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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

B gio dc v o to
Trng i hc vinh

------ ------

TP

.Q

T
N

trn Th thanh h

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

XY DNG V S DNG H THNG BI TP PHN DN


XUT HALOGEN, ANCOL, PHENOL, ANEHIT, AXIT
CACBOXYLIC V ESTE TRNG THPT NHM H
TR PHNG PHP T HC CHO HC SINH

B
ID

TO

-L

lun vn thc s khoa hc gio dc

vinh - 2011

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Li cm n
N

- Thy gio: PGS. TS. Cao C Gic giao ti, tn tnh hng dn khoa

hon thnh lun vn ny, ti xin by t lng bit n su sc n:

hc v to mi iu kin thun li nht cho vic nghin cu v hon thnh lun vn.

T
N

- C gio: PGS. TS. Nguyn Th Su v thy gio PGS. TS. L vn Nm

cng cc thy c gio t Phng php ging dy khoa Ho c v ng gp

nhiu kin qu bu gip ti hon thnh lun vn ny.

- Ban gim hiu v gio vin trng THPT Qung Xng III gip ti

TP

.Q

trong sut thi gian thc nghim s phm.

- Ti cng xin cm n ti nhng ngi thn trong gia nh, cc bn b v

ng nghip ng vin, gip ti trong sut qu trnh hc tp v thc hin lun

vn ny.

L TH THANH H

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

Vinh, thng 1 nm 2012

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

PH LC
M U .................................................................................................................... 1

1. L do chn ti .................................................................................................... 2

3. Nhim v nghin cu ............................................................................................. 3

2. Mc ch nghin cu ............................................................................................ 2

4. Phng php nghin cu....................................................................................... 3

T
N

5. Gi thit khoa hc .................................................................................................. 4

6. Nhng ng gp mi ca lun vn ....................................................................... 4

NI DUNG................................................................................................................ 5

CHNG 1: C S L LUN V THC TIN .................................................. 5

TP

.Q

1.1. Vai tr ca t hc................................................................................................ 5

1.2. Hnh thc t hc ................................................................................................. 6

1.3. Nng lc t hc ................................................................................................. 12

1.4. Bi tp ha hc .................................................................................................. 14

1.5. Thc trng v kh nng t hc ca hc sinh bc THPT hin nay............... 19

CHNG 2: XY DNG V S DNG H THNG BI TP PHN DN

TR

XUT HALOGEN, ANCOL, PHENOL, ANEHIT, AXIT CACBOXYLIC

0B

V ESTE NHM H TR PHNG PHP T HC

10
0

CHO HC SINH .........................................................................................................

2+
3

2.1. Nguyn tc xy dng ..............................................................................................

2.2. H THNG BI TP V L THUYT PHN DN XUT HALOGEN,

ANCOL, PHENOL .................................................................................................. 23

-L

2.2.1. Tm tt ni dung l thuyt c bn phn halogen, ancol, phenol .................. 23


2.2.1.1. Dn xut halogen......................................................................................... 23
2.2.1.2. Ancol ........................................................................................................... 25

2.2.1.3. Phenol .......................................................................................................... 28

2.2.2.1. Bi tp v dn xut halogen ........................................................................ 30

2.2.2.2. Bi tp v ancol ........................................................................................... 38

B
ID

TO

2.2.2. BI TP THEO CH .............................................................................. 30

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

2.2.2.3. Bi tp v phenol ......................................................................................... 66


2.3. H THNG BI TP V L THUYT PHN ANEHIT, AXIT

CACBOXYLIC, ESTE ............................................................................................ 82

2.3.1.1 Anehit ......................................................................................................... 82

2.3.1. Tm tt ni dung l thuyt c bn phn anehit, axit cacboxylic, este ........ 82

2.3.1.2 Axit cacboxylic ............................................................................................ 85

T
N

2.3.1.3. Este............................................................................................................... 87

2.3.2. Bi tp theo ch ......................................................................................... 88

2.3.2.1. Anehit ........................................................................................................ 88

2.3.2.2. Axit cacboxylic .......................................................................................... 105

TP

.Q

2.3.2.3. Este............................................................................................................. 128


THC NGHIM S PHM ................................................. 163

CHNG 3

3.1. Mc ch thc nghin s phm (TNSP)......................................................... 163

3.2. Nhim v TNSP............................................................................................... 163

3.3. Phng php thc nghim s phm .............................................................. 163

3.4. Kt qu thc nghim s phm ....................................................................... 165

TR

3.5. X l kt qu thc nghim s phm ............................................................... 174

0B

Kt lun chung v kin ngh.................................................................................. 174

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

PH LC ............................................................................................................... 176

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

BNG CH VIT TT
Ch vit y

Trung hc ph thng

THPT

Hc sinh

HS

Gio vin

GV

Thc nghim s phm

TNSP

H
N
Y

.Q

TP

TM

Thc nghim

i chng

Gio dc o to

Cng thc phn t

Cng thc cu to
Cng thc n gin nht

10
0

nh lut bo ton khi lng

0B

TR

Cng thc tng qut

2+
3

Sch gio khoa

Sch bi tp

C
GD-T
CTPT
CTCT
CTTQ
CTGN
LBTKL
SGK
SBT
BT

B
ID

TO

-L

Bi tp

KTC

iu kin tiu chun

PTHH

Phng trnh ho hc

DHHH

T
N

Dy hc ho hc

BTHH

Bi tp ho hc

Ch vit tt

Page:5

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

M U
1. L do chn ti

- Con ngi t khi sinh ra n lc trng thnh u din ra qu trnh t hc,

H
N

my m pht minh ra nhng tri thc mi, hay ni ng hn t hc c th din ra

vic t hc c th l hc nhng kinh nghim sng, hc nhng tri thc t sch v, t

T
N

di s tc ng ca thy hoc l khng, d th no th vic t hc l rt cn thit

v quan trng. Trong t hc bc u thng c nhiu lng tng nhng chnh

nhng lng tng li l ng lc thc y hc sinh t duy thot khi lng

.Q

duy tr tnh tch cc nhn thc trong hot ng t hc ca cc em.

tng nh vy m hc sinh t tin vo bn thn, bi dng v pht trin hng th,

TP

T hc khng ch din ra nh trng m cn din ra trong sng hng

ngy b sung v sng to ra kin thc mi

Trong thi i ngy nay, x hi khng ngng bin i, ngy cng pht trin

cuc sng lun lun i hi con ngi phi m rng hiu bit.

hot ng c hiu qu khng phi lc no cng ch c ti hin li nhng

0B

mi, do chng ta phi t hc.

TR

kin thc v k nng c sn m chng ta cn phi c nhng kin thc v k nng

10
0

Qu trnh sng l qu trnh con ngi bc dn ln nhng bc thang mi ca s

2+
3

hiu bit, bc i ny c th d hay kh, cao hay thp l ph thuc vo vic t hc

ca mi ngi. V vy bi dng nng lc t hc cho hc sinh ngay t khi ngi gh

nh trng l cn thit v l mt cng vic c v tr cc k quan trng, Ch c t

hc, t bi p nhng khuyt thiu v tri thc khoa hc v i sng x hi. Chng

ta phi bin qu trnh dy hc thnh qu trnh t hc.

-L

- Vic t hc c ng v nh nc ta quan tm qun trit su sc nhm

TO

pht huy tnh tch cc ca ngi hc. Ngh quyt Trung ng V kha 8 tng nu r:

B
ID

Tp trung sc nng cao cht lng dy v hc, to ra nng lc t hc, t sng to


ca hc sinh. Bo m mi iu kin v thi gian t hc, pht trin mnh m phong
tro t hc, t o to thng xuyn v rng khp trong ton dn. Trn tinh thn
y, r rng ng ta coi t hc, t o to l vn mu cht c v tr cc k quan
trong trong chin lc gio dc v o to ca t nc.

Page:6

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

- Nu cc em c thc v chm ch vi trnh nhn thc v kh nng t duy


tui bc THPT di s hng dn cng vi mt h thng bi tp c cht lng

c phn dng ca gio vin th vic nghin cu v t nghin cu ti liu s t

H
N

vi s bng n v cng ngh, thng tin cc em c iu kin hc mi ni, mi lc

hiu qu cao. Mt khc trong thi i ngy nay khi m kinh t pht trin hn cng

T
N

trn ti liu sch gio khoa, sch tham kho, bo, i , tivi, trn internet,..

- Tm gng sng y thuyt phc v t hc l Bc H knh yu ca chng ta.

Vi Bc H, t hc c vai tr c bit quan trng, l mt trong nhng yu t quyt

nh to nn thin ti v tr tu ca ngi. Bc H lm rt nhiu vic, nhng nh t

.Q

hc m Bc lm vic g cng gii. T hnh trnh 30 nm bn ba tm ng cu

TP

nc, bit n 14 ngoi ng, trong s dng thnh tho 5 ngoi ng. Vi kh

nng t hc Ngi lnh hi c cc h thng tr thc s ca nhn loi v c

s nhy cm sc so v chnh tr, a cch mng Vit Nam n thng li v vang.

chnh l thnh qu ca vic Ngi mit mi hc tp c cuc i, ni

ng hn l khng ngng t hc. Hc i i vi hnh. Hc bt c lc no, bt c

TR

ni u.

0B

Nhng cu chuyn trn chng ta mong mun cho nhng thnh cng ca gio

10
0

dc nc nh, cho nhng th h mng non ang c gieo trng tht s c

2+
3

hng th mt nn gio dc tin tin, nh nguyn ca Bc lc sinh thi. V mi

mi noi theo tm gng sng v T hc ca Ngi : "ng i l mt chic thang

khng c nc cht, hc tp l mt quyn v khng c trang cui cng"...

- gp phn h tr hay y mnh phng php t hc cho hc sinh th

nhim v t ln vai ngi gio vin. Chnh ngi gio vin phi c nng lc

-L

hng dn hc sinh t hc bit thu thp v x l thng tinh t bin i mnh.

TO

Gio vin cn a ra h thng bi tp c h thng, phn dng tt gip hc sinh t

B
ID

hc t nng cao kin thc ca mnh.


Xut pht t nhng l do trn ti la chn ti : Xy dng v s dng h
thng bi tp phn dn xut halogen, ancol, phenol, anehit, axit cacboxylic v

este trng THPT nhm h tr phng php t hc cho hc sinh

Page:7

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

2. Mc ch nghin cu
Nghin cu mt s vn v l lun v thc tin ca vic t hc t thit

k v s dng mt h thng bi tp phn ha hc hu c: dn xut halogen, ancol,

phenol, andehit, axit cacboxylic, este gip hc sinh t hc nhm nng cao cht

lng v hiu qu dy hc cho hc sinh.

T
N

3. Nhim v nghin cu

- Lm sng t vai tr quan trng v cn thit ca t hc

+ ng dng phng php t hc thit k cc ni dung kin thc ph hp.

- Bin son mt s ti liu t hc cho hc sinh bao gm vn l thuyt, bi

.Q

tp phn: dn xut halogen, ancol, phenol, anehit, axit cacboxylic, este gip hc

TP

sinh c th t hc c kt qu.

- Th nghim nh gi tnh kh thi v hiu qu s dng ti liu c hng dn

cho hc sinh.

+ p dng thc nghim s phm trng THPT.

+ X l thng k cc s liu v rt ra kt lun.

TR

4. Phng php nghin cu

0B

- Phng php nghin cu l lun:

10
0

+ Nghin cu c s l lun c lin quan n ti.

2+
3

+ Nghin cu cu trc ni dung chng trnh SGK 11- 12 phn dn xut

halogen, ancol, phenol, anehit, axit cacboxylic, este ban nng cao, cc sch bi tp,

sch tham kho, cc b thi i hc, hc sinh gii,..

- Phng php nghin cu thc tin.

+ iu tra c bn: Tm hiu nh gi thc trng t chc hot ng t hc ca

-L

hc sinh hin nay.


+ Thc nghim s phm: Nhm xc nh tnh hiu qu ca ni dung xut.
+ Phng php x l thng tin: Dng phng php thng k ton hc trong
khoa hc gio dc x l kt qu thc nghim s phm.

B
ID

TO

+ Tng kt kinh nghim gio dc: Trao i tng kt kinh nghim dy hc.

Page:8

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

5. Gi thit khoa hc
Nu xy dng c mt ti liu t hc chi tit, logic, y m bo yu cu

cht lng pht huy c tnh tch cc sng to ca hc sinh. ng thi ti liu s

gip nng cao nng lc t hc, t kim tra, t nghin cu.

6. Nhng ng gp mi ca lun vn

T
N

- V mt l lun: Lm sng t mt s khi nim v nguyn tc ca phng

php t hc cng nh tm quan trng ca n trong dy hc.

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

tp dn xut halogen, ancol, phenol, anehit, axit cacboxylic, este.

- V mt thc tin: ti gp phn xy dng mt h thng k nng v bi

Page:9

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

NI DUNG
CHNG 1: C S L LUN V THC TIN

1.1. Vai tr ca t hc

H
N

trng trong vic to ra cht lng v hiu qu ca qu trnh o to, n gip cho

V mt l lun cng nh thc tin, t hc l mt hot ng c ngha quan

T
N

con ngi khng nhng c tri thc trong hc tp m ngay c trong i sng hng

ngy.

1.1.1. T hc gip hc sinh c kin thc trong hc tp

Thc t cho thy, phn ln kinh nghim v kin thc c c mi ngi l

.Q

nh t hc. T hc c vai tr rt quan trng i vi cht lng hc tp ca hc sinh,

TP

ch c t hc , t bi p tri thc bng nhiu con ng nhiu hnh thc nh n li

bi, lm bi tp trong sch gio khoa, sch nng cao, hay cc em c cc ti liu

khc th mi hc sinh mi c th t b p c nhng thiu khuyt v kin thc

khoa hc v i sng x hi, ch cn c s c gng bn b t hc, th d iu kin

cha tt, cha y th gi tr ca vic t hc s mang li cho ngi hc c nhng

TR

kin thc chim lnh nhng tri thc v tng bc c nng lc mi, phm cht

0B

mi, t mang li hiu qu cho hc tp. Chnh nhng kh nng ny gip cc em

10
0

c thi gian tm ti, khm ph kin thc, bin kin thc ca nhn loi thnh kin

2+
3

thc ca mnh.

1.1.2. T hc gip ngi hc c kinh nghim sng

Con ngi c sinh ra v ln ln bit bao nhiu iu phi hc hi hiu

bit th gii xung quanh, m th gii xung quanh l mt kho tng v kin thc. Con

ngi ngay t nh phi lm quen, phi t hc, chim lnh n,c nh vy th


Nht l trong thi i bng n thng tin v khoa hc cng ngh pht trin

TO

-L

mi con ngi mi ha nhp vo cuc sng vi x hi.

B
ID

cc k nhanh chng nh ngy nay th phng php t hc li cng tr nn cn thit


v n s gip ta c kh nng p ng tt vi nhng thay i ca cng vic

1.1.3. T hc pht trin t duy hc sinh


Mn Ha hc l mn hc pht trin t duy cho hc sinh v nu pht trin
c nng lc t hc cho hc sinh th s pht trin c kh nng t duy sng to

Page:10

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

ca cc em mc ngy cng cao. T hc pht trin cc thao tc t duy: phn


tch, tng hp, so snh v khi qut ha

1.1.4 T hc gip hc sinh kh nng sng to, nhn bit tm ti, pht hin v

Qu trnh t hc l qu trnh bn thn hc sinh t nhn thc do hc sinh

gii quyt vn

T
N

phi mt mnh tm hiu, tm ti, nhn bit, sng to v mt mnh i gii quyt vn

Ta bit la tui mu gio v hc sinh nh, cc em biu l nhng

nng lc sng to, n nm su tui cc em nm c ting m bit c

.Q

nhng tri thc khc nhau cn thit, cho hnh ng thc tin v cho vic tm hiu cc

TP

hin tng xung quanh. Cc em hay t ra nhng cu hi v sao v ti sao li nh

vy.

iu chng t cc em c lng ham mun c hiu bit ngy cng nhiu.

pht huy c kh nng ca hc sinh ngay t khi ngi trn gh nh trng

to kh nng t hc cho hc sinh gip cc em tha mn tnh t m, sng to , tm ti

TR

sng to ra tri thc mi. iu lm hc sinh nm vng kin thc, hiu r bn cht

2+
3

1.2.1. Khi nim t hc

10
0

1.2. Hnh thc t hc

0B

v t c th ng dng nhng tri thc vo cuc sng.

c nhiu tc gi bn v t hc. Theo ngha t in: T hc l qu trnh

ch th nhn thc t mnh hat ng, lnh hi tri thc v rn luyn k nng thc

hnh, khng c s hng dn trc tip ca gio vin v s qun l trc tip ca c

s gio dc o to.

-L

Theo GS- TSKH Thi Duy Tuyn vit T hc l hot ng c lp chim

TO

lnh kin thc, k nng, k xo, l t mnh ng no, suy ngh s dng cc nng lc

B
ID

tr tu ( quan st, so snh, phn tch, tng hp) cng vi cc phm cht ng c,

tnh cm chim lnh tri thc mt lnh vc hiu bit no hay nhng kinh
nghim lch s, x hi ca nhn loi, bin n thnh s hu ca chnh bn thn ngi
hc.
Trong bi pht biu tai hi tho Nng cao cht lng dy hc t chc vo
thng 11 nm 2005 ti i hc Hu, GS Trn Phng cho rng : Hc bao gi v

Page:11

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

lc no cng ch yu l t hc, tc l bin kin thc khoa hc tch ly t nhiu th


h ca nhn loi thnh kin thc ca mnh, t ci to t duy ca mnh v rn luyn

cho mnh k nng thc hnh nhng tri thc y.

H
N

i cng, gn b cht ch vi khi nim t thn. Tri thc, kinh nghim, k nng ca

T nhng quan nim trn y c th nhn thy rng, khi nim t hc lun

T
N

mi c nhn ch c hnh thnh bn vng v pht huy hiu qu thng qua cc hot

ng t thn y. c c, t ti s hon thin th mi hc sinh th phi t thn

tip nhn tri thc t nhiu ngun. T thn rn luyn cc k nng, t thn bi dng

tm hn ca mnh mi ni mi lc.

TP

Theo ti liu l lun dy hc ha hc t hc c 3 hnh thc:

.Q

1.2.2. Cc hnh thc t hc

- T hc khng c hng dn: Ngi hc t tm ly ti liu c, hiu v vn

dng cc kin thc trong .

hoc bng cc phng tin thng tin khc

- T hc c hng dn : C gio vin xa hng dn ngi hc bng ti kiu

TR

- T hc c hng dn trc tip: C ti liu v c gip mt vi GV, c gi

0B

vin hng dn gii sau v nh t hc.

10
0

Mt cch chia khc, hot ng t hc ca hc sinh nh hc sch gio khoa, ti

2+
3

liu, cc bui hc ngoi kha, hc qua internet, t n bi, lm bi tp v t hc th

gii xung quanh. hc sinh c th t hc sut i th ngay t khi ngi gh nh

trng THPT gio vin cn bi dng cho hc sinh cc nng lc t hc

a- T hc vi SGK v ti liu

Ta bit x hi ngy cng pht trin, lng thng tin ngy cng ln.

-L

bn thn ngy cng nhiu kin thc a dng, phong ph th phi b sung kin thc

TO

cho mnh, mt trong nhng ngun tri thc l sch, sch l kho tng tri thc ca

B
ID

nhn loi, lu truyn t th h ny sang th h khc. l ngun tri thc v hn v

rt quan trng
Nu chng ta c thi quen c sch thng xuyn c phng php c th s
m rng v o su kin thc mi, bi dng t duy logic phng php lm vic
khoa hc, to c hng th, phng php v thi quen t hc sut i.

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

c bit i vi hc sinh, vic s dng sch l rt cn thit. V vy chng ta


cn trang b cho hc sinh nhng k nng v thi quen c sch gio khoa v ti liu

tham kho ca tng mn hc.

Vi t tng ch o dy hc t ngi hc vo v tr trung tm, SGK

-T hc vi SGK:

T
N

c thay i nhiu ph hp vi cho vic hc c v ni dung v hnh thc v vi

chin lc thay i SGK dy hc sinh bit t hc. Vi ch o nh vy, qu

trnh dy hc gio vin phi c bin php hng dn hc sinh t hc vi SGK nh:

Cn to cho hc sinh bit cch c sch v bit cch s dng sch.

.Q

Vic hc sinh bit cch c sch v s dng sch l rt quan trng n gip

TP

hc sinh xc nh mc ch c sch. Do trong qu trnh dy hc ta lun cho

hc sinh bm st v t c vi SGK, ch ra cho cc em thy kin thc SGK l c

bn v nn tng pht trin gip cc em trong cc k thi.

*c sch t bit cch khai thc v m rng kin thc

Trong qu trnh hc tp, hc sinh lun phi s dng SGK, nhng cc em c

TR

khng c ngha mt cch th ng m t SGK phi bit m rng, o su kin thc

0B

m kin thc c bn l t SGK, t kin thc c bn SGK hc sinh c th t duy

10
0

pht trin suy l nhng kin thc su hn hoc nhng bi ton ha hc kh. T

2+
3

kin thc SGK n cc em mt cch t nhin khng th ng.

* Qu trnh hc lun ly SGK lm c bn

i vi hc sinh kh gii, cc em lun c xu hng tm hiu kin thc vt

khi SGK, nhng chng ta khng t gp nhng trng hp lm bi ton kh th

c nhng lm bi ton c bn th li khng th lm c, v sao vy? V bn thn

-L

cc em l nhng hc sinh c t cht thng minh nhng do qu trnh kin thc c

TO

bn khng c coi trng, cc em khng i t gc ti ngn m ch ht phn ngn.

B
ID

Tnh trng nh vy ta gp khng t, qu trnh lm bi ton nh ci my nhng


khng r v sao nh vy v bt u t u. Do qu trnh hc tp gio vin phi

c s hng dn v ch cho cc em thy c kin thc SGK l c bn v vic pht


trin kin thc cng phi t kin thc c bn l SGK. Lm nh vy cc em s hiu
mt cch cn k, su sc t gc n ngn, i theo ng xon c.

Page:13

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Trong cc k thi i hc, cao ng hin nay vi hnh thc thi trc nghim khch
quan th cch hc bm st SGK sau bng cch suy lun sng to thng minh v

cc mo gii nhanh, kin thc phi ton din th mi c kt qu cao.

Kin thc trong SGK l c bn, nhng ch dng li kin thc th cha

- T hc vi ti liu.

T
N

, mun hc tt mn Ha cng nh cc mn khc ngoi vic s dng SGK hc

sinh cn phi bit s dng cc cun sch tham kho phc v cho qu trnh hc tp

ca mnh, nhng lm th no c thi quen v hng th c sch v s dng sch

nh th no cho hiu qu th khi hc sinh phi c s hng dn ca gio vin.

.Q

Thc t ta thy, vic hc sinh c sch tham kho cn rt t, cc em cha

TP

thc c cng nh l nhu cu t hc vi ti liu, do trong qu trnh hc tp thy

vi ti liu, do gio vin cn lm nhng vic sau:

c gio lun to cho cc em c hi hc vi ti liu, to nim vui hng th khi hc

- To lng say m, hng th c sch i vi hc sinh

To lng say m, hng th cch gip hc sinh c nhiu am m, lun c

TR

xu hng tm ti, pht hin ch cho cc em thy c s b ch ca vic c ti liu

0B

tham kho, sch bo n b sung kin thc phong ph cho bn thn cc em.

10
0

Do to c lng m c sch cho hc sinh mt mt gio vin phi ch

2+
3

cho cc em thy c tm quan trng ca vic c sch v mt khc sch tham

kho hay cc ti liu phi c cch vit gy c hng th c sch cho ngi hc

sinh.

Ngoi ra c sch c hiu qu th gio vin phi hng dn hc sinh bit

cch c sch.

-L

+u tin xc nh mc tiu cho vic c sch trc khi c mt cun sch

TO

ta phi cho hc sinh thy c c sch lm g? c nh th no? kt qu sau

B
ID

khi c xong thu c g? Rt ra nhng kt lun khi c sch, hng dn hc sinh

xc nh mc ch ngay t u c sch, c tm hiu ni dung ton b sch hay


ch mt phn ca sch.
+Tip theo ch ra cch c sch.

Page:14

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Trc khi c ni dung sch ta phi hng dn hc sinh c khi qut ca


sch nh tn sch, tn tc gi, ni sn xut, mc lc ca sch thy c tng

qut ca sch v ni dung ca sch l vit nhng vn g.

Sau ta i c ti liu : ta phi c k ti liu, khi c sch hc sinh phi

T
N

Khi c sch ta cn lu nh du vo nhng phn quan trng cn lu tm.

va c va suy ngm, suy lun v lun a ra cu hi v sao li nh vy.

Cui cng sau khi c sch ta cho hc sinh nhn xt v rt ra kt lun t vic

c sch v sch cho mnh bit thm nhng kin thc no v c th lin h v

ng dng vo vn no trong cuc sng?

.Q

Nh vy vic t hc c kt qu th u tin ta phi cho hc sinh lm quen

TP

vi phng php t hc trong sch gio khoa hoc ti liu tham kho, mun lm

c iu th gio vin ngoi to lng say m c sch cn hng dn cho hc

sinh c sch nh th no c hiu qu.

b. T n bi v t lm bi tp

Vic t n bi v lm bi tp nh l vic lm rt cn thit v quan trng i

TR

vi hc sinh, to cho cc em c kh nng c bn ca ca vic t hc.

0B

l thi gian cc em c lp lm vic, t bn thn cc em n li kin thc

10
0

sau mi bi hc trn lp tm ra mi lin h kin thc gia bi trc v bi sau,

2+
3

gia cc chng , gia cc phn vi nhau. Gip cc em c h thng v kin thc.

Ngoi n li kin thc cc em cn phi lm bi tp, sau mi bi , mi chng v cc

bi tp tham kho vic cc em lm bi tp l rt cn thit nhm gip cc em ghi su

kin thc, bit vn dng kin thc hc. Do ngoi thi gian hc trn lp thy

c v gia nh cn dnh thi gian v hng dn cc em t hc nh, mt khc

-L

hc sinh lm bi tp c hiu qu th th gio vin phi chun b v giao bi tp mt

TO

cch hp l nhm pht huy ht kh nng ca cc em cng nh l khai thc ht tim

B
ID

nng, ng dng ca kin thc v vic n li bi nhm gip cc em cng c li kin


thc, gip cc em nng cao tr nh v sp xp, h thng li kin thc.
hc sinh n li bi v lm bi tp c hiu qu th khi giao bi tp cho hc
sinh ta cn m bo cc nguyn tc sau:
To nn vic hc lin tc, bi va a hc trn lp, tc l bi tp a ra
cn c s lin h mt thit vi bi hc sinh ang hc, bi tp c th pht trin t bi

Page:15

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

hc khc hoc bi hc ang th hin tnh khoa hc, ph hp vi hot ng hc


nhng bi tp cng khng qu d hc sinh phi nhm chn hoc khng nn qu

kh lm hc sinh nn lng.

Ngoi bi tp cng c kin thc cho bi hm nay bi tp cn c th cho hc sinh

Chun b bi hc tip theo lc ny:

T
N

thng tin tng qut v s hiu bit v bi hc sp c hc.

Cung cp v hng dn hc sinh vic t hc, vic giao bi tp c th l cung

cp trc tip v ch yu vic t hc cho hc sinh khi giao bi tp ta ra lng va

, va sc, hc sinh c th lm m khng cn s h tr ca ngi khc tc l bi

.Q

tp phi tng xng vi kh nng ca hc sinh.

TP

Pht huy tnh tch cc ca hc sinh, to cho cc em thi quen t hc tp, do

khi giao bi tp cho hc sinh cn phi mang tnh cht khuyn khch, thch thc,

sng to, to s t m gip hc sinh c thi thch th khi lm bi tp to s t tin

cho cc em.

Lm bi tp l bin php gip cc em pht trin tr tu mc cao hn.

0B

thng qua cc bi tp gip cc em:

TR

ng thi l thi gian gip cc em pht trin kh nng sng to mt cch c lp

10
0

+ Th hin kh nng nm cc kin thc c bn.

2+
3

+ Th hin s thng hiu kin thc.

+ Th hin kh nng vn dng kin thc.

Nh vy to cho hc sinh kh nng v thi quen t n li bi v lm bi tp l c s

l tin gip cc em t hc sau ny.

c. Hc trn internet

-L

Ngy nay khoa hc pht trin, thng tin v tuyn hin i, con ngi khng

TO

n trng, khng n lp m vn c y kin thc bc vo i l

B
ID

phng php hc t xa, hc trn internet. Do ngoi vic cc em hc trn lp phi

cho cho cc em phng php t hc trn internet, lm vic hoc lm bi tp trn


internet, to cho cc em nh tra cu, tm hiu thng tin lm cc bi tp trn mng.
d. T hc di dng siminar
Thnh thong gio vin cn t chc cho hc sinh cc bui hc ngoi kha
di dng siminar.

Page:16

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Trc khi t chc ngoi kha phi giao cho hc sinh mt ch no v


yu cu cc em phi c nhng ni dung, nhng ti liu c lin quan v tr li cc

cu hi do gio vin a ra, c th chia nhm hc sinh, tng nhm vi nhng ni

H
N

mc trong ni dung m cc em c t gio vin chnh xc ha kin thc ng

dung khc nhau. Khi t chc, cho cc em trnh by nhng hiu bit hoc nhng thc

T
N

thi tr li nhng thc mc cc em a ra.

e. T hc th gii xung quanh

Khng phi hc sinh ch t hc trong sch v, bo ch my vi tnh m cn

phi t hc th gii xung quanh, th gii xung quanh l ni gn lin cuc sng ca

.Q

cc em, t giao tip n nhng np sng hng ngy, nu cc em khng hc th gii

TP

xung quanhthif cc em khng th tn ti c. V vy vic hng dn , bi dng

cch thc hc th gii xung quanh l iu kin cn thit gip hc sinh lm quen th

gii xung quanh, mt khc d cc em thy c mi lin h gia kin thc sch v

vi i sng bn ngoi.

T hc th gii xung quanh c th t hc ngn ng, cch giao tip, np sinh

TR

hot trong gia nh v bn ngoi, lm quen vi thin nhin, tm hiu th gii xung

0B

quanh nh c th t chc cho cc em i tham quan tm hiu thc t nh thm cc

2+
3

tm hiu thin nhin.

10
0

nh my, cc cng tnh , cch vn dng my mc, cch sn xut lm ra sn phm,

Sau nhng chuyn thm quan nh vy rt b ch i vi cc em, gip cc em

tm hiu th gii xung quanh, thy c ng dng ca kin thc sch i vi thc

t i sng, ghi su kin thc, to tnh t ham hc hi i vi cc em t c

kht vng phn u hc tp trong tng lai.

-L

1.3. Nng lc t hc

B
ID

TO

1.3.1. Kh nng v nng lc t hc


Nng lc t hc l kh nng t mnh s dng cc nng lc tr tu c khi c

nng lc c bp cng cc ng c, tnh cm nhn sinh quan, th gii quan chim


lnh mt lnh vc hiu bit no ca nhn loi bin lnh vc thnh s hu ca
mnh.
1.3.2. Mt s nng lc t hc cn bi dng cho hc sinh THPT

Page:17

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Bi dng nng lc t hc l phng cch tt nht to ra ng lc mnh


m cho qu trnh hc tp

Trc tin cn o to, rn luyn bi dng phng php t duy tch cc

Cn bi dng cho hc sinh phi c ch quyt tm cao , lun tm phng

nng cao nng lc c lp suy ngh, kh nng t hc, lm vic vi sch, ti liu.

T
N

php hc tp tt cho mnh, phi hc bng chnh sc mnh, ngh bng ci u ca

mnh, ni bng li ni ca mnh, vit theo mnh, khng rp khun cu ch ca

thy, rn luyn kh nng c lp t duy suy ngh. Biu hin ca c lp khng c

s vin tr trc tip t bn ngoi, t mnh nhn thy vn , pht hin vn , t

.Q

vn gii quyt, t mnh tm ra cch gii ca bi ton, t mnh kim tra c,

TP

nh gi c cch gii ca bn thn, c u c t ph phn v ph phn c cch

gii ca ngi khc bng s hiu bit t mnh trnh by suy ngh, lp lun cch gii

mt cch cht ch .Chnh iu rn luyn cho cc em cc nng lc: Nng lc

tip thu kin thc. Nng lc suy lun logic. Nng lc nng lc sng to. Nng lc

kim chng, nng lc thc hnh.

TR

Nh vy rn luyn c t duy c lp cho hc sinh th phi to iu kin

0B

hc sinh suy ngh c lp. Gio vin a cu hi, nu vn hc sinh nghin

10
0

cu xut cch gii quyt, ra kt lun. Gio vin quan tm ch o cng tc c

2+
3

lp ca hc sinh, nht l bi tp nh. Khuyn khch nhn xt cch gii ca bn.

Gip hc sinh bit phng php suy lun c lp v thc hin hnh ng c lp.

Ti hin kin thc trc khi lm bi tp vn dng. Cho gii bi tp v nng cao dn

ni dung Ha hc ca bi tp. Gio vin phi c k hoch kim tra, nh gi ng

mc suy ngh v hnh ng c lp ca hc sinh.

-L

Ngai ra bi dng nng lc t hc cho hc sinh mt cch ton din

TO

chng ta cn phi hp vi mt s bin php: gim t l thuyt trnh trn lp ca gio

B
ID

vin, dnh thi gian thch ng cho t hc, t nghin cu, seminar, tho lun , gii
p thc mc
Tng cng khuyn khch hc sinh t hc vi cc ti liu. sch tham kho v
cc ngun thng tin ti liu trn mng internet cng vi s i mi phng php
dy hc nng cao tnh tch cc hc tp cho hc sinh.
Rn luyn cho hc sinh t kim tra, t nh gi hc tp.

Page:18

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Vy nu xy dng c phng php t hc, c bit l s t gic, ch tch


cc ch ng sng to s khi dy nng lc tim tng, to ra ng lc ni sinh to

ln cho ngi hc.

K nng l tng hp cc thao tc, c ch phi hp hi ha hp l nhm m

1.3.3. H thng k nng hc tp

T
N

bo cho hnh ng t kt qu cao vi s tiu hao nng lng tinh thn, c bp t

nht trong nhng iu kin thay i.

Cc k nng hc tp:

- K nng pht hin v gii quyt vn :

.Q

L k nng nm bt c yu cu ca vn mt cch nhanh chng. T a ra

TP

hng gii quyt vn ang nghin cu.

- K nng sng to t duy c lp.

L k nng gii quyt vn chnh xc, c lp. K nng ny gip gii quyt vn

tn nng lng v thi gian.

TR

1.4.1. Khi nim v bi tp ha hc

1.4. Bi tp ha hc

0B

Theo t in ting Vit, bi tp l bi giao cho HS lm vn dng kin thc

10
0

hc, cn bi ton l vn cn gii quyt bng phng php khoa hc. Mt s

2+
3

ti liu l lun dy hc thng dng bi ton ho hc ch nhng bi tp nh

lng - l nhng bi tp c tnh ton khi gii HS cn thc hin mt s php

tnh ton nht nh.

Theo cc nh l lun dy hc Lin X (c), bi tp bao gm c cu hi v bi

ton, m trong khi hon thnh chng, HS nm c hay hon thin mt tri thc

-L

hoc mt k nng no , bng cch tr li vn p, tr li vit hoc c km theo

TO

thc nghim. Hin nay nc ta, thut ng bi tp c dng theo quan nim

B
ID

ny.

1.4.2. Phn loi bi tp ha hc


1.4.2.1. Yu cu la chn h thng.
Vic la chn phn loi h thng cc bi tp theo mt ch no l mt
vic kh. Vy c nhng tm ti v phng php nhm xc nh nhng mi lin h
quan trng nht, in hnh nht v nhng biu hin ca chng trong cc bi tp, t

Page:19

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

xc nh loi bi tp c bn, s lng ca chng v trnh t gii. Kt qu rn


luyn k nng, k xo gii bi tp mt cch t gic ph thuc rt nhiu vo vic c

hay khng c mt h thng trong khi chn la v sp xp trnh t cc bi tp, lm

Bi tp ha hc ni chung v bi tp hu c ni ring c tc dng rt ln v

th no sau mi bi tp u pht hin ra nhng ci mi.

T
N

c ba mt : Gio dc, gio dng v gio dc k nng tng hp. Tc dng y cng

tch cc nu trong qu trnh dy hc c s la chn tht cn thn cc h thng bi

tp cht ch v ni dung, thch hp v phng php v bm st mc ch, nhim v

dy hc trng ph thng.

.Q

- Yu cu th nht : Cc bi tp phi i t d n kh, t n gin n phc

TP

tp v mi lin h gia nhng i lng v khi nim c trng cho qu trnh hoc

hin tng, sao cho tng bc hc sinh hiu c kin thc mt cch vng chc v

c k nng, k xo vn dng linh hot, sng to cc kin thc .

- Yu cu th hai: Mi bi tp c chn phi l mt mt xch trong h

thng kin thc ca hc sinh, gip cho h hiu c mi lin h gia cc i lng,

TR

c th ha cc khi nim v vch ra nhng nt mi no cha c lm sng t.

10
0

to ca hc sinh trong hc tp.

0B

-Yu cu th ba: H thng bi tp phi m bo tnh tch cc, ch ng, sng

2+
3

- Yu cu th t: H thng cc bi tp c la chn phi gip cho hc sinh

nm c phng php gii tng loi, dng c th.

- Yu cu th nm: Ni dung bi tp phi ph hp vi cc i tng hc

sinh, thi gian hc tp ca hc sinh lp v nh.

Nh vy h thng bi tp c xy dng va tha mn cc yu cu trn, va

-L

nhm p ng c mc tiu bi dng, pht trin nng lc t duy sng to ca hc

TO

sinh thng qua vic s dng hp l h thng bi tp trong dy hc.

