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. It may also be used to separate lighter solids from heavier ones.A hydraulic jump is a transition flow from supercritical to subcritical flow. y2>yc V1 y1 < yc Hydraulic jump is one means of reducing the velocity of flow.

HYDRAULIC JUMP IN A RECTANGULAR CHANNEL V2 y1 V1 y2 y2 y1 Q Consider a freebody of water containing hydraulic jump W F2 F1 P1 = γ y1 N P2 = γ y2 .

1 2 1 𝑃𝑦 𝑏 2 1 1 1 2 = 𝑃2 𝑦2 𝑏 = 1 2 1 2 γ𝑦1 𝑦1 𝑏 = γ𝑦2 𝑦2 𝑏 = γ𝑦1 2 𝑏 1 γ𝑦2 2 𝑏 2 1 2 γ𝑦1 2 𝑏 − 1 2 𝑔𝑏 𝑦1 2 − 𝑦2 2 = 𝐴2 𝑉2 2 − 𝐴1 𝑉1 2 1 2 𝑔𝑏 𝑦1 2 − 𝑦2 2 = ( 𝑏𝑦2 )𝑉2 2 − ( 𝑏𝑦1 )𝑉1 2 1 2 𝑔 𝑦1 2 − 𝑦2 2 = 𝑦2 𝑉2 2 − 𝑦1 𝑉1 2 γ𝑦2 2 𝑏 − 0 = γ 𝑔 1 2 𝐴2 𝑉2 𝑉2 − γ 𝑔 𝐴1 𝑉1 𝑉1 .Considering the Impulse-Momentum Equation 𝛴𝐹 = (𝜌𝑄𝑉)𝑜𝑢𝑡 − (𝜌𝑄𝑉)𝑖𝑛 𝛴𝐹𝑥 = (𝜌𝑄𝑉𝑥 )𝑜𝑢𝑡 − (𝜌𝑄𝑉𝑥 )𝑖𝑛 𝐹1 − 𝐹2 − 𝐸𝑓 = 𝜌𝑄2 𝑉2 − 𝜌𝑄1 𝑉1 where: Ef = neglected (if distance between sections is relatively small) 𝐹1 = 𝐹2 = Then.

From continuity equation 𝑄1 = 𝑄2 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴1 𝑉1 𝑏𝑦1 𝑉1 = 𝑏𝑦2 𝑉2 𝒚 𝟏 𝑽𝟏 𝒚𝟐 𝑽𝟐 = Substitute values 1 2 1 𝑔 𝑦1 2 − 𝑦2 2 = 𝑦2 𝑦1 2 𝑉1 2 𝑦2 2 2 𝑔 𝑦1 2 − 𝑦2 2 = 𝑉1 2 𝑦1 1 2 𝑔 𝑦1 2 − 𝑦2 2 = 1 𝑉1 2 𝑦1 𝑦2 𝑦1 𝑦2 2 1 2 𝑔 𝑦1 + 𝑦2 = 𝑽𝟏 𝟐 = 𝟏 𝟐 𝒈 𝒚𝟐 𝒚𝟏 𝒚𝟏 + 𝒚𝟐 But 𝑉1 = 𝑄 𝐴 = 𝑞2 𝑦1 2 1 2 𝑔 = 𝒒𝟐 = 𝟏 𝟐 𝑏𝑞 𝑏𝑦1 𝑦2 𝑦1 = 𝑞 𝑦1 𝑦1 + 𝑦2 𝒈𝒚𝟏 𝒚𝟐 𝒚𝟏 + 𝒚𝟐 −1 𝑦1 − 𝑦2 𝑔 𝑦1 − 𝑦2 𝑦1 + 𝑦2 = 𝑉1 2 𝑦1 𝑦2 − 𝑦1 𝑉1 2 𝑉1 2 𝑦1 𝑦2 𝑦1 − 𝑦2 .

