 7.

Angle (Θ)

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

180

195

210

225

240

255

270

285

300

315

330

345

360

Cp

0.984

0.802

0.232

-0.496

-1.129

-1.275

-1.135

-1.046

-1.079

-1.126

-1.171

-1.194

-1.224

-1.184

-1.170

-1.134

-1.099

-1.067

-1.114

-1.249

-1.143

-0.489

0.245

0.814

0.987

Cp * cos(Θ)

0.984

0.774

0.201

-0.351

-0.564

-0.330

0.000

0.271

0.539

0.796

1.014

1.153

1.224

1.144

1.013

0.802

0.550

0.276

0.000

-0.323

-0.571

-0.346

0.212

0.786

0.987

trap

13.191

7.313

-1.128

-6.865

-6.706

-2.474

2.030

6.075

10.015

13.576

16.252

17.824

17.756

16.178

13.614

10.138

6.194

2.072

-2.425

-6.710

-6.878

-1.002

7.487

13.301

Table 5

**An expression to numerically integrate the integral of equation 8 can be created using numerical
**

integration techniques. Cd can be calculated as

X

1

. = W QR4N = 69.41

2

N

Equation 18

**where the trap can be calculated as
**

QR4N =

#'( ∙ / #'( + #'( ∙ / #'(

N

2

NTU

× |'N + 'NTU |

Equation 19

13 | P a g e

ANSYS CFD

Below are screenshots taken from inputting the geometric and laboratory conditions into ANSYS

CFD 11. The explanation into the setup and validity of these results is beyond the scope of this lab,

however the results visually describe the phenomenon that results from the flow around the cylinder.

The first image is the vector field of the flow perpendicular to the length of the cyl

cylinder.

inder. The

separation, as well as the disturbance behind the cylinder is clearly visible.

Figure 2

**The second image rotates the view to display an isometric view of the body
**

body.. The color gradient on

the body represents the pressure on the surface of the cylinder.

14 | P a g e

Figure 3

The final image displays the pressure gradient across the aft side of the body.

Figure 4

15 | P a g e

Conclusions

The lift and drag coefficient of a cylinder with a diameter of 0.75 inches in flow with a Reynolds

number of 30,000 is 4.639x10-2 and 69.41 respectively.

References

“Aerodynamics Lab 1 – Cylinder Lift and Drag”. Handout

Raw Data

Aero Lab 1

Group 1

Fall 07

p

t

rho

u

q

V

99500

23

1.171

1.828E-05

354

24.59

R=

b=

S=

287

0.000001458

110.4

16 | P a g e

0

15

30

45

60

75

90

105

120

135

150

165

180

195

210

225

240

255

270

285

300

315

330

345

360

Data Set 1

Pressure (p)

349

285

90

-175

-400

-450

-400

-370

-390

-400

-410

-425

-440

-420

-410

-400

-385

-370

-400

-450

-400

-175

85

288

349

Data Set 2

Pressure (p)

350

286

81

-176

-395

-451

-403

-370

-385

-400

-413

-411

-420

-417

-416

-409

-399

-392

-396

-454

-405

-172

85

288

351

Data set 3

Pressure (p)

346

280

75

-176

-403

-452

-402

-370

-370

-395

-420

-431

-439

-420

-416

-395

-383

-371

-387

-422

-408

-172

90

288

348

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