B
ID

1.4.2.2. Phn loi bi tp ha hc


Vic phn loi bi tp ha hc ch mang tnh tng i. Tuy nhin c th cn
c vo cc c im, du hiu c bn phn loi theo: ni dung, mc ch dy
hc, phng thc cho iu kin hay phng php gii, c im v phng php
nghin cu vn , yu cu rn luyn k nng v pht trin t duy hc sinh, mc

kh d.

Page:20

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

- Phn loi theo ni dung: Bi tp ti liu ha hc ( bi tp ha hc v c, bi


tp ha hc hu c,..) bi tp c th- tru tng, bi tp k thut, tng hp,

- Phn loi theo mc ch dy hc: Bi tp cng c, bi tp nng cao.

- Phn loi theo phng thc cho iu kin v phng thc gii: bi tp bng

li, bi tp tnh ton, bi tp th nghim

T
N

- Phn loi theo c im v phng php nghin cu vn : Bi tp nh

- Phn loi theo mc kh, d: Bi tp c bn, bi tp phc tp.

tnh, bi tp nh lng.

- Phn loi theo yu cu luyn tp k nng v pht trin t duy hc sinh.

.Q

Theo cch phn loai ny c hai loi bi tp: bi tp luyn tp v bi tp th nghim.

TP

Trong bi tp luyn tp l nhng bi tp c dng rn luyn cho hc sinh p

dng c nhng kin thc xc nh gii tng loi bi tp theo nhng khun

mu nht nh. Loi bi tp ny khng i hi t duy sng to ca hc sinh m ch

yu l cho hc sinh luyn tp nm vng cch gii i vi mt loi bi tp nht

TR

1.4.3. Tc dng ca bi tp ha hc

nh c ch dn

0B

Trong ging dy ha hc trng THPT, bi tp ha hc gi vai tr quan

10
0

trng trong vic thc hin mc tiu o to: N va l mc ch, va l ni dung,

2+
3

li va l phng php dy hc hiu nghim. N cung cp cho hc sinh kin thc,

con ng dnh ly kin thc v c hng th, say m nhn thc.

Bi tp ha hc c s dng lm phng tin nghin cu ti liu mi, khi trang

b kin thc cho hc sinh nhm m bo cho hc sinh lnh hi c kin thc mt

cch su sc v vng chc. Vic nghin cu mt kin thc mi thng c bt u

-L

bng vic nu vn . Mi mt vn xut hin do nghin cu ti liu mi cng l

TO

bi tp i vi hc sinh. lm mt vn mi tr nn hp dn v xy dng vn

B
ID

nghin cu cn c th dng cch gii bi tp. Vic xy dng cc vn dy hc


bng bi tp khng nhng s kch thch c hng th cao ca hc sinh i vi
nhng kin thc mi sp c hc m cn to ra kh nng cng c kin thc c

v xy dng mi lin quan gia cc kin thc c v mi.


Bi tp ha hc l mt phng tin c tm quan trong c bit trong vic pht
trin t duy ha hc ca hc sinh, bi dng cho hc sinh phng php nghin cu

Page:21

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

khoa hc. Bi vy gii bi tp l mt hnh thc t lc c bn ca hc sinh. Trong


thc tin dy hc, t duy ha hc c hiu l k nng quan st hin tng ha

hc, phn tch mt hin tng phc tp thnh nhng b phn thnh phn, xc lp

H
N

cc l thuyt v p dng kin thc ca mnh. Trc khi gii bi tp hc sinh phi

mi lin h nh lng v nh tnh ca cc hin tng, on trc cc h qu t

T
N

phn tch cc d kin ca bi, t xy dng cc lp lun, thc hin vic tnh ton,

khi cn thit c th tin hnh th nghimTrong nhng iu kin , t duy logic,

t duy sng to ca hc sinh c pht trin, nng lc gii quyt vn c nng

cao.

.Q

Bi tp ha hc l mt phng tin rt tt rn luyn nhng k nng, k xo

TP

lin h l thuyt vi thc t, vn dng kin thc hc vo i sng, lao ng sn

xut. Bi kin thc s c nm vng thc s, nu hc sinh c th vn dng thnh

tho chng vo vic hon ton nhng bi tp l thuyt v thc hnh. T c tc

dng gio dc tng hp v hng nghip cho hc sinh.

Bi tp ha hc cn c tc dng cho hc sinh v phm cht t tng, o

TR

c. thng qua gii cc bi tp, cn rn luyn cho hc sinh phm cht c lp suy

0B

ngh, tnh kin tr dng cm khc phc kh khn, tnh chnh xc khoa hc, kch

10
0

thch hng th hc tp mn ha hc ni ring v hc tp ni chung.

2+
3

Bi tp ha hc cn l phng tin rt c hiu qu kim tra kin thc, k

nng ca hc sinh mt cch chnh xc. Trong qu trnh dy hc, khu kim tra nh

gi vic nm tri thc, k nng, k xo ca hc sinh c mt ngha rt quan trng.

Mt trong nhng bin php kim tra nh gi kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh l cho

hc sinh gii cc bi tp. Thng qua vic gii bi tp ca hc sinh, gio vin cn

-L

bit c kt qu ging dy ca mnh, t c phng php iu chnh, hon thin

B
ID

TO

hot ng dy ca mnh cng nh hot ng hc ca hc sinh.


Ngoi ra mc cao hn mc luyn tp thng thng, hc sinh phi bit

vn dng kin thc mt cch linh hot, sng to gii quyt bi tp trong nhng
tnh hung mi, bit xut nh gi theo kin ring ca mnh, bit xut cc
gii php khc nhau khi phi x l mt tnh hung Thng qua , bi tp ha hc
gip pht hin nng lc sng to ca hc sinh nh gi, ng thi pht huy c
tnh sng to cho hc sinh.

Page:22

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Nh vy, bi tp ha hc c mt vai tr to ln trong vic tp luyn, bi


dng, pht hin nng lc sng to ca hc sinh trong dy hc.

1.4.4. Tin trnh gii bi tp ha hc

H
N

bi tp ha hc no. Trong nhiu ti liu, ngi ta c th gi l cc bc chung,

Kin trnh khi qut gii bi tp gm cc giai on v yu cu khi gii bt k

T
N

phng php chung, k hoch, dn bi gii bi tpMc d cc bi tp ha hc c

ni dung rt phong ph, a dng nhng trn c s cn c vo qu trnh t duy ca

vic gii bi tp, c th a ra phng n kh d ca tin trnh khi qut gii bi tp,

bao gm bn bc chung vi cc hnh ng c th sau:

.Q

Nghin cu bi:

TP

- c k bi.

- Tm iu kin u bi cho v yu cu cc bi cn n cha trong t ng , hin

tng, cng thc, phn ng Tm tt bi: c th lm nhm trong c, hoc m

ha u bi bng cc k hiu quen dng.

- V s .

TR

- i n v ca cc i lng ra cng mt h thng nht.

0B

Xc lp cc mi quan h:

10
0

- M t hin tng, qu trnh ha hc xy ra trong tnh hung nu ln u bi.

2+
3

- Vch ra cc qui tc, nh lut chi phi hin tng, qu trnh y. Xc lp cc mi

quan h c th gia nhng ci cho v ci phi tm.

- La chn cc mi lin h c bn cho thy s quan h gia ci bit v ci cha

bit rt ra ci cn tm.

Thc hin chng trnh gii:

-L

- Phn tch, tng hp, khi qut ha rt ra kt lun cn thit.

TO

- T cc mi quan h c bn xc lp c bng phng trnh, tip tc lun gii,

B
ID

tnh ton, tm n s di dng tng hp, biu din cc i lng cn tm qua cc i

lng cho.
- Thay gi tr bng s ca cc i lng cho tm kt qu, thc hin cc php
tnh vi chnh xc cho php.
Kim tra, xc nhn kt qu

Page:23

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

c th xc nhn kt qu va tm c cn kim tra li vic gii theo mt hoc


mt s phng n sau:

- Kim tra xem tr li ht cc cu hi ca bi yu cu cha, xt ht cc

trng hp cha.

- Kim tra li xem tnh ton c ng khng.

T
N

- Kim tra th nguyn xem c ph hp khng.

- Xt kt qu v ngha thc t xem c hp l khng.

- Kim tra bng thc nghim xem c ph hp khng.

- Th gii bi tp theo cch khc xem c cng kt qu.

.Q

1.5. Thc trng v kh nng t hc ca hc sinh bc THPT hin nay

TP

1.5.1. Mc ch iu tra:

- Tm hiu, nh gi thc trng vic hc tp mn ha hin nay ca mt s

trng ph thng: Trng THPT Qung Xng III ( Huyn Qung Xng), Trng

THPT o Duy T (Thnh ph Thanh Ha), Trng THPT Lng c

Bng(Huyn Hong Ha). Xem ph lc 1.T lm c s pht trin ti.

TR

- Tm hiu nhng thun li, kh khn khi dy ho hc trong bi cnh hin

0B

nay.

10
0

- Tm hiu v tinh thn, thi v kt qu t c ca hc sinh khi hc cc

2+
3

tit dy trong lun vn cp.

1.5.2.Kh khn

Thc tin cho thy BTHH khng ch c tc dng n tp, cng c kin thc

hc m cn c tc dng pht trin kin thc, pht trin nng lc t hc v rn

tr thng minh cho HS. Tuy nhin, vic s dng BTHH nh l mt phng php

-L

dy hc hiu qu th cha c ch ng mc.

B
ID

TO

-V pha gio vin


Nhiu GV cha a ra c h thng nhng mu cht hay nhng ni dung

cn ch cho hc sinh hc sinh cm thy d hiu, t nhng ni dung nh, hp


ri pht trin thnh ni dung rng hn m gio vin ch yu s dng cc bi tp
trong SGK, SBT hoc t internet m khng bin son li cho ph hp vi i tng
hc sinh ca mnh. Phn ln gio vin cha thay i phng php m vn dy theo
phng php thuyt trnh. t cho hc sinh lm vic tho lun theo nhm nn cha

Page:24

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

tht s pht trin c t duy v nng lc c lp suy ngh hay ni cch khc l
cha kch thch c nng lc t hc ca hc sinh.

- V pha hc sinh

H
N

gian dnh cho luyn tp, cng c kin thc t, khng c iu kin phn tch, lm r

+Hc sinh t vic nm kin thc trong khi nghin cu bi khng vng chc, thi

T
N

bi, hay hc sinh rt t c lm vic theo nhm, hay t c tho lun

+ HS tip thu kin thc trn lp cn th ng, t suy ngh v bi hc, thuc bi

mt cch my mc nn cn phi lng tng khi phi c lp vn dng kin thc ca

mnh khi lm bi.

.Q

- Nhiu em HS cha chm hc, cha c hng th hc tp, hc qua loa, i khi,

TP

cha c k nng cn thit gii quyt nhng nhim v hc tp; cha bit phn b

thi gian hc cc mn mt cch hp l. Nhiu em dnh thi gian hc thm qu

nhiu khng cn thi gian thi gian v c li hay nghin ngm li nhng kin

thc m c thy c ging dy. Cc em cha t gic hc tp, cha c thc t

nghin cu cao, t mnh bi p kin thc ca mnh cn hng. Thc t cho thy,

TR

tnh trng hc th ng ca HS khng ch n thun do PPDH ca GV m cn do

0B

tc ng ca nhiu yu t bn trong v bn ngoi nh trng. Cn phi c bin php

10
0

ng b nhm khuyn khch nhng HS hc tt v nhng GV dy gii.

2+
3

1.5.3. Thun li

- Vi nn kinh t th trng, hi nhp nn cc PPDH hin i trn th gii nhanh

chng c cp nht v trin khai Vit Nam.

- X hi ngy cng pht trin v gio dc c ng, Nh nc v ngi

dn quan tm nhiu hn.

-L

- Vic bin son SGK mi theo hng k tha, khoa hc, hin i, ni dung

B
ID

TO

logic thun li cho vic i mi PPDH.


- GV c tham gia nhiu lp tp hun v kin thc v PPDH do B GD&T,

S GD&T m.
- Cc trng hc quan tm nhiu n vic i mi PPDH, cc phong tro
tch cc y mnh phong tro hc tp.
- S lng SGK, ti liu tham kho kh nhiu, phong ph v ni dung v
hnh thc cho c gio vin v hc sinh.

Page:25

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

TIU KT CHNG I

Trong chng ny chng ti trnh by c s l lun ca ti bao gm:

1. Vn pht trin nng lc t hc: nh ngha, tm quan trng, mi quan

h gia BTHH v vn pht trin nng lc t hc cho hc sinh.

T
N

2. Tnh hnh s dng BTHH pht trin t duy cho HS hin nay thng qua

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

lng knh thc tin.

Page:26

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

CHNG 2: XY DNG V S DNG H THNG BI TP PHN


DN XUT HALOGEN, ANCOL, PHENOL, ANEHIT, AXIT

CACBOXYLIC V ESTE NHM H TR PHNG PHP T HC

CHO HC SINH

2.1. Nguyn tc xy dng

T
N

SGK Ha hc c coi l mt trong nhng ngun cung cp tri thc c bn cho

hc sinh v l phng tin GV t chc dy hc nhm nng cao cht lng hc

tp, rn luyn kh nng t hc t chim lnh kin thc cho hc sinh. SGK Ha hc

hin nay l ti liu c vn bn ha c cha ng mc tiu, ni dung v phng

.Q

php dy hc,... nhng nng v ni dung bi hoc nn bi tp cha c phong ph

TP

v cha c phn dng cao. c thm t liu dy hc cho gio vin v t liu

hc tp ca hc sinh ngoi cc bi tp sch gio khoa v sch bi tp, chng ti

la chn - xy dng thm h thng s bi tp trn nhng nguyn tc chung.

2.1.1. Chnh xc, khoa hc

Vi mc ch ca vic xy dng bi tp l gip hc sinh hiu ng, hiu y

0B

yu t quan trng hng u.

TR

cc kin thc ho hc ph thng, cho nn tnh chnh xc, khoa hc ca bi tp l

10
0

2.1.2. Phong ph, a dng, xuyn sut chng trnh

2+
3

Bi tp phi c tuyn chn cn thn t nhiu ti liu, kt hp vi mt s

phn t xy dng tri rng khp chng trnh ho hc THPT, lin quan n nhiu

vn ca ho hc nhng khng nm ngoi chng trnh, khng mang tnh nh

. Bi tp c th hnh thc t lun hoc trc nghim, sao cho pht huy ht nng

-L

lc ca hc sinh.

B
ID

TO

2.1.3. Khai thc c c trng, bn cht ho hc


Bi tp phi i su khai thc hin tng ho hc, bn cht ho hc ch khng

phi tnh ton nng n bng cc phng trnh ton hc phc tp.

2.1.4. i hi cao ngi hc


Bi tp khng nn ra theo kiu ch cn ti hin kin thc l c th gii quyt
c (nu c cng rt t) m ch yu buc hc sinh phi s dng cc thao tc t duy
mt cch thnh tho mi c th gii quyt c. Ngay c bi tp l thuyt nh tnh

Page:27

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

cng nn i hi cao ngi hc v mt k nng v phng php. Khng ch i


hi hc sinh gii chnh xc m cn i hi c v thi gian hon thnh.

2.1.5. To iu kin cho hc sinh t hc

HS t hc mt cch thun li th HTBT nhm h tr cho cho hc sinh t


hc cn phi:

T
N

- Trc khi a HTBT cho HS, GV cn tm tt l thuyt, Cch tm tt phi xc

nh r kin thc trng tm, kin thc m rng, hc sinh bit cch hc, trnh

gii hn qu di, qua hc sinh hnh thnh k nng gii bi tp.

- HTBT trong ti liu phi c phn dng, c bi gii mu, sau cung cp cc

.Q

bi tp tng t HS t gii, ni dung phi ph hp vi cc i tng hc sinh,

TP

thi gian hc tp ca hc sinh lp v nh.

- Sp xp cc bi tp t d n kh, bi trc lm nn tng cho bi sau. C cc

bi tp nh ng thi c nhng bi tp tng hp sau khi cc em hc xong mt s

bi hoc hc ht chng. Mi bi tp c chn phi l mt mt xch trong h

thng kin thc ca hc sinh, gip cho h hiu c mi lin h gia cc i

TR

lng, c th ha cc khi nim v vch ra nhng nt mi no cha c lm

0B

sng t. i vi cc bi tp kh gio vin cn gi hoc cung cp thm mt s

10
0

kin thc c lin quan nhm gip phc v cc em c kin thc gii c bi

2+
3

tp kh .

- Gio vin cn cung cp mt HTBT (tng t bi tp gii mu) khng c li

gii ch c p n cho cc em t hc luyn thm nh.

2.2. H THNG BI TP V L THUYT PHN HALOGEN, ANCOL,

-L

PHENOL

2.2.1. TM TT NI DUNG L THUYT C BN PHN DN XUT

TO

HALOGEN, ANCOL, PHENOL

B
ID

2.2.1.1.Dn xut halogen


Tm tt ni dung l thuyt c bn
1. Khi nim
Khi thay th mt hay nhiu nguyn t hiro trong phn t hirocacbon bng mt
hay nhiu nguyn t halogen ta c dn xut ca hirocacbon (dn xut halogen).
2. Phn loi

Page:28

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Da vo bn cht halogen, s lng nguyn t halogen, c im cu to ca gc


hirocacbon, bc ca dn xut halogen.( Bc ca dn xut halogen bng bc ca

nguyn t cacbon lin kt vi nguyn t halogen).

3. ng phn

ng phn mch cacbon v ng phn v tr nhm chc.

T
N

4. Danh php

- Tn thng thng : V d : CHCl3 : clorofom.

Tn gc chc : tn gc hirocacbon + halogenua

V d : CH2= CHCl vinyl halogenua.

.Q

CH2= CH CH2 Cl anlyl clorua

TP

C6H5Br phenyl bromua

C6H5- CH2Br benzyl bromua

- Tn thay th : Tn phn th ( tn halogen) + tn mch cacbon chnh

V d: CH3- CH2Cl2 1,1- icloetan.

CH3-CH2CH(CH3) CH2Cl 1- clo- 2- metyl butan

Br

TR

Br

10
0

0B

1,3-ibrombenzen

5. Tnh cht vt l

2+
3

iu kin thng, cc dn xut mono halogen c phn t khi nh nh CH3F,

lng hoc rn.

CH3Cl,CH3Br l cht kh, dn xut halogen c phn t khi ln hn thng th

- Cc dn xut halogen hu nh khng tan trong nc, tan trong mt s dung mi

-L

hu c nh: este, ete, hirocacbon,

- Nhiu dn xut c hot tnh sinh hc cao: CHCl3 : tc dng gy m, C6H6Cl6

B
ID

TO

Tc dng dit su b,
6. Tnh cht ha hc
a) Phn ng th nguyn t halogen bng nhm -OH
Dn xut loi anlyl halogenua b thy phn ngay khi un si vi nc:

RCH=CHCH2-X + H2O RCH=CHCH2-OH + HX

Page:29

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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Dn xut loi ankyl halogenua khng phn ng vi nc nhit thng cng


nh un si, nhng b thy phn khi un nng vi dung dch kim.

t0
RCH2X + OH-
RCH2OH + X-

+ NaCl + H O

ONa

H
B
H

NaOH

T
N

Cl

ng rt kh khn ch phn ng vi dung dch kim c nhit v p sut cao.


300 0 C,200at

Dn xut loi phenyl halogenua (halogen nh trc tip vi vng benzen) Phn

b) Phn ng tch hiro halogenua.

un si dung dch gm dn xut halogen v kim trong ancol

TP

.Q

,t 0
HCH2-CH2Cl + KOH ancol

CH2=CH2 + KCl + H2O

Hng tch tun theo quy tc Zaixep: Khi tch HX khi dn xut halogen, nguyn

t halogen (X) u tin tch ra cng vi H nguyn t cacbon bc cao hn bn

-HBr

CH3-CH=CH-CH3 (chinh)

KOH, ancol,t

CH2-CH-CH2-CH3

cnh.

Br H

10
0

c) Phn ng vi magie

0B

TR

CH2=CH-CH2-CH3 (phu)

2+
3

CH3- CH2- Cl + Mg etekhan


CH3 -CH2 Mg -Cl

2.2.1.2. Ancol

Tm tt ni dung l thuyt c bn

1. nh ngha

-L

Ancol l nhng hp cht hu c m phn t c nhm hiroxyl (-OH) lin kt vi

nguyn t cacbon no.

B
ID

TO

2. Phn loi

Ancol c phn loi theo gc hirocacbon v theo s lng nhm OH trong

phn t.
3. ng phn
ng phn nhm chc, ng phn mch cacbon, ng phn v tr nhm chc.
4. Danh php
- Tn thay th: Tn hirocacbon tng ng + ch s v tr + ol

Page:30

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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

- Tn thng thng: Ancol + tn gc hirocacbon + ic


5. Bc ca ancol

-L bc ca nguyn t cacbon nh vi nhm OH.

6. Ancol khng bn

- Ancol c nhm OH nh cacbon cha ni i c hin tng chuyn v

T
N

- Nu nhm OH nh vi cacbon cha ni i u mch s chuyn v thnh

anehit. RCHO.

- Nu nhm OH nh vi cacbon ni i trong mch s chuyn v thnh xeton

,
RC R

TP

.Q

CH3 C CH3
O

CH3 C CH2
OH

V d : CH2=CHOH chuyn v thnh CH3CHO

Ch : Ancol khng no ch tn ti khi nhm OH gn vo nguyn t C mang ni

n, ngha l s nguyn t cacbon phi 3, tr trng hp nhn thm:

0B

TR

OH

10
0

phenol

2+
3

-Ancol c t 2 nhm OH tr ln nh vo cng mt nguyn t cacbon th ancol

khng bn s tch 1 phn t H2O chuyn thnh sn phm bn l anehit, xeton hoc

axit.

- Nu c 2 nhm OH nh vi 1 nguyn t C u mch th ancol khng bn s

tch 1 phn t H2O thnh anehit.

-L

- Nu c 2 nhm OH nh vi 1 nguyn t C trong mch th ancol s khng bn

B
ID

TO

tch 1 phn t H2O thnh xeton.


R CH

OH
OH

,
R
R C OH
OH

RCHO + H 2O

R C R
O

+ H2O

Page:31

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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

- Nu 3 nhm OH nh vi 1 nguyn t cacbon th ancol khng bn s tch 1


phn t H2O thnh axit cacboxylic.
R C OH
O

OH
R C OH
OH

+ H2O

Axit

C12 l cht lng, t khong C13 tr ln l cht rn.

- Ancol no t C1

T
N

7. Tnh cht vt l

- Cc ancol c t 1 n 3 nguyn t cacbon trong phn t tan v hn trong nc, khi

s nguyn t C tng th tan gim.

.Q

- Do c lin kt hiro gia cc phn t vi nhau nn ancol c nhit si cao hn

TP

hirocacbon, dn xut halogen, anhit, xeton...c cng s nguyn t cacbon.

8. Tnh cht ho hc

R(OH)n + nNa

n
H2
2

R(ONa)n +

- Tc dng vi kim loi kim to ra ancolat v gii phng hiro

TR

- Phn ng th nhm OH:

0B

+) Phn ng vi axit:

CH3Cl + H2O

10
0

CH3OH + HCl

2+
3

+) Phn ng vi ancol to ete:

H2SO4, 1400C
CH3-O- CH3

CH3OH + CH3OH

+ H2O

- Phn ng tch nc:

H2SO4, 1700C
CH2=CH2 + H2O

-L

CH3- CH2- OH

TO

Phn ng tch nc ca ancol tun theo quy tc Zaixep: Nhm - OH u tin tch

B
ID

cng vi nguyn t H ca cacbon c bc cao hn.


- Phn ng oxi ho
+) Ancol bc 1 b oxi ho nh cho anhit
0

RCH2OH + CuO

RCHO + Cu + H2O

+) Ancol bc 2 bi oxi ho nh cho xeton


t0
Page:32

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

R1CHOH-R2 + CuO

R1-CO-R2 + Cu + H2O

+) Ancol bc 3 b oxi ho mnh th gy mch cacbon to ra anehyt v xeton hoc

CO2 v xeton.

+) Ancol chy to thnh CO2 v H2O.

- Phn ng este ho:

T
N

RCOOH + R'OH

H2SO4 , t0
RCOO R' + H2O

Ch : Ancol c cc nhm OH nh vi nhng nguyn t cacbon cnh

nhau ho tan c Cu(OH)2 to thnh phc tan mu xanh da tri Dng phn

.Q

bit vi cc ancol khc.

TP

9. iu ch

- iu ch etanol trong cng nghip

+) Hirat ho etilen xc tc axit:

H2SO4, 3000C
CH2=CH2 + HOH

enzim

+ nH2O

10
0

0B

+) Ln men tinh bt: (C6H10O5)n

TR

CH3CH2OH

2+
3

C6H12O6

enzim

nC6H12O6

2C2H5OH + 2 CO2

xt, t0

- iu ch metanol trong cng nghip:


CO + 3H2
ZnO, CrO3

-L

+) CH4 + H2O

CO + 2H2

4000C, 200atm

TO
G
N

B
ID

CH3OH
Cu, 2000C, 100atm

+) CH4 + O2

2CH3OH

2.2.1.3. Phenol
Tm tt ni dung l thuyt c bn
1. Khi nim

Page:33

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Phenol l hp cht hu c trong phn t c nhm OH lin kt trc tip vo nhn


benzen.

Lu : Cn phn bit ancol thm v phenol

Ancol thm l hp cht hu c trong phn t nhm OH lin kt vi mch nhnh

ca nhn benzen.
CH3

CH3

CH3

OH

T
N

Cc ng ng ca phenol:

OH

OH

m- c rezol

o-crezol

TP

phenol

.Q

OH

Ancol benylic

CH 2 OH

p-crezol

Ancol thm

2. Tnh cht vt l

TR

- Phe nol l cht rn, nng chy 430C, khng mu lu trong khng kh b oxi

0B

ha to thnh mu hoa o hoc mu nu, tan t trong nc lnh, tan nhiu trong

10
0

nc nng, tan tt trong mt s dung mi hu c.

3. Tnh cht ha hc

2+
3

- C mi xc, c, c tnh st trng lm bng da.

Do cp electron cha chia ca oxi tham gia lin hp vi cc electron ca nhn

benzen lm cho mt electron dch chuyn v nhn benzen mt electron trn


OH

B
ID

TO

-L

oxy b gim do

+ Lin kt OH tr nn phn cc hn, lm cho nguyn t H linh ng hn (tnh axit


mnh hn ru).
+ Mt electron vng benzen tng ln, nht l v tr o v p lm cho phn ng th
vo nhn thm dng hn so vi benzen v ng ng ca n.
Page:34

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

+ Do to c h lin hp vi cc electron trong nhn lin kt CO bn vng hn


so vi ancol, v th nhm OH phenol khng b th bi gc axit nh nhm OH

ancol.

- Tnh axit

T
N

Phenol c lc axit mnh hn ancol nhng vn ch l mt axit yu: khng lm i

C6H5OH + NaOH C6H5ONa + H2O

mu qu tm, b axit cacbonic y ra khi phenolat.

C6H5ONa + CO2 + H2O C6H5OH + NaHCO3

- Phn ng th vng benzen.


OH

.Q

Phn ng th nhn thm phenol d hn benzen, th v tr ortho v para.

TP

OH
Br

Br

+ 3HBr

+ 3 Br2

Br
2,4,6 -tribromphenol

TR

Kt ta trng

0B

4- iu ch
+

= CHCH 3( H )
) O ( KK ); 2 ) H SO
C6H6 CH
2
C6H5CH(CH3)2 1
C6H5OH + CH3COCH3
2

2+
3

10
0

2.2.2. BI TP THEO CH

2.2.2.1. Bi tp v dn xut halogen

V d 1

Ch 1 Bi tp v phn ng th halogen vo hirocacbon

-L

Hai cht A v B c cng cng thc phn t C5H12 tc dng vi clo theo t l mol

TO

1: 1 th A ch to ra mt dn xut duy nht, cn B th cho 4 dn xut. Vit cng thc

cu to ca A v B cng cc dn xut clo ca chng.

B
ID

Hng dn gii
Nhn xt: C5H12 c 3 ng phn. Ly ln lt cc ng phn cho tc dng vi clo.

Sn phm cho mt dn xut duy nht l A. Vy A l ng phn i xng cao. B cho


4 dn xut, B c 4 nguyn t C 4 v tr khc nhau.
Cng thc chung ca dn xut clo theo t l 1:1
Page:35

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

C5H12 + Cl2 C5H11Cl + HCl


C5H12 c 3 ng phn: Mi ng phn tc dng vi Cl2 cho ra nhng ng phn dn

xut halogen..

H
N

+ HCl

CH3-CH2-CH2-CHCl-CH3

/s
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH3 + Cl2 a
CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-CH2Cl

T
N

/s
CH3-CH2-CH(CH3)-CH2Cl
a

CH3-CH2-CH-(CH3)2 + Cl2

CH3-CH2-CHCl-CH2-CH3

CH3-CHCl-CH(CH3)-CH3

CH3-CH2-CCl(CH3)-CH3

CH3 C CH3
CH3

+ Cl2

CH3

CH3
C CH2Cl

+ HCl

CH3

CH3

TP

.Q

CH2Cl-CH2-CH(CH3)-CH3

A ch to ra mt dn xut halogen duy nht. Vy A l :

TR

CH3

0B

CH3 C CH3
CH3

2+
3

10
0

2,2 imetyl propan.


2- metyl butan.

B th cho 4 dn xut Vy B l: CH3-CH2-CH-(CH3)2

Ch 2 :Bi tp v phn ng tch HX khi dn xut halogen

V d 1: Hp cht A c CTPT l C4H9Cl.

-L

a) Vit CTCT, c tn thay th v ch r bc ca cc ng phn c th c ca A.

b) Khi un nng A vi dd KOH trong ancol thu c hn hp hai anken c CTPT


php iu ch A t hirocacbon c cng s nguyn t cacbon trong phn t
Hng dn gii

B
ID

TO

C4H8 l ng phn cu to ca nhau. Xc nh CTCT ca A. Nu mt vi phng

Nhn xt: a) Hp cht A c CTPT l C4H9Cl. Vy A l dn xut halogen no ca

hirocacbon. A c ng phn mch cacbon v ng phn v tr nhm chc.


Cc ng phn dn xut halogen c CTPT C4H9Cl, tn gi v bc ca chng.
Page:36

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Dn xut halogen bc 2. Tn: 2-clo-butan

CH3-C(CH3)Cl-CH3

Dn xut halogen bc 3. Tn: 2-clo2-metyl-propan

CH3-CH(CH3)-CH2Cl

Dn xut halogen bc 1. Tn: 1-clo2-metyl-propan

CH3-CH2-CHCl-CH3

Dn xut halogen bc 1. Tn: 1-clo-butan

b) Khi un nng A vi dd KOH trong ancol thu c hn hp hai anken c CTPT

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-Cl

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

L Th Thanh H

T
N

C4H8 l ng phn cu to ca nhau. Vy A l dn xut halogen bc 2

( khng i xng).

iu ch 2-clo-butan t hirocacbon cng c s nguyn t cacbon.

CTCT ca A l: CH3-CH2-CHCl-CH3

/s
CH3-CH2-CHCl-CH3
a

TP

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH3 +Cl2

.Q

T Butan:

T But-2-en

CH3-CH= CH-CH3 + HCl CH3-CH2-CHCl-CH3

T but-1-en

TR

CH3-CH2-CH=CH2 + HCl CH3-CH2-CHCl-CH3

0B

Ch 3: Bi tp v phn ng thy phn dn xut halogen

10
0

V d 1: C ba hp cht: anlyl clorua, etyl bromua v clobenzen ng trong 3 l

2+
3

nhn dn b m c khng r. Hy tm ra cch xc nh c cc ha cht trong

mi l.

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: 3 hp cht trn u l dn xut halogen nhng kh nng thy phn xy ra

c nhng iu kin khc nhau.

-L

-Anlyl clorua thy phn khi un si vi nc nng.

TO

- Etyl bromua khng thy phn khi un si vi nc nng nhng thy phn khi

B
ID

un vi dung dch kim.

- Clobenzen khng b thy phn cc iu kin trn. Dng AgNO3 nhn bit
phn ng thy phn xy ra.
Ta xc nh anlyl clorua dn xut halogen d b thy phn nht ri sau n etyl
bromua, cn li l clobenzen.
Vy ta xc nh c cc ha cht trong mi l nh sau:
Page:37

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Ln lt cho cc mu ng dn xut trn un si vi nc, gn tch b lp hu c,


nh tip dung dch AgNO3. Mu cho kt ta trng l mu anlyl clorua, nhn bit

c.

. CH2=CHCH2-Cl + H2O CH2=CHCH2-OH + HCl

HCl + AgNO3 AgCl + HNO3

T
N

un si 2 mu etyl bromua v clobenzen cn li vi dung dch NaOH,gn tch b

lp nc, axit ha bng HNO3, nh tip dung dch AgNO3. Mu cho kt ta vng

nht l mu etyl bromua, nhn bit c. Mu khng cho hin tng g l mu etyl

bromua

.Q

t0
CH3-CH2Br + NaOH
CH3-CH2OH + NaBr

TP

NaOH + HNO3 NaNO3 + H2O

NaBr + HNO3 NaNO3 + HBr

HBr + AgNO3 AgBr vng + HNO3

V d 2: Khi cho cht X c CTPT C3H5Br3 tc dng vi dd NaOH d thu c

cht hu c Y c phn ng vi Na v phn ng trng gng. Xc nh cng thc

TR

cu to thu gn ca X .

0B

Hng dn gii

10
0

Nhn xt: Thy phn dn xut halogen no cho sn phm khc ancol, chng t

2+
3

ancol khng bn do c t 2 nhm OH hoc 3 nhm OH lin kt trc tip vi 1

nguyn t cacbon. Da vo sn phm hu c X c phn ng vi Na v phn ng

trng bc ta suy ra CTCT ca X.

X : C3H5Br3 (dn xut halogen no) tc dng vi dd NaOH d, y l phn ng

-L

thy phn dn xut halogen. Sn phm Y thu c c phn ng vi Na v phn

ng trng gng chng t Y c chc ru v c chc anehit (Y l ancol khng

B
ID

TO

bn tch 1 phn t H2O to chc anehit,1 nhm OH cn li lin kt vi mt C


khc)
Vy X c 2 nguyn t Br lin kt trc tip vi cacbon u mch, cn nguyn t
Br cn li lin kt vi 1 trong 2 nguyn t cacbon khc trong X.
Vy CTCT rt gn ca X l :
CHBr2- CHBr- CH3 hoc CHBr2- CH2- CH2Br
Page:38

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

V d 3: Hp cht hu c X c CTPT l C3H5Br3. Cho X tc dng vi dung dch

NaOH long d, un nng ri c cn dung dch thu c th cn li cht rn trong

c cha sn phm hu c ca natri Y.

Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra v xc nh cng thc cu to thu gn ca

X.

T
N

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: X : C3H5Br3.( dn xut halogen).Cho X tc dng vi dng dch NaOH

long d. y l phn ng thy phn dn xut halogen. Da vo d kin sn phm

thy phn c cht hu c ca Na. Ta bin lun cc CTCT c CTPT C3H5Br3 c

TP

.Q

phn ng thy phn tha mn bi ra.

- Nu X c 3 nguyn t Br lin kt trc tip vi 3 nguyn t cacbon. Sn phm

thy phn thu c l glixerol nn khng cha Na ( loi).

- Nu X c 2 nguyn t Br lin kt vi 1 nguyn t cacbon, 1 nguyn t Br lin kt

vi 1 cacbon khc. Sn phm thy phn thu c l hp cht hu c c 1 chc

anehit (ancol c 2 nhm OH lin kt trc tip vi 1 cacbon khng bn tch 1 phn

0B

TR

t H2O to ra anehit) v 1 chc ancol nn khng cha Na (loi )

10
0

- Nu X c 3 nguyn t Br lin kt trc tip vi 1 nguyn t cacbon. Sn phm

2+
3

thy phn thu c l axit propionic ( ancol c 3 nhm OH lin kt trc tip vi 1
cacbon khng bn tch 1 phn t H2O to axit cacboxylic). Axit propionic tc dng

vi NaOH d cho Natri propionat l hp cht cha Natri ( tha mn).

Vy CTCT thu gn ca X l: CBr3-CH2-CH3.

Cc phng trnh phn ng ha hc xy ra:

-L

3 NaBr
CBr3-CH2-CH3 + 3NaOH
HO-C(OH)2-CH2-CH3 CH3-CH2COOH +

B
ID

TO

H2O

CH3-CH2COOH + NaOH CH3-CH2COONa + H2O

Ch 4: Bi tp trc nghim
Cu 1: CH2=CHCH2Cl c tn gc chc l

A. Anlyl clorua.

B. Vinyl clorua

C. Propyl clorua.

D. 3-clopropen

Cu 2 :Nhn xt no sau y ko ng ?

Page:39

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A. Anlyl bromua d tham gia p th hn phenyl bromua


B.Vinyl clorua c th c iu ch t 1,2-icloetan

C. Etyl clorua thuc loi dx halogen bc II

Cu 3: Mt hp cht hu c X c CTGN l CH2Br v phn t khi bng 188

D. ng vi CTPT C3H5Br c 4 ng phn cu to

B. C2H4Br2 v 4 ng phn.

D. C3H6Br3 v 4 ng phn.

C. C2H4Br2 v 3 ng phn.

A. C2H4Br2 v 2 ng phn.

T
N

vC. CTPT v s ng phn ca X l:

Cu 4: S ng phn mch h ( k c ng phn hnh hc ) ca cht c CTPT l

B.3

C.4

D.5

TP

A.2

.Q

C3H5Br l :

C.4

B.3

Cu 6: S ng phn ca C4H9Br l:

B.2

C.3

D.5

A. 4

D.5

A.2

Cu 5: S ng ( k c ng phn hnh hc ) ca cht c CTPT l C3H5Br l :

CH3

B.