ENERGY LOST AND POWER LOST IN A JUMP Energy Equation 1 – 2 𝑃1 𝛾 + 𝑧1 + 𝑉1 2 2𝑔 = 𝑃2 𝛾 + 𝑧2 + 𝑉2 2 𝑉1 2 𝑉2 2 𝑦1 + = 𝑦2 + + 𝑕𝐿 2𝑔 2𝑔 𝐸1 = 𝐸2 + 𝑕𝐿 𝒉𝑳 = 𝑬𝟏 − 𝑬𝟐 Power Lost: 𝑷 = 𝜸𝑸𝒉𝑳 2𝑔 + 𝑕𝐿 energy head lost .

𝒚𝟐 = 𝟏 𝟐 3 = 8𝑞 2 𝑔𝑦1 3 1 𝑦 2 1 −1 + 𝑄2 𝑏2 𝑔𝑦1 𝑦1 8𝑞 2 𝑔𝑦1 3 8𝑞 2 𝑔𝑦1 3 𝐴2𝑉2 𝑏2 𝑔𝑦1 3 +1 = +1 +1 𝑏 2 𝑦 1 2𝑉 1 2 𝑏2 𝑔𝑦1 3 𝒚𝟏 −𝟏 + 𝟖𝑵𝑭𝟏 𝟐 + 𝟏 = 𝑉1 2 𝑔𝑦1 = 𝑁𝐹 2 𝑁𝐹1 > 1 Likewise.Depth of Hydraulic Jump Solve for y2: consider the equation: 1 𝑞2 = 𝑔𝑦1 𝑦2 𝑦1 + 𝑦2 2 𝑦2 𝑦1 + 𝑦2 = 2𝑞 2 𝑔𝑦1 2𝑞 2 𝑔𝑦1 𝑦2 2 + 𝑦1 𝑦2 = 1 𝑦2 2 + 𝑦1 𝑦2 + 2 1 𝑦1 2 2 1 𝑦2 + 𝑦2 + 2 2 𝑦1 2𝑞 2 𝑔𝑦1 = 1 𝑦1 = 𝑦1 2 = + 2 2𝑞 2 𝑔𝑦1 2 𝑦1 2 2 1 𝑦 4 1 8𝑞 2 𝑔𝑦1 3 4 1 + +1 Extract the square root: 𝑦2 + 1 2 𝑦1 = 1 2 1 2 𝑦2 = − 𝑦1 + 𝑦2 = But 𝑞2 𝑔𝑦1 3 1 𝑦 2 1 = Hence. 𝒚𝟏 = 𝟏 𝒚 𝟐 𝟐 −𝟏 + 𝟖𝑵𝑭𝟐 𝟐 + 𝟏 𝑁𝐹2 < 1 .

2 Consider free body water W where: F1 y2 y1 Ff F2 F1 = ɣA2yc2 F2 = ɣA2yc2 Ef = 0 .HYDRAULIC JUMP IN A NON-RECTANGULAR SECTION 2 yc2 1 y2 yc1 y1 y2 y1 section thru 1 .1 section thru 2 .

Impulse-Momentum Equation: 𝛴𝐹𝑥 = (𝑝𝑄𝑉)𝑜𝑢𝑡 − (𝑝𝑄𝑉)𝑖𝑛 𝐹1 − 𝐹2 − 𝐸𝑓 = 𝜌𝑄2 𝑉2 − 𝜌𝑄1 𝑉1 𝛾𝐴1 𝑦𝑐1 − 𝛾𝐴2 𝑦𝑐2 − 0 = 𝛾 𝑔 𝐴2 𝑉2 𝑉2 − 𝐴1 𝑉1 𝑉1 𝑔 𝐴1 𝑦𝑐1 − 𝐴2 𝑦𝑐2 = 𝐴2 𝑉2 2 − 𝐴1 𝑉1 2 Continuity Equation: 𝑄1 = 𝑄2 𝐴1 𝑉1 = 𝐴1 𝑉1 𝑉2 = 𝐴1 𝑉1 𝐴2 𝑔 𝐴1 𝑦𝑐1 − 𝐴2 𝑦𝑐2 = 𝐴2 𝐴1 2 𝑉1 2 𝐴2 2 − 𝐴1 𝑉1 2 𝑔 𝐴1 𝑦𝑐1 − 𝐴2 𝑦𝑐2 = 𝐴1 𝑉1 2 𝐴1 𝑔 𝐴1 𝑦𝑐1 − 𝐴2 𝑦𝑐2 = 𝐴1 𝑉1 2 𝐴1 −𝐴2 𝐴2 𝑽𝟏 𝟐 = 𝒈𝑨𝟐 𝑨𝟏 𝒚𝒄𝟏 −𝑨𝟐 𝒚𝒄𝟐 𝑨𝟏 𝑨𝟏 − 𝑨𝟐 𝐴2 −1 or 𝑽𝟏 𝟐 = 𝒈𝑨𝟐 𝑨𝟐 𝒚𝒄𝟐 −𝑨𝟏 𝒚𝒄𝟏 𝑨𝟏 𝑨𝟐 − 𝑨𝟏 .