Br

C.

CHBr CH3

D.

10
0

Br

A.

0B

TR

Cu 7: Benzyl bromua c cng thc cu to no sau y?


CH2Br

2+
3

Cu 8: S ng phn bc I ca dn xut c cng thc phn t C4H9Cl l:

A. 1

B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

Cu 9: Cht no sau y khng phi l dn xut halogen ca hirocacbon:

A. CH2=CH-CH2-Br

D. C6H6Cl6

-L

C. CHCl2-CF2-O-CH3

B. Cl-CHBr-CF3

Cu 10: Sn phm chnh thu c khi cho 3-clo but-1-en tc dng vi HBr c tn

B
ID

TO

thay th l:

A.1-brom-3-clo butan.

B. 2-brom-3-clo butan

C. 2-brom-2-clo butan.

D. 2-clo-3-brom butan

Cu 11: Mt hp cht hu c Z c % khi lng ca C , H , Cl ln lt l :

14,28% ; 1,19% ; 84,53% . CTPT ca Z l :


A.CHCl2

B.C2H2Cl4

C.C2H4Cl2

D. mt kt qu khc

Page:40

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cu 12: S tch hiro halogenua ca dn xut halogen X c CTPT C4H9Cl cho 2

D.tert butyl clorua

C. iso- butyl clorua

Cu 13: C my dn xut C4H9Br khi td vi dd KOH+etanol trong mi trng hp

C. 1

D. 4

Cu 14: Theo danh php IUPAC dn xut halogen c cng thc cu to:

B. 2.

T
N

ch to ra anken duy nht ?


A. 3.

B.sec-butyl clorua .

A. n- butyl clorua

olefin ng phn, X l cht no trong nhng cht sau :

Cl-CH2-CH(CH3)-CHCl-CH3.
B. 2,4-iclo-3-metylbutan

C. 1,3-iclopentan

D. tn khc l.

TP

.Q

A. 1,3-iclo-2-metylbutan

Cu 15: Cho cc dn xut halogen sau: C2H5F (1); C2H5Br (2); C2H5I (3); C2H5Cl

(4) th t gim dn nhit si:

B. (1)>(4)>(2)>(3)

C. (1)>(2)>(3)>(4)

D. (3)>(2)>(1)>(4)

A. (3)>(2)>(4)>(1)

TR

Cu 16: Nh dung dch AgNO3 vo ng nghim cha mt t dn xut halogen

2+
3

C. khng c hin tng

10
0

A. Thot ra kh mu vng lc

0B

CH2=CHCH2Cl, lc nh c hin tng xy ra l:


B. xut hin kt ta trng
D. xut hin kt ta vng

Cu 17: Sn phm chnh ca phn ng tch HBr ca CH3-CH(CH3)-CHBr-CH3 l

B. 3-metylbut-2-en

C. 3-metyl-but-1-en

D. 2-metylbut-1-en

A. 2-metylbut-2-en

Cu 18: Cho cc cht sau : C6H5-CH2Cl ; CH3CHCl CH3 ; Br2CHCH3 ;

-L

CH2 = CH-CH2Cl . Tn gi ca cc cht trn ln lt l :

TO

A.benzyl clorua ; isopropyl clorua ;1,1-ibrometan ; anlyl clorua .

B
ID

B.benzyl clorua ;2-clopropan;1,2- ibrometan ;1-cloprop -2-en .

C.phenyl clorua;isopropylclorua; 1,1-ibrometan;1-cloprop-2-en


D.benzyl clorua;n-propyl clorua;1,1-ibrometan;1-cloprop-2-en.
Cu 19: Khi un nng dn xut halogen X vi dung dch NaOH to thnh hp cht

anehit axetic . Tn ca hp cht X l :


A. 1,2- ibrometan

B. 1,1- ibrometan .
Page:41

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

C. etyl clorua

D. A v B ng .

Cu 20: un nng 13,875 gam mt ankyl clorua Y vi dd NaOH , tch b lp hu

c, axit ha phn cn li bng dd HNO3, nh tip vo dd AgNO3 thy to thnh

C. C4H9Cl

D. C5H11Cl

B. C3H7Cl

A. C2H5Cl

21,525 gam kt ta. CTPT ca Y l :

T
N

Cu 21: t chy hon ton mt lng cht hu c cha C, H, Cl sinh ra 0,22 gam

CO2 v 0,09 gam H2O. Khi phn tch nh lng clo ca cng mt lng cht

bng dung dch AgNO3, ngi ta thu c 1,435 g AgCl. CTPT ca hp cht trn
C. C2H4Cl4

B. CH3Cl

D. C2H4Cl2

.Q

A. CH2Cl2

l:

TP

Cu 22: Khi cho toluen tc dng vi clo (trong iu kin thch hp) thu c cht

C. 4-clo toluen.

B. 3-clo toluen.

D. benzyl clorua.

A. 2-clo toluen.

no sau y khng phi l sn phm chnh?

Cu 23: un nng 3,57 gam hn hp A gm propyl clorua v phenyl clorua vi

dung dch NaOH long, va , sau thm tip dung dch AgNO3 n d vo hn

TR

hp sau phn ng thu c 2,87 gam kt ta. Khi lng phenyl clorua c trong

0B

hn hp l
B. 1,57 gam

C. 2 gam

10
0

A. 1 gam

D. 2,57 gam

2+
3

Cu 24: Phn tch hon ton 9,9g mt cht hu c A thu c CO2, H2O v HCl.

Dn ton b sn phm thu c qua dd AgNO3 d, thy thot ra mt kh duy nht

c th tch bng 4,48 lt (ktc). Khi lng bnh ng tng thm 9,1g v c 28,7g

kt ta trng. Bit trong phn t A c cha 2 nguyn t clo. CTPT ca A l


B. C2H4Cl2.

C. C3H4Cl2.

D. C3H6Cl2

A. CH2Cl2.

-L

Cu 25: Mt hirocacbon X cng hp vi axit HCl theo t l mol 1:1 to sn phm

TO

l mt dn xut clorua ca hirocacbon X c thnh phn khi lng ca clo l

B
ID

45,223%. Vy cng thc phn t ca X l:


A. C3H6

B. C3H4

C. C2H4

D.C4H8

Cu 26: un nng 27,4 gam CH3CHBrCH2CH3 vi KOH d trong C2H5OH, sau

khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c hn hp kh X gm 2 olefin trong sn


phm chnh chim 80%, sn phm ph chim 20%. t chy hon ton X thu c
bao nhiu lt CO2?
Page:42

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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A. 4,48 lt

B. 8,96 lt

C. 11,2 lt

D. 17,92 lt.

2.2.2.2. Bi tp v ancol

Ch 1: Vit phng trnh biu din bin ho v iu ch

- HS phi c kin thc tng hp, nm vng tnh cht ho hc ca ancol, ca cc

Yu cu:

T
N

cht hu c hc v phng php iu ch cc cht hu c c bn.

- Nm c mi lin h gia cc cht hu c.

V d 1 :

Cho cc cht sau: C6H5OH, C2H5OH, CH3COOH, C2H5ONa, C6H5ONa.

.Q

Nhng cp no phn ng c vi nhau. Gii thch v vit phng trnh

TP

phn ng.

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: Ta so snh tnh axit ca cc hp cht c tnh axit, axit mnh y c

ancol v axit hu c c phn ng este ha.

axit yu hn ra khi mui ca n. T vit c mt s phn ng, ngoi ra

TR

Do ( tnh axit) tnh linh ng ca nguyn t H tng dn t C2H5OH

0B

C6H5OH
CH3COOH. Do c cc phn ng sau:
0

10
0

t
CH3COOH + C6H5ONa
CH3COONa + C6H5OH
0

2+
3

t
C6H5OH + C2H5ONa
C6H5ONa + C2H5OH
0

t
CH3COOH + C2H5ONa
CH3COONa + C2H5OH

H2SO4 c

CH3COOH + C2H5OH 0
CH3COO C2H5 + H2O

V d 2. Vit cc phng trnh thc hin cc chuyn ho sau:

-L

a) CH3CH2CH2Br thnh CH3CHBrCH3

B
ID

TO

b) (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH thnh (CH3)2C(OH)CH2CH3


Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: Chuyn dn xut halogen bc I thnh dn xut halogen bc II ta dng

phng php l tch HX sau cng HX. Tng t mun chuyn ancol bc I thnh
ancol bc II cn tch H2O sau cng H2O.
a) CH3- CH2 CH2- Br

+KOH/ C2H5OH
- HBr

CH3- CH= CH2

+ HBr
Page:43

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

CH3 CH = CH2 + HBr > CH3CHBrCH3


(CH3)2CHCH = CH2

+ H2O

- H2O

H2SO4

(CH3)2C=CHCH3

H
T
N

+ H2O

(CH3)2C=CHCH3

- H2O

H2SO4

+ H+

(CH3)2C(OH)CH2CH3

.Q

+ H2O

(CH3)2CH CH(OH)CH3

+ H+

(CH3)2CHCH(OH)CH3

+ H2O

(CH3)2CHCH = CH2

(CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH

b)

TP

V d 3: Hon thnh s phn ng sau (cc ch ci ch cc sn phm chnh)

H+

H2O

H2O

Hng dn gii

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

H+

H2O

+ HCl
B +KOH, etanol C
D
(3)
(4)
(7) + NaOH (8)
(9) + NaOH
+ H2O

CH3CHCH2CH2Cl +KOH, etanol A + HCl


|
(1), t0
(2)
CH3 (5) + NaOH
(6) + H O

(1) (CH3)2CHCH2CH2Cl (CH3)2CHCH=CH2 + HCl

(A)

-L

(2) (CH3)2CHCH=CH2 + HCl > (CH3)2CHCHClCH3 (B)


+KOH / C2H5OH

(CH3)2C=CHCH3 + HCl
(C)

(4) (CH3)2C=CHCH3 + HCl > (CH3)2CClCH2CH3 (D)

B
ID

TO

(3) (CH3)2CHCHClCH3

(5) (CH3)2CHCH2CH2Cl + NaOH > (CH3)2CHCH2CH2OH + NaCl


(E)
(6) (CH3)2CHCH=CH2

H
(CH3)2CHCH(OH)CH3
+ H2O

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

(G)
(7) (CH3)2CHCHClCH3 + NaOH > (CH3)2CHCH(OH)CH3 + NaCl

(CH3)2C(OH)CH2CH3

+H

+ H2O

(8) (CH3)2C=CHCH3

(H)
+

(K)

+ CuO, t0

+ H2O, OH-

anehit 2 chc

TP

.Q

C3H6Br2

+ Br2, d

V d 4: Cho s chuyn ho sau:


M

(CH3)2C(OH)CH2CH3 + NaCl

T
N

(9) (CH3)2CClCH2CH3 + NaOH

(I)
t0

Xc nh cng thc cu to ca M, N v hon thnh s phn ng

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: Da vo chui bin ha: Phn ng u ca chui chng t M l

hp cht hu c cha 3 C. Hai phn ng cn li ca chui chng t N l ancol hai

TR

chc c 2 nhm OH lin kt vi 2 C u mch.

0B

N: HOCH2 CH2 CH2OH

Br2 > Br- CH2 CH2 CH2 -Br

2+
3

10
0

M: Xiclopropan

Br CH2 CH2 CH2 Br + 2NaOH > HO CH2 CH2 CH2- OH

-L

+ 2 NaBr
0

TO

t
HO CH2 CH2 CH2-OH +2CuO
HOC CH2 CHO + 2Cu + 2H2O

. Cho s chuyn ho

B
ID

V d 5. .

X (C4H10O)

- H2O, H2SO4

X1

+ Br2

X2

+ H2O, OH+ CuO, t0

X3
ixeton

Xc nh cng thc cu to ca X v hon thnh s phn ng


Page:45

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Hng dn gii
Nhn xt: Da vo chui bin ha nhn thy X, X1, X2, X3 phn t co 4 C. X3 l

ancol c 2 nhm OH lin kt Vi C s 2 v 3. X1 phi l but-2-ol

CH3- CHBr CHBr CH3

H
N
B

+ Br2

CH3- CH= CH- CH3 + H2O

T
N

CH3- CH= CH- CH3

- H2O, 1800C, H2SO4

CH3 CH( OH) CH2 CH3

X: CH3 CH( OH) CH2 CH3

CH3 CH(OH) CH(OH) CH3 + 2NaBr

CH3- CHBr CHBr CH3 + 2 NaOH

.Q

CH3CH(OH)CH(OH)CH3+2CuO

+ 2Cu + 2H2O

TP

CH3 C - C - CH3
|| ||
O O

Ch 2: Bin lun l thuyt xc nh CTPT, CTCT ca ancol

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu

HS nm vng nh ngha, phn loi, cu to ca ancol.

TR

Nm vng cc cng thc ca ancol: CTPT, CTTN...

0B

Nm vng tnh cht ho hc ca ancol.

10
0

Trong bin lun tm CT ca ancol, ta c th s dng phng php chung

2+
3

tm CT ca cht hu c:

- Phng php tnh s lin kt :

S lin kt trong CxHyOzNtClu =

2x y u + t + 2
2

Phng php chuyn CT nguyn thnh cng thc cha nhm chc cn xc

-L

nh. Theo phng php ny, ta tch t cng thc nguyn mt s nguyn t hp

TO

thnh nhm chc cn xc nh.

B
ID

V d cng thc nguyn ca mt ancol l (CH3O)n CnH2n(OH)n

- Trong ancol (n hoc a chc) CxHyOz bao gi chng ta cng c iu kin:


y 2x + 2

(y lun l s chn)

- c bit trong ancol a chc: s nhm OH s nguyn t C.


- CTTQ ca ancol no, n chc, mch h l: CnH2n+2O (n 1)

Page:46

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

V d 1 Ancol no, a chc mch h X c cng thc thc nghim (CH3O)n. CTPT

ca X l:
D. C4H12O4.

C. C2H6O2

B. C3H8O3

A. CH4O

Hng dn gii:

Cch 1:

T
N

Cng thc thc nghim X (CH3O)n hay CnH3nOn.

Theo iu kin ha tr ta c: 3n 2n +2 n 2

M n nguyn dng n = 1 hoc 2.

TP

+) Nu n = 2 CTPT ca X l: C2H6O2 (nhn)

.Q

+) Nu n = 1 CTPT ca X l: CH3O (s nguyn t H l: loi)

Cch 2:

Cng thc tng qut ca ancol no, a chc l: CnH2n+2Ox.

TR

Ta cng c cng thc thc nghim X (CH3O)n hay CnH3nOn.

0B

n = x v 3n = 2n + 2;

10
0

n = x = 2 CTPT ca X l: C2H6O2 (nhn)

2+
3

V d 2:

Trong dung dch ancol B chim 94% theo khi lng. Bit t l s mol ancol : nc

Hng dn gii

= 43 : 7. Tm CTCT ca ancol B.

-L

B c CTPT l CxHyOz vi z x

% CxHyOz =

M ancol .43
. 100 = 94 %
M ancol .43 + 18.7

B
ID

TO

Gi s s mol ca ancol l 43 mol th s mol ca nc l 7 mol. Theo bi ra ta c :

MB = 46 hay 12x + y + 16z = 46g.

Bin lun :
TH1 Nu z = 1 th 12x + y = 30 ( z x, y 2x + 2 )

Page:47

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

18

6 ( tho mn)

-6

14
< 2 (loi).
12

T
N

x<

TH2 Nu z = 2 th 12x + y = 14 ( z x, y 2x + 2 )

Vy CTCT ca B : CH3CH2OH

V d: 3

Bin lun xc nh CTPT ca ancol c cng thc nguyn sau:

.Q

(C2H5O)n.

TP

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: lm dng bi tp ny chng ta cn ch trong mt phn t

ancol s nguyn t H lun b hn hoc bng hai ln s nguyn t C cng vi hai.

T CTTN l (C2H5O)n suy ra CTPT ca ancol l: C2nH4n(OH)n


n = 1 C2H5O loi

0B

n = 2 C4H10O2 tho mn.

TR

iu kin: 4n 2 x 2n + 2 - n n 2

10
0

V d 4:

2+
3

Mt hp cht c CTPT C4H8O c th lm mt mu dung dch brm, khi tc

dng vi Na gii phng kh H2 v khi oxi ho mt cch nh nhng thn trng ngi
Hng dn gii

ta thu c anhit vinyl axetic. Hy suy ra cu to ca cht ban u.

-L

Nhn xt: Bi ton ny yu cu HS nm c phn ng ca ancol vi kim

B
ID

TO

loi kim v phn ng oxi ho nh ca ancol bc mt, ancol bc hai.


ng vi CTPT C4H8O, phn ng c vi Na gii phng kh H2 th hp cht

cho phi thuc loi ancol. V oxi ho nh ancol trn thu c anhit suy ra y

l ancol bc mt.
CTCT ca cht ban u l: CH2= CH- CH2- CH2OH
V d 5:

Cho 2 cht A v B c cng cng thc phn t C3H8O2, cha mt loi nhm chc l
ng phn ca nhau v u tc dng vi natri kim loi gii phng kh hiro. A tc

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

dng vi ng (II) hiroxit to thnh dung dch mu xanh lam, cn B khng c tnh
cht ny.

a) Gi tn A v B.

b) Vit cc phng trnh ha hc iu ch A, B t hirocacbon thch hp.

T
N

a) A, B ch cha mt loi nhm chc, tc dng c vi natri chng t chng u

Hng dn gii

l ancol hai chc C3H6(OH)2. A tc dng vi ng (II) hiroxit to thnh dung dch

mu xanh lam chng t 2 nhm OH ca A nm 2 cacbon cnh nhau, cn B khng

c tnh cht ny nn 2 nhm OH ca B lin kt vi 2 cacbon khng k nhau. Do :

.Q

CTCT ca A: CH3CHOHCH2OH (propan-1,2-iol).

b) T propilen iu ch A

TP

CTCT ca B HOCH2CH2CH2OH (propan-1,3-iol).

CH2=CHCH3 + Br2 BrCH2CHBrCH3

BrCH2CH2BrCH3 + 2NaOH HOCH2CHOHCH3 + 2NaBr

TR

CH2-CH2 + Br2 BrCH2CH2CH2Br

T xiclopropan iu ch B

0B

CH2

10
0

BrCH2CH2CH2Br + 2NaOH HOCH2CH2CH2OH + 2NaBr

2+
3

V d 6:

Cho cc ancol mch h c cng thc phn t C3H8Ox.

a)Vit cng thc cu to ca cc ancol v gi tn ca chng.

b) Trong cc ancol , cht no tc dng vi ng (II) hiroxit to thnh dung dch

-L

mu xanh lam?

Hng dn gii

TO

Nhn xt: Bi tp ny HS phi xc nh vi CTPT nh trn th cc ancol tng ng

B
ID

u l ancol no v s nguyn t oxy trong mt phn t ancol phi b hn hoc bng

s nguyn t cc bon bi v mt nguyn t cc bon ch lin kt c ti a l mt


nhm OH.
Nn x ch c cc gi tr 1 hoc 2 hoc 3.
Vi x=1 hoc 2 hoc 3 th tng ng ta c 3 cng thc phn t ca ancol:
C3H8O, CTCT l C3H7OH;
Page:49

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

C3H8O2, CTCT l C3H6(OH)2;


C3H8O3, CTCT l C3H5(OH)3;

Cc ng phn ng vi CTPT C3H7OH

H
N

Tn : propan-2-ol;

CH3CHOHCH3

CH3CH2CH2OH Tn : propan-1-ol;

Tn : propan-1,2-iol

CH3-CHOH-CH2OH.

Tn : propan-1,3-iol

HOCH2-CH2-CH2OH

T
N

Cc ng phn ng vi CTPT C3H6(OH)2

ng phn ng vi CTPT C3H5(OH)3

.Q

HOCH2CHOHCH2OH Tn : propan-1,2,3-triol ( glixerol).

TP

b) Trong cc ancol trn c :

CH3-CHOH-CH2OH. ( propan-1,2-iol) v HOCH2CHOHCH2OH

(propan-

1,2,3-triol hay glixerol). Hai ancol ny phn t c 2 nhm OH lin kt vi 2 nguyn

t cacbon cnh nhau nn s tc dng c vi ng (II) hiroxit.

V d 7.

TR

Bin lun xc nh cng thc phn t ca cc cht c cng thc n gin nht

Hng dn gii

2+
3

b)C4H9ClO l ancol no.

10
0

a) C2H5O l ancol no a chc

0B

sau y:

Nhn xt:a) T CTGN nhn vi h s n ta c CTPT. Thit lp CTPT ca

ancol no a chc. Lp h phng trnh bng cho s nguyn t C, H, O hai cng

-L

thc bng nhau. Gii h phng trnh tm c n.


b) T CTGN nhn vi h s n ta c CTPT . Bit s lin kt bi

TO

bng khng. Lp cng thc tnh lin kt bi bng khng n theo h s n. Gii

B
ID

phng trnh tm c h s n.

a) Cng thc phn t c dng (C2H5O)n hay C2nH5nOn.


V ancol no a chc nn CTPT c dng : CmH2m+2Ox
Nn:

Page:50

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

n = x = 2;

m = 2 n

2 m + 2 = 5n
x = n

CTPT : C4H10O2.

b) Cng thc phn t c dng (C4H9ClO )n hay C4nH9nClnOn

Ta a v dng cng thc tng qut CxHyOzClt

2x + 2 ( y + t)
2.4n + 2 9n n
=
= (1- n) =0 n= 1
2
2

a=

T
N

V ancol no nn s lin kt trong phn t a =0)

Vy CTPT : C4H9ClO

.Q

V d 8.

TP

Ha hi hon ton 7,6g ancol a chc X trong bnh kn dung tch 2,8 lt 109,20C,

p sut trong bnh l 1,12 atm. Tm cng thc phn t, vit cc cng thc cu to

c th c ca X.

Hng dn gii

TR

tm CTPT ancol a chc khi bit M.

Nhn xt: Da vo d kin bi V, t0, p xc nh, tm c nX MX. Bin lun

0B

10
0

7,6
= 76 (g)
0,1

MX =

1,12.2,8
PV
=
= 0,1 mol
RT
0,082.382,2

2+
3

nancol X =

t cng thc tng qut ca X l CxHyOz (z 2)

Ta c 12x + y + 16z = 76g.

-L

V z 2 nn 12x+y 44 x 3,67

iu kin: 2 x 3,67; y 2x + 2; y chn;

B
ID

TO

Nu z= 2 th 12x + y = 44 ;
x

20

8
(tha mn)

Nu z=3 th 12x + y = 28; x< 3, vy x < z (loi).


Vy X : C3H8O2
Page:51

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cc cng thc thc cu to c th ca X l:


HOCH2-CH2-CH2OH; CH3-CHOH-CH2OH.

Ch 3 Xc nh s ng phn ca ancol no n chc

S ng phn ancol no n chc: 2n-2 (vi n l s nguyn t C trong ancol)

V d 1:

T
N

Ancol c CTPT C3H8O c bao nhiu ng phn?

Ancol c CTPT C4H10O c bao nhiu ng phn?

Ancol c CTPT C5H12O c bao nhiu ng phn?

Hng dn gii

S ng phn ancol c CTPT C3H8O : 23-2= 21=2.

S ng phn ancol c CTPT C4H10O : 24-2 = 22= 4.

TP

chc. Lp cng thc s ng phn ancol no n chc l 2n-2.

.Q

Xc nh c cc ancol c CTPT C3H8O, C4H10O, C5H12O u l ancol no, n

S ng phn ancol c CTPT C5H12O : 25-2= 23= 8.

Ch 4 :

TR

Da vo tnh cht ha hc thit lp cng thc phn t v cng thc cu to

10
0

0B

ca ancol.

Dng 1: Gii ton da vo phn ng th nguyn t H trong nhm OH.

2+
3

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu

- Cho ancol hoc hn hp ancol tc dng vi Na, K ... thu c mui ancolat v H2.

R(OH)a + aNa R(OH)a +

a
H2 (1)
2

-L

=> nacol = 2nH2/a

+) Nu

B
ID

TO

Da vo t l s mol gia ancol v H2 xc nh s lng nhm chc.

=> M C H
n

2 n +1OH

nH 2
nancol

1
ancol n chc nancol = 2n H 2
2

mamcol
M 18
= 14n + 18 => n=
;
14
n ancol

Nu cho hn hp 2 ancol lin tip th s dng cng thc trung bnh

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L Th Thanh H

nancol

Nu nH 2 nancol ( A ) ancol ( A) a chc

nH 2

= 1 ancol 2 chc.
3
ancol 3 chc.
2

nancol

+) Nu

nH 2

+) Nu

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Lu :
nancol

1
trong hn
2

>

T
N

nH 2

+) Nu cho hn hp 2 ancol tc dng vi Na, K m

hp 2 ancol t nht c 1 ancol a chc.


2

+) Trong phn ng th ca ancol vi Na, K ta lun c: nNa = 2nH

TP

.Q

+) gii nhanh bi tp dng ny nn p dng cc phng php nh:

nh lut bo ton khi lng, phng php tng gim khi lng, phng

php trung bnh ...

- LBTKL : mancol + mNa = mmui + mH2

V d 1: Cho 15,6 gam hn hp 2 ancol n chc, k tip nhau trong dy ng

D. C3H7OH v C4H9OH

2+
3

10
0

C. C3H5OH v C4H7OH

B. C2H5OH v C3H7OH

0B

A. CH3OH v C2H5OH

TR

ng tc dng ht vi 9,2 gam Na, thu c 24,5 gam cht rn. Hai ancol l:

Hng dn gii:

Nhn xt: Bi ny cn lu chng ta d nhm l Na phn ng cng va ht. T

tm s mol ancol theo natri, nh th s dn n sai.

y Na c th va ht hoc d. Ta p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng tm

-L

s mol H2, sau tm s mol ancol theo s mol H2

B
ID

TO

p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng ta c:

nH 2 =

mancol + mNa = mcht

rn

+ mH mH = 15,6 + 9,2 24,5 = 0,3 (g)


2

0, 3
= 0,15 mol
2

Phng trnh phn ng: 2 ROH + 2 Na 2 ROH + H 2


0,3 mol

0,15 mol

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L Th Thanh H
M ROH =

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

15, 6
= 52 M R = 35
0,3

CTPT ca 2 ancol c th c vit chung l: CnH2n+ 1OH ( n> 1);

14n +1 = 35 n= 2,428

2 ancol k tip l C2H5OH v C3H7OH

T
N

V d 2:

Cho 2,84 gam hn hp X gm 2 ancol no, n chc l ng ng k tip nhau tc

dng va vi Na to ra 4,6 gam cht rn v V lt kh H2 (ktc).

B. 0,448; C2H6O, C3H8O

.Q

A. 0,896 ; C2H6O, C3H8O

Gi tr ca V v CTPT ca 2 ancol l:
D. 0,672; C3H8O, C4H10O

TP

C.0,896; CH4O, C2H6O

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: Phn ng gia X v Na l va , mt khc bi cho khi lng

ca X v Na. Ta s dng phng php tng gim khi lng.

Gi cng thc chung ca hn hp gm 2 ancol no, n chc X l CnH2n+1OH


1
H2
2

0B

TR

Phng trnh ha hc: CnH2n+1OH + Na CnH2n+1ONa +

10
0

C 1 mol CnH2n+1OH phn ng vi Na to ra 1 mol CnH2n+1ONa khi lng tng

2+
3

ln 22 g.

Theo bi ra khi lng tng l : 4,6- 2,84 = 1,76 g.


1,76
= 0,08 (mol);
22

nC n H 2 n +1OH =

n H 2 = 0,04 (mol) V H 2 = 0,04.22,4 = 0,896 (lt).

-L

Vy p n ng l C hoc A

B
ID

TO

V: M C H
n

2 n +1OH

2,84
M 18
= 35,5 n=
= 1,25
14
0,08

Vy CTPT ca 2 ancol l: CH4O v C2H6O.


p n ng l C.

V d 3:

Cho 12,8 gam dung dch glixerol trong nc c nng 71,875% tc dng ht vi
mt lng d Na thu c V lt kh H2 ( ktc). Tm gi tr ca V ?
Page:54

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Hng dn gii
12,8 . 71,875
= 9,2 (gam)
100

9,2
= 0,1 (mol)
92

nC3H 5 ( OH )3 =

1. m C H ( OH ) =

H
T
N

3,6
= 0,2 (mol)
18

n H 2O =

mH 2O =12,8 9,2 = 3,6 (gam)

T (1) v (2):

H2

N
Y
U

H2 (2)

TP

2Na
2NaOH
= 0,25 (mol)

(1)

2H2O

3
H2
2

.Q

C3H5(OH)3 + 3Na
C3H5(ONa)3 +

Ta c phng trnh phn ng

V H 2 (ktc) = 0,25 . 22,4 = 5,6 (lt)

Dng 2: Gii ton da vo phn ng t chy.

TR

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu

0B

Phn ng chy ca ancol

10
0

* Gi cng thc ca ancol l CnH2n+2-2a-m(OH)m hay CnH2n+2-2aOm


t0
3n + 1 a x O
nCO2 + (n+1-a)H2O
2
2

2+
3

CnH2n+2- 2aOx

Theo nh lut bo ton nguyn t oxi ta c:

n +1 a
1 a
= 1+
> 1 a= 0 .
n
n

-L

n H 2O

nO ( ancol ) + nO ( O2 ) = nO ( CO2 ) + nO (CO2 ) + nO ( H 2O )

nCO2

B
ID

TO

ancol no, mch h c CTTQ CnH2n+2 Ox

* t chy ancol no, mch h:


CnH2n+2Ox +

3n + 1 x
nCO2 + (n+1) H2O
2

Ta lun c:
nH 2O > nCO2 v nancol = nH 2O nCO2

Page:55

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

* t chy ancol no, n chc, mch h

3n
O2 nCO2 + (n+1) H2O
2

CnH2n+2O +

Ta lun c:

nH 2O > nCO2 v nancol = nH 2O nCO2

T
N

3
nCO
2 2

nO2 phn ng =

- Nu: nH O > nCO (A) l ancol no: CnH2n+2Ox v nancol = nH O nCO


2

* Lu : Khi t chy mt ancol (A):

TP

.Q

- Nu: nH O = nCO (A) l ancol cha no (c mt lin kt ): CnH2nOx


2

- Nu: nH O < nCO (A) l ancol cha no c t nht 2 lin kt tr ln: CTTQ:
2

CnH2n+2-2kOx (vi k2)

V d 1:

t chy hon ton mt ancol X thu c CO2 v H2O c t l s mol tng ng 3:

TR

4. Th tch O2 cn dng t chy X bng 1,5 ln th tch kh CO2 thu c (

10
0

0B

cng u kin). Cng thc phn t ca X l:


A. C3H8O2

C. C3H4O

D. C3H8O

2+
3

B. C3H8O3

(Trch TSH C khi A 2007)

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: Da vo t l mol ca CO2 v H2O b hn 1. Suy ra ancol X no. t

CTPT ca ancol no, da vo t l mol O2 v CO2 v t l mol ca CO2 v H2O . Tm

-L

c CTPT ca X.

TO

Sn phm ca phn ng t chy ancol X l CO2 v H2O c t l s mol tng ng

3: 4. C ngha nH O > nCO . X l ancol no.


2

t CTPT ca X: CnH2n+2Ox v nancol = nH O nCO


2

B
ID

CnH2n+2Ox +

3n + 1 x
O2 nCO2 + (n+1)H2O
2

Page:56

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L Th Thanh H

3n + 1 x
= 1,5n x=1
2

VO2 = 1,5 VCO2

n
3
= n=3
n +1 4

n H 2O

nCO2

Theo bi ra:

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Vy X: l acol no, n chc c 3cacbon trong phn t.

T
N

CTPT X: C3H8O

p n ng l D.

V d 2:

t chy hon ton 0,05 mol ru no X mch h cn 5,6 gam oxy to ra 6,6 gam

TP

.Q

CO2. Xc nh cng thc cu to thu gn ca X.

Cch 1: Gi cng thc ca X l CxHy(OH)z vi z x

Hng dn

Phn ng chy

y+z z
y+z
)O2
)H2O
xCO2 + (
4
2
2

0,175
0,15
=3
0,05

y+z z
0,175
=
= 3,5
4
2
0,05

x+

0,15

2+
3

x=

=>

10
0

0,05

y+z z

4
2

TR

x+

0B

CxHy(OH)z + ( x +

V X l ru no nn: y + z = 2x +2 thay vo ta c
x+2 z
z
- = 3,5 => z = 3
4
2 2

Vy X: C3H5(OH)3
Cch 2:

B
ID

TO

-L

x+

X l CnH2n+2Ox + (
1
0,05

3n + 1 x
)O2
nCO2 + (n+1) H2O
2

3n + 1 x
2

0,175

n
0,15
Page:57

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L Th Thanh H

Ta c:

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

1
n
=
n =3
0,05 0,15

1
3n + 1 x
vi n = 3 => x = 3. Cng thc X: C3H5(OH)3
=
0,05
2 . 0,175

Cng thc cu to ca X: CH2(OH) CH(OH) - CH2(OH)

Dng 3: Gii ton da vo phn ng tch H2O

T
N

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu

1. Tch nc to anken: xc tc H2SO4 c to 170oC

- Nu mt ancol tch nc cho ra 1 anken duy nht ancol l ancol no n

.Q

chc c s C 2.

TP

- Nu mt hn hp 2 ancol tch nc cho ra mt anken duy nht trong hn hp

2 ancol phi c ancol metylic (CH3OH) hoc 2 ancol l ng phn ca nhau.

- Ancol bc bao nhiu, tch nc cho ra ti a by nhiu anken khi tch nc

mt ancol cho mt anken duy nht th ancol l ancol bc 1 hoc ancol c cu to

i xng cao.

TR

- Trong phn ng tch nc to anken ta lun c:

10
0

0B

nancol = nanken = nH 2O

2+
3

mancol = manken + mH 2O

2. Tch nc to ete: xc tc H2SO4 c to = 140oC

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu


n( n + 1)
ete, trong c n phn t ete i
2

-L

xng.

- Tch nc t n phn t ancol cho ra

B
ID

TO

- Trong phn ng tch nc to ete ta lun c:


nancol bi ete hoa = 2nete = 2nH 2O

mancol = mete + mH 2O

- Nu hn hp cc ete sinh ra c s mol bng nhau th hn hp cc ancol ban u


cng c s mol bng nhau.

Page:58

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

* Lu : Trong phn ng tch nc ca ancol X, nu sau phn ng thu c cht

MY
> 1 cht hu c Y l ete.
MX

dY/X > 1 hay

MY
< 1 cht hu c Y l anken.
MX

T
N

dY/X < 1 hay

hu c Y m:

V d 1:

D. C4H10, C5H12O

C. C3H8O, C4H10O

.Q

B. C2H6O. C3H8O

TP

A. CH4O, C2H6O

ng lin tip c t khi hi i vi H2 l 23,8. CTPT ca 2 ancol l:

Kh nc hon ton hn hp hai ancol 1800 C ta c hn hp 2 anken ng

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: Tm M 2 anken suy ra M 2 ancol. Theo 4 p n th ancol no, n chc. Bin

lun tm CTPT ca 2 ancol.

TR

Gi cng thc chung ca 2 ancol l: CnH2n+2+O


0

47,6
= 3,4 . Vy CTPT ca 2 ancol l: C3H8O, C4H10O . p n C.
14

n=

2+
3

10
0

M Cn H 2 n = 2. 23,8 = 47,6 (g).

0B

,t
CnH2n+2+O HSO

CnH2n + H2O

V d 2:

Khi un nng ancol n chc X vi H2SO4 c 1400C thu c Y. T khi hi

-L

ca Y i vi X l 1,4375. xc nh X
B. CH3OH .

G
N

B
ID

C. C2H5OH . D. C4H9OH .
Hng dn gii

TO

A. C3H7OH .

Trong phn ng tch nc ca ancol X, nu sau phn ng thu c cht hu c


Y m: dY/X > 1 hay

MY
> 1 cht hu c Y l ete.
MX
0

,t
2CnH2n +1 OH HSO

CnH2n+1OCnH2n+1
2

Page:59

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh


MY
= 1,4375 nn ta c :
MX

T khi hi ca Y i vi X l 1,4375 hay dY/X =

28n + 18
=1,4375 n=1.
14n + 18

Vy p n ng l: B

T
N

un nng 132,8g hn hp 3 ancol no, n chc vi H2SO4, 140oC thu c hn

V d 3:

hp cc ete c s mol bng nhau v c tng khi lng 111,2gam. S mol ca mi

C. 0,5; 0,25

D. 0,1; 0,4

B. 0,2; 0,8

.Q

A. 1,2; 0,6

ete v s mol ca mi ancol l?

TP

Hng dn gii

n( n + 1)
ete, trong c n phn
2

Nhn xt: - Tch nc t n phn t ancol cho ra

3. 4
= 6 ete
2

t ete i xng. Vy un nng 3 ancol ta thu c:

- Trong phn ng tch nc to ete ta lun c:

0B

TR

nancol bi ete hoa = 2nete = 2nH 2O

21,6
= 1,2 =
18

n H 2O =

ancol

ete

ete

1,2
= 0,2 (mol)
6

-L

S mol ca mi ete:

= 132,8- 111,2 = 21,6 (g).

2+
3

H 2O

10
0

mancol = mete + mH 2O

ancol

= 2. 1,2 = 2,4 (mol).

cng c s mol bng nhau

B
ID

TO

- Nu hn hp cc ete sinh ra c s mol bng nhau th hn hp cc ancol ban u

S mol ca mi ancol =

2. 4
= 0,8 (mol);
3

p n ng l B.
Dng 4: Phn ng oxi ha khng hon ton

Page:60

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu

- Tc nhn oxi ha ancol thng l : CuO (t0); O2(xt,t0)

O]
+ Ancol bc 1 [
anehit

+ Ancol bc 3 kh b oxi ha ( coi nh khng b oxi ha), khi b oxi ha s t

O]
+ Ancol bc 2 [
xeton.

T
N

mch cacbon cho nhiu sn phm khc nhau.

- Trong phn ng oxi ha bng CuO (t0) .

+ mCuO gim = mO(CuO) phn ng

.Q

+ Vi ancol n chc: nancol phn ng = nCuO phn ng = nO (CuO) phn ng

TP

+ Khi lng hn hp hi k c H2O sau phn ng tng so vi khi lng ancol

ban u = mCuO gim = mO(CuO) phn ng.


0

AgNO / NH ,t
CuO.t
- Hn hp ancol n chc (X) +

Hn hp Y +

Ag.
3

+ Nu nAg > 2nancol X cha CH3OH ( Ring 1 mol HCHO tc dng AgNO3/NH3

cho ra 4mol Ag)

0B

TR

+ Nu nAg < 2nancol X c t nht 1 ancol khng phi bc 1

10
0

V d 1:

2+
3

Oxi ha ht 2,2 gam hn hp hai ancol n chc thnh anehit cn va 4,8 gam

CuO. Cho ton b anehit trn tc dng vi lng d dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3

thu c 23,76 gam Ag. Hai ancol l :

A. C2H5OH, C2H5CH2OH

D. CH3OH, C2H5OH
Hng dn gii

-L

C.CH3OH, C2H5CH2OH

B. C2H5OH,C3H7CH2OH

CH3OH. t s mol ca 2 ancol trong X. Lp h 2 phng trnh da vo bit nX =

nCuO v nAg. Tm c s mol 2 ancol s tm c ancol cn li trong X.

B
ID

TO

Nhn xt: Mu cht l: nAg > 2nancol m cc ancol u n chc nn X phi cha

Vi ancol n chc: nancol phn ng = nCuO phn ng=


nAg=

4,8
= 0,06 (mol).
80

23,76
= 0,22(mol).
108

Page:61

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Nhn thy nAg > 2nancol X cha CH3OH. Loi phng n A v B.


Nhn xt : Cc ancol trong 4 phng n u l ancol bc nht. Nn oxi ha u to

ra anhit.
0

4x mol

x mol

AgNO / NH ,t
CuO.t
CH3OH +

HCHO +

4Ag

2y mol

y mol

T
N

AgNO / NH ,t
CuO.t
RCH2OH +

RCHO +

2Ag

Theo bi ra ta c:

mancol = 32.0,05+(R+31).0,01=2,2 R= 29 (-C2H5).

TP

.Q

x + y = 0,06
x = 0,05mol

4 x = 2 y = 0,22
b = 0,01mol

p n ng l C.

V d 2 :

Oxy ho 4 gam ancol n chc Z bng O2 (c mt xc tc) thu c 5,6 gam

TR

hn hp X gm andehyt, ru d v nc. Tm tn ca Z v hiu sut phn ng.

0B

Hng dn gii

10
0

1. Ancol Z oxy ho c anehit. Vy Z c dng RCH2OH

2+
3

Gi s mol RCH2OH b oxy ho l a mol

RCH2OH

0,5a

1
xt
O2
RCHO + H2O

t0
2

Theo phng trnh phn ng: nO phn ng = 0,5a

-L

mru ban u +

mO2 phn ng = m hn hp X

TO

mO2 = 5,6 4 = 1,6

B
ID

nO2 =

Ta c: 0,5a = 0,05
0,1 . M RCH OH < 4
2

nru ban u =

1,6
= 0,05 mol
32

=> a = 0,1
=> M RCH OH < 40. l CH3OH
2

4
= 0,125 (mol)
32

Page:62

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

0,1
.100% = 80%
0,125

H=

Ch 5: Bi tp v ru, hiu sut ln men

Dng 1: Bi tp v ru

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu

T
N

- ru (ancol) l % th tch ca ancol nguyn cht trong dung dch ancol-

Vdd ancol

.100

Vancol nguyn cht

rou =

nc.

.Q

mdung dch = Vdung dch . D ( khi lng ring ca dung dch) ( D H O = 1)

TP

- Khi cho hn hp ancol v nc phn ng vi kim loi kim th nc phn ng

mnh hn do tnh axit ca nc mnh hn ru.

- Mun tng ru: thm ancol nguyn cht vo dung dch; mun gim ru:

thm nc vo dung dch ancol.

TR

V d 1: Cho 10 ml dung dch ancol etylic 460 phn ng ht vi kim loi Na ( d)

B. 3,360

2+
3

A. 0,896

10
0

bng 0,8 g/ml. Gi tr ca V l:

0B

thu c V lt kh H2 ( ktc). Bit khi lng ring ca ancol etylic nguyn cht
C. 4,256

D. 2,128

( Trch TTS vo cc trng cao ng 2010)

Hng dn gii

-L

Nhn xt:Lu l c ancol v H2O u tc dng vi Na.

B
ID

TO

VC2 H 5OH =

Tm nC H OH v n H O V H
2

10.4,6
= 4,6 (ml) mC2 H 5OH = 0,8 . 4.6 = 3,86 (g).
100

nC2 H 5OH =

3,68
= 0,08 (mol).
46

Mt khc : V H O = 10- 4,6 = 5,4 (ml) 5,4 (g).


2

n H 2O =

5,4
= 0,3 (mol).
18

Page:63

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Do dung dch ancol phn ng ht vi Na d th c nc v ancol u phn ng.

H
H

1
1
( n H 2O + nC2 H 5OH ) = .( 0.3 + 0,08) = 0,19 (mol).
2
2

T
N

nH2 =

1
H2
2

C2H5OH + Na C2H5ONa +

1
H2
2

H2O + Na NaOH +

V H 2 = 0,19. 22,4 = 4,256 (lt).

p n ng l C

.Q

V d 2: t chy hon ton 12,5 ml mt dung dch cn x0. Lng CO2 sinh ra cho

TP

qua dung dch Ca(OH)2 d thu c 40 gam kt ta. Bit khi lng ring ca
D.92

C. 90

B. 88

A. 86

C2H5OH bng 0,8 g/ml. Gi tr ca x l:

Hng dn gii

TR

0B

C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 + 3H2O

Phn ng t chy cn :

10
0

CO2 phn ng vi Ca(OH)2 d th sn phm thu c ch mui trung ha.

40
= 0,4 (mol).
100

nCO2 = nCaCO3 =

2+
3

Ca(OH)2 + CO2 CaCO3 + H2O

1
1
nCO2 = . 0,4 = 0,2 (mol)
2
2

nC2 H 5OH =

TO

-L

mC2 H 5OH = 0,2 . 46 = 9,2 (g) VC2 H 5OH =

B
ID

Vy x c gi tr :

VC2 H 5OH
VddC 2 H 5OH

. 100 =

m
9,2
=
= 11,5 (ml).
D
0.8

11,5
. 100= 920.
12.5

p n ng l D
Dng 2: Hiu sut ln men ru
V d 1:

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Khi ln men 360 gam glucoz vi hiu sut 100%, khi lng ancol etylic thu
c l
C. 92 gam.

D. 138 gam

B. 276 gam.

A. 184 gam

12 O6

n C2H5OH mC2 H 5OH

Nhn xt:Tm nC H

Hng dn gii

T
N

360
= 2 (mol).
180

nC 6 H12O6 (glucozo) =

H
N

4 mol

2 mol

C6H12O6 men
2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2

.Q

mC2 H 5OH = 4. 46 = 184 (g).

TP

p n ng l A

V d 2:

Cho 2,25 kg glucoz cha 20% tp cht tr ln men thnh ancol etylic. Trong qu
C. 1,242 kg

B. 0,828 kg

D. 0,46 kg

A. 0,92 kg

trnh ch bin ancol etylic b hao ht 10%. Khi lng ancol etylic thu c l:

TR

Hng dn gii

0B

Trong 2,25 kg glucoz cha 20% tp cht tr c khi lng nguyn cht:

10
0

80
1,8
= 1,8 kg nC 6H12O6 (glucozo) =
= 0,01 (Kmol).
100
180

2+
3

2,25.

C6H12O6 men
2C2H5OH + 2 CO2
0,01 (Kmol)

0,02 (Kmol)

Trong qu trnh ch bin ancol etylic b hao ht 10%.

-L

Vy khi lng ancol etylic thu c l:

0,02. 46.

90
= 0,828 ( kg).
100

B
ID

TO

p n ng l :B
V d 3:

Cho m gam glucoz ln men thnh ancol etylic. Kh sinh ra cho vo nuc vi trong
d thu c 120 gam kt ta, bit hiu sut qu trnh ln men t 60%. Gi tr m l:
A. 225

B. 112,5 g

C. 120 g

D. 180 g.

Hng dn gii

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

C6H12O6 men
2C2H5OH + 2CO2
Cho vo nuc vi trong d:

H
N

120
= 1,2 (mol)
100

1,2(mol)

CaCO3 + H2O

Ca(OH)2 + CO2

T
N

1
100
1
100
. nCO2 .
.180 = . 1,2 .
. 180 = 180 (g).
2
60
2
60

Vy m glucozo

Hiu sut qu trnh ln men t 60%.

p n ng l p n D.

Ch 6: Phng php trung bnh xc nh cng thc ca ancol

TP

.Q

Mt s iu HS cn ghi nh khi lm bi tp xc nh CTPT, CTCT ca

ancol bng phng php trung bnh:

- Phng php s nguyn t cacbon trung bnh: C th p dng cho hn hp

ancol thuc 1 dy ng ng hoc khng cn thit phi thuc mt dy ng ng.

- Phng php s nguyn t oxi trung bnh: xc nh s nhm OH ca

ancol.

TR

Khi dng phng php ny th t nht phi xc nh c s nguyn t

10
0

0B

cacbon hoc oxi ca mt ancol, thng thng l phi gii hn c s nguyn t


cacbon hoc s nguyn t oxi.

2+
3

Ngoi ra ta c th t cng thc chung ca hn hp ancol l

R(OH) n , R(OH) n , R(OH)n .

Th d: Cho hn hp ancol ng ng lin tip hoc cch nhau k nguyn t

cacbon trong dy ng ng, hoc c th hn hp ancol khng thuc mt dy ng

-L

ng nhng phi gii hn PTK (PTK bng mt gi tri no hay b hn mt gi tr

no ...).

B
ID

TO

V d 1: t chy hon ton m gam hn hp 3 ancol n chc, thuc cng dy


ng ng, thu c 3,808 lt CO2 (ktc) v 5,4 gam H2O. Gi tr ca m l:

A. 4,48

B. 4,72

C. 5,48

D. 6,72

( Trch TTS vo cc trng i hc khi A, 2010)


Hng dn gii

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Nhn xt: Tm c n H O > nCO 3 ancol no, n chc mch h nn n ancol = n H O - .


2

t tm nC . Thay s vo tm m

Vy n H O > nCO m theo bi ra 3 ancol n chc 3 ancol no, n chc mch

3,808
5,4
= 0,17 (mol); n H 2O =
= 0,3 (mol);
18
22,4

Ta c : nCO =

T
N

h .

n ancol = n H 2O - nCO2 = 0,3- 0,17 = 0,13 (mol)

TP

.Q

3n
O2 n CO2 + ( n +1) H2O
2

C n H 2n +2O +

Gi cng thc tng qut ca 3 ancol l: C n H 2 n + 2 O

n ancol

0,17
1,308.
0,13

nCO2

nC =

Cch 1:

TR

Mancol = 14n + 18 = 14. 1,308 + 18 = 36,312 (g)

0B

m( ancol) = 0,13. 36,312 = 4,72 (gam).

10
0

Cch 2:

2+
3

mX = mC + mH + mO(X) = 12. 0,17 + 2.0,3 + 16. 0,13 = 4,72 (g).

Cch 3 :

p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng:

mX = mCO + m H O - mO = 0,17.44+ 5,4 2

3
. 1,308. 0,13. 32 = 4,72 (g).
2

-L

V d 2: t chy hon ton a gam hn hp hai ancol no, n chc lin tip trong

B
ID

TO

dy ng ng thu c 3,584 lt CO2 (ktc) v 3,96g H2O. Gi tr ca a v CTCT


thu gn ca cc ancol l:
A. 3,32 g; CH3OH v C2H5OH.
C. 2,32 g; C3H7OH v C4H9OH..

B. 4,32 g; C2H5OH v C3H7OH.


D. 3,32 g; C2H5OH v C3H7OH.
Hng dn gii

Gi n l s nguyn t C trung bnh v x l tng s mol ca hai ancol.


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3n
O2 n CO 2 + (n + 1) H 2O
2

3,584
= 0,16 mol
22,4

(mol)

(1)

3,96
= 0,22 mol
18

T
N

(2)

n H 2O = (n + 1)x =

n CO2 = n.x =

(n + 1) x

nx

C n H 2 n+1OH +

T (1) v (2) gii ra x = 0,06 v n = 2,67.

Ta c: a = (14 n + 18).x = (142,67) + 180,06 = 3,32 g.

TP

.Q

2 < n = 2,67 < 3 2 ancol l C2H5OH v C3H7OH Chn p n D

V d 3:

Mt hn hp X gm 3 ancol n chc thuc cng mt dy ng ng. t

chy hon ton m gam hn hp thu c 4,4 g CO2 v 2,7 g H2O.

a. Tm CTTQ ca 3 ancol.

b. Tm khi lng chung ca 3 ancol.

TR

c. Xc nh CTCT ca 3 ancol khi un X vi H2SO4 c ta ch thu c mt

10
0

0B

anken c s nguyn t cacbon 3.

Hng dn gii

2+
3

Nhn xt: Ba ancol thuc mt dy ng ng, khi t chy hon ton X thu

2, 7
4, 4
= 0,15mol > n CO2 =
= 0,1mol cc ancol trong X thuc
18
44

c n H2O =

dy ng ng ca ancol no, n chc.

-L

a. CTTQ ca ba ancol l: CnH2n + 1OH

b. Phn ng t chy X:
3n
O2 n CO 2 + (n + 1) H 2O
2

TO

C n H 2 n+1OH +

0,15

B
ID

0,1
0,15 n = 0,1 ( n + 1) n = 2
nX=

0,1
= 0,05 mol
2

m X = 0,05 (14n +18) = 2,3 g.


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c. V s nguyn t cacbon trung bnh bng 2 nn phi c ancol C3H7OH,


ancol ny tch nc s thu c anken CH2= CH- CH3,

Mt khc: 3 ancol khi un X vi H2SO4 c ta ch thu c mt anken c s nguyn

t cacbon 3. Vy ancol cn li phi l ancol khng c kh nng tch nc to

anken

T
N

V th trong X khng th c ancol C2H5OH m phi l ancol CH3OH. Vy CTCT

ca cc ancol trong X l:

CH3OH; CH3- CH2- CH2- OH; CH3- CH- CH3

OH

.Q

Nhn xt:

TP

HS cn ch rng ancol no n chc tch nc ni phn t trong iu kin

thch hp thu c anken tng ng, tr trng hp ancol metylic

V d 4: Cho hn hp hai anken ng ng k tip nhau tc dng vi nc ( c

H2SO4 lm xc tc ) thu c hn hp Z gm hai ancol X v Y. t chy hon ton

1,06 g hn hp Z sau hp th ton b sn phm chy vo hai lt dung dch NaOH

TR

0,1 M thu c dung dch T trong nng ca NaOH bng 0,05 . Th tch dung

0B

dch thay i khng ng k.

10
0

a. Xc nh cng thc phn t, cng thc cu to thu gn v gi tn 2 ancol X v Y.

2+
3

b. Xc nh % theo khi lng mi ancol.


Hng dn gii

a. Gi cng thc chung ca hai anken l: C n H 2 n

C n H 2n + H2O C n H 2n +1OH

B
ID

TO

-L

C n H 2n +1OH + 1,5 n O2 n CO2 + ( n +1)H2O (1)


CO2 + 2NaOH Na2CO3 + H2O (2)
nNaOH tham gia phn ng (2) = 0,2 - 0,1 = 0,1

theo (1) v (2): nCO2 = 0,5 nNaOH phn ng = 0,05 mol


theo (1) n Cn H 2n +1OH = 0,05: n .
Theo ra (14 n +18) . 0,05 : n = 1,06 n =2,5
Do 2 ancol l ng ng lin tip nn CTPT ca hai ancol l

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C2H5OH v C3H7OH
CTCT v tn gi: CH3-CH2OH etanol

C3H7OH c hai cng thc cu to: CH3-CH2-CH2OH propan-1-ol

CH3-CHOH-CH3 propan-2-ol

B
H

46 x + 60 y = 1,06
x + y = 0,02

b. Xc nh % khi lng: Gi x, y ln lt l s mol C2H5OH v C3H7OH

T
N

Ta c h phng trnh

N
.Q

46.0,01
.100 = 43, 40
1,06

TP

%C2H5OH=

GiI h ta c x = y = 0,01 mol

%C2H5OH=100 - 43,40 = 56,60%

V d 5:

Mt hn hp G gm 2 ancol no, mch h X, Y c cng s nguyn t cacbon

v hn km nhau mt nhm - OH. t chy ht 0,2 mol hn hp G cn 16,8 lt

O2(ktc) thu c 26,4 g CO2. X b oxi ho to thnh anhit a chc. Xc nh

10
0

0B

TR

CTCT ca X, Y?

Hng dn gii

2+
3

Nhn xt: Hai ancol trn u thuc ancol no, cng s nguyn t cacbon. hn

km nhau mt nhm -OH, v vy ta c th dng phng php s nguyn t oxi

trung bnh.

Gi cng thc chung ca hai ancol l CnH2n + 2 Oz

B
ID

TO

-L

n O2 =

16,8
26, 4
= 0, 75mol ; n CO2 =
= 0, 6mol . Ta c PTPU:
44
22, 4

CnH2n + 2 Oz +
0,2

3n + 1 z
O2
2

n CO2 + (n + 1) H2O

0,75

0,6

0,2 n = 0,6 n = 3
0,6

3n + 1 z
= 0,75 x 3 z = 2,5 .
2

Vy CTPT ca X v Y l C3H8O2 v

C3H8O3.
Page:70

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V X b oxi ho thu c anhit a chc nn CTCT ca X l:

CH2- CH2- CH2 v CTCT ca Y l: CH2- CH- CH2


OH
OH
OH OH OH

2.2.2.3. Bi tp v phenol

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu

T
N

- Xt hp cht thm X ( khng cha nhm chc axit hoc este) c kh nng tc

dng vi Na hoc NaOH. Gi s X c n nhm OH lin kt trc tip vi nguyn t

cacbon v ca vng benzen v m nhm OH lin kt vi cacbon bn ngoi vng

ben zen.

.Q
TP

= (n+m) =

S nhm OH

nX

2n H 2

2R(OH)n+m + 2(n+m)Na 2R(ONa)n + (n+m)H2

+ Ch c nhm OH lin kt trc tip vi nguyn t cacbon ca vng benzen mi

c phn ng vi NaOH (c tnh axit yu)

R(OH)n+m + nNaOH R(OH)m(ONa)n + nH2O

0B

TR

n NaOH
=n
nX

10
0

+ Cc nhm OH lin kt vi cacbon bn ngoi vng benzen c tnh cht nh

2+
3

ancol.

- Phn ng th vo nhn thm


OH
Br

+ 3 Br2

Br

+ 3HBr

-L

OH

TO

Br
2,4,6 -tribromphenol

B
ID

Phn ng vi HNO3
OH
+ 3HNO3

H2SO4

O2 N

OH

NO2

+ 3H2O

NO2
2,4,6 trinitrophenol: vng

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Ch 1: Xc nh cng thc phn t, cng thc cu to ca phenol


V d 1:

Khi t 0,1 mol mt cht X (dn xut ca benzen), khi lng CO2 thu c nh

hn 35,2 gam. Bit rng 1 mol X ch tc dng c vi 1 mol NaOH. Cng thc

C. HOC6H4CH2OH.

D. C6H4(OH)2.

B. HOCH2C6H4COOH.

T
N

A. CH3CH2C6H4OH.

cu to thu gn ca X l.

( TTS H v C khi B, 2007)

Y
U

< 8, li c 1 mol X ch tc dng

.Q

nX

TP

n CO

c vi 1 mol NaOH. T CTCT ca X.

35,2
= 0,8 (mol)
44

nCO2 <

Khi t 0,1 mol X (dn xut ca benzen) thu c :

Nhn xt: Tm c S nguyn t cacbon =

Hng dn gii

TR

X trong phn t c s nguyn t cacbon t hn 8.

0B

Ch c th phng n C hoc D.

10
0

Mt khc 1 mol X ch tc dng c vi 1 mol NaOH.

2+
3

X ch c 1 nhm OH lin kt trc tip vi cacbon ca vng benzen.

Vy ch c phng n C l ph hp.

p n ng l C.

V d 2:

Cho 13,14 gam 2,4,6-trinitrophenol vo bnh kn ri nung nng nhit cao. Sau

-L

khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c x mol hn hp kh gm: CO2, CO, N2 v

H2. Gi tr ca x l:
B. 0,36

TO

A. 0,60

D. 0,45

( TTS H v C khi B, 2010)

Hng dn gii

B
ID

C. 0,54

nC6 H 3 N3O7 =

13,74
= 0,06 (mol).
229
0

t
C6H3N3O7
CO2 + 5CO + 1,5N2 + 1,5H2

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0,06

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

0,06 0,3 0,09

0,09

x= ( 0,06 + 0,3 + 0,09 + 0,09) = 0,54 ( mol).

p n ng C.

Cch 2 : Bi ny c th gii m ta khng cn vit v cn bng phn ng t

Lu :

T
N

chy 2,4,6-trinitrophenol.

Ta c nCO + nCO = nC ( trong 2,4,6-trinitrophenol) = 0,06.6 = 0,36 (mol)

Theo nh lut bo ton s mol ca mi nguyn t trc v sau phn ng.

n N 2 = 0,5 n N ( trong 2,4,6-trinitrophenol) = 0,5.0,06. 3 = 0,09 (mol)

TP

.Q

n H 2O = 0,5 n H ( trong 2,4,6-trinitrophenol) = 0,5. 0,06. 3 = 0,09 (mol)

x= (0,36 + 0,09 + 0,09) = 0,54 ( mol).

V d 3:

Mt dung dch cha 6,1 g cht A l ng ng ca phenol n chc. Cho dung

dch trn tc dng vi nc brom d thu c 17,95 g hp cht cha ba nguyn t

brom trong phn t. Gi s phn ng xy ra hon ton. Cng thc phn t cht A

TR

l:

2+
3

C. C2H5C6H3(CH3)OH

10
0

0B

A. C2H5C6H4OH

B.CH3C6H4OH
D. (C2H5)2C6H3OH

Hng dn gii

Cht A l ng ng ca phenol n chc nn t CTPT ca A l:

CnH2n-7OH ( n>6)

-L

Ta c phng trnh phn ng :


CnH2n-7OH + 3Br2 CnH2n-10Br3OH

Xt 1 mol A:

M(g)

(M + 80.3-3)g

80.3-3 = 237(g)

B
ID

TO

C 1 mol A phn ng vi dung dch Br2 d th to ra kt ta khi lng tng ln:

nA =

17,95 6,1
= 0,05 (mol).
237

MA=

6,1
= 122 (g). Hay 14n 7+ 17 = 14n-10 = 122.
0,05

n = 8.

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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Vy cng thc phn t ca A l C8H9OH.


Chn p n A .

V d 4:

H
N

vi hn hp HNO3 m c trong H2SO4 c (xc tc). Cho 47 gam phenol tc

Axit picric (2,4,6-trinitro phenol) c iu ch bng cch cho phenol tc dng

T
N

dng vi hn hp gm 200 gam dung dch HNO3 68% v 250 gam dung dch

H2SO4 m c. Tnh khi lng axit picric thu c v nng C% ca HNO3

H
Y

Hng dn gii

+ 3 H2O

TP

NO2

.Q

H SO4 c O2N
+ 3 HNO3 2t
0

OH

OH

cn d trong dung dch sau phn ng. Bit phn ng xy ra hon ton.

O2N

229.47
maxit picric =
= 114,5 (gam)
94

mhn hp ban u = 47 + 200+ 250 = 497 (gam)

TR

Khi lng hn hp cn li sau khi tch ht axitpiric:

0B

497 114,5 = 382,5 (gam)

2+
3

200.68
= 136 (gam)
100

10
0

Khi lng HNO3 c trong 200 gam HNO3 68% l:

3.63.114,5
= 94,5 (g)
229

phn ng =

m HNO3

=> m HNO

= 136 94,5 = 41,5 (g)

41,5.100
= 10,85% .
382,5

Ch 2: Bi tp trc nghim

TO

-L

=> C% (HNO3d) =

B
ID

Cu 1:Qu trnh no sau y khng to ra anehit axetic?


o

A. CH3CH2OH + CuO (t ).
o

B. CH2=CH2 + H2O (t , xc tc HgSO4).


o

C. CH3COOCH=CH2 + dung dch NaOH (t ).


o

D. CH2=CH2 + O2 (t , xt).

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Cu 2: Cho hn hp X gm hai ancol a chc, mch h, thuc cng dy ng


ng. t chy hon ton hn hp X, thu c CO2 v H2O c t l mol tng ng

l 3 : 4. Hai ancol l

A. C2H5OH v C4H9OH.

B. C2H4(OH)2 v C3H6(OH)2.

T
N

C. C3H5(OH)3 v C4H7(OH)3.

D. C2H4(OH)2 v C4H8(OH)2.

Cu 3: Dy gm cc cht u iu ch trc tip (bng mt phn ng) to ra anehit

axetic l:

.Q

A. C2H5OH, C2H2, CH3COOC2H5.

TP

B. HCOOC2H3, C2H2, CH3COOH.

C. C2H5OH, C2H4, C2H2.

D. CH3COOH, C2H2, C2H4.

B. 4

C. 5

D. 6

A. 3

Cu 4: ng vi CTPT C3H8Ox c bao nhiu cht l ancol?

TR

Cu 5: C bao nhiu ancol mch h c s nguyn t C < 4 ?

C. 8

D. 10

0B

B. 6

10
0

A. 4

2+
3

Cu 6: Khi cho cht X c CTPT C3H5Br3 tc dng vi dd NaOH d thu c cht

hu c Y c phn ng vi Na v phn ng trng gng.Cng thc cu to thu gn

ca X l

A.CH2Br-CHBr-CH2Br

C.CH2Br-CBr2-CH3

B.CH2Br-CH2-CHBr2
D.CH3-CH2-CBr3.

-L

Cu 7: Hp cht hu c X c CTPT l C3H5Br3. Cho X tc dng vi dung dch

TO

NaOH long d, un nng ri c cn dung dch thu c th cn li cht rn trong

B
ID

c cha sn phm hu c ca natri. X c tn gi l:

A. 1,1,1-tribrompropan

B. 1,2,2-tribrompropan

C. 1,1,2-tribrompropan

D. 1,2,3-tribrompropan

Cu 8: Cho cc hn hp ancol sau: Hn hp 1: (CH3OH + C3H7OH); Hn hp 2:

(CH3OH + C2H5OH); Hn hp 3: (CH3CH2CH2OH + (CH3)2CHOH). un cc hh

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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

vi dung dch H2SO4 c 1400C v 1700C, hh ancol no sau phn ngthu c

3 ete nhng ch thu c 1 anken?


D. C 3 hh trn.

C. Hn hp 3

B. Hn hp 2

A. Hn hp 1

Cu 9. Cho s phn ng sau:


0

H SO ,180 C
+ Br
+ HCl
+ NaOH,t
+ NaOH,t
But 1 en
X
Y
Z
T
K

T
N

Bit X, Y, Z, T, K u l sn phm chnh ca tng giai on. Cng thc cu to thu

gn ca K l
B.CH3CH2CH(OH)CH3

C.CH3CH2CH(OH)CH2OH

D.CH2(OH)CH2CH2CH2OH

.Q

A.CH3 CH(OH)CH(OH)CH3

TP

Cu 10: (C-2010). ng vi cng thc phn t C3H6O c bao nhiu hp cht mch

C. 2

B. 4

D. 1

A. 3

h bn khi tc dng vi kh H2 (xc tc Ni, t0) sinh ra ancol?

Cu 11: A, B, D l 3 ng phn c cng cng thc phn t C3H8O. Bit A tc

dng vi CuO un nng cho ra andehit, cn B cho ra xeton. Vy D l :

TR

A.Ancol bc III.

10
0

0B

B.Cht c nhit si cao nht.

2+
3

C.Cht c nhit si thp nht.

D.Cht c kh nng tch nc to 1 anken duy nht.

Cu 12: Ch ra cht tch nc to 1 anken duy nht:

A.metanol; etanol; butan -1-ol.

-L

B.Etanol; butan -1,2- diol; 2-metyl propan-1-ol

C.Propan-2-ol; butan -1-ol; pentan -3-ol.

B
ID

TO

D.Propanol-1; 2 metyl propan-1-ol; 2,2 dimetyl propan -1-ol.

Cu 13: (DH-08-A): Khi tch nc t ru (ancol) 3-metylbutanol-2 (hay 3-

metylbutan-2-ol), sn phm chnh thu c l


A. 3-metylbuten-1 (hay 3-metylbut-1-en).
B. 2-metylbuten-2 (hay 2-metylbut-2-en).

C. 3-metylbuten-2 (hay 3-metylbut-2-en).


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D. 2-metylbuten-3 (hay 2-metylbut-3-en).


Cu 14. S ng phn thm c cng CTPT C7H8O va tc dng c vi Na va

C.3

D.4

B.2

Cu 15: C bao nhiu phn ng xy ra khi cho cc cht C6H5-OH; NaHCO3;

A.1

tc dng c vi NaOH

T
N

C. 5

D. 6.

B. 4

A. 3

NaOH, HCl tc dng vi nhau tng i mt?

Cu 16: Cho s phn ng sau:

B. C6H5-NH2

C. C6H5-NO2

A. C6H5-Cl

TP

(X, Y, Z l cc cht hu c khc nhau). Ch ra Z.

.Q

CH4 X Y Z T C6H5-OH.

D. C6H5-ONa

Cu 17:( thi HSG 2009-TB) Hp cht X c cha vng benzen v c cng thc

phn t l C7H6Cl2. Thy phn hon ton X trong NaOH c d, t0 cao, p cao thu c

TR

B. 5

A. 3

cht Y c CTPT l C7H7O2Na. Cho bit X c bao nhiu CTCT tha mn?
C. 4

D. 2

10
0

0B

Cu 18:( thi HSG 2009-TB) Hp cht X l dn xut ca benzen c CTPT

C8H10O2. X tc dng vi NaOH theo t l mol 1:1. Mt khc cho X tc dng vi Na

2+
3

th s mol H2 thu c ng bng s mol ca X phn ng. Nu tch mt phn t

H2O t X th to ra sn phm c kh nng trng hp to polime. S CTCT ph hp

A. 9

ca X l

B. 2

C. 6

D. 7

-L

Cu 19: Oxi ho ancol n chc X bng CuO (un nng), sinh ra mt sn phm

hu c duy nht l xeton Y (t khi hi ca Y so vi kh hiro bng 29). Cng thc

B
ID

TO

cu to ca X l

A. CH3-CHOH-CH3.

B. CH3-CH2-CHOH-CH3.

C. CH3-CO-CH3.

D. CH3-CH2-CH2-OH.

Cu 20: t chy hon ton mt ru (ancol) X thu c CO2 v H2O c t l s

mol tng ng l 3 : 4. Th tch kh oxi cn dng t chy X bng 1,5 ln th


tch kh CO2 thu c ( cng iu kin). Cng thc phn t ca X l
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A. C3H8O3.

B. C3H4O.

C. C3H8O2.

D. C3H8O.

Cu 21: C bao nhiu ru (ancol) bc 2, no, n chc, mch h l ng phn cu

to ca nhau m phn t ca chng c phn trm khi lng cacbon bng 68,18%?

C. 4.

D. 5.

B. 3.

A. 2.

(Cho H = 1; C = 12; O = 16)

T
N

Cu 22: t chy hon ton mt ru (ancol) a chc, mch h X, thu c H2O

v CO2 vi t l s mol tng ng l 3:2. Cng thc phn t ca X l


B. C2H6O.

C. C3H8O2.

D. C4H10O2.

A. C2H6O2.

.Q

Cu 23: Cho hn hp hai anken ng ng k tip nhau tc dng vi nc (c

TP

H2SO4 lm xc tc) thu c hn hp Z gm hai ru (ancol) X v Y. t chy

hon ton 1,06 gam hn hp Z sau hp th ton b sn phm chy vo 2 lt dung

dch NaOH 0,1M thu c dung dch T trong nng ca NaOH bng 0,05M.

Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X v Y l (Cho: H = 1; C = 12; O = 16; th tch dung

dch thay i khng ng k)

TR

A. C2H5OH v C3H7OH.

D. C4H9OH v C5H11OH.

0B

C. C2H5OH v C4H9OH.

B. C3H7OH v C4H9OH.

10
0

Cu 24: Ln men hon ton m gam glucoz thnh ancol etylic. Ton b kh CO2

2+
3

sinh ra trong qu trnh ny c hp th ht vo dung dch Ca(OH)2 (d) to ra 40

gam kt ta. Nu hiu sut ca qu trnh ln men l 75% th gi tr ca m l


B. 58.

A. 30.

C. 60.

D. 48.

Cu 25: Cho 15,6 gam hn hp hai ancol (ru) n chc, k tip nhau trong dy

ng ng tc dng ht vi 9,2 gam Na, thu c 24,5 gam cht rn. Hai ancol

-L

l (cho H = 1, C = 12, O = 16, Na = 23)

TO

A. C3H5OH v C4H7OH.

B
ID

C. C3H7OH v C4H9OH.

B. C2H5OH v C3H7OH.
D. CH3OH v C2H5OH

Cu 26: t chy hon ton hn hp M gm hai ru (ancol) X v Y l ng ng

k tip ca nhau, thu c 0,3 mol CO2 v 0,425 mol H2O. Mt khc, cho 0,25 mol
hn hp M tc dng vi Na (d), thu c cha n 0,15 mol H2. Cng thc phn
t ca X, Y l:
A. C2H6O2, C3H8O2.

B. C2H6O, CH4O.

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C. C3H6O, C4H8O.

D. C2H6O, C3H8O.

Cu 27: t chy hon ton 0,2 mol mt ancol X no, mch h cn va 17,92 lt

kh O2 ( ktc). Mt khc, nu cho 0,1 mol X tc dng va vi m gam Cu(OH)2

th to thnh dung dch c mu xanh lam. Gi tr ca m v tn gi ca X tng ng

D. 9,8 v propan-1,2-iol

C. 4,9 v propan-1,3-iol.

T
N

B. 4,9 v propan-1,2-iol.

A. 4,9 v glixerol.

Cu 28: Khi phn tch thnh phn mt ru (ancol) n chc X th thu c kt

qu: tng khi lng ca cacbon v hiro gp 3,625 ln khi lng oxi. S ng

.Q

C. 2.

TP

B. 4.

A. 3.

phn ru (ancol) ng vi cng thc phn t ca X l

D. 1.

Cu 29 (DH-08-A): Khi phn tch thnh phn mt ancol n chc X th thu c

phn ancol ng vi cng thc phn t ca X l

kt qu: tng khi lng ca cacbon v hiro gp 3,625 ln khi lng oxi. S ng

B. 4.

C. 2.

D. 1.

A. 3.

TR

Cu 30 (CD-07-A): C bao nhiu ru (ancol) bc 2, no, n chc, mch h l

10
0

0B

ng phn cu to ca nhau m phn t ca chng c phn trm khi lng cacbon

2+
3

bng 68,18%?

B. 3.

A. 2.

C. 4.

D. 5.

Cu 31: A l hp cht c cng thc phn t C7H8O2. A tc dng vi Na d cho s

A. C6H7COOH

B. HOC6H4CH2OH

C. CH3OC6H4OH

D. CH3C6H3(OH)2.

TO

-L

ca A l.

mol H2 bay ra bng s mol NaOH cn dng trung ha cng lng A trn. CTCT

B
ID

Cu 32: Ln men m gam glucoz vi hiu sut 90%, lng kh CO2 sinh ra hp th

ht vo dung dch nc vi trong, thu c 10 gam kt ta. Khi lng dung dch
sau phn ng gim 3,4 gam so vi khi lng dung dch nc vi trong ban u.
Gi tr ca m l
A. 13,5.

B. 20,0.

C. 15,0.

D. 30,0.

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Cu 33: Cho m gam tinh bt ln men thnh ancol (ru) etylic vi hiu sut 81%.

Ton b lng CO2 sinh ra c hp th hon ton vo dung dch Ca(OH)2, thu

c 550 gam kt ta v dung dch X. un k dung dch X thu thm c 100 gam

C. 650.

D. 750.

B. 810.

A. 550.

kt ta. Gi tr ca m l (cho H = 1, C = 12, O = 16, Ca = 40)

T
N

Cu 34: Cho m gam hn hp X gm hai ru (ancol) no, n chc, k tip nhau

trong dy ng ng tc dng vi CuO (d) nung nng, thu c mt hn hp rn

Z v mt hn hp hi Y (c t khi hi so vi H2 l 13,75). Cho ton b Y phn ng

vi mt lng d Ag2O (hoc AgNO3) trong dung dch NH3 un nng, sinh ra 64,8
C. 7,4.

.Q

B. 8,8.

D. 9,2.

TP

A. 7,8.

gam Ag. Gi tr ca m l

Cu 35: Cho cc cht c cng thc cu to nh sau: HOCH2-CH2OH (X); HOCH2-

CH2-CH2OH (Y); HOCH2-CHOH-CH2OH (Z); CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3 (R); CH3-

CHOH-CH2OH (T). Nhng cht tc dng c vi Cu(OH)2 to thnh dung dch


B. X, Z, T.

C. Z, R, T.

D. X, Y, Z, T.

TR

A. X, Y, R, T.

mu xanh lam l

0B

Cu 36: (CD-07-A): Hp cht hu c X (phn t c vng benzen) c cng thc

10
0

phn t l C7H8O2, tc dng c vi Na v vi NaOH. Bit rng khi cho X tc

2+
3

dng vi Na d, s mol H2 thu c bng s mol X tham gia phn ng v X ch tc

dng c vi NaOH theo t l s mol 1:1. Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l

A. C6H5CH(OH)2.

D. CH3OC6H4OH.

C. CH3C6H3(OH)2.

B. HOC6H4CH2OH.

-L

Cu 37: (CD-10-A): Cho 10 ml dung dch ancol etylic 46o phn ng ht vi kim

loi Na (d), thu c V lt kh H2 (ktc). Bit khi lng ring ca ancol etylic

B
ID

TO

nguyn cht bng 0,8 g/ml. Gi tr ca V l

A. 4,256.

B. 0,896.

C. 3,360.

D. 2,128.

Cu 38: Cho 100 ml dung dch ancol Y n chc 46o tc dng vi Na va sau

phn ng thu c 176,58 gam cht rn. Bit khi lng ring ca Y l 0,9 g/ml.
CTPT ca Y l:
A. CH4O

B. C4H10O

C. C2H6O

D. C3H8O
Page:80

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Cu 39: (DH-07-A): Cho 15,6 gam hn hp hai ancol (ru) n chc, k tip

nhau trong dy ng ng tc dng ht vi 9,2 gam Na, thu c 24,5 gam cht rn.

D. CH3OH v C2H5OH.

C. C3H7OH v C4H9OH.

B. C2H5OH v C3H7OH.

A. C3H5OH v C4H7OH.

Hai ancol l (cho H = 1, C = 12, O = 16, Na = 23)

T
N

Cu 40: (DH-09-B): Cho X l hp cht thm; a mol X phn ng va ht vi a lt

dung dch NaOH 1M. Mt khc nu cho a mol X phn ng vi Na (d) th sau

D.HO-C6H4-COOH.

C. HO-CH2-C6H4-OH.

.Q

B. HO-C6H4-COOCH3.

TP

A. CH3-C6H3(OH)2.

phn ng thu c 22,4a lt kh H2 ( ktc). Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l

Cu 41: (DH-10-A): t chy hon ton m gam hn hp 3 ancol n chc, thuc

cng dy ng ng, thu c 3,808 lt kh CO2 (ktc) v 5,4 gam H2O. Gi tr ca

B. 5,72.

C. 4,72.

D. 7,42.

A. 5,42.

m l

TR

Cu 42:(DH-10-B): t chy hon ton mt lng hn hp X gm 2 ancol (u no,

0B

a chc, mch h, c cng s nhm -OH) cn va V lt kh O2, thu c 11,2 lt

10
0

kh CO2 v 12,6 gam H2O (cc th tch kh o ktc). Gi tr ca V l


B. 4,48.

2+
3

A. 11,20.

C. 14,56.

D. 15,68.

Cu 43:(DH-09-A): Cho hn hp X gm hai ancol a chc, mch h, thuc cng

dy ng ng. t chy hon ton hn hp X, thu c CO2 v H2O c t l mol

tng ng l 3 : 4. Hai ancol l

-L

A. C3H5(OH)3 v C4H7(OH)3.

C. C2H4(OH)2 v C4H8(OH)2.

B. C2H5OH v C4H9OH.
D. C2H4(OH)2 v C3H6(OH)2.

B
ID

TO

Cu 44: (CD-08-A): t chy hon ton mt ru (ancol) a chc, mch h X, thu


c H2O v CO2 vi t l s mol tng ng l 3:2. Cng thc phn t ca X l
A. C2H6O2.

B. C2H6O.

C. C3H8O2.

D. C4H10O2.

Cu 45: Ancol n chc A chy cho mCO2 : mH2O = 11:9. t chy hon ton 1
mol A ri hp th ton b sn phm chy vo 600ml dung dch Ba(OH)2 1M th
lng kt ta l:

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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A. 11,48g

B. 59,1g

C. 39,4g

D. 19,7g.

Cu 46: Hn hp X gm 2 ancol c cng s nhm OH. Chia X thnh 2 phn bng

B. C2H4(OH)2 v C3H6(OH)2

C. C3H7OH v CH3OH

D. CH3OH v C2H5OH

T
N

A. C2H5OH v C3H7OH

ancol 3. CTPT ca 2 ancol l:

phn 2 thu c 11 gam CO2 v 6,3 gam H2O. Bit s nguyn t cacbon trong mi

nhau. Phn 1 cho tc dng vi Na d thu c 2,24 lt H2(ktc). t chy hon

Cu 47:. Chia a gam ancol etylic thnh 2 phn bng nhau. em nung nng phn 1

vi H2SO4 c 1700C thu c kh etilen. t chy hon ton lng etilen ny thu

TP

.Q

c 3,6 gam nc. t chy hon ton phn 2 ri cho ton b sn phm chy vo

500 ml dung dch hn hp gm NaOH 0,1M v Ba(OH)2 0,2M, sinh ra m gam kt


C. 9,85.

B. 17,73.

D. 11,82.

A. 19,70.

ta. Gi tr ca m l

Cu 48: (DH-09-A): t chy hon ton 0,2 mol mt ancol X no, mch h cn va

TR

17,92 lt kh O2 ( ktc). Mt khc, nu cho 0,1 mol X tc dng va vi m

0B

gam Cu(OH)2 th to thnh dung dch c mu xanh lam. Gi tr ca m v tn gi ca

2+
3

A. 9,8 v propan-1,2-iol.

10
0

X tng ng l

D. 4,9 v glixerol.

C. 4,9 v propan-1,3-iol.

B. 4,9 v propan-1,2-iol.

Cu 49: t chy ancol ch cha mt loi nhm chc A bng O2 va nhn thy

nCO2 : nO2 : nH2O = 6:7:8. A c c im:

-L

A. Tc dng vi Na d cho nH2 = 1,5nA.

B. Tc dng vi CuO un nng cho ra hp cht a chc.

B
ID

TO

C. Tch nc to thnh mt anken duy nht.


D. Khng c kh nng ha tan Cu(OH)2.
Cu 50: (CD-08-A): t chy hon ton hn hp M gm hai ru (ancol) X v Y

l ng ng k tip ca nhau, thu c 0,3 mol CO2 v 0,425 mol H2O. Mt khc,
cho 0,25 mol hn hp M tc dng vi Na (d), thu c cha n 0,15 mol H2.
Cng thc phn t ca X, Y l:
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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A. C2H6O2, C3H8O2.

B. C2H6O, CH4O.

C. C3H6O, C4H8O.

D. C2H6O, C3H8O.

L Th Thanh H

H
N

mol X cn 5,6 gam oxi, thu c hi nc v 6,6 gam CO2. Cng thc ca X l

Cu 51: (DH-07-B): X l mt ancol (ru) no, mch h. t chy hon ton 0,05

D. C2H4(OH)2.

T
N

C. C3H5(OH)3.

B. C3H6(OH)2.

A. C3H7OH.

(cho C = 12, O = 16)

Cu 52: (CD-07-A): t chy hon ton mt ru (ancol) X thu c CO2 v H2O

c t l s mol tng ng l 3 : 4. Th tch kh oxi cn dng t chy X bng 1,5

B. C3H4O.

D. C3H8O.

C. C3H8O2.

A. C3H8O3.

TP

.Q

ln th tch kh CO2 thu c ( cng iu kin). Cng thc phn t ca X l

Cu 53: (DH-10-A): Tch nc hn hp gm ancol etylic v ancol Y ch to ra 2

anken. t chy cng s mol mi ancol th lng nc sinh ra t ancol ny bng

5/3 ln lng nc sinh ra t ancol kia. Ancol Y l

0B

C. CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH.

TR

A. CH3-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3.

B. CH3-CH2-CH2-OH.
D. CH3-CH(OH)-CH3.

10
0

Cu 54:Thc hin phn ng tch nc vi ancol n chc A iu kin thch hp

2+
3

.Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton c cht hu c B. dB/A =1,7. CTPT A l


A. C2H5OH

B. C3H7OH

C. C4H9OH

D.C5H11OH

Cu 55: (H A- 2009):Ln men a gam glucoz vi hiu sut 90%, lng CO2 sinh

ra hp th ht vo dung dch nc vi trong thu c 10 gam kt ta v khi lng

-L

dung dch gim 3,4 gam. Tnh a.

A. 13,5 g

B. 15,0 g

C. 20,0 g

D. 30,0 g

B
ID

TO

Cu 56: (DH-09-A): un nng hn hp hai ancol n chc, mch h vi H2SO4


c, thu c hn hp gm cc ete. Ly 7,2 gam mt trong cc ete em t chy

hon ton, thu c 8,96 lt kh CO2 ( ktc) v 7,2 gam H2O. Hai ancol l
A. C2H5OH v CH2=CH-CH2-OH.

B. C2H5OH v CH3OH.

C. CH3OH v C3H7OH.

D. CH3OH v CH2=CH-CH2-OH.

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Cu 57: (DH-10-B): t chy hon ton m gam hn hp X gm ba ancol (n

chc, thuc cng dy ng ng), thu c 8,96 lt kh CO2 (ktc) v 11,7 gam

H2O. Mt khc, nu un nng m gam X vi H2SO4 c th tng khi lng ete ti


C. 7,85 gam.

D. 7,40 gam.

B. 6,50 gam.

A. 5,60 gam.

a thu c l

T
N

Cu 58: (DH-07-A): Cho m gam tinh bt ln men thnh ancol (ru) etylic vi hiu

sut 81%. Ton b lng CO2 sinh ra c hp th hon ton vo dung dch

Ca(OH)2, thu c 550 gam kt ta v dung dch X. un k dung dch X thu thm
C. 650.

.Q

B. 810.

D. 750.

TP

A. 550.

c 100 gam kt ta. Gi tr ca m l:

Cu 59: (DH-10-A): Oxi ho ht 2,2 gam hn hp hai ancol n chc thnh

anehit cn va 4,8 gam CuO. Cho ton b lng anehit trn tc dng vi

lng d dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3, thu c 23,76 gam Ag. Hai ancol l:
B. CH3OH, C2H5OH.

A. CH3OH, C2H5CH2OH.

D. C2H5OH, C2H5CH2OH.

TR

C. C2H5OH, C3H7CH2OH.

0B

Cu 60: (CD-10-A): Cho 4,6 gam mt ancol no, n chc phn ng vi CuO nung

10
0

nng, thu c 6,2 gam hn hp X gm anehit, nc v ancol d. Cho ton b

2+
3

lng hn hp X phn ng hon ton vi lng d dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3,

un nng, thu c m gam Ag. Gi tr ca m l

A. 16,2.

B. 43,2.

C. 10,8.

D. 21,6.

Cu 61: (DH-09-B): Hn hp X gm hai ancol no, n chc, mch h, k tip

nhau trong dy ng ng. Oxi ho hon ton 0,2 mol hn hp X c khi lng m

-L

gam bng CuO nhit thch hp, thu c hn hp sn phm hu c Y. Cho Y

TO

tc dng vi mt lng d dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3, thu c 54 gam Ag.

B
ID

Gi tr ca m l

A. 15,3

B. 8,5

C. 8,1

D. 13,5

Cu 62: (B-2008): Oxi ho 1,2 gam CH3OH bng CuO nung nng, sau mt thi

gian thu c hn hp sn phm X (gm HCHO, H2O v CH3OH d). Cho ton b
X tc dng vi lng d Ag2O (hoc AgNO3) trong dung dch NH3, c 12,96
gam Ag. Hiu sut ca phn ng oxi ho CH3OH l
Page:84

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A. 76,6%.

B. 80,0%.

C. 65,5%.

D. 70,4%.

Cu 63: (DH-08-A): Cho m gam hn hp X gm hai ru (ancol) no, n chc, k

T
N

C. 7,4.

D. 9,2.

B. 8,8.

sinh ra 64,8 gam Ag. Gi tr ca m l


A. 7,8.

phn ng vi mt lng d Ag2O (hoc AgNO3) trong dung dch NH3 un nng,

hp rn Z v mt hn hp hi Y (c t khi hi so vi H2 l 13,75). Cho ton b Y

tip nhau trong dy ng ng tc dng vi CuO (d) nung nng, thu c mt hn

Cu 64: (DH-07-B): Cho m gam mt ancol (ru) no, n chc X qua bnh ng

CuO (d), nung nng. Sau khi phn ng hon ton, khi lng cht rn trong bnh

.Q

gim 0,32 gam. Hn hp hi thu c c t khi i vi hiro l 15,5. Gi tr ca m

B. 0,46.

C. 0,32.

D. 0,92.

A. 0,64.

TP

l (cho H = 1, C =12, O = 16)

Cu 65:(DH-10-B): Hn hp X gm 1 ancol v 2 sn phm hp nc ca propen.

T khi hi ca X so vi hiro bng 23. Cho m gam X i qua ng s ng CuO (d)

nung nng. Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c hn hp Y gm 3 cht

TR

hu c v hi nc, khi lng ng s gim 3,2 gam. Cho Y tc dng hon ton

2+
3

propan-1-ol trong X l

10
0

0B

vi lng d dd AgNO3 trong NH3, to ra 48,6 gam Ag. Phn trm khi lng ca
A. 16,3%.

C. 65,2%.

D. 48,9%.

B. 83,7%.

Cu 66: (DH-08-B) : Khi lng ca tinh bt cn dng trong qu trnh ln men

to thnh 5 lt ru (ancol) etylic 460 l (bit hiu sut ca c qu trnh l 72% v

khi lng ring ca ru etylic nguyn cht l 0,8 g/ml)


B. 5,0 kg

C. 6,0 kg

D. 4,5 kg

-L

A. 5,4 kg

TO

Cu 67: (DH-10-A): T 180 gam glucoz, bng phng php ln men ru, thu

B
ID

c a gam ancol etylic (hiu sut 80%). Oxi ho 0,1a gam ancol etylic bng

phng php ln men gim, thu c hn hp X. trung ho hn hp X cn 720


ml dung dch NaOH 0,2M. Hiu sut qu trnh ln men gim l
A. 90%.

B. 10%.

C. 80%.

D. 20%.

Page:85

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2.3. H THNG BI TP V L THUYT PHN ANEHIT, AXIT


CACBOXYLIC, ESTE

2.3.1. TM TT NI DUNG L THUYT C BN PHN ANEHIT,

AXIT CACBOXYLIC, ESTE

2.3.1.1 Anehit

T
N

Tm tt ni dung l thuyt c bn

1.Khi nim

Anehit l nhng hp cht m phn t c nhm CHO ( cacbanehit) lin kt trc

tip vi nguyn t hiro hoc nguyn t cacbon.

TP

.Q

CTTQ : CmH2m+2-2a-x(CHO)x (m 0; a 0; x 0).

2. Phn loi

Anehit c phn loi theo gc hirocacbon v theo s lng nhm CHO

trong phn t.

V d :

TR

Anehit no n chc c CTPT l CmH2m+1CHO ( m 0) hay CnH2nO ( n>1).

0B

Anehit khng no n chc: CH2=CH-CH2OH.


OHC-CHO

Anehit thm:

10
0

Anehit a chc:

CHO

2+
3

3. ng phn

+ ng phn cu to

-L

+ ng phn mch cacbon : ng phn mch khng nhnh v ng phn mch c

nhnh.

B
ID

TO

+ ng phn lp th

Tu c im ca cu to ca cc anehit nh phn t c lin kt i c th c


ng phn hnh hc.

V d: Vit cc ng phn anehit ca cc cht c CTPT l C4H6O .


Anehit c CTPT l C4H6O c c ng phn cu to v c ng phn hnh hc,
l: CH2=CHCH2CHO
Page:86

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CH3CH=CHCHO ( c 2 ng phn cis v trans).

4. Danh php

- Tn thng

+ Cch 1: Anehit + tn ring ca axit tng ng

V d HCHO Anehit fomic.

T
N

+ Cch 2: Tn ring ca axit, b ui ic thay bng anehit.

V d: HCHO Fomanehit

- Tn quc t (Tn thay th)

TP

V d : CH3CH(CH3) CH(CHO)CH3 2,3-imetyl butanal.

.Q

+ V tr nhnh + tn nhnh + tn mch chnh ( l tn ca hirocacbon) + al.

5. Tnh cht vt l

- Anehit focmic ( t s = - 190C) v anehit axetic ( ts= 210C) l cht kh. Cc cht

khc trng thi lng.

0B

TR

khc t tan hoc khng tan trong nc.

- Anehit focmic v anehit axetic tan trong nc tng i nhiu. Cn cc anehit

10
0

- Nhit si thp hn so vi ancol tng ng v khng c lin kt hiro gia cc

2+
3

phn t vi nhau.

- Khi s nguyn t cacbon tng th nhit si cng cao.

- Mi anehit thng c mi c trng.

6. Tnh cht ho hc

-L

- c im phn t:

Trong phn t anehit c nhm -C=O (c lin kt pi) phn cc v pha oxi nn d

B
ID

TO

tham gia phn ng cng vi HA (HCN, H2O ...), H2.

nhm -CHO ca anehit c C c mc oxi ho +1hoc 0 l mc oxi ho trung

gian nn n va c tnh kh va c tnh oxi ho ( sn phm trung gian gia ancol v


axit cacboxylic)
- Phn ng cng vi hiro ( phn ng kh)
V d
Page:87

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0

t
CH3CH=O + H2
CH3CH2-OH

to ancol bc 1

- Phn ng cng hp nc , cng hp hiro xianua.

CH3CH(OH)2
CH3CH=O + H2O

T
N

( Sn phm to ra c 2 nhm OH lin kt trc tip vi mt nguyn t cacbon nn

khng bn, khng tch ra khi dung dch c).

CN
CH3 C CH3

CH3 CH O + HCN

TP

.Q

OH

- Phn ng oxi ho

+Phn ng oxi ha khng hon ton

[O ]
RCHO
RCOOH

Tc nhn oxi ho c th: +Nc Brom

+ Dung dch KMnO4

TR

+ Dung dch AgNO3/ NH3

10
0

0B

+ Cu(OH)2/ OH3m + 2
t0
O2
(m+1)CO2 + (m+1)H2O
2

CmH2m+1CHO +

2+
3

+ Phn ng oxi ha hon ton:

7. iu ch

-T ancol bc 1 tc dng vi O2 xc tc Cu, Ag.. hoc tc dng vi CuO/t0


o,

-L

, xt
2RCH2OH + O2 t

RCHO + 2H2O

- T dn xut ihalogen nguyn t cacbon u mch

B
ID

TO

RCHX2 + 2NaOH RCHO + H2O + 2NaX

- Cc trng hp ring

+ HCHO
0

,t
CH4 + O2 xt

HCHO + H2O

+ CH3CHO
0

C
CH CH + H2O HgSO
,80

CH3CHO
4

Page:88

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o,

, xt
CH2=CH2 + O2 t

CH3CHO.

2.3.1.2 Axit cacboxylic

Axit cacboxylic l nhng HCHC m phn t c nhm cacboxyl (- COOH)

Tm tt ni dung l thuyt c bn
1. nh ngha:

lin kt trc tip vi nguyn t cacbon hoc nguyn t hiro.

T
N

2. Phn loi:

Phn loi theo gc hirocacbon v phn loi theo s nhm COOH trong

phn t. HCOOH, CH3COOH... thuc dy ng ng ca axit no mch h n

chc.

TP

.Q

3. Danh php:

Theo IUPAC, tn ca axit cacboxylic mch h cha khng qu 2 nguyn t

4. Tnh cht vt l:

cacbon = tn ca hirocacbon tng ng + oic

iu kin thng, tt c axit cacboxylic l nhng cht lng hoc rn

TR

Nhit si ca axit cacboxylic cao hn ca anhit, xeton...c cng s

0B

nguyn t cacbon ( do cc axit cacboxylic c lin kt hiro vi nhau).

10
0

Nhit si ca axit cacboxylic cao hn ca ancol c cng s nguyn t

2+
3

cacbon ( do lin kt hiro gia cc axit cacboxylic bn hn lin kt hiro gia cc


phn t ancol)

5. Tnh cht ho hc:

-L

- Tnh axit:

B
ID

TO

RC

..

O- H

Do mt electron trn oxi nhm OH b chuyn dch v pha nhm

C=O, nguyn t H ca nhm OH tr nn linh ng hn so vi ru. Axit


cacboxylic in li khng hon ton theo cn bng:
RCOOH + H2O

H3O+ + RCOO-

Ka

Axit cacboxylic c y tnh cht ca 1 axit: Lm i mu qu tm, tc


dng vi baz, oxit baz, vi kim loi hot ng, vi mt s mui.
Page:89

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Axit cacboxylic l nhng axit yu.


- Phn ng to thnh dn xut axit

+) Phn ng vi ancol (phn ng este ho)

anhirit

T
N

+) Phn ng tch nc lin phn t

RCOO R' + H2O

RCOOH + R'OH

H2SO4 , t0

P2O5
CH3-CO-O-OC-CH3 + H2O

CH3- CO-OH + HO-OC- CH3

- Phn ng gc hirocacbon: Tu c im cu to ca gc hirocacbon

.Q

m c th c phn ng th nguyn t H ca gc no, phn ng cng ca gc khng

TP

no, phn ng trng hp, phn ng th nguyn t H gc thm.


0

- Ring axit HCOOH c phn ng trng bc

G
H

n HCOOH
1
=
2
n Ag

(NH4)2CO3

t
HCOOH + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
(NH4)2CO3 + 2Ag + 2NH3 + H2O

TR

t
(NH4)2CO3
2NH3 + CO2 + H2O

0B

6. iu ch:

10
0

- Trong PTN:

2+
3

+) Oxi ho hirocacbon, ancol


H3O+

C6H5COOK

C6H5- COOH

C6H5-CH3

KMnO4, H2O, t0

-L

+) i t dn xut halogen:
R- CN

+) Ln men gim
men gim

B
ID

R- COOH

- Trong cng nghip:

TO

R-X

H3O+, t0

KCN

C2H5OH + O2

CH3COOH + H2O
25-300C

+) Oxi ho anhit axetic iu ch axit axetic


xt, t0
Page:90

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1
O2
2

CH3CHO +

CH3COOH

+) i t metanol

CH3COOH

CH3OH + CO

xt, t0

2.3.1.3. Este

T
N

Tm tt l thuyt c bn

1. Cu to phn t:

Khi thay nhm OH nhm cacboxyl ca axit cacboxylic bng nhm OR/

th c este

TP

.Q

Este n gin c cu to: RCOOR'

'

Cch gi tn ca axit cacboxylic = tn gc hirocacbon R + tn anion gc

axit + at.

2. Tnh cht vt l ca este:

tan c nhiu cht hu c khc nhau.

Thng l cht lng, nh hn nc, rt t tan trong nc, c kh nng ho

0B

TR

Nhit si ca este thp hn so vi axit c cng s nguyn t cacbon v

10
0

gia cc phn t este khng c lin kt hiro.

2+
3

3. Tnh cht ho hc:

- Phn ng thu phn:

+) Thu phn trong mi trng axit l phn ng thun nghch.


0

H SO , t

RCOOH
RCOOR' + H2O

+ R'OH

+) Thu phn trong mi trng kim l phn ng mt chiu v cn c gi

B
ID

TO

-L

l phn ng x phng ho.


0

H O,t
RCOONa + R'OH
RCOOR' + NaOH
2

- Phn ng kh:
LiAlH
R-CH2OH
RCOOR'
4

+ R'OH

- Phn ng gc hirocacbon: Tu theo cu to ca gc hirocacbon m


este c th c phn ng th, cng, tch, trng hp
4. iu ch:

Page:91

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- Este ca phenol: Phi dng anhirit axit hoc clorua axit tc dng vi
phenol.
C6H5- OH + (CH3CO)2O

CH3COOC6H5 + CH3COOH

- Este ca ancol: Thc hin phn ng este ho gia axit cacboxylic v ancol.

Th d:
0

T
N

H SO
,t

cCH3COOC2H5 + H2O
CH3COOH +C2H5OH

2.3.2 Bi tp theo ch

2.3.2.1 Anehit

Ch 1 : Phn ng cng

TP

- Nu anehit khng no khi phn ng vi hiro (xt :Ni, t0)

.Q

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu

Phn ng cng vo gc hirocacbon xy ra trc, nu d hiro th mi phn ng

cng vo nhm cacbonyl ca anehit.

TR

lin kt c trong gc hirocacbon.

- Phn ng cng hp c th dng xc nh s lng nhm chc anehit v s

10
0

0B

+ Khi cho anhit tc dng vi H2 d (Ni, t0) th


0

xt:Ni ,t
CnH2n+2-m(CH2OH)m
CnH2n+2-2a-m(CHO)m + (a + m) H2

(phn ng) =

nanehit (phn ng) Anhit l no, n chc mch h

N u n H

(phn ng) >

nanehit (phn ng) Anhit l cha no (n chc hoc a

2+
3

N u n H

chc) hoc anhit no a chc.

+ Vi cc anhit cha no, khi phn ng vi dung dch brom, ngoi phn ng th

-L

hin tnh kh ca nhm CHO, cn c phn ng cng vo ni i hoc ni ba.

V d 1:

B
ID

TO

CH2=CH- CHO + 2Br2 + H2O CH2Br-CHBr COOH + HBr

Cho propenal tc dng vi H2 ( Ni, t0) t l 1:1 c cht X.


Cho propenal tc dng vi H2 ( Ni, t0) t l 1:2 c cht Y.
Vit cc phng trnh phn ng ho hc xy ra.

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Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: Propenal tc dng vi H2 ( Ni, t0) t l 1:1 v propenal tc dng vi H2 (

cacbonyl.

Ni, t0) t l 1:2. H2 cng vo lin kt ca gc hiro cacbon trc lin kt nhm

T
N

xt:Ni ,t
CH2=CH- CHO + H2
CH3-CH2-CHO (X);

xt:Ni ,t
CH2=CH- CHO + 2H2
CH3-CH2-CH2-OH (Y);

V d 2:

.Q

un nng V lt hi anehit X vi 3 V lt kh H2(xc tc Ni) n khi phn ng xy

TP

ra hon ton th thu c mt hn hp kh Y c th tch 2V lt ( cc th tch kh o

cng iu kin nhit , p sut). Ngng t Y thu c cht Z, cho Z tc dng vi

Na sinh ra H2 c s mol bng s mol Z phn ng. Cht X l anehit.


B. Khng no ( cha mt ni i C=C), hai chc.

C. No, n chc.

D. Khng no (cha mt ni i C=C), n chc.

A. No, hai chc.

TR

Hng dn gii

0B

Nhn xt: Tng th tch ca anehit v H2 l 4V lt, n khi phn ng xy ra hon

10
0

ton th thu c mt hn hp kh Y c th tch 2V lt.

2+
3

Chng t c 2V lt kh H2 phn ng vi anehit to ra ancol.

Anehit no 2 chc hoc khng no (cha mt ni i C=C), n chc.

Mt khc: Ngng t Y thu c cht Z, cho Z tc dng vi Na sinh ra H2 c s mol

bng s mol Z phn ng.

Z l ancol 2 chc.

-L

Vy X l anehit no, hai chc.

Chn p n D.

B
ID

TO

V d 3:

Hiro ha hon ton m gam hn hp X gm hai anehit no, n chc, mch h,


k tip nhau trong dy ng ng thu c (m+1) gam hn hp hai ancol. Mt
khc, khi t chy hon ton cng m gam X th cn va 17,92 lt kh O2 (ktc).
Gi tr ca m l:
A.10,5

B.8,8

C.24,8

D.17,8
Page:93

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Hng dn gii

Gi cng thc chung ca hn hp X gm hai anehit no, n chc, mch h, k

tip nhau trong dy ng ng l:

14 n +32 (g)

Xt 1 mol X : 14 n +30 (g)

C n H 2 n +1CHO + H2 C n H 2 n +1CH 2 OH

T
N

C 1 mol X phn ng vi H2 thu c ancol khi lng tng thm 2 gam. Theo bi

1
= 0,5 (mol).
2

nX

ra khi lng ancol tng ln so vi anehit l (m+1) m = 1(g)

0,5 mol

TP

G
N

17,92
= 0,8
22,4

TR

3n + 2
= 0,8 n = 0,4
2

0B

0,5.

3n + 2
2

1mol

3n + 2
t0
O2
( n + 1 ) CO2 + ( n + 1 ) H2O
2

C n H 2 n +1CHO +

.Q

Mt khc:

10
0

Vy m= 0,5( 14.0,4 + 30) = 17,8 (g).

V d 4:

2+
3

p n ng l D

Cho hn hp kh X gm HCHO v H2 i qua ng s ng bt Ni nung nng. Sau

khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c hn hp kh Y gm hai cht hu c. t

chy ht Y th thu c 11,7 gam H2O v 7,84 lt kh CO2(ktc). Phn trm theo th

-L

tch ca H2 trong X l:
B. 65%

B
ID

TO

A. 35%

C.53,85%

D. 46,15%

Hng dn gii

Hn hp kh X gm HCHO v H2 i qua ng s ng bt Ni nung nng. Sau khi


phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c hn hp kh Y gm hai cht hu c.
Chng t trong phn ng trn HCHO d, hn hp Y gm CH3OH v HCHO d.
Ta c : n H O =
2

11,7
7,84
= 0,65 (mol). nCO2 =
= 0,35(mol).
18
22,4

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t chy hn hp Y tc t chy HCHO v CH3OH.

HCHO l anehit no, n chc khi t chy cho nCO = n H O


CH3OH l ancol no, n chc kh t chy nCH OH = n H O - nCO

n HCHO

ban u

- nCH OH

CO2

CO2

H
N

= 0,35 0,3 = 0,05 (mol).

- nCO = 0,65-0,35 = 0,3 (mol).

H 2O

T
N

n HCHO

= 0,35 (mol).

nCH 3OH =

n H 2 = nCH 3OH = 0,3 (mol).

Trong cng iu kin , i vi cht kh th t l v s mol t l vi t l v th tch.

.Q

0,3
.100% = 46,15%
0,3 + 0,35

TP

% VH =

Vy phn trm theo th tch ca H2 trong X l:

p n ng l D.

Ch 2: Phn ng oxi ho khng hon ton.

TR

Ni dung phng php v mt s lu

0B

Phn ng trng bc : Dng nhn bit anhit hoc xc nh s nhm chc

10
0

anhit.

2+
3

t
R(CHO)n + 2n [Ag(NH3)2]OH
R(COONH4)n + 2nAg + 3nNH3 +

nH2O

T l nR (CHO ) : nAg = 1: 2

( R H )

Lu : Nu R l H th
0

-L

t
HCHO + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
HCOONH4 + 2Ag + 3NH3 + H2O (1)

HCOONH4 c nhm CHO nn c kh nng tham gia phn ng trng bc.


0

B
ID

TO

t
HCOONH4 + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
(NH4)2CO3 +2Ag +3NH3 + H2O (2)

T hp (1) v (2) ta c:
0

t
(NH4)2CO3 + 4Ag + 6NH3 + 2H2O
HCHO + 4[Ag(NH3)2]OH (d)

T l nR (CHO ) : nAg = 1: 4
n

t
2NH3 + CO2 + H2O
(NH4)2CO3

Nu phn ng trng bc to ra hai kh l NH3 v CO2.


Page:95

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Vy nu nR (CHO ) : nAg = 1: 2 Anehit n chc.


n

Hn hp anehit n chc tham gia phn ng trng bc nu :

Ag

> 2 chng t hn hp c anehit fomic HCHO.

T
N

n
n

nR (CHO )n : nAg = 1: 4 Anehit 2 chc : R(CHO)2 hoc HCHO.

Cc hp cht c lin kt 3 u mch cng c phn ng vi dung dch

anneh

.Q

AgNO3/NH3 to kt ta nhng khng phi l phn ng trng bc m l phn ng

TP

th kim loi.

V d 1:

Oxi ha hon ton 2,2 gam mt anehit n chc X thu c 3,0 gam axit tng

ng. Cng thc cu to ca X l:

A. CH3CHO

B. C2H5CHO

D. CH3CH2CH2CHO

TR

C. CH3CH(CH3)CHO

0B

(TTS i hc, cao ng khi B nm 2007)

10
0

Hng dn gii

2+
3

Nhn xt: Da vo phng php tng gim khi lng.

Gi cng thc chung ca anehit l: RCHO


0

O , xt :Mn ,t
RCHO +

RCOOH

3,0 2,2
= 0,05 mol.
16

-L

n RCHO =

C 1 mol anehit b oxi ha thnh axit khi lng tng ln 16 gam.

B
ID

TO

M RCHO =

2,2
= 44= R + 29 R = 15 (-CH3)
0,05

Vy X l: CH3CHO. Chn p n A

V d 2:

Cho m gam hn hp etanal v propanal phn ng hon ton vi lng d dung dch
AgNO3 trong NH3 thu c 43,2 gam kt ta v dung dch cha 17,5 gam mui
amoni ca hai axit hu c. Gi tr ca m l:
Page:96

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L Th Thanh H

A. 10,9

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

B. 14,3

C.10,2

D. 9,5

(TTS i hc khi A nm 2010)

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: Dng phng php tng gim khi lng.

0,2 mol

B
T
N
N

RCOONH4 + 2Ag

RCHO

43,2
= 0,4 (mol).
108

0,4 mol

n Ag =

Gi cng chung ca 2 anehit l RCHO

C 1 mol anehit phn ng to thnh 1 mol mui amoni khi lng tng ln 33

TP

.Q

gam.

Khi lng mui amoni tng so vi anehit l: 0,2 .33 = 6,6 (gam).

Vy khi lng anehit: m= 17,5 6,6 = 10,9 ( gam).

Chn p n A.

V d 3:

TR

Cho 3,6 gam anehit n chc X phn ng hon ton vi mt lng d AgNO3

0B

trong dung dch NH3 un nng, thu c m gam Ag. Ha tan hon ton m gam Ag

10
0

bng dung dch HNO3 c, sinh ra 2,24 lt NO2 (sn phm kh duy nht ktc).

2+
3

Cng thc ca X l:

B. C2H5CHO

A. HCHO

C. C3H7CHO

D. C4H9CHO

Hng dn gii

2,24
= 0,1 (mol).
22,4

n NO2 =

-L

Gi cng thc ca anehit X l CnH2n+1CHO ( 4 p n X u l anehit no, n

chc)

B
ID

TO

Theo bi ra ta c s phn ng :
0

AgNO / NH ,t
CnH2n+1CHO +

Ag HNO
NO2
3

p dng nh lut bo ton electron i vi phn ng 2


N+5 +

1e

N+4

0,1(mol) 0,1(mol)
Suy ra : s mol e m Ag nhng l 0,1 mol e
Page:97

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L Th Thanh H

Ag

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Ag+ + 1e

0,1(mol)

0,1(mol)

N
H
N
B

3,6
= 72.
0,05

M Cn H 2 n +1CHO =

1
n Ag = 0,05 (mol).
2

T
N

nCn H 2 n +1CHO =

TH1 : Gi s anehit khng phi HCHO (R H)

14n + 30 = 72 n = 3.

Vy cng thc ca X l: C3H7CHO.

p n ng l A. Khng cn lm TH2 X l HCHO ( chc chn khng tha mn).

TP

.Q

V d 4:

Khi cho 4,5 gam 1hp cht hu c phn ng hon ton vi dung dch AgNO3 trong

NH3 th thu c 32,4 gam kt ta. Xc nh cng thc phn t ca A.

2. Mt anehyt B l ng ng k tip sau ca andehyt A trong dy ng ng,

ngi ta thm 19 gam B vo 100 gam dung dch nc ca A c C% =23%. Cho

dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3 vo 2 gam dung dch andehyt (va ) lm tch ra

TR

4,35gam Ag v thu c 2 mui ca 2 axit hu c n chc. Tm cng thc ca 2

10
0

0B

andehyt trn

Hng dn gii

2+
3

1. Trng hp 1: A c dng R(C CH)n

(3)

R + 132n
32,4

4,5

R + 25n

NH
R(C CH)n+ nAgNO3
R(C C Ag)n+ nHNO3

Trng hp 2: A l andehyt
A: R(CHO)n

B
ID

TO

-L

=> 27,9R +216n =0 => v nghim

R(CHO)n+2nAgNO3+3nNH3 + nH2O
(COONH4)n+2nNH4NO3 + 2nAg (2)
R + 29n g

216n g

4,5 g

32,4 g
=>

R + 29n 216n
=> R =n = 1 (t/m)
=
4,5
32,4

=> A l HCHO
Page:98

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

2. A, B l anehit phn ng vi AgNO3/NH3 to 2 mui axt hu c n chc, suy


ra A, B l andehyt n chc

Gi cng thc chung ca A, B: R CHO


0

t
R CHO +2AgNO3 + 3NH3 +H2O
R COONH4 + 2 NH4NO3+ 2Ag (3)

T
N

1
nAg=0,020165
2

(1) n R CHO =
Ta c:

N
Y
U

TP

.Q

0,70588
= 35
0,020165

M A, B =

42
.2 = 0,70588
119

Khi lng andehit trong 2 gam dung dch =

Tng khi lng 2 andehit trong dung dch ban u = 19 + 23 = 42(g)

Ch 3 : Phn ng oxi ha hon ton

B l CH3CHO

=> MA= < 35 < MB => A phi l HCHO

Gi cng thc ca anehit l CnH2n+2-2a-x(CHO)m


O
CnH2n+2-2a-x(CHO)m +
(n+m) CO2 + (n+1-a)H2O

N u

10
0

0B

n +1 a
n +1
a
=
;
n+m
n+m n+m

n H 2O

2+
3

nCO2

(max) =1 a=0, m=1

nCO2

n H 2O

TR

anehit l no, n chc mch h .

CTPT : CnH2n+1CHO hay CkH2kO2. (k 1);


n H 2O
nCO2

=1;

-L

V ngc li, nu anhit l no, n chc mch h ta cng c:

B
ID

TO

Nu t chy anehit cha mt lin kt i n chc mch h ta c :


nCO2 > n H 2O v n anneh= nCO2 - n H 2O

Nu t chy anehit a chc ta c : nCO > n H O


2

V d 1:
t chy hon ton mt lng anehit A cn va 2,52 lt O2 (ktc), c 4,4

gam CO2 v 1,35 gam H2O. A c cng thc phn t l


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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A. C3H4O.

B. C4H6O.

C. C4H6O2.

D. C8H12O.

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt:.t CTPT A dng tng qut v vit phng trnh t chy. Da vo s

T
N
N

1,35
= 0,075 (mol);
18

n H 2O =

4,4
= 0,1 (mol) ;
44

nCO2 =

2,52
= 0,1125 (mol);
22,4

nO2 =

.Q

Gi cng thc phn t ca anhit l CxHyOz

0,1

0,075

0,1125

TP

y z
y
t0
- ) O2
xCO2 + H2O
4 2
2

CxHyOz + (x+

mol ca H2O v CO2 v O2 ta tm c CTGN ca A. Bin lun tm CTPT ca A.

Cng thc n gin nht ca A l: C2H3O.

Ta tm c t l x: y : z = 0,1: 0,15 : 0,05 = 2: 3:1

TR

Cng thc phn t ca A l: (C2H3O)n;

0B

n = 1 cng thc phn t ca A l: C2H3O ( khng c p n no tha mn).

10
0

n=2 cng thc phn t ca A l: C4H6O2 ( p n C ng)

2+
3

V d 2:

t chy hon ton mt anehit n chc no, mch h A cn 17,92 lt O2 (ktc).

Hp th ht sn phm chy vo nc vi trong c 40 gam kt ta v dung dch X.

B. C2H4O.

A. CH2O.

un nng dung dch X li c 10 gam kt ta na. Cng thc phn t A l

C. C3H6O.

D. C4H8O.

-L

Hng dn gii

Sn phm t chy anehit cho sn phm CO2 v H2O. Sn phm chy qua dung

B
ID

TO

dch nc vi trong theo bi ra s to ra c hai mui theo cc phng trnh:


CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O
0,4 (mol)

(1)

40
= 0,4(mol)
100

2CO2 + Ca(OH)2 Ca(HCO3)2


t
Ca(HCO3)2
CaCO3 +CO2 + H2O
0

(2)
(3)
Page:100

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Theo s hp thc vi phn ng (2) v (3):

= 0,2 + 0,4 = 0,6 (mol).

CO2

10
= 0,1(mol)
100

V y

0,2(mol)

CaCO3

2CO2 Ca(HCO3)2

T
N

H
N
.Q

3n 1
. 0,6 = n.0,8 n = 3
2

TP

Ta c :

0,6(mol)

17,92
= 0,8(mol)
22,4

3n 1
t0
O2
nCO2 + nH2O
2

CnH2nO +

Gi cng thc phn t ca anehit n chc no, mch h A l : CnH2nO

Vy cng thc phn t A l : C3H6O.

p n ng l C

V d 3:

t chy hon ton 1,46 gam hn hp X gm 2 anehit mch h ng ng k tip

TR

thu c 1,568 lt CO2 (ktc) v 1,26 gam H2O. Cng thc phn t ca hai anehit

0B

ln lt l:

B. CH3CHO, C2H5CHO

2+
3

C. C2H5CHO, C3H7CHO

10
0

A.HCHO, CH3CHO

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt:

C.OHC-CHO v OHC-CH2- CHO

-Ta da vo nCO , n H O thu c ca phn ng t chy anehit ta suy ra anehit


2

-L

l loi no.

- Hai anehit anehit mch h ng ng k tip, ta dng phng php s nguyn

B
ID

TO

t cacbon trung bnh trong phn t 2 anhit.


t chy hon ton hn hp X gm 2 anehit thu c :

nCO2 =

n H 2O =

1,568
= 0,07 (mol).
22,4
1,26
= 0,07 (mol).
18

.Vy 2 anehit trn l anehit no, n chc.

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Gi cng thc chung ca hai anehit: C n H 2 n O

N
H

0,07
.
n

nCO2

1,46
= 20,86 n = 14 n +18 n = 2,6
0,07
n

MX =

O
2n

T
N

nC H

O2
C n H 2 n O +
n CO2 + n H2O

Vy 2 anehit l: CH3CHO, C2H5CHO

p ng l B.

.Q

Ch 4. Bi tp trc nghim

TP

Cu 1: Mt anehit c cng thc tng qut l CnH2n + 2 2a m (CHO)m. Cc gi tr n,

a, m ln lt c xc nh l

B. n 0, a 0, m 1.

C. n > 0, a > 0, m > 1.

D. n 0, a > 0, m 1.

A. n > 0, a 0, m 1.

Cu 2: C bao nhiu ng phn cu to C5H10O c kh nng tham gia phn ng

B. 3.

C. 4.

D. 5.

0B

A. 2.

TR

trng gng ?

10
0

Cu 3: C bao nhiu ancol C5H12O khi tc dng vi CuO un nng cho ra anehit ?

B. 2.

C. 3.

D. 4.

2+
3

A. 1.

Cu 4: CTGN ca 1 anehit no, a chc, mch h l C2H3O. CTPT ca n l

A. C8H12O4.

C. C12H18O6.

D. C4H6O2.

B. C4H6O.

-L

A. 2.

phn l

Cu 5: CTGN ca anehit no, a chc, mch h l C2H3O. Anehit c s ng

B. 4.

C. 1.

D. 3.

Cu 6: CTPT ca ankanal c 10,345% H theo khi lng l

B
ID

TO

A. HCHO.

B. CH3CHO.

C. C2H5CHO.

D. C3H7CHO.

Cu 7: Trong cng iu kin nhit v p sut, 1 lt hi anehit A c khi lng


bng khi lng 1 lt CO2. A l

A. anehit fomic.

B. anehit axetic.

C. anehit acrylic.

D. anehit benzoic.

Page:102

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cu 8: t chy hon ton p mol anehit X c q mol CO2 v t mol H2O. Bit p =
q - t. Mt khc 1 mol X trng gng c 4 mol Ag. X thuc dy ng ng

D. nh chc cha no (1 ni ba CC).

B. hai chc, no, mch h.

C. hai chc cha no (1 ni i C=C).

T
N

Cu 9: Dy gm cc cht u iu ch trc tip (bng mt phn ng) to ra anehit

A. n chc, no, mch h.

anehit

axetic l

B. HCOOC2H3, C2H2, CH3COOH.

C. C2H5OH, C2H4, C2H2.

D. CH3COOH, C2H2, C2H4.

A. C2H5OH, C2H2, CH3COOC2H5.

.Q

Cu 10: Ch dng 1 ha cht no sau y phn bit cc dung dch : ancol etylic,

C. AgNO3 / NH3.

D. A, B, C u ng.

B. Na.

A. Cu(OH)2 , toC.

TP

glixerol, fomalin ?

Cu 11: Oxi ha 1,76 gam mt anehit n chc c 2,4 gam mt axit tng ng.

Anehit l

B. anehit axetic.

C. anehit propionic.

D. anehit fomic.

0B

TR

A. anehit acrylic.

10
0

Cu 12: Oxi ha 17,4 gam mt anehit n chc c 16,65 gam axit tng ng

2+
3

(H = 75%). Anehit c cng thc phn t l

B. C2H4O.

C. C3H6O.

D. C3H4O.

A. CH2O.

Cu 13: t chy hon ton 1,46 gam hn hp 2 anehit no, n chc ng ng

k tip thu c 1,568 lt CO2 (ktc).

a. CTPT ca 2 anehit l
B. HCHO v CH3CHO.

C. C2H5CHO v C3H7CHO.

D. Kt qu khc.

B
ID

TO

-L

A. CH3CHO v C2H5CHO.
b. Khi lng gam ca mi anehit l

A. 0,539 v 0,921.

B. 0,88 v 0,58.

C. 0,44 v 1,01.

D. 0,66 v 0,8.

Cu 14: t chy hon ton mt anehit n chc no, mch h A cn 17,92 lt O2


(ktc). Hp th ht sn phm chy vo nc vi trong c 40 gam kt ta v dung
dch X. un nng dung dch X li c 10 gam kt ta na. Cng thc phn t A l

A. CH2O.

B. C2H4O.

C. C3H6O.

D. C4H8O.
Page:103

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cu 15: X, Y, Z, T l 4 anehit no h n chc ng ng lin tip, trong MT =

2,4MX. t chy hon ton 0,1 mol Z ri hp th ht sn phm chy vo bnh ng

C. Gim 11,4 gam. D. Gim 30 gam.

Cu 16: t chy hon ton mt lng aehit A cn va 2,52 lt O2 (ktc), c

T
N

B. C4H6O.

4,4 gam CO2 v 1,35 gam H2O. A c cng thc phn t l


A. C3H4O.

B. tng 13,2 gam.

A. tng 18,6 gam.

dung dch Ca(OH)2 d thy khi lng dung dch tng hay gim bao nhiu gam?

C. C4H6O2.

D. C8H12O.

Cu 17: t chy hon ton 1 anehit A mch h, no thu c CO2 v H2O theo t
2

l nA : nCO : nH O = 1 : 3 : 2 . Vy A l
B. OHCCH2CHO.

C. HOCCH2CH2CHO.

D. CH3CH2CH2CH2CHO.

TP

.Q

A. CH3CH2CHO.

Cu 18: Cho 1,97 gam dung dch fomalin tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3/NH3 d

C. 50%.

D. 38,07%.

B. 40%.

A. 49%.

thu c 10,8 gam Ag. Nng % ca anehit fomic trong fomalin l

Cu 19: Hp cht A cha 1 loi nhm chc v phn t ch cha cc nguyn t C,

TR

H, O trong oxi chim 37,21% v khi lng, 1 mol A trng gng hon ton cho
B. HCHO.

10
0

A. C2H4(CHO)2.

0B

4 mol Ag. Vy A l

C. HOCCH2CHO. D. CH3CHO.

2+
3

Cu 20: Cho 10,4 gam hn hp gm metanal v etanal tc dng vi mt lng va

d AgNO3/NH3 thu c 108 gam Ag. Khi lng metanal trong hn hp l

A. 4,4 gam.

B. 3 gam.

C. 6 gam.

D. 8,8 gam.

Cu 21: Cho bay hi ht 5,8 gam mt hp cht hu c X thu c 4,48 lt hi X

109,2oC v 0,7 atm. Mt khc khi cho 5,8 gam X phn ng ca AgNO3/NH3 d to

-L

43,2 gam Ag. CTPT ca X l


B. C3H4O2.

C. CH2O.

D. C2H4O2.

TO

A. C2H2O2.

B
ID

Cu 22: Cho 5,8 gam anehit A tc dng ht vi mt lng d AgNO3/NH3 thu


c 43,2 gam Ag. Tm CTPT ca A

A. CH3CHO.

B. CH2=CHCHO.

C. OHCCHO.

D. HCHO.

Cu 23: Cho 8,7 gam anehit X tc dng hon ton vi lng dung dch

AgNO3/NH3 (d) c 64,8 gam Ag. X c cng thc phn t l;


A. CH2O.

B. C2H4O.

C. C2H2O2.

D. C3H4O.
Page:104

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cu 24: 8,6 gam anehit mch khng nhnh A tc dng vi lng (d) dung dch

AgNO3/NH3 to 43,2 gam Ag. A c cng thc phn t l


C. C4H8O.

D.C4H6O2.

B. C3H4O.

A. CH2O.

H
N

vi lng d dung dch AgNO3/NH3 c 25,92 gam bc. % s mol anehit c s

Cu 25: X l hn hp gm 2 anehit ng ng lin tip. Cho 0,1 mol X tc dng

A. 20%.

B. 40%.

T
N

cacbon nh hn trong X l

C. 60%.

D. 75%.

Cu 26: Cho 0,1 mol mt anehit X tc dng ht vi dung dch AgNO3/NH3 (d)

B. C2H2O2.

C. C4H6O.

U
D. C3H4O2.

TP

A. CH2O.

.Q

vi Na va c 12 gam rn. X c cng thc phn t l

c 43,2 gam Ag. Hiro ha hon ton X c Y. Bit 0,1 mol Y tc dng va

Cu 27: X l hn hp 2 anehit n chc. Chia 0,12 mol X thnh hai phn bng

nhau :

- t chy ht phn 1 c 6,16 gam CO2 v 1,8 gam H2O.

- Cho phn 2 tc dng vi lng d dung dch AgNO3/NH3 c 17,28 gam bc.

TR

X gm 2 anehit c cng thc phn t l

B. CH2O v C3H6O.

C. CH2O v C3H4O.

D. CH2O v C4H6O.

10
0

0B

A. CH2O v C2H4O.

2+
3

Cu 28: Oxi ha 48 gam ancol etylic bng K2Cr2O7 trong H2SO4 c, tch ly sn

phm hu c ra ngay khi mi trng v dn vo dung dch AgNO3/NH3 d thy c

123,8 gam Ag. Hiu sut ca phn ng oxi ha l

A. 72,46 %.

B. 54,93 %.

C. 56,32 %. D. Kt qu khc.

Cu 29: Dn m gam hi ancol etylic qua ng ng CuO d un nng. Ngng t

-L

phn hi thot ra c hn hp X gm anehit, ancol etylic v H2O. Bit lng

TO

X tc dng vi Na (d) gii phng 3,36 lt H2 ( ktc), cn 1/2 lng X cn li tc

B
ID

dng vi d dung dch AgNO3/NH3 to c 25,92 gam Ag.


a. Gi tr m l

A. 13,8 gam

B. 27,6 gam

C. 16,1 gam

D. 6,9 gam

b. Hiu sut phn ng oxi ho ancol etylic l


A. 20%.

B. 40%.

C. 60%.

D. 75%.

Page:105

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cu 30: Cho m gam ancol n chc no (h) X qua ng ng CuO (d) nung nng.
Sau khi phn ng hon ton thy khi lng cht rn trong ng gim 0,32 gam. Hn

hp hi thu c (gm hi anehit v hi nc) c t khi so vi H2 l 19. Gi tr m

C. 0,92 gam.

D.0,64 gam.

B. 1,16 gam.

A. 1,2 gam.

T
N

Cu 31: X l hn hp 2 ancol n chc ng ng lin tip. Cho 0,3 mol X tc

dng hon ton vi CuO un nng c hn hp Y gm 2 anehit. Cho Y tc dng

vi lng dung dch AgNO3/NH3 c 86,4 gam Ag. X gm

B. C3H7OH v C4H9OH.

C. C2H5OH v C3H7OH.

D. C3H5OH v C4H7OH.

.Q

A. CH3OH v C2H5OH.

TP

Cu 32: Dn 4 gam hi ancol n chc A qua ng ng CuO, nung nng. Ngng

t phn hi thot ra c hn hp X. Cho X tc dng vi lng d dung dch

C. ancol anlylic.

B. ancol etylic.

D. ancol benzylic.

A. ancol metylic.

AgNO3/NH3 c 43,2 gam bc. A l

Cu 33: X l hn hp gm mt ancol n chc no, mch h A v mt anehit no,

TR

mch h n chc B (A v B c cng s cacbon). t chy hon ton 13,4 gam X

0B

c 0,6 mol CO2 v 0,7 mol H2O. S nguyn t C trong A, B u l

B. 2.

C. 3.

10
0

A. 1.

D. 4.

2+
3

Cu 34: Cho hn hp gm 0,1 mol HCHO v 0,1 mol HCOOH tc dng vi lng

d Ag2O (hoc AgNO3) trong dung dch NH3, un nng. Sau khi cc phn ng xy

A. 43,2 gam.

ra hon ton, khi lng Ag to thnh l


B. 10,8 gam.

C. 64,8 gam.

D. 21,6 gam.

Cu 35: Cho 0,1 mol hn hp X gm hai anehit no, n chc, mch h, k tip

-L

nhau trong dy ng ng tc dng vi lng d dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3, un

B
ID

TO

nng thu c 32,4 gam Ag. Hai anehit trong X l

A. HCHO v C2H5CHO.

B. HCHO v CH3CHO.

C. C2H3CHO v C3H5CHO.

D. CH3CHO v C2H5CHO.

Cu 36: Hiro ho hon ton hn hp M gm hai anehit X v Y no, n chc,

mch h, k tip nhau trong dy ng ng (MX < My), thu c hn hp hai ancol
c khi lng ln hn khi lng M l 1 gam. t chy hon ton M thu c 30,8
gam CO2. Cng thc v phn trm khi lng ca X ln lt l
Page:106

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A. HCHO v 50,56%.

B. CH3CHO v 67,16%.

C. CH3CHO v 49,44%.

D. HCHO v 32,44%.

Cu 37: Cho 0,1 mol anehit X tc dng vi lng d AgNO3 (hoc Ag2O) trong

dung dch NH3, un nng thu c 43,2 gam Ag. Hiro ho X thu c Y, bit 0,1

C. CH3CHO.

D. CH3CH(OH)CHO.

B. OHCCHO.

T
N

A. HCHO.

mol Y phn ng va vi 4,6 gam Na. Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l

Cu 38: Hai hp cht hu c X v Y l ng ng k tip, u tc dng vi Na v

c phn ng trng bc. Bit phn trm khi lng oxi trong X, Y ln lt l 53,33%

v 43,24%. Cng thc cu to ca X v Y tng ng l

.Q

A. HOCH2CHO v HOCH2CH2CHO.

TP

B. HOCH2CH2CHO v HOCH2CH2CH2CHO.

C. HCOOCH3 v HCOOCH2CH3.

D. HOCH(CH3)CHO v HOOCCH2CHO.

Cu 39: Hp cht hu c X tc dng c vi dung dch NaOH un nng v vi

dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3. Th tch ca 3,7 gam hi cht X bng th tch ca 1,6

TR

gam kh O2 (cng iu kin v nhit v p sut). Khi t chy hon ton 1 gam

0B

X th th tch kh CO2 thu c vt qu 0,7 lt ( ktc). Cng thc cu to ca X l


B. CH3COOCH3.

10
0

A. HCOOC2H5.

D. OHCCH2CH2OH.

2+
3

C. HOOCCHO.

Cu 40: Hiro ho hon ton m gam hn hp X gm hai anehit no, n chc,

mch h, k tip nhau trong dy ng ng thu c (m + 1) gam hn hp hai

ancol. Mt khc, khi t chy hon ton cng m gam X th cn va 17,92 lt kh

O2 ( ktc). Gi tr ca m l

-L

A. 10,5.

B. 8,8.

C. 24,8.

D. 17,8.

TO

Cu 41: Cho m gam hn hp X gm hai ru (ancol) no, n chc, k tip nhau

B
ID

trong dy ng ng tc dng vi CuO (d) nung nng, thu c mt hn hp rn


Z v mt hn hp hi Y (c t khi hi so vi H2 l 13,75). Cho ton b Y phn ng
vi mt lng d Ag2O (hoc AgNO3) trong dung dch NH3 un nng, sinh ra 64,8

gam Ag. Gi tr ca m l
A. 7,8.

B. 8,8.

C. 7,4.

D. 9,2.

Page:107

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L Th Thanh H

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Cu 42: Cho 3,6 gam anehit n chc X phn ng hon ton vi mt lng d

Ag2O (hoc AgNO3) trong dung dch NH3 un nng, thu c m gam Ag. Ho tan

hon ton m gam Ag bng dung dch HNO3 c, sinh ra 2,24 lt NO2 (sn phm kh
D. C2H5CHO.

C. C4H9CHO.

B. HCHO.

A. C3H7CHO.

duy nht, ktc). Cng thc ca X l

T
N

Cu 43: Oxi ho 1,2 gam CH3OH bng CuO nung nng, sau mt thi gian thu c

hn hp sn phm X (gm HCHO, H2O v CH3OH d). Cho ton b X tc dng

vi lng d Ag2O (hoc AgNO3) trong dung dch NH3, c 12,96 gam Ag. Hiu

C. 65,5%.

B. 80,0%.

D. 70,4%.

.Q

A. 76,6%.

sut ca phn ng oxi ho CH3OH l

TP

Cu 44: Cho 0,25 mol mt anehit mch h X phn ng vi lng d dung dch

AgNO3 trong NH3, thu c 54 gam Ag. Mt khc, khi cho X phn ng vi H2 d

(xc tc Ni, to) th 0,125 mol X phn ng ht vi 0,25 mol H2. Cht X c cng thc

ng vi cng thc chung l

A. CnH2n-3CHO (n 2).

D. CnH2n(CHO)2 (n 0).

TR

C. CnH2n+1CHO (n 0).

B. CnH2n-1CHO (n 2).

0B

Cu 45: Cho hn hp kh X gm HCHO v H2 i qua ng s ng bt Ni nung

10
0

nng. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c hn hp kh Y gm hai cht hu

2+
3

c. t chy ht Y th thu c 11,7 gam H2O v 7,84 lt kh CO2 ( ktc). Phn

trm theo th tch ca H2 trong X l

A. 35,00%.

B. 65,00%.

C. 53,85%.

D. 46,15%.

Cu 46: Hn hp X gm hai ancol no, n chc, mch h, k tip nhau trong dy

ng ng. Oxi ho hon ton 0,2 mol hn hp X c khi lng m gam bng CuO

-L

nhit thch hp, thu c hn hp sn phm hu c Y. Cho Y tc dng vi mt

TO

lng d dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3, thu c 54 gam Ag. Gi tr ca m l

B
ID

A. 13,5.

B. 8,1.

C. 8,5.

D. 15,3.

Cu 47: 1,72 gam hn hp anehit acrylic v anehit axetic tham gia phn ng

cng va 1,12 lt H2 (ktc). Cho thm 0,696 gam anehit B l ng ng ca


anehit fomic vo 1,72 gam hn hp 2 anehit trn ri cho hn hp thu c tham
gia phn ng trng bc hon ton c 10,152 gam Ag. Cng thc cu to ca B l
A. CH3CH2CHO.

B. C4H9CHO.
Page:108

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C. CH3CH(CH3)CHO.

D. CH3CH2CH2CHO.

Cu 48: 17,7 gam hn hp X gm 2 anehit n chc phn ng hon ton vi dung

dch AgNO3 trong NH3 (dng d) c 1,95 mol Ag v dung dch Y. Ton b Y tc

dng vi dung dch HCl d c 0,45 mol CO2. Cc cht trong hn hp X l


B. C2H5CHO v HCHO.

C. CH3CHO v HCHO.

D. C2H5CHO v CH3CHO.

T
N

A. C2H3CHO v HCHO.

Cu 49: Cho 6,6 gam mt anehit X n chc, mch h phn ng vi lng d

AgNO3 (hoc Ag2O) trong dung dch NH3, un nng. Lng Ag sinh ra cho phn

ng ht vi axit HNO3 long, thot ra 2,24 lt kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht, o


C. CH3CH2CHO.

D. CH2 = CHCHO

TP

B. HCHO.

A. CH3CHO.

.Q

ktc). Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l (cho H = 1, C = 12, O = 16)

Cu 50: Cho 2,9 gam mt anehit phn ng hon ton vi lng d AgNO3 (hoc

Ag2O) trong dung dch NH3 thu c 21,6 gam Ag. Cng thc cu to thu gn ca
C. OHC-CHO.

B. CH2=CH-CHO.

D. CH3CHO.

A. HCHO.

anehit l (Cho H = 1; C = 12; O = 16; Ag = 108)

TR

2.3.2.2. Axit cacboxylic

0B

Ch 1:

2+
3

10
0

So snh nhit si ca cc cht hu c v so snh tnh axit ca cc axit


cacboxylic

So snh nhit si ca cc hp cht hu c

1. nh ngha : Nhit si ca cc cht hu c l nhit m ti p sut

bo ha trn b mt cht lng bng p sut kh quyn.

2. Cc yu t nh hng n nhit si ca cht hu c.

-L

- Kh nng to lin kt hiro ca hp cht hu c

B
ID

TO

- Khi lng mol phn t ca hp cht hu c.

- C trc phn t (chng ngi lp th)


- nh hng ca cc nhn t khc: nh hng ca nhm ht electron v

nhm y electron,
2.1 nh hng ca lin kt hiro n nhit si:
- Lin kt hiro gy lc ht tnh in ca nguyn t H linh ng phn cc
dng trong phn t ny vi nguyn t phi kim mnh phn cc m ca phn t kia
Page:109

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L Th Thanh H

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lm cho cc phn t rng buc vi nhau cht ch hn. ha hi chng (cc phn
t tn ti dng ring r ) cn thm nng lng phn tch cc phn t ra khi

mng tinh th hay dung dch. Do vy nhit si ca loi hp cht ny bao gi

cng cao hn nhit si ca loi hp cht khng to c lin kt hidro. (khi khi

lng phn t xp x nhau)

T
N

V d: Nhit si ca CH3OH (M=32) cao hn CH3CHO.( M= 44)

(do CH3OH c lin kt hiro, CH3CHO khng c lin kt hiro),

+ Trng hp hai hp cht c cng khi lng hoc khi lng xp x nhau

th hp cht no c lin kt hiro bn hn s c nhit si cao hn. mnh ca

.Q

lin kt hiro ph thuc vo ln ca trung tm phn cc m trong phn t ny v

TP

nguyn t H phn cc dng trong phn t kia.

V d : Nhit si ca CH3COOH cao hn C3H7OH c cng khi lng mol phn

t = 60 vc, do nguyn t H trong nhm -OH ca axit phn cc dng mnh hn

nguyn t H trong nhm -OH ca ru. S phn cc m ca nguyn t oxi trong

nhm cc bonyl cng mnh hn s phn cc m ca oxi trong nhm -OH ca ru

TR

nn lin kt H trong axit mnh hn hn so vi ancol.

0B

Nhit si ca ancol a chc ln hn nhit si ca ancol n chc (c

10
0

khi lng mol phn t xp x nhau). Cc ancol c khi lng mol phn t tng

2+
3

ng nhau hp cht no c nhiu chc hn s c nhit si cao hn do c s lin

M= 62

t0s = 197,20C

kt H nhiu hn.

CH3CH2CH2CH2OH

M= 74

t0s = 117,70C

CH2OHCHOHCH2OH

M=92

t0s 2900C

CH2OH(CH2)2CH2OH

M= 92

t0s 2300C

-L

V d: HOCH2CH2OH

B
ID

TO

2.2 Khi lng phn t nh hng n nhit si :

- Cc hp cht cng khng c lin kt hiro hoc cng kiu lin kt hiro th

hp cht no c khi lng phn t cng ln cng kh bay hi do nhit si


cng cao.
V d: Nhit si ca CH3CHO thp hn C2H5CHO thp hn C3H7CHO.

Page:110

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(C hai u khng c lin kt hiro, khi lng mol phn t ca C3H7CHO


ln hn khi lng mol phn t ca C2H5CHO nn C3H7CHO c nhit si ln

hn.)

T
N

ln hn khi lng ca CH3OH=32. nn C2H5OH c nhit si cao hn CH3OH).

(C hai u c cng kiu lin kt hidro, nhng khi lng ca C2H5OH=46

Nhit si ca CH3OH thp hn C2H5OH.

2.3 Chng ngi lp th c nh hng n nhit si

- Hai hp cht l ng phn ca nhau th hp cht no c din tch tip xc

phn t ln hn s c nhit cao hn hn hay ni cch khc phn t no cng

.Q

nhiu nhnh cng gim din tch b mt nhit si cng thp. ngha l cu trc

TP

phn t cng gn (trn), (cng nhiu nhnh) nhit si cng thp

V d: Nhit si ca cc hp cht sau theo th t tng dn:

CH3C(CH3)2CHO < CH3CH(CH3)CH2CHO < CH3CH2CH2CH2CHO

TR

Ancol sec-butylic (t0s99)

V d: Ancol tert-butylic (t0s82,5)

+ i vi ancol: ng phn tert<sec<iso<n-ancol.

(t0s117,6).

10
0

Ancol butylic

0B

Ancol iso-butylic (t0s107,8)

2+
3

+ i vi cc cht cha vng benzen: ng phn ortho lun c nhit si

thp hn ng phn meta v ng phn para. Nguyn nhn nh trn gii thch.

V d: O-crezol (t0s 191,3) < m-crezol (t0s 202) xp x p-crezol (t0s 202).

+ Hai hp cht l ng phn ca nhau th ng phn cis c nhit si cao

hn ng phn trans do phn t ng phn cis km cn i hn so vi phn t ng

-L

phn trans. M men lng cc ng phn cis ln hn m men lng cc ng phn

B
ID

TO

trans .
2.4

nh hng ca cc nhn t khc: nh hng ca nhm ht electron v

nhm y electron ,
-Dn xut ca ankan.
i vi dn xut R-X , nu khng c lin kt hidro.

Khi X ht electron ca X vi mch chnh cng mnh nhit si s cng . V


d: t0s C2H5Cl < t0s C2H5CHO.
Page:111

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- Dn xut ca anken: Dn xut halogel ca anken si v nng chy nhit


thp hn dn xut ca ankan tng ng.

V d: CH2 =CHCl < CH3-CH2Cl

- Nhm th loi 1 ( ch cha cc lin kt xich ma nh : -CH3 , -C2H5 ..) c tc

i vi cc hp cht thm c cha nhm chc -OH , -COOH , ..

T
N

dng y electron vo nhn thm lm lin kt H trong chc mnh hn nn nhit

si cao hn.

- Nhm th loi 2 (cha lin kt pi nh -NO2 , -C2H4 ...) c tc dng ht e ca

nhn thm lm lin kt H trong chc km bn i nn lm gim nhit si

.Q

* Xt vi cc hp cht c nhm chc khc nhau

TP

Nhit si ca ancol , Andehit , Axit , xeton , Este tng ng v c bn theo

th t sau

+ Axit > Ancol > Andehit , xeton v Este

+ Xeton > Andehit.

So snh tnh axit ca cc axit cacboxylic.

TR

Xt cc yu t nh hng n tnh axit ca cc axit cacboxylic.

0B

So snh tnh axit ca cc axit cacboxylic l so snh linh ng ca nguyn

10
0

t H . Hp cht no c linh ng ca nguyn t H cng cao th tnh axit cng

2+
3

mnh.

1. nh ngha : linh ng ca nguyn t H (hidro): L kh nng phn ly ra


+

ion H ca hp cht hu c trong mi trng nc.

CTCT axit cacboxylic thu gn chung: RCOOH.

linh ng ca nguyn t H (hidro) hay kh nng phn li cho H+ ty

-L

thuc vo s phn cc ca lin kt O-H. phn cc ca lin kt O-H ph thuc

TO

vo mt in t trn nguyn t oxy ca nhm O-H. Nu mt in t trn oxy

B
ID

cng ln th kh nng ht cp electron lin kt ca nhm O-H v pha mnh t, lin

kt O-H phn cc yu , tnh axit yu . Ngc li nu mt in t trn nguyn t


oxy cng nh th kh nng ht cp electron lin kt ca nhm OH v pha mnh
nhiu, lin kt O-H phn cc mnh, tnh axit mnh.
2. So snh tnh axit ca cc axit cacboxylic da gc hydrocacbon ca cc axit
cacboxylic l gc y in t hay ht in t.
Page:112

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- Nu gc axit l cc gc y in t (hyrocacbon no) th s lm tng mt


electron trn nguyn t oxi, lm gim s phn cc ca lin kt O-H, lm gim

linh ng ca nguyn t H, tnh axit ca cc hp cht hu c gim.

+ Gc R cng phn nhnh th tnh axit cng gim.


CH3CH2COOH >

CH3CH2CH2COOH

CH3COOH >

>

>

T
N

HCOOH

V du: Sp xp tnh axit ca cc axit cc boxilic no n chc theo trt t:

CH3CH(CH3)COOH.

+ Nu axit c nhm cacboxyl cng lin kt vi cc gc y in t nhng

trong gc ny li cha cc nhm ht in t (halogen) th tnh axit bin i theo quy

.Q

lut sau:

TP

+ Cng 1 nguyn t halogen, cng xa nhm chc th tnh axit cng gim.

V d: CH3CH(Cl)COOH > ClCH2CH2COOH > CH3CH2COOH

+ Cng 1 v tr ca nguyn t th khi lin kt vi cc halogen khc nhau tnh


F > Cl > Br > I .

axit gim dn theo trt t:

V d: Sp xp tnh axit ca cc axit mo no halozen axetic theo trt t:

TR

FCH2COOH > ClCH2COOH > BrCH2COOH

0B

- Nu axit c nhm cacboxyl lin kt vi cc nhm ht in t (hyrocacbon

10
0

khng no, hyrocacbon thm,) s lm tng s phn cc ca lin kt O-H, lm

2+
3

tng linh ng ca nguyn t H, tnh axit tng.

- Vi cc axit khng no tnh axit ca gim dn khi lin kt vi cc gc

hyrocacbon (HC) sau: Gc HC c lin kt 3 > gc HC thm > gc HC cha lin kt

i > gc HC no.

V du: Sp xp tnh axit ca cc axit khng no theo trt t:

-L

CH C-COOH > C6H5- COOH > CH2= CH- COOH > CH3CH2COOH

TO

+ i vi axit , khng no ng phn cis c tnh axit mnh hn ng phn

B
ID

trans, v ng phn cis c hiu ng khng gian cn tr s phn li ca H+ .


V d: Hng s axit ca cc axit
Cis CH3CH=CHCOOH,

( pKa= 4,38)

Trans CH3CH=CHCOOH,

( pKa= 4,68).

Cis C6H5- CH=CH-COOH,

(pKa= 3,98)

Trans C6H5- CH=CH-COOH, (pKa= 4,44).


Page:113

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+ i vi axit icacboxylic no bao gi tnh axit cng ln hn axit


monocacboxylic tng ng, v 2 nhm cacboxyl gy nh hng hiu ng (I) ln

nhau. Hai nhm cng xa nhau nh hng cng yu, do lc axit cng gim.

V d: Sp xp tnh axit ca cc axit

HOOC-COOH >HOOC-(CH2 )4COOH > CH3COOH

T
N

+ i vi axit thm:

Xt axit benzoic vi axit benzoic c nhm th metyl (ankyl) th v tr meta

v nht l v tr para tnh axit gim so vi axit benzoic, v gc metyl gy hiu ng

y e ca nhm ny. Nu nhm th metyl (ankyl) v tr octo th hu ht cc axit

.Q

u c lc axit mnh hn hn so vi ng phn meta v para. V cc nhm th v

TP

tr octo i vi nhm cacboxyl gy mt hiu ng c bit gi l hiu ng octho.

V du: Sp xp tnh axit ca cc axit :

Axit o-metylbenzoic > Axit benzoic > Axit m-metylbenzoic > Axit p-

metylbenzoic.

V d 1

TR

Hy sp xp cc axit trong cc dy theo th t tng dn lc axit:


Cl3CCOOH, Cl2CHCOOH, ClCH2COOH

0B

a) CH3COOH,

10
0

b)ClCH2CH2CH2COOH, CH3CH(Cl)CH2COOH, CH3CH2CH(Cl)COOH


Hng dn gii

2+
3

CH3CH2CH2COOH

a) CH3COOH < ClCH2COOH < Cl2CHCOOH < Cl3CCOOH

b) CH3CH2CH2COOH < ClCH2CH2CH2COOH <

-L

< CH3CH(Cl)CH2COOH < CH3CH2CH(Cl)COOH

TO

V d 2

tng ng. Gii thch nguyn nhn dn ti s khc nhau gia chng.

Hy so snh nhit nng chy, nhit si v tan trong nc ca anehit v axit

B
ID

Hng dn gii

Anehit

tnc

ts

Axit

tan

cacboxylic

tnc

ts

tan
Page:114

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L Th Thanh H

8,40C 100,70C

210C tan CH3COOH 16,60C 118,10C

<-

1230C

190C tt

tt

- Nguyn nhn anehit khng to c lin kt hyro vi nhau v vi nc ,nn

CH3CHO

HCOOH

150C

tan

HCHO

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

T
N

dng lng chng cng tn ti dng n phn t do vy d tch ra (nhit si

thp).Axit do to c lin kt hiddro vi nhau v vi nc nn mun chuyn v

dng hi cn nng lng nhiu hn. Tan trong nc tt hn.

Ch 2: Vit phng trnh biu din bin ha v iu ch.

.Q

Yu cu.

TP

HS phi c kin thc tng hp, nm vng tnh cht ho hc ca axit

cacboxylic, cc cht hu c hc v phng php iu ch cc cht hu c c

bn.

Nm c mi lin h gia cc cht hu c.

V d 1:

TR

Vit phng trnh ha hc ca phn ng khi cho axit acrylic tc dng ln lt vi cc

0B

cht sau:

b) NaHCO3

10
0

a) C6H5 ONa ,
c) H2 (xt, t0, Ni)

Br2 trong CCl

e) P2O5

Hng dn gii

2+
3

d)

a) C6H5ONa + CH2 = CH COOH CH2 = CH COONa + C6H5OH

b) NaHCO3 + CH2 = CH COOH CH2 = CH COONa + CO2 + H2O


0

-L

,t
c) CH2 = CH COOH + H2 Ni

CH3 -CH2 -COOH

O
e) 2 CH2 = CH COOH P

(CH2 = CH CO)2O + H2O


2

anhirit acrylic

V d 2: Hon thnh cc PTPU theo s sau:

B
ID

TO

d) CH2 = CH COOH + Br2 CH2Br CHBr COOH

Br2
C3H6

dd NaOH
B

CuO, t0
D

O2, xt
E (axit i cacboxylic).

Hng dn gii

Page:115

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Nhn xt: E l axit i cacboxylic nn C3H6 phi l xiclo propan, vy B l 1,

3- iclopropan, C l propan 1,3- iol, D l propan 1,3 - ial, E l axit propanioic.

+ Br2 CH2Br CH2 CH2Br


0

t
CH2Br- CH2- CH2Br + NaOH
HO-CH2- CH2-CH2OH + 2NaBr
0

T
N

xt, t

HOOC- CH2- COOH

OHC-CH2- CHO + O2

t
HO-CH2- CH2-CH2OH + CuO
OHC-CH2- CHO + Cu + 2H2O

V d 2:

a) Hy nu phng php chung iu ch axit cacboxylic.

b) Hy vit phng trnh ha hc ca phn ng iu ch axit axetic trong cng nghip i

TP

.Q

t metanol, t etilen v t axetilen. Hin nay ngi ta s dng phng php no chnh, v

sao?

Hng dn gii

a) Nguyn tc chung iu ch axit cc boxylic l oxh andehit hoc ru tng ng bng

CH3 CH2 COOH

10
0

- Axit ha hp cht c Mg

+ [O]

CH3 CH2 COOH+ H2O

0B

CH3 CH2 CHO

TR

CH3 CH2 CH2- OH+ 2[O]

cht oxh mnh

2+
3

C2H5COOMgBr + HCl C2H5COOH + MgClBr


xt
b) CH3OH+CO
CH3COOH

Mtanol v CO iu ch t mtan c sn trong kh thin nhin v kh du m, nn

phng php ny gi thnh h nht , c p dng nhiu hin nay

-L

Ch 3: Bin lun l thuyt xc nh CTPT, CTCT ca axit cacboxylic

B
ID

TO

Yu cu:

HS nm vng nh ngha, phn loi, cu to ca axit cacboxylic


Nm vng cc cng thc ca axit cacboxylic: CTPT, CTTN...
Nm vng tnh cht ho hc ca axit cacboxylic v mi lin h gia cc cht

hu c.

Page:116

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Ngoi ra ta c th dng phng php tnh s lin kt ca cht hu c v


phng php chuyn cng thc nguyn v cng thc c cha nhm chc cn xc

nh (- COOH) nh gii thiu phn ancol.

V d 1:

B
T
N

sau y:

C3H4O3 axit no n chc.

Hng dn gii

Cng thc phn t c dng (C3H4O3)n hay C3nH4nO3n

.Q

Gi a l s lin kt trong phn t ( a 1)

3n
ng bng s lin kt trong phn t
2

3n
n=2
2

n+1=

Mt khc: s nhm chc ca axit l:

TP

3n.2 + 2 4n
= n+1;
2

a=

Bin lun xc nh cng thc phn t ca cc cht c cng thc n gin nht

0B

TR

CTPT l : C6H8O6.

10
0

Ch 4: Thit lp CTPT, CTCT ca axit cacboxylic da vo tnh cht ha

2+
3

hc

Mt s lu

Phng php gii v mt s ch quan trng

Da vo d kin bi phi xc nh axit l n chc hay a chc.

Cng thc tng qut: CnH2n + 2 2a x (COOH)x hoc R(COOH)n

B
ID

TO

-L

- Axit no n chc CnH2n +1 COOH vi n 0

- Axit no a chc CnH2n + 2 x (COOH)x vi n x 2


- Axit khng no cha mt ni i ( gc hircacbon), n chc

CnH2n 1 COOH
Ring axit HCOOH c phn ng trng bc
0

t
HCOOH + 2[Ag(NH3)2]OH
(NH4)2CO3 + 2Ag + 2NH3 + H2O

(NH4)2CO3

n HCOOH
1
=
2
n Ag

Page:117

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh


0

t
(NH4)2CO3
2NH3 + CO2 + H2O

- Phn ng t chy:

N
B
H
T
N
N
H

nCO2

(max) =1( nCO = n H O ) khi a=0; x=1. Axit no, n chc, mch h : CnH2nO2

n H 2O

n +1 a
n +1
a
=
n+x
n+ x n+ x

nCO2

3n a + 1
t0
O2
(n+x)CO2 + (n+1-a)H2O
2

.Q

n H 2O

C(n+x)H(2n+2-2a)O2x.
C(n+x)H(2n+2-2a)O2x +

Gi cng thc chung ca axit cacboxylic l: CnH2n+2-2a-x(COOH)x hay

TP

(n 1).

Vy:

+ Khi t chy mt axit (hoc este, v este l ng phn ca axit) thu c CO2 v

H2O nu n CO2 = n H2O th axit (hoc este) l axit ( este) no, n chc.

phn ng =

nCO2 +

n H 2O

0B

TR

naxit (phn ng) + nO

- i vi axit n chc, theo nh lut bo ton khi lng nguyn t oxi :

10
0

+ Axit cha no, n chc: CnH2n-2aO2.

2+
3

+ Axit cha no, c mt lin kt i n chc, mch h (a=1), khi t chy cho:

nCO2 > n H 2O v naxit = nCO2 - n H 2O

V d 1:

t chy ht 10 gam mt axit n chc no mch h A c (m+28)gam CO2 v

-L

(m-24) gam nc. Xc nh cng thc cu to ca A.

Hng dn gii

B
ID

TO

A l mt axit n chc no mch h nn khi t chy A thu c CO2 v H2O c s

mol bng nhau.

Gi cng thc phn t ca A l: CnH2nO2.


Ta c phn ng t chy: CnH2nO2
m
mol
14n + 32

O2
+

nCO2

m + 28
mol
44

nH2O
m 24
mol
18

Page:118

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

m + 28
m 24
=
m= 60.
44
18

Thay m= 60gam, tm c nCO = 2; nA =

2
n=2.
60
14n + 32

nA

nCO2

T
N

n=

60
14n + 32

M nCO = n H O hay

Vy CTPT ca A: C2H4O2.

CTCT ca A : CH3COOH.

V d 2:

.Q

t chy hon ton 0,1 mol mt axit cacboxylic n chc, cn va V lt

B. 6,72.

C. 4,48.

D. 11,2.

A. 8,96.

TP

O2(ktc), thu c 0,3 mol CO2 v 0,2 mol H2O. Gi tr ca V l:

(Trch TTS i hc, cao ng khi B, 2007)

Hng dn gii

Theo bi ra axit cacboxylic l n chc Phn t cha hai nguyn t oxi.

nO2 phn ng = nCO2 +

n H 2O

nCO2 +

n H 2O

0B

phn ng =

10
0

- naxit (phn ng) = 0,3 + 0,1 -0,1 = 0,3 (mol).

2+
3

naxit (phn ng) + nO

TR

p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng nguyn t oxi :

VO2 = 0,3.22,4 = 6,72 (lt).

V d 3 :

p n ng l B.

-L

t chy hon ton 1,79 lt ( 163,80C v 1 atm) hn hp hi 2 axit no, n chc,

mch h ng ng lin tip. Sn phm chy hp th ht vo bnh ng KOH d

B
ID

TO

thy khi lng bnh tng 6,82g. 2 axit l:


A. HCOOH v CH3COOH

B. CH3COOH v C2H5COOH

C. C2H5COOH v C3H7COOH

C. C3H7COOH v C4H9COOH

Hng dn gii:

naxit =

P.V
= 0,05mol
R.T
Page:119

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Axit no, n chc mch h n CO = n H O = a.


2

Bnh KOH hp th c CO2 v H2O m CO + m H O =62.a = 68,2


2

= 2,2 p n B

n axit

n CO

M n C =

a = 0,11

T
N

V d 4:

t chy hon ton 4,3g mt axit cacboxylic X n chc thu c 4,48 lt

C. 0,04

D. 0,05

B. 0,02

A. 0,01

CO2(ktc) v 2,7g H2O. S mol X l:

TP

.Q

Hng dn gii.

Nhn xt: Theo LBTKL tm , da LBT nguyn t oxi tm c nx.

Theo LBTKL: mX + m O = m CO + m H O
2

m O = 2,7 + 0,244 4,3 = 10,3gam n O = 0,225mol


2

nx = n CO +
2

nH O
2

- n O = 0,05 mol.
2

2+
3

10
0

p n D.

TR

nH O

0B

nx + n O = n CO +

p dng nh lut bo ton nguyn t i vi oxi

- Da vo phng trnh phn ng vi kim loi kim, dung dch baz v mui

cacbonat

R(COOH)x + xNa R(COONa)x +

-L

nH2 =

B
ID

TO

+ N u n H

x
H2
2

x
n
.
2 R ( COH ) x
1
axit cho l axit n chc
n
2 R ( COH ) x

Khi cho mt hn hp 2 axit tc dng vi Na m


+ N u n H

+ N u n H

1
n
2 axit u n chc,
2 R ( COH ) x

>

1
trong 2 axit c t nht mt axit a chc.
n
2 R ( COH ) x

Page:120

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

R(COOH)n + nNaOH R(COONa)n + nH2O

nNaOH
naxit

S nhm chc -COOH =

axit u n chc, nu n NaOH > n axit th suy ra trong 2 axit c t nht mt

T
N

axit a chc

H
N
U

mmuoi maxit
m
=
22.n axit
22.n axit

.Q

S nhm chc COOH =

(mmuoi maxit ).n*


( n* l s nhm chc).
22

TP

naxit = nmui =

+ Khi cho mt hn hp 2 axit tc dng vi NaOH m n NaOH = n axit th suy ra 2

Theo nh lut bo ton khi lng:


maxit + mNaOH = mmui + m H O

- Mui ca axit no, n chc, mch h khi t chy cng cho nCO = n H O .
O
2CnH2n+1COONa +

Na2CO3 + (2n+1)CO2 + (2n+1)H2O

TR

V d 5:

0B

0,1 mol mt axit cacboxylic A tc dng ht vi Na thu c 0,1 mol kh H2, mt

Hng dn gii

2+
3

nh CTCT ca axit A.

10
0

khc khi cho 10,4 gam A tc dng ht vi NaOH thu c 14,8 gam mui. Xc

Nhn xt: n H = n it axit cho l axit 2 chc.

Gi n l s mol ca A. Theo cng thc tnh s nhm chc ca axit:

TO

-L

S nhm chc COOH =

MA =

B
ID

n=

mmuoi maxit
m
=
22.n axit
22.n axit

m 2 m1 14,8 10, 4
=
= 0,1 mol.
22x
22.2

10, 4
= 104 vC.
0,1

Gi cng thc ca A l: R(COOH)2. Ta c MR + 90 = 104 MR = 14

(-

CH2-)
Vy CTCT ca A l: HOOC- CH2- COOH

Page:121

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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

V d 6:

Trung ha a mol axit hu c A cn 2a mol NaOH. t chy ht a mol axit A c

2a mol CO2. Xc nh CTCT ca A

Hng dn gii

B
H

2a
nNaOH
=
= 2.
a
naxit

T
N

S nhm chc COOH =

H
Y

2a
= 2.
a

nA

Vy A ch c th l axit oxalic, CTCT: HOOC-COOH

TP

Axit A c s nguyn t C v s nhm chc axit u bng 2.

.Q

nCO2

Mt khc: Gi CTPT ca A l: CxHyO4


x=

Ta da vo t l s mol NaOH v s mol axit, xc nh s nhm chc trong A.

V d7:

Hn hp X gm 2 axit hu c no ( mi axit khng qu 2 nhm COOH) c khi

lng 16 g tng ng vi 0,175 mol. t chy hon ton hn hp X ri cho sn

TR

phm chy qua nc vi trong d th thu c 47,5 gam kt ta. Mt khc , nu cho

0B

hn hp X tc dng va vi dung dch Na2CO3 thu c 22,6 gam mui. Cng


B. CH2 (COOH)2 v (COOH)2

2+
3

A.HCOOH v (COOH)2

10
0

thc cu to ca hai axit trong hn hp X.

C.C2H5COOH v HOOC-CH2 - COOH

Theo bi ra ta c : MX =

D. CH3COOH v HOOC-CH2-COOH

Hng dn gii
16
= 91,428(g).
0,175

-L

Cho sn phm chy qua nc vi trong d th c phn ng:

TO

CO2 + Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 + H2O

B
ID

0,475 (mol)

47,5
= 0,475(mol).
100

S nguyn t C trung bnh trong X =

nCO2
nX

0,475
= 2,7
0,175

Chng t X gm :
+ 1 axit c nguyn t C b hn 2,7 ( phn t c 1 hoc 2 nguyn t C)
+1 axit c nguyn t C ln hn 2,7 ( phn t c 3 nguyn t C)
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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Loi p n v B.
Mt khc:

16gam X tc dng va vi dung dch Na2CO3 thu c 22,6 gam mui. m tng

mmuoi maxit
6,6
=
=
22.0,175
22.n axit

T
N

S nhm chc COOH trung bnh trong X =

= 22,6 16 = 6,6 gam

Chng t 1 axit n chc v 1 axit 2 chc. (loi p n B).

Gi naxit n chc = x(mol).

naxit a chc = y (mol).

.Q

x = 0,05mol

y = 0,125mol

TP

x + 2 y = 0,3

x + y = 0,175

Theo bi ra ta c:

TH1: X gm: C2H5COOH v HOOC-CH2 COOH

Thay s tm m. m= 0,05.74 + 0,125.104 = 16,7g 16g(u bi). Loi

TH2: X gm: CH3COOH v HOOC-CH2-COOH

Thay s tm m. m= 0,05.60 + 0,125.104 = 16g (tha mn).

TR

p n ng l D.

0B

V d 8:

10
0

Ho tan 26,8 g 1 hn hp 2 axit cacboxylic no, n chc, mch h vo nc, ri

2+
3

chia dd thu c thnh 2 phn bng nhau.

+ Phn 1: cho tc dng vi dd AgNO3 d trong NH3, un nng th thu c 21,6g

Ag.

+ Phn 2: c trung ha va bi 200 ml dd NaOH 1M.

CTPT v khi lng ca axit cacboxylic c khi lng mol phn t ln hn l


B. C3H7COOH v 17,6 g.

C. HCOOH v 9,2 g.

D. C2H5COOH v 17,6 g.

B
ID

TO

-L

A. CH3COOH v 4,6 g.

Hng dn gii:

Nhn xt: Trong tt c cc axit cacboxylic ch c HCOOH l c phn ng

trng bc.
Hn hp 2 axit ban u c phn ng trng bc trong hn hp ny c

HCOOH.
t CTPT ca axit cn li l: CnH2n+1COOH

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Phn 1: HCOOH + 2AgNO3 + 3NH3 + H2O HCOONH4 + 2Ag + 2NH4NO3


21, 6
=0,2 mol
108

0,1

Phn 2: nNaOH = 0,2 mol

HCOOH + NaOH HCOONa + H2O

T
N

0,1 0,1
CnH2n+1COOH + NaOH CnH2n+1COONa + H2O

(0,2- 0,1 = 0,1)

26, 8
=13,4
2

khi lng ca hn hp ban u l: 0,1.46 + 0,1. (14n + 46) =

0,1

TP

C3H7COOH = 2.0,1.88=17,6g chn p n B

.Q

n = 3. Vy CTPT ca axit cn li l: C3H7COOH

V d 9:

Cho a gam hn hp 2 axit no n chc k tip A v B tc dng rt chm vi 0,5

lt Na2CO3 1M sao cho thc t coi nh khng c kh CO2 bay ra. Sau th nghim

TR

cho dung dch HCl 2M v dung dch thu c cho ti khi khng thy c kh CO2

10
0

0B

thot ra na th dng ht 350 ml dung dch HCl trn. Nu t chy cng a gam

2+
3

hn hp v cho sn phm chy i vo bnh (1) ng H2SO4 m c ri bnh (2)


ng NaOH th sau phn ng tng khi lng bnh (2) ln hn tng khi

lng bnh 1 l 36,4 gam.

a. Xc nh cng thc phn t v t l mol A v B trong hn hp

b. Xc nh cng thc cu to ca A v B. Bit rng khi tc dng vi Cl2 (chiu

-L

sng) th A ch cho 1 sn phm th mt ln cn B cho 2 sn phm mt ln th


a. Gi cng thc chung ca 2 axit l:
C n H 2 n +1COOH : x mol

B
ID

TO

Hng dn gii

Cn H 2 n +1COOH + Na2CO3
C n H 2 n +1COONa + NaHCO3

x
2HCl

x
+

(1 2x)

Na2CO3 d
2NaCl + CO2 + H2O
(0,5 x)
Page:124

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L Th Thanh H

n Na2CO3 = 0,5 . 1 =0,5 mol

=> n Na CO
2

=0,5 x

NaHCO3
2NaCl + CO2 + H2O

HCl

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

0,3

0,3 ( n + 1)

( n + 1)H2O

O2
( n + 1)CO2

0,3( n + 1)

T
N

C n H 2 n +1COOH +

nHCl = x + (1 - 2x) = 0,035 . 2 = 0,7 => x = 0,3

mtrung bnh = ( n + 1)(44 . 0,3 18 .03) = 36,4 => n = 3,7

=> Cng thc 2 axit: C3H7COOH v C4H9COOH.

.Q

3 x + 4(0,3 x)
= 3,7 => x =0,2 (mol)
0,3

TP

C4H9COOH => n =

Gi x l s mol ca C3H7OH => 0,3 x l s mol ca C4H9OH

= 1: 2

7 COOH

b. Theo bi ra ta c cng thc cu to:

nC4 H 9COOH : nC H

=> T l 2 axit:

CH3

B: CH3 CH COOH
CH3

10
0

0B

CH3

TR

A: H3C C COOH

Ch 5: Thit lp CTPT, CTCT ca axit cacboxylic bng phng php

2+
3

trung bnh

Mt s lu :

Phng php trung bnh thit lp CT ca axit cacboxylic tng t nh

phng php trung bnh gii thiu phn ancol, y ta thay phng php s

-L

nguyn t oxi trung bnh bng phng php s nhm cacboxyl trung bnh v ta c

B
ID

TO

th t cng thc chung ca hn hp cc axit l R(COOH) n , R(COOH)n , R(COOH)n .


V bin lun tm CTCT, HS phi da vo cc phn ng ca cht hu c,

c th gp trong cc bi ton hon thnh s phn ng, tc l da vo tnh cht


ho hc hoc bin lun theo gi thit ca bi ton (da vo ho tnh)

V d 1:

Cho 2 axit cacboxylic A v B. Xc nh cng thc cu to ca chng bit:

Page:125

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

a. Nu cho hn hp A, B tc dng ht vi Na thu c mol H2 bng

1
tng s mol
2

A v B trong hn hp.

c dung dch D, trung ho dung dch D cn 200 ml dung dch NaOH 1,1M.

Hng dn gii

n
H2
2

T
N

Gi cng thc ca 2 axit A v B l R(COOH) n : x mol

nx
2

.Q

(1)

R (COOH) n + n Na
R (COONa) n +

b. Nu trn 20 gam dung dch axit A 23% vi 50 gam dung dch axit B 20,64%

TP

nx 1
= x => n =1 => A, B l 2 axit hu c n chc
2
2

Theo bi ra:

Phn ng tc dng vi NaOH

N
TR

Theo bi ra:

(2)

200.1,1
= 0,22 (mol)
1000

naxit= nNaOH =

R COOH + NaOH
R COONa + H2O

23.20
= 4,6 (g)
100

mB=

50.20,64
= 10,32 (g)
100

2+
3

10
0

0B

mA=

mA + mB= 4,6 + 10,32 = 14,92 (g)

14,92
67,8 gam/mol
0,22

M A, B =

-L

R + 45 = 67,8

=> R =22,8

TO

R =1 (H) hoc R =15 (CH3); Gi s R < R

B
ID

4,6
= 0,1 mol
46

nB= 0,22 0,1 = 0,12 mol

* Nu R = 1 => A l HCOOH ta c: nA =

MB =

10,32
=86 = R + 45
0,12

R = 41 (C3H5-)
=> B l C3H5COOH
Page:126

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

* Nu R = 15 => A l CH3COOH ta c:

N
(C2H3-)

R + 45 = 72 => R =27

10,32.60
=72
8,6

=> MB =

4,6
4,6
8,6
v nB = 0,22 =
60
60
60

nA =

T
N

Vy A: HCOOH th B l C3H5COOH

A l CH3COOH th B l C2H3COOH

Ch 6: Bi tp trc nghim

Cu 1: Cho 0,04 mol mt hn hp X gm CH2=CH-COOH, CH3COOH v

TP

.Q

CH2=CH-CHO phn ng va vi dung dch cha 6,4 gam brom. Mt khc,

trung ho 0,04 mol X cn dng va 40 ml dung dch NaOH 0,75 M . Khi lng
C. 0,72 gam

B. 2,88 gam

D. 0,56 gam

A. 1,44 gam

ca CH2=CH-COOH trong X l

Cu 2: Cho hn hp X gm hai axit cacboxylic no, mch khng phn nhnh. t

chy hon ton 0,3 mol hn hp X, thu dc 11,2 lit kh CO2 ( ktc). Nu trung

TR

ha 0,3 mol X th cn dng 500 ml dung dch NaOH 1M. Hai axit l:
B. HCOOH, CH3COOH.

10
0

0B

A. HCOOH, HOOC-CH2-COOH.
C. HCOOH, C2H5COOH

D. HCOOH, HOOC-COOH.

2+
3

Cu 3: trung ha 6,72 gam mt axit cacboxylic Y (no, n chc), cn dng

200 gam dung dch NaOH 2,24%. Cng thc ca Y l (cho H = 1, C = 12, O = 16,

Na = 23)

A. C2H5COOH.

B. CH3COOH.

C. C3H7COOH.

D. HCOOH.

-L

Cu 4: t chy hon ton 0,1 mol mt axit cacboxylic n chc, cn va V

B
ID

TO

lt O2 ( ktc), thu c 0,3 mol CO2 v 0,2 mol H2O. Gi tr ca V l


A. 8,96.

B. 11,2.

C. 6,72.

D. 4,48

Cu 5: Cho 5,76 gam axit hu c X n chc, mch h tc dng ht vi CaCO3

thu c 7,28 gam mui ca axit hu c. Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l (Cho


H = 1; C = 12; O = 16; Ca = 40)
A. CH2=CH-COOH.

B. CH3COOH.

C. HCOC-COOH.

D. CH3-CH2-COOH

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cu 6: Hn hp 2 axit n chc ng ng k tip tc dng vi NaOH d. Lng

mui sinh ra em tin hnh phn ng vi ti xt hon ton, c hn hp kh c t

khi so vi H2 l: 6,25.

D. 25% v 75%

C. 20% v 80%

B. 30% v 70%

T
N

A. 40% v 60%

Hai axit c % s mol ln lt l:

Cu 7: t chy ht b mol mt axit hu c hai ln axit cn 0,5b mol oxi. Axit ny

D . axit khng no, mt lin kt ba.

.Q

C. Axit oxalic

B. Axit cha no mt ni i

A. Axit no

l:

TP

Cu 8: Hn hp X gm hai axit hu c no. t chy 0,3 mol hn hp X thu c

11,2 lt CO2 (ktc). Nu trung ha 0,3 mol hn hp X th cn 500ml dung dch

NaOH 1M. Cng thc cu to ca hai axit l:

B. HCOOH; (COOH)2

C. CH3COOH; C3H7COOH

D. CH3COOH;(COOH)2.

A. CH3COOH; C2H5COOH

B. H2, Br2 , NaOH, CH3-COOH.

0B

A. Na, H2 , Br2, CH3-CHO.

TR

Cu 9: Axit metacrylic c kh nng phn ng vi cc cht sau :

10
0

C. CH3-CH2-OH , Br2, Ag2O / NH3, t0.

D. Na, H2, Br2, HCl , NaOH.

2+
3

Cu 10: Cho dung dch axit axetat c nng x% tc dng va vi dung dch

sau y:

A. 20%

NaOH c nng 10% th dung dch mui c nng 10,25%. Vy x c gi tr no


B. 16%

C. 17%

D. 15%.

Cu 11: t chy ht m gam mt axit n chc no, mch h c (m + 2,8) gam

-L

CO2 v (m - 2,4) gam nc. Cng thc phn t ca axit l:


B. CH3COOH

C. C2H5COOH

D. C3H7COOH

TO

A. HCOOH

B
ID

Cu 12: trung ho 10,6 gam hh HCOOH, CH3COOH c t l s mol 1:1 cn

dng V lt dd NaOH 1M, Ca(OH)2 0,5M. Vy gi tr ca V l:


A. 0,05

B. 0,1

C. 0,15

D. 0,2

Cu 13: Cho 60g axit axetic tc dng vi 60g ru etylic (xc tc H2SO4 c v

nng) c 60g etylxetat. Hiu sut este ho t.


A. 76,66%

B. 68,18 %

C. 52,27 %

D. 50 %

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L Th Thanh H

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Cu 14: t chy hon ton 0,1 mol cht X l mui natri ca mt axit hu c n

chc thu c 0,15 mol kh CO2 hi nc v Na2CO3. Hy xc nh cng thc cu

to ca X.
B. HCOONa

C. C3H7COONa

D. CH3COONa

A. C2H5COONa

T
N

Cu 15: Ha tan hon ton 26.8g hai axit no n chc vo nc. chia dung dch

lm hai phn bng nhau.

- Phn 1 cho phn ng vi AgNO3/ NH3 d thu c 21.6g kt ta.

- Phn 2 c trung ha bi 200ml dung dch NaOH 1M.

.Q

Cho hn hp 2 axit trn tc dng vi ancol metylic thu c 2este. Cng thc ca

TP

hai este l:

A. C2H5COOCH3 V C3H7COOCH3

B. HCOOCH3v C2H5COOCH3

TR

D. C3H7COOCH3 V HCOOCH3

C. HCOOCH3 v CH3COOCH3

0B

Cu 16: Trung ho 8,2 gam hn hp gm axit fomic v mt axit n chc X cn

10
0

100 ml dung dch NaOH 1,5M. Nu cho 8,2 gam hn hp trn tc dng vi mt

2+
3

lng d dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3 un nng th thu c 21,6 gam Ag. Tn gi
A. axit acrylic

B. axit propanoic

ca X l

D. axit metacrylic

C. axit etanoic

Cu 17: Hn hp X gm axit Y n chc v axit Z hai chc (Y, Z c cng s

-L

nguyn t cacbon). Chia X thnh hai phn bng nhau. Cho phn mt tc dng ht

vi Na, sinh ra 4,48 lt kh H2 ( ktc). t chy hon ton phn hai, sinh ra 26,4

B
ID

TO

gam CO2. Cng thc cu to thu gn v phn trm v khi lng ca Z trong hn
hp X ln lt l
A. HOOC-CH2-COOH v 70,87%.

B. HOOC-COOH v 60,00%.

C. HOOC-CH2-COOH v 54,88%.

D. HOOC-COOH v 42,86%.

Cu 18: Khi un hn hp gm etilenglicol vi axit axetic, axit fomic, axit

propionic c xc tc l H2SO4 th to ra bao nhiu este 2 chc ?


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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A. 3.

B. 5.

C. 6.

D. 4

Cu 19: Cho hn hp X gm hai axit cacboxylic no, mch khng phn nhnh. t

chy hon ton 0,3 mol hn hp X, thu dc 11,2 lit kh CO2 ( ktc). Nu trung

ha 0,3 mol X th cn dng 500 ml dung dch NaOH 1M. Hai axit l:
B. HCOOH, CH3COOH.

C. HCOOH, C2H5COOH.

D. HCOOH, HOOC-COOH

T
N

A. HCOOH, HOOC-CH2-COOH.

Cu 20 . Cho cc cht HCl (X); C2H5OH (Y); CH3COOH (Z); C6H5OH (phenol)

D. (T), (Y), (X), (Z)

C. (Y), (T), (X), (Z)

B. (Y), (T), (Z), (X)

.Q

A. (X), (Z), (T), (Y)

(T). Dy gm cc cht c sp xp theo tnh axit tng dn (t tri sang phi) l :

TP

Cu 21. So snh tnh axit ca cc cht sau y:

CH2Cl-CH2COOH (1), CH3COOH (2), HCOOH (3), CH3-CHCl-COOH (4)


B. (4) > (2) > (1 ) > (3)

C. (4) > (1) > (3) > (2)

D. (4) > (2) > (1 ) > (3)

A. (3) > (2) > (1 ) > (4)

Cu 22. Dy gm cc cht u phn ng c vi CH3COOH l

TR

A. C2H5OH, Na2O, KCl, Fe(OH)2

0B

B. CH3CHO, CH3OH, Na, KOH

10
0

C. CaCO3, Na2SO4, C2H5OH, NaOH

2+
3

D. CH3OH, Na2CO3, Ca, KOH

Cu 23. Dy gm cc cht khng iu ch trc tip c axit axetic l:

A. C2H5OH, CH3CHO, CH3COONa, CH3CH2CH2CH3

B. C2H5OH, CH3CHO, CH3COOCH3, CH3CHCl3

C. C2H5OH, CH3CHO, CH3COOCH3, HCHO

-L

D. C2H5OH, CH3CHO, CH3OH, CH3COONa

TO

Cu 24. Axit fomic c th ln lt phn ng vi tt c cc cht trong nhm cht

B
ID

no sau y?
A. d2 NH3; d2 NaHCO3; Cu; CH3OH
B. d2 AgNO3/NH3; d2 Na2CO3; Fe; C6H5OH
C. Mg; d2 NaOH; CH3OH; d2 AgNO3/NH3.
D. Na; d2 Na2CO3; CH3OH; d2 Na2SO4

Cu 25: Cho axit sau:

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

CH3-CH-CH2-CH-COOH
CH3
C2H5

Tn gi l :

A. Axit 2,4-i metyl hecxanoic.

B. Axit 3,5-imetyl hecxanoic.

T
N

C. Axit 4-etyl-2-metyl pentanoic.

D. Axit 2-etyl-4-metyl pentanoic.

Cu 26: Axit metacrylic c kh nng phn ng vi cc cht sau :

B. H2, Br2 , NaOH, CH3-COOH.

C. CH3-CH2-OH , Br2, Ag2O / NH3, t0.

D. Na, H2, Br2, HCl , NaOH.

.Q

A. Na, H2 , Br2, CH3-CHO.

TP

Cu 27: Mt hn hp X gm 2 axit n chc no k tip nhau v H2O. Cho hn hp

tc dng vi Na d thu c 0,896 lit kh H2 (ktc). Nu t hon ton 1/2 hh trn

ri dn hn hp sau phn ng qua bnh 1 cha CaCl2 khan v bnh 2 cha KOH.

Sau th nghim khi lng bnh 1 tng 1,08g bnh 2 tng 2,2g. Vy 2 axit n chc

0B

C. CH3COOH; HCOOH

B. C2H5COOH; C3H7COOH

TR

A. CH3COOH; C2H5COOH

no trn l nhng axit no di y:

D. C4H9COOH; C3H7COOH

10
0

Cu 28: Cho hn hp gm 0,1 mol HCHO v 0,1 mol HCOOH tc dng vi

2+
3

lng d Ag2O (hoc AgNO3) trong dung dch NH3, un nng. Sau khi cc phn
B. 10,8 gam.

C. 64,8 gam.

D. 21,6 gam.

A. 43,2 gam.

ng xy ra hon ton, khi lng Ag to thnh l

Cu 29: Trung ho 5,48 gam hn hp gm axit axetic, phenol v axit benzoic, cn

-L

dng 600 ml dung dch NaOH 0,1M. C cn dung dch sau phn ng, thu c hn

hp cht rn khan c khi lng l

B
ID

TO

A. 6,84 gam.

B. 4,90 gam.

C. 6,80 gam.

D. 8,64 gam

Cu 30: Cho 3,6 gam axit cacboxylic no, n chc X tc dng hon ton vi 500

ml dung dch gm KOH 0,12M v NaOH 0,12M. C cn dung dch thu c


8,28 gam hn hp cht rn khan. Cng thc phn t ca X l
A. C2H5COOH.

B. CH3COOH.

C. HCOOH.

D. C3H7COOH

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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

2.3.2.3. Este

Ch 1: Vit phng trnh biu din bin ha

Ngoi nm vng TCHH ca este, HS cn phi nm vng TCHH ca cc HCHC

Yu cu:

T
N

hc, mi lin h gia chng vi nhau, trong mt chui phn ng hoc s phn
ng cn phi b tc th phi tm thy c phn ng no, cht no l tiu biu quan

trng lm mu cht tm ra cht khc, phi thy c mi lin h bin chng ca

chng hon thnh yu cu ca bi tp.

.Q

V d 1:

TP

Vit phng trnh phn ng thy phn ca cc este sau y trong mi trng

axit H2SO4 v mi trng kim NaOH.

a. Etyl fomat.

b. Phenyl axetat

Hng dn gii.

TR

Nhn xt: Thu phn este trong mi trng axit l phn ng thun nghch.

0B

Thu phn este trong mi trng kim l phn ng mt chiu.

2+
3

a. HCOOC2H5 + H2O

10
0

H2SO4, t0
HCOOH + C2H5OH

t
HCOOC2H5 + NaOH
HCOONa + C2H5OH

b.

H2SO4 , t0
CH3COOH + C6H5OH

CH3COOC6H5 + H2O
0

-L

t
CH3COOC6H5 + 2NaOH
CH3COONa+ C6H5ONa + H2O

t
(A) + KOH (dd)
(B) + (C) +

+ H2OsC

B
ID

TO

V d 2: Cho s chuyn ha sau:

t
CH4 + Na2CO3
(B) + NaOH (r)
vi ti
men
C6H12O6
(C) + CO2

(B) + H2SO4 (D) + K2SO4


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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

(D) + (C) (I) + H2O


Bit t l mol ca (B) v NaOH l 1:2 ; t l mol (D) v (C) l 1:2.

Cc cht A, C v I c th l :

A. C6H5OOC COOC2H5 ; C2H5OH v C2H5OOC- COOC2H5

D. C 3 cu A, B, C u ng

OK
|

TP

+ H2O

KOOC-CH2-COOK + C2H5OH +

.Q

+ 3KOH(dd)

C2H5O C CH2 C O

Hng dn gii

T
N

C. C6H5OOC (CH2)2 COOCH3 ; CH3OH v CH3OOC (CH2)2 COOCH3

B. C6H5OOC CH2 COOC2H5 ; CH3OH v C2H5OOC - CH2 - COOC2H5

men ru
C6H12O6
2C2H5OH + 2CO2

t
CH4 + Na2CO3 + K2CO3
KOOC-CH2-COOK + 2NaOH (r)

(C)

(D)

10
0

0B

TR

KOOC-CH2-COOK + 2H2SO4 HOOC CH2 COOH + K2SO4


HOOC CH2 COOH + 2C2H5OH C2H5OOC CH2 COOC2H5 + 2H2O

2+
3

Chn p n B

(I)

V d 3 Cho s bin ha:


0

t
Trng hp
A; nA
B
CH3COOH + CH CH
xt
0

t
E + F
C + NaOH
CaO

-L

+ nNaOH
B
C+D

B
ID

TO

Cht A v B c th l:

A. CH3COOCH=CH2 v C2H5COONa
B. CH2=CH-COOCH3 v CH3COONa
C. CH3COOCH=CH2 v C2H5COONa
D. CH3COOCH=CH2 v CH3COONa
Hng dn gii

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0

t
CH3COOCH=CH2
CH3COOH + CH CH
xt

(vinyl axetat)

OCH=CH2

Trng hp
nCH3 C
CH3 C

T
N

( CH CH2 )n

OH

TP

.Q

+ nNaOH nCH3COONa + ( - CH2 CH - )n

t CaO
CH3COONa + NaOH
CH4 + Na2CO3

TR

V d 4: Cho s chuyn ha sau:

Chn p n D.

0B

C3H4O2 + NaOH (A) + (B)

10
0

(A) + H2SO4 long (C) + (D)

2+
3

(C) + AgNO3 + NH3 + H2O (E) + Ag + NH4NO3

(B) + AgNO3 NH3 + H2O (F) + Ag + NH4NO3

Cc cht B, C c th l:

B. HCOOH v CH3CHO

C. HCHO v HCOOH

D.HCHO v CH3CHO

-L

A. CH3CHO v HCOONa

Hng dn gii

TO

Hon thnh s phn ng:

B
ID

HCOOCH=CH2 + NaOH HCOONa + CH3CHO


2HCOONa + H2SO4(l) 2HCOOH + Na2SO4
HCOOH + 2AgNO3 + 4NH3 + H2O (NH4)2CO3 + 2Ag + 2NH4NO3
CH3CHO + 2AgNO3 + 2NH3 + H2O CH3COONH4 + 2Ag + 2NH4NO3
Hoc c th vit

HCOOH + 2Ag(NH3)2OH (NH4)2CO3 + 2Ag + 2NH3 + H2O


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CH3CHO + 2Ag(NH3)2OH CH3COONH4 + 2Ag + 3NH3 + H2O


Ch 2: Bin lun l thuyt xc nh CTCT ca este v hp cht cha

nhm chc este.

Cng thc tng qut ca este: vit ng CTTQ ca este nn xut pht

Phng php gii:

T
N

t phng trnh tng qu gia ru v axit.

Ni chung:

- Vi 2 oxi v 1 lin kt : CnH2nO2 este n chc no.

- Vi 2 oxi v 2 lin kt : CnH2n-2O2 este n chc c 1 lin kt

.Q

trong gc R.

TP

- Vi 4 oxi v 2 lin kt : CnH2n-2O4 este 2 chc no.

- Vi 4 oxi v 3 lin kt : CnH2n-4O4 este 2 chc c 1 lin kt trong

Bin lun xc nh CTCT da vo:

gc R.

+ Bit khi lng mol phn t (hoc bit thm CTGN)

TR

+Bit CTPT ng thi bit bt bo ha ca phn t ( s lin kt pi trong

0B

phn t), v mt vi tnh cht ha hc

10
0

V d 1: A l este n chc mch h, ha hi 3,7g A thu c 1120ml hi (ktc).

2+
3

a) Xc nh CTPT ca A.

b) Cho 7,4g A tc dng vi 100ml dd NaOH 2M. C cn dung dch to thnh

thu c 10,8g cht rn khan. Xc nh CTCT ca A.

Hng dn gii

-L

Nhn xt : Xc nh CTCT ca este n chc khi xc nh c khi lng

B
ID

TO

mol ca este.

CTTQ ca este n chc mch h A c dng l : CxHyO2


Theo bi ra:
3,7g A c s mol l:
MA =

1,12
= 0,05mol
22,4

3,7
= 74
0,05

12x + y + 32 = 74 12x + y = 42

(y 2x )
Page:135

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

30 (loi)

18(loi)

-6(loi)

Bin lun:

Ch c x = 3, y = 6 tha mn. CTPT ca A l C3H6O2.

7,4
= 0,1 mol.
74

nKOH= 0,1. 2 = 0,2 (mol). nA=

T
N

b)

Gi este c dng RCOOR


0,2 mol

nsau

0 mol

0,1 mol 0,1mol.

0,1mol

TP

.Q

nu

RCOOR + NaOH RCOOK + ROH

mrn khan = mRCOONa +mNaOH d. mRCOONa =10,8 40.0,1= 6,8(gam)

6,8
= 68 g MR=68- 67 = 1 gam. R l H.
0,1

MRCOONa =

Vy CTCT d dng tm c l HCOOCH3

TR

V d 2:

10
0

0B

CTGN ca este n chc A l C2H3O.


a) Xc nh CTPT ca A

CTCT ca A.

2+
3

b) Thy phn A trong dung dch NaOH thu c mui v ru bc 1. Xc nh


Hng dn gii

-L

Nhn xt: Xc nh CTCT ca este da vo cng thc n gin ca este v mt

s d kin khc.

b) CTPT ca A l C4H6O2.

Gi a l s lin kt trong A: a =

B
ID

TO

a) A l este n chc nn phn t c 2 nguyn t O CTPT ca A l C4H6O2.


2.4 + 2 6
= 2.
2

+Mt lin kt trong nhm cacboxyl, cn mt lin kt gc hirocacbon


ca ancol v axit trong este A
+Thy phn A trong dung dch NaOH thu c mui v ru bc 1.
Chng t CTCT ca A l CH2 = CH COO CH3
Page:136

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Hoc H COOCH2 CH = CH2.


V d 3:

Hai este A, B l ng phn ca nhau. A c CTGN l C2H4O

b) Xc nh CTCT ca A v B bit khi thy phn A, B trong dung dch NaOH

a) Xc nh CTPT ca A v B.

T
N

th thu c 2 ancol X, Y c s nguyn t cacbon nh nhau. Trong X l ru

bc 2.

Hng dn gii

Nhn xt: Xc nh cng thc cu to 2 este ng phn nhng da vo cng

.Q

thc n gin nht v % oxi theo khi lng trong hp cht

TP

a. Cng thc nguyn ca A l (C2H4O)n.

2n 2 + 2 4n
=1
2

bt bo ha ca phn t A l =

Trong este bao gi cng c 1 lin kt trong nhm cacboxyl

A phi l este no n chc mch h n = 2

TR

CTPT ca A v B l C4H8O2

0B

b. Khi thy phn A, B trong dung dch NaOH th thu c 2 ancol X, Y c s

10
0

nguyn t cacbon nh nhau. Trong X l ru bc 2.

2+
3

Chng t:

Hai este c to bi t 2 ancol l ng phn ca nhau. M ancol ti thiu c t 3

isopropylic

cacbon tr i mi c ng phn, trong B l este c to bi t ancol

H COO CH CHv
3 B l H COO (CH2)2 CH3
CH3

TO

-L

Vy A,B l este c CTPT

B
ID

Ch 3 : Thit lp CTPT, CTCT ca este da vo tnh cht ha hc


- Dng 1: Bi tp v phn ng thy phn
Phng php gii v mt s ch quan trng
- Este n chc

+ Phn ng thy phn trong mi trng axit l phn ng thun nghch.

Page:137

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh


+

R1COOH + R2OH
R1COOR2 + H2O

t
0

+ Phn ng thy phn trong mi trng kim (phn ng x phng ha) l phn

ng mt chiu.
0

- Mt s este n chc khi x phng ha khng cho sn phm l mui v ancol.

t
R1COOR2 + NaOH
R1COONa + R2OH

T
N

Khi xc nh cc cng thc tng qut ca cc este trong hn hp ta c th gii:

Tnh M axit hoc M mui gc hirocacbon trong axit.

Tnh M ancol gc hirocacbon trong ancol.

.Q

M este gc hirocacbon trong axit v trong ancol.

TP

V d 1. X l mt este no n chc, c t khi hi i vi CH4 l 5,5. Nu em un

2,2g este X vi dung dch NaOH (d), thu c 2,05g mui. Cng thc cu to thu

gn ca X l:
B. HCOOCH2CH2CH3

C. CH3COOC2H5

D. HCOOCH(CH3)2

TR

A. C2H5COOCH3

(Trch TSH C 2007 khi B)

0B

Hng dn gii

10
0

Meste = 5,5 . 16 = 88

2+
3

Este l no, n chc nn cng thc phn t c dng CnH2nO2

n = 4 CTPT ca este l C4H8O2

2,2
= 0,025 (mol)
88

neste =

t este X dng RCOOR

-L

RCOOR + NaOH RCOONa + ROH

Mmui = MR + 67 =

B
ID

TO

nmui = neste = 0,025 (mol)


2,05
= 82 MR = 15
0,025

R l CH3 X l CH3COOC2H5 Chn p n C.


V d 2. Cho 8,6g este X bay hi thu c 4,48lit hi X 2730C v 1 atm. Mt

khc 8,6g X tc dng va vi dung dch NaOH th thu c 8,2g mui. Cng
thc cu to ca X l:
Page:138

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A. HCOOCH2-CH=CH2

B. CH3COOCH2CH3

C. HCOOCH2CH2CH3

D. CH3COOCH=CH2

N
N

1.4, 48
P.V
8,6
=
= 0,1 (mol) MX =
= 86
R.T 0,082.546
0,1

nX =

Hng dn gii

T
N

X phi l este n chc.

8,2
= 82
0,1

NRCOONa = nRCOOR = 0,1 mol MRCOONa =

RCOOR + NaOH RCOONa + ROH

.Q

R = 15, R l CH3 R= 27, R l CH2=CH-

TP

Vy X l CH3COOCH=CH2

Chn p n D.

V d 3. Khi t chy hon ton 4,4g cht hu c X n chc thu c sn phm

chy ch gm 4,48 lt CO2(ktc) v 3,6g hi nc. Nu cho 4,4g hp cht X tc

dng vi dung dch NaOH va n khi phn ng hon ton , thu c 4,8g mui

TR

ca axit hu c Y v cht hu c Z. Tn ca X l:
B. etyl propionat

C. metyl propionat

D. etyl axetat.
Hng dn gii

4,48
= 0,2 ( mol)
22,4

(trch TSH C 2007 khi A)

nC = n CO =

2+
3

10
0

0B

A isopropyl axetat

nH = 2 n H O = 2.

-L

3,6
= 0,4 ( mol)
18
=>nO = 0,1 (mol)

TO

mO = 4,4 (0,2.12 + 0,4.1) = 1,6g

B
ID

nC : nH : nO = 0,2 : 0,4 : 0,1 = 2 : 4 : 1

Cng thc n gin nht ca X l C2H4O, CTN (C2H4O)n


Do X n chc v tc dng c vi NaOH nn n = 2.
Cng thc phn t ca X l C4H8O2 CTCT c dng RCOOR
RCOOR + NaOH RCOONa +ROH

Page:139

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L Th Thanh H

4,4
= 0,05 mol
88

NRCOONa = nX =

4,8
= 96 MR = 29 R: C2H5
0,05

MRCOONa =

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

X l C2H5COOCH3 metyl propyonat

T
N

Chn p n C.

V d 4: Hn hp Y gm 2 este n chc, mch h, l ng phn ca nhau. Cho

m gam hn hp Y tc dng va vi 100 ml dung dch NaOH 0,5M, thu c 1

mui ca 1 axit v hn hp 2 ru. Mt khc, t chy m gam hn hp Y cn dng

.Q

5,6 lt O2 (ktc) thu c 4,48 lit CO2. Xc nh cng thc ca 2 este trong hn hp

TP

Hng dn gii

Theo bi ra 2 este to t cng 1 axit v 2 ru l ng phn ca nhau

0B

TR

(1): n2este= nNaOH = 0,05 (mol)

10
0

y
y
- 1)O2
xCO2 + H2O
2
4

2+
3

CxHyO2 + (x +

x+

y
-1
4

0,25

(2)

x
0,2

0,05

nNaOH p = 0,1 . 0,5 =0,05 (mol)


Ta c: RCOOR  CxHyO2

(1)

RCOOR+NaOH
RCOONa + ROH

B
ID

TO

-L

x
1
0,05 = 0,2

4x + y 4 = 1

1
0,5

x = 4

y = 8

=> Cng thc phn t 2 este l C4H8O2:

2 ng phn este cng axit ng phn ancol l :

HCOOCH(CH3)2 v HCOOCH2 CH2 CH3


V d 5: 1. Mt hn hp Y gm 2 cht hu c A, B cng chc hn hp. Nu un

nng 15,7 gam hn hp Y vi NaOH d to thnh 1 mui ca 1 axit hu c n


chc v 7,6 gam hn hp 2 ancol no n chc bc 1 k tip nhau trong dy ng
Page:140

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

ng. Nu t chy 15,7 gam hn hp Y cn dng va ht 21, 84 lt O2 to thnh

17,92 lt CO2. Xc nh cng thc cu to ca A, B v gi tn. Bit cc th tch o

(ktc).

Hng dn gii

.A: RCOOR RCOOCnH2n+1


m=n+1

Cng thc trung bnh: RCOO C n H 2 n +1

( n < n < n + 1)

T
N

B: RCOOR  RCOOCmH2m+1

RCOOCnH2n+1+ NaOH
RCOONa + C n H 2 n +1 OH (1)

Ta c s t este:

.Q
TP

21,84
17,92
.32
. 44 = 11,7 (g)
22,4
22,4

11,7
= 0,65 (mol );
18

nCO2 = 0,8 (mol )

n H 2O =

= 15,7 +

- mCO

m H 2O = meste + mO2

CO2+ H2O
2 este + O2

TR

nO2 = 0,975 => nO trong este = 2 nCO2 + n H 2O - 2nO t

0B

= 1,6 +0,65 1,95 =0,3

10
0

=> nO trong este= 0,15 (mol) = neste


7,6
= 50,67
0,15

14n + 18 = 50,67

n = 2,3

2+
3

2ancol=

=> 2 ancol l C2H5OH v C3H7OH

101
) 0,15=15,7
3

=> R = 27 (-C2H3)

=>2 este l

C2H3COOC2H5

(etyl acrylat)

C2H3COOC3H7

( prolyl acrylat)

TO

-L

=> (R + 44 +

B
ID

7,6
101
17 = 33,67 =
0,15
3

M Cn H 2 n +1 = M 2 R 1,7 =

- Este a chc

Este ca ancol n chc v axit a chc:


0

t
R(COOR)n + nNaOH
R(COONa)n + nROH

Page:141

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

- Este ca axit n chc v ru a chc


0

t
(RCOO)mR + mNaOH
mRCOONa + R(OH)m

Dng tng qut:

T
N

n NaOH
(trong phn
n este

+ Nu hp cht ch cha chc este: S chc este l K th k =

t
Rm(COO)nmRn + mnNaOH
mR(COONa)n + nR(OH)m

ng)

(Vi k = 2 este hai chc hoc este n chc ca phenol)

- Cc bi ton este ha thng p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng (khi lng

.Q

cht rn sau phn ng = khi lng mui + khi lng kim d (nu c)

TP

*Dng 1:

Xc nh cng thc cu to ca este hu c 2 chc mch h.

X phng ha mt este hu c m bi cho mt trong cc d kin sau:

+ Sn phm to ra mt mui v hai ancol => Axit trong cng thc cu to ca

este l axit hai chc:


COOR
R2
COOR1

n OH = 2neste =

n ancol ;

2+
3

10
0

+ 2NaOH

0B

TR

V d:

R2

COONa
+ ROH

+ R1OH

COONa
nmuoi = neste.

+ Sn phm to ra hai mui v mt ancol => Ancol trong cng thc cu to ca

-L

RCOO

este l ancol hai chc

TO

R1COO

R2

B
ID

n OH = 2neste =

+ 2NaOH

n mui ; n

ancol

RCOONa +

R1COONa + R2(OH)2

= neste.

V d 6: Hp cht hu c X cha mt loi nhm chc c cng thc phn t l

C8H14O4. Khi thy phn X trong dung dch NaOH thu c mt mui v hn hp 2
ancol A v B. Phn t ancol B c s nguyn t cacbon nhiu gp i phn t ancol
A. Khi un nng vi H2SO4 c, A cho mt olefin v B cho 2 olefin ng phn.
Cng thc cu to ca X l:
Page:142

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A. CH3OOC-(CH2)2-COOC2H5

B. C2H5OOC-(CH2)2-COOC2H5

C. C2H5OOC-(CH2)2-COOC3H7

D. COOC2H5

COO-CH-CH3

CH3

T
N

- X + NaOH 1 mui + 2 ancol vy X l este ca axit c nhm chc COOH.

Hng dn gii

- C cng thc

C8H14O4

COOR1

.Q

COOR2

TP

- Hai ancol A, B u to ra olefin A, B t nht c 2 nguyn t cacbon trong phn

t .

- Phn t X c 8C, c 2 nhm COO-, ru B c s nguyn t cacbon gp i ancol

A. Vy A ch c th c 2 nguyn t cacbon (C2H5OH) v B c 4 nguyn t cacbon

(C4H9OH)

TR

- Axit to ra este X l axit oxalic (HOOC-COOH).

10
0

0B

- Ancol B c th to 2 olefin nn B phi l:


H 2O

2+
3

CH3-CH-CH2-CH3

CH2=CH-CH2-CH3

OH

CH3-CH=CH-CH3

Suy ra cng thc ca este X l:

COOC2H5

COO-CH-CH3

-L

CH3

TO

Dng 2:

B
ID

X phng ha mt este hu c u bi cho mt trong cc d liu sau:


(1) Ba mui v mt ancol Ancol trong cng thc cu to ca este hu c l

ancol ba chc:
V d: RCOO CH2
R1COOCH

RCOONa
+ 3 NaOH

R2COOCH2

R1COONa
R2COONa

CH2-OH
+

CH - OH
CH2 OH
Page:143

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

n OH = 3n este =n3 mui

nancol = neste

n OH = 3n este =n3 mui

nancol = neste

(2) Mt mui v 3 ru axit trong cng thc cu to ca este l axit 3 chc.

R COOR2 + 3 NaOH

R COONa

R2OH

n OH = 3n este =n3 mui

R3OH

COONa

COOR3

nmui = neste

R1OH

COONa

T
N

COOR1

V d:

(3) n OH = 3n este ty theo d kin bi m ta gii theo (1) hoc (2)

.Q

TP

Nu bi khng cho d kin gii, ta phi gii c 2 trng hp:

V d 7: Khi thu phn 0,01 mol este ca 1 ru a chc v 1 axit n chc phi

dng 1,2 gam NaOH. Mt khc, khi thu phn 6,35 gam este cn 3 gam NaOH

v thu c 7,05 gam mui. Tm cng thc cu to ca este.

Hng dn gii

TR

Gi cng thc este l (RCOO)nR


n

0,03

2+
3

0,01

n
1
=> n = 3
=
0,01 0,03

=>

(1)

10
0

0B

(RCOO)nR + nNaOH
nRCOONa + R(OH)n

Vy cng thc este l (RCOO)3R

(RCOO)3R + 3NaOH
3RCOONa + R(OH)3
3 . 40

6,35

TO

-L

M
120
=
6,35
3

7,05

=> M = 254

3.40 3( R + 67)
=> R = 27 (-C2H3)
=
3
7,05

B
ID

3(R+67)

213 + R =254 => R = 41

 CxHy = 41  12x + y =41

Page:144

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

 x < 3,4

x = 1 => y = 29 (loi)
x=2

=> y = 17 (loi)

x= 3 => y = 5 ( -C3H5)

H
N

CH2=CH COO CH2

Cng thc cu to:

=> Cng thc este: (C2H5COO)3C3H5

T
N

CH2=CH COO CH

CH2=CH COO CH2

+ Este dng c bit

- Este c gc ru l gc thm (nhm chc este lin kt trc tip vi nhn

.Q

thm) khi tc dng vi NaOH d cho 2 mui v H2O


0

TP

t
V d: CH3COOC6H5 + NaOH (d)

(2)

t
C6H5ONa + H2O
C6H5OH + NaOH (d)

t
CH3COOC6H5 + NaOH
CH3COONa + C6H5OH (1)

Kt hp (1) v (2) ta c:
0

t
CH3COONa + C6H5ONa + H2O
CH3COOC6H5 + 2NaOH (d)

TR

- Este c gc ru cha no (lin kt i lin k nhm chc este)thy phn trong

10
0

0B

kim cho mui v andehit (hoc xeton)


0

2+
3

t
CH3COOCH=CH-CH3 + NaOH
CH3COONa + CH3CH2CHO
0

t
CH3COOC(CH3)=CH2 + NaOH
CH3COONa + CH3COCH3

- Este n chc, mch vng khi phn ng x phng ha cho 1 sn phm duy

-L

nht.

R C O

+ NaOH

HO R COONa

B
ID

TO

Lu : Mt s Este dng c bit c cc phn ng khc

- Este to bi axit fomic c phn ng trng bc v phn ng vi Cu(OH)2/OH-

tng t andehit.
- Este cha no , mch h c tnh cht tng t hidrocacbon cha no (phn ng
cng hp, trng hp)
+

CH3COOCH=CH2 + Br2 CH3COOCHBr-CH2Br


nCH2 = CH
OOCCH3

t ,xt,p

( CH2 CH ) n
OOCCH3
Page:145

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

+CH3COOCH=CH2 + Br2 CH3COOCHBr-CH2Br

Cho m gam mt este n chc (cha C, H, O) phn ng va vi 150ml dung

V d 1

T
N

dch NaOH 1M sau phn ng thu c 10,2g mui v mt andehit mch h, trong

phn t andehit oxi chim 36,364% tnh theo khi lng.

Xc nh cng thc cu to ca este v tnh m.

Hng dn gii

.Q

nNaOH = 0,15.1 = 0,15 (mol).

100
. 16 = 44 hay 12x+ y + 16 = 44.
36,364

MX =

TP

Gi CPT ca anehit l X: CxHyO.

Vy cng thc cu to ca CH3-CHO

Hay 12x+ y = 28. Bin lun tm c x=2; y=4

TR

este c dng R COO CH = CH2

0B

R COO CH = CH2 + NaOH RCOONa + CH3CHO

10
0

0,15mol 0,15mol

2+
3

10, 2
= 68 R = 1 (-H)
0,15

MRCOONa =

V d 2

CTCT ca este l H COO CH = CH2

A l hp cht hu c n chc cha C, H, O. Cho 12g A tc dng vi 1 lng

-L

va 240ml dd KOH 0,5M thu c 11,76g mui kali ca axit hu c v hp cht

TO

B. Cht B khng tc dng vi Na, khng c kh nng phn ng trng gng. Xc

nh cng thc cu to ca A.

B
ID

Hng dn gii
Nhn xt: Do c im A nh bi ton nu trn nn A l este n chc cn B

l xeton, ta c:
RCOOCxHy + KOH RCOOK + CxHy+1OH
0,12

0,12

0,12

mol
Page:146

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L Th Thanh H

MRCOOK =

11,76
= 98 = R + 44 + 39 R = 15 R l CH30,12

Ch c x = 3 v y = 5 tha mn CTPT ca B l C3H6O v B l xeton nn

12
= 100 = R + 44 + 12x + y 12x+y = 41
0,12

MA =

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

T
N

CTCT ca B l CH3 C CH3


O

V d 3

Hai este A v B l dn xut ca benzen c cng thc phn t l C9H8O2; A v B

.Q

u cng hp vi brom theo t l mol l 1 : 1. A tc dng vi xt cho mt mui vo

TP

mt anehit. B tc dng vi xt d cho 2 mui v nc. Cc mui c khi lng

phn t ln hn khi lng phn t ca natri axetat. Cng thc cu to ca A v B

c th l:

A. HCOO-C6H4-CH=CH2 v CH2=CH-COOC6H5

B. C6H5COOCH=CH2 v C6H5-CH=CH-COOH

TR

C. HCOOC6H4CH=CH2 v HCOOCH=CH-C6H5

0B

D. C6H5COOCH=CH2 v CH2=CH-COOC6H5

10
0

Hng dn gii

2+
3

Nhn xt: - A v B u cng hp vi brom theo t l mol l 1 : 1. A tc dng vi

xt cho mt mui vo mt anehit.

A l este c gc ancol cha no (lin kt i lin k nhm chc este).

Cng thc cu to ca A l : Cng thc cu to ca A l :

COOCH=CH2 + NaOH

COONa

B
ID

TO

-L

COOCH=CH2

+ [CH2=CH-OH] (khng bn) CH3-CHO


- B tc dng vi xt d cho 2 mui v nc.

Page:147

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

B l este c gc ancol l gc thm (nhm chc este lin kt trc tip vi nhn

thm)

V Mmui > M CH COONa tc phn t mui phi c hn 2 cacbon tr ln.

(3)

C6H5OH + NaOH C6H5ONa + H2O

(2)

T
N

CH2=CH-COO-C6H5 + NaOH CH2=CH-COONa + C6H5OH

Cng thc cu to ca B: CH2=CH-COO-C6H5

V d 4 : Mt este A (khng c nhm chc khc) gm C, H, O. Ly 1,22 gam A

phn ng va vi 200 ml dung dch KOH 0,1M. C cn dung dch sau phn ng

thu c phn hi ch c nc v phn rn l 2,16 gam hn hp mui. t chy

.Q

hon ton hn hp mui ny thu c 2,64 (g) CO2, 0,54 gam H2O v a gam

TP

K2CO3. Tnh a v xc nh cng thc phn t, cng thc cu to ca A. Bit MA <

1 mol A + 1 mol KOH


Mui +H2O

Hng dn gii

140.

Gi A: CxHyOz

1,22

0B

a
0,02

=>

2+
3

MA = 61a chn

10
0

MA

TR

CxHyOz + aKOH
Mui +H2O

a = 2 MA= 122 < 140 (t/m)

=> 12x + y +16z

=> z < 7,6

M C x H y Oz = 122

a = 1 MA = 61 (loi)

z = 2 => 12x + y =90

=> x = 7, y = 6 => C7H6O2

z = 4 => 12x + y = 58

=> x = 4, y = 10 => C4H10O4 (loi)

z = 6 => 12x + y= 26

=> x = 2, y = 2 => C2H2O6 (loi)

B
ID

TO

-L

A l este nn z = 2,4,6

nA =

1,22
=0,1 (mol); nKOH = 0,02
122
O
A + KOH
K2CO3 + H2O + CO2
mui
2

0,02

0,02 molK

0,01

M A l este n chc

Page:148

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

A + KOH
mui + H2O
Chng t A l este l: H C O

nKOH ban u =0,02 (mol) => nK trong mui = 0,02 (mol)

B
H

0,01(mol)

T
N

0,02 (mol)

C 1 (mol) mui th to 0,5 (mol) K2CO3

=> a =0,01 . 138 =1,38 (g)

V d 5: X phng ha 1 este (X) n chc no bng mt lng va dung dch

NaOH, ch thu c mt sn phm duy nht (Y) (khng c sn phm th 2 d l

.Q

lng nh). C cn dung dch sau phn ng c cht (Y) nung Y vi vi ti xt

TP

thu c ru (Z) v mt mui v c.

t chy hon ton ru Z thu c CO2 v hi H2O c t l v th tch ln

lt l 3 : 4. Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X c th l:


C3H6 C = O
A. C2H4 C = O B.
C. C4H8 C = O
O

D. CH2 C = O

TR

Hng dn gii.

0B

Theo gi thit th X phi l este no, n chc mch vng c cng thc cu to tng

10
0

qut l:

2+
3

CnH2n C = O

Phng trnh phn ng tng qut:

CnH2n C = O + NaOH HOCnH2nCOONa


O
0

-L

CaO,t
CnH2n+1OH + Na2CO3
HOCnH2nCOONa + NaOH

B
ID

TO

CnH2n+1OH +

VCO

VH O
2

n CO

nH O

3n
O2 nCO2 + (n + 1) H2O
2
=

3
n
=
4 n +1

3n + 3 = 4n n = 3

Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l C3H6 C = O


Chn p n B

O
Page:149

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

- Dng 2: Bi tp v phn ng este ha


Phng php gii v mt s ch quan trng

+ Phn ng este ha l phn ng thun nghch:


0

H
N

[R1COOR 2 ][H 2O]


[R 1COOH][R 2OH]

Kc =

T
N

H SO ,
t

R1COOR2 + H2O;
c
R1COOH + R2OH

+ Hng s cn bng KC ch ph thuc vo nhit v cch vit phng trnh ha

hc, khng ph thuc vo nng .

TP

- Cc phng php thng dng iu ch este:

.Q

+ Ti thi im cn bng, lng este thu c l ln nht.

+ Hiu sut phn ng lun c tnh theo cht ht (xt nu vi hiu sut 100%).

+ Con ng thng thng iu ch este l thc hin phn ng este ha

gia axit v ancol tng ng.

H SO , c t

CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
CH3COOH + C2H5OH

V d:

+ Este ca phenol c iu ch bng cch cho phenol tc dng vi anhirit

0B

TR

axit hoc clorua axit.

xt

CH3COOC6H5 + CH3COOH
C6H5OH + (CH3CO)2O

10
0

2+
3

+ Este c gc ru cha no (ni i nm lin k nhm chc este) c iu

ch bng cch cho axit cng hp vi ankin.


0

xt

CH3COOCH=CH2
CH3COOH + CHCH

V d 1:

-L

1. Ngi ta cho 1 mol CH3COOH tc dng vi 1 mol ancol etylic t0C, cn

B
ID

TO

bng s t c khi c 0,6 mol este to thnh.


a. Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra v tnh hng s cn bng ca phn ng.
b. Khi phn ng t n trng thi cn bng ngi ta cho thm vo hn hp 1

mol CH3COOH na. Tnh s mol cc cht trong hn hp sau khi cn bng mi
thnh lp.
Hng dn gii

Page:150

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Nhn xt:T cu a tm hng s KCB. Cu b, khi thm 1 mol CH3COOH na

cn bng s chuyn dch theo chiu thun. Thit lp cn bng mi nhng hng s

(1)

t ,H SO

CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
a) CH3COOH + C2H5OH

KCB t tnh s mol cc cht trong hn hp sau khi cn bng mi thnh lp.

H
T
N
N

0,6
[CH 3COOC 2 H 5 ][H 2O] v
Kcb =
=
= 2, 25
[CH3COOH][C 2 H 5OH] 0, 4 2

t ,H SO

CH3COOC2H5 + H2O (2)


CH3COOH + C2H5OH

Trc p/

0,4 + 1

0,4

0,6

0,6

.Q

TP
O

0,6 + x
v'

0, 4 x
v'

0,6 + x

0,6 + x

1, 4 x
v'

0,4 x

0,6 + x
v'

Sau p/ ng 1,4 x

b)

10
0

0B

TR

0,6 + x

v'
Kcb =
= 2, 25
1, 4 x 0, 4 x

v'
v'

2+
3

Gii ra ta c: x = 0,18
Sau phn ng (2) thu c:

n CH COOH = 1,4 0,18 = 1,22( mol)

n C H OH = 0,4 0,18 = 0,22 (mol).


2

-L

n CH COOC H = 0,6 + 0,18 = 0,78 (mol).

n H O = 0,6 + 0,18 = 0,78 (mol).

B
ID

TO

V d 2:
un 12 gam axit axetic vi 13,8gam etanol (c H2SO4 c lm xc tc) n khi

phn ng t ti trng thi cn bng, thu c 11g este. Hiu sut ca phn ng este
ha l:
A. 55%

B. 50%

C. 62,5%

D. 75%

(Trch TTS vo cc trng Cao ng, 2007)

Page:151

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Hng dn gii:

12
13,8
11
= 0, 2 , n CH CH OH =
= 0,3 , n CH COOCH CH =
= 0,125
60
46
88
3

n CH COOH =

t ,H SO

CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
CH3COOH + C2H5OH

0,125 mol

0,125 mol

H
N

0 mol

0,3 mol

0,125 mol.

Phn ng

T
N

n u 0,2 mol

V n CH COOH < n C H OH nn hiu sut phn ng tnh theo CH3COOH

0,125
100% = 62,5%
0, 2

Hiu sut phn ng H =

TP

.Q

p n C.

V d 3:

Cho 45 gam axit axetic phn ng vi 69 gam ancol etylic (xc tc H2SO4 c), un
C: 40,00%

B. 50,00%

D. 31,25%

A. 62,50%

nng thu c 41,25gam etyl axetat. Hiu sut phn ng este ha l:

Hng dn gii.
2

41, 25
= 0, 46875(mol)
88

10
0

n CH COOH (phn ng) = neste =

0B

TR

n CH COOH = 0,75 (mol) < n C H OH = 1,5 (mol) hiu sut tnh theo axit.

2+
3

0, 46875
100% = 62,5%
0,75

H=

V d 4:

p n A

-L

un nng 6,0 gam CH3COOH vi 6,0 gam C2H5OH (xc tc H2SO4 c, hiu sut

TO

phn ng este ha bng 50%). Khi lng este to thnh l:


A. 6,0g

B. 4,4g

D. 5,2g

Hng dn gii.
0

t ,H SO

CH3COOC2H5 + H2O
CH3COOH + C2H5OH

B
ID

C. 8,8g

n CH COOH =
3

6
6
= 0,1< n C H OH
= 0,13 Khi lng este to thnh tnh theo axit.
60
46
2

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

neste = n CH COOH
3

50
= 0,1.0,5= 0,05mol
100

meste = 0,05 . 88 = 4,4gam

p n B.

V d 5:

T
N

Hn hp X gm axit HCOOH v axit CH3COOH (t l mol 1:1). Hn hp Y gm


ancol CH3OH v ancol C2H5OH (t l mol 3:2). Ly 11,13gam hn hp X tc dng

vi 7,52gam hn hp Y (xc tc H2SO4 c) thu c m gam hn hp este (hiu


D. 15,246

C. 14,52

B. 12,197

.Q

A. 11,616

MY =

32 3 + 46 2
7,52
= 37,6; n Y =
= 0, 20(mol)
5
37,6

46 + 60
11,13
= 53; n X =
= 0, 21(mol)
2
53

TP

Hng dn gii:

MX =

sut ca cc phn ng este ha u bng 80%). Gi tr ca m l:

TR

S mol ancol t hn s axit, hiu sut phn ng tnh theo ancol.

0B

H =80%

RCOOR ' + H 2O
Phn ng este ha: RCOOH + R 'OH

2+
3

10
0

Theo LBTKL m = ( M X + M Y - 18) . 0,20 . 80%

m = (53 + 37,6 18) . 0,20 .

p n A.

80
= 11,616gam
100

- Dng 3: Bi tp v phn ng t chy

-L

Phng php gii v mt s ch quan trng

B
ID

TO

- Este (X): CXHYOZ (x > 2, y < 2x)


y z
y

CXHYOZ + 2x+ O2 xCO2 + H2O


4 2
2

- Khi dn sn phm chy qua bnh ng dung dch Ca(OH)2 d hoc Ba(OH)2
d :
+ Khi lng bnh ng dung dch baz tng = m CO + m H O
2

+ Khi lng dung dch sau phn ng (tng hoc gim) =

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

= m - ( m CO + m H O )
2

- Este n chc (X): CXHYO2 (x > 2, y < 2x)

y
y

CXHYO2 2x+ 1 O2 xCO2 + H2O


2
4

nH O

= n CO +

T
N

(phn ng)

nX( phn ng) + n O

+ p dng nh lut bo ton nguyn t oxi

= m CO + m H O

(phn ng)

m( este phn ng) + m O

+ o dng nh lut bo ton khi lng:

TP

.Q

- Este no, n chc mch h: CnH2nO2 (n > 2)


O
nCO2 + nH2O n CO = n H O
CnH2nO2
2

- Este khng no (c 1 ni i), n chc mch h CnH2n-2O2 (n > 3)

O
nCO2 + (n-1)H2O
CnH2n-2O2

Vi este n chc : neste = n O

c trong este.

TR

n CO > n H O v n CO n H O = n este

0B

- Este no, hai chc, mch h: CnH2n-24 (n > 4)

10
0

O
nCO2 + (n-1)H2O
CnH2n-2O4
2

2+
3

n CO > n H O v n CO n H O = n este
2

V d 1: t chy hon ton mt lng este no n chc th th tch kh CO2 sinh ra

lun bng th tch kh O2 cn cho phn ng cng iu kin nhit v p xut.

Tn gi ca este em t l:
B. metyl fomiat

D. prolyl fomiat

Hng dn gii

CnH2nO2 +

3n 2
O2 nCO2 + nH2O
2

B
ID

C. metyl axetat

t cng thc phn t ca este no n chc l CnH2nO2

TO

-L

A. etyl axetat

Do VCO = VO n =
2

3n 2
n = 2.
2

Vy, cng thc phn t ca este C2H4O2.


Vi cng thc cu to l HCOOCH3 metyl fomiat.
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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Chn p n B.
V d 2:

Hai hp cht A, B mch h (ch cha C, H, O ) n chc u tc dng vi NaOH,

N
H

Hng dn gii
2

- m O = 12g, m CO = 13,2g, m H O = 5,4g


2

.Q

- mA v B : 13,2 + 5,4 12 = 6,6g

TP

A v B l 2 este n chc.

3n + 1 k
O2 ( n 1 )CO2 + ( n +1-k)H2O
2
( n +1k)mol

( n -1)mol

(14 n + 46 -2k)g

CnH2n+2-2kCOOH +

D. Tt c u sai

C. este n chc no

T
N

B. este n chc khng no

lt O2 (ktc) thu c 6,72lt CO2 v 5,4g H2O.Cho bit A, B thuc hp cht:


A. axit n chc, khng no.

khng tc dng vi Na. t chy hon ton m gam hn hp X gm A, B cn 8,4

0,3 mol

0,3 mol

TR

0,3(n+1) = 0,3(n + 1 k)

6,6g

0B

n+1=n+1kk=0

2+
3

10
0

Vy este n chc khng tc dng vi dung dch brom

Chn p n C

Ch 4: Bi tp trc nghim este

Cu 1. Cho s sau:

O 2 ,xt
+ NaOH
+ NaOH
NaOH
X(C 4 H 8 O 2 )
Y
T
Z
C2H6
CaO,t o

B
ID

TO

-L

Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X l


A. CH3COOC2H5.

B. C2H5COOCH(CH3)2.

C. CH3CH2CH2COOH.

D. HCOOCH2CH2CH3.

Cu 2. Hp cht hu c X n chc cha (C, H, O) khng tc dng vi Na nhng

tc dng vi dung dch NaOH theo t l mol 1 : 1 hoc 1 : 2. Khi t chy 1 mol X
thu c 7 mol CO2. Cng thc cu to ca X l
A. C2H5COOC4H9.

B. HCOOC6H5.

C. C6H5COOH.

D. C3H7COOC3H7.

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cu 3. Cho axit Salixylic (X) (axit o-hiroxibenzoic) phn ng vi metanol c

H2SO4 c xc tc thu c metyl Salixylat (Y) dng lm thuc gim au. Cho Y

phn ng vi dung dch NaOH d thu c hn hp sn phm trong c mui Z.

Cng thc cu to ca Z l
B. o-NaOC6H4COOCH3.

C. o-NaOC6H4COONa.

D. o-NaOOCC6H4COONa.

T
N

A. o-HOC6H4COONa.

Cu 4. Khi t chy hon ton mt este no, n chc th s mol CO2 sinh ra bng

s mol O2 phn ng. Tn gi ca este l:


B. etyl axetat.

C. n-propyl axetat.

D. metyl axetat.

.Q

A. metyl fomiat.

TP

Cu 5. Thu phn este C4H6O2 trong mi trng axit thu c hn hp 2 cht u

tham gia phn ng trng gng. Cng thc cu to ca este l


B. HCOOCH2CH=CH2

C. CH2=CHCOOCH3

D. HCOOCH=CHCH3

A. HCOOC(CH3)=CH2

Cu 6. Thu phn este C4H6O2 (X) bng dd NaOH ch thu c 1 mui duy nht.

0B

C=O
C. (CH2)3

B. HCOOCH2 CH = CH2.

10
0

A. CH3COOCH = CH2.

TR

Cng thc cu to ca X l

D. CH3 CH = CH COOH.

2+
3

O
Cu 7. Cho este X (C8H8O2) tc dng vi dung dch NaOH thu c hn hp mui

u c khi lng phn t ln hn 70 vC. Cng thc cu to ca X l

A. HCOO-C6H4-CH3.

D. HCOOCH2C6H5.

-L

C. C6H5COOCH3.

B. CH3COOC6H5.

Cu 8. Nhng bin php phn ng thu phn este c hiu sut cao v nhanh hn

B
ID

TO

A. Tng nhit ; tng nng ancol.


B. Dng OH- (xc tc); tng nhit .
C. Dng H+ (xc tc); tng nng ancol.
D. Dng H+ (xc tc); tng nhit .

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cu 9. Cho cc cp cht: (1) CH3COOH v C2H5CHO; (2) C6H5OH v CH3COOH;

(3) C6H5OH v (CH3CO)2O; (4) CH3COOH v C2H5OH; (5) CH3COOH v

CH CH; (6) C6H5COOH v C2H5OH.

C. (2