*Another solution 𝛴𝐹𝑥 = (𝜌𝑄𝑉𝑥 )𝑜𝑢𝑡 − (𝜌𝑄𝑉𝑥 )𝑖𝑛 𝐹1 − 𝐹2 − 𝐸𝑓 = 𝜌𝑄2 𝑉2 − 𝜌𝑄1 𝑉1 γ𝐴1 𝑦𝑐1 − γ𝐴2 𝑦𝑐2 = 𝐴1 𝑦𝑐1 − 𝐴2 𝑦𝑐2 = 𝐴1 𝑦𝑐1 − 𝐴2 𝑦𝑐2 = 𝑸𝟐 𝒈 = 𝑨𝟏 𝒚𝒄𝟏−𝑨𝟐 𝒚𝒄𝟐 𝟏 𝟏 − 𝑨𝟐 𝑨𝟏 γ 𝑔 1 𝑔 𝐴2 𝑉2 2 − 𝐴1 𝑉1 2 𝐴2 𝑄2 1 𝑔 𝐴2 𝑄2 𝐴2 2 − − 𝐴1 1 𝐴1 𝑄2 𝐴1 2 .

2 m 1. Water flows in a rectangular channel with a width of 4. Calculate the discharge in the canal.0 m 1. a.0 m at a uniform depth of 1.2 m .0 m. consequently causing hydraulic jump.2 m. b. Determine the power lost in a jump. Adjustment is made downstream to raise water level to 2.1. 2.

a.) Calculate the power lost.4m. A hydraulic jump occurs in a trapezoidal section with bottom width of 4m and side slope of 1:2. b.2.20m and after the jump is 1. A hydraulic jump occurs in a 5 m wide rectangular canal carrying 6 m3/s on a slope of 0.) Calculate the power lost in a jump.) Calculate the depth before the jump. 2 𝐴1 3 𝐴1 2 1 y2 = 1.20 𝐴2 1 𝐴1 1 4m 4m .20m 𝐴2 3 𝐴2 2 1.80m. The depth before the jump is 1. y2 = 1. a.80m y1 = 1. the depth after the jump is 1.) Calculate the flow rate in the canal. b.80 1.005.4 m y1 =? 3.

a. To control the flow. its uniform flow depth is 1. depth immediately downstream of the gate is 0.60m. Determine whether a hydraulic jump would occur when the sluice gate is adjusted so that minimum depth after the gate is 0. if a sluice gate is adjusted such that a min.012.50m Δx y1 yo=1. A rectangular channel has a width of 5m. type of profile ys=0.40 m.4.0009 and n=0. and if it occurs b.50m.60 m . b. how far downstream will it occur c. If a hydraulic jump would occur in letter (a).0m and carries water at the rate of 12m 3/s. a sluice gate is provided at the entrance to the canal. how far from the sluice gate will it occur? 5.02. Determine whether a hydraulic jump would occur. its bed slope is 0. A rectangular canal has a width of 4. a. so=0.0003 and roughness is 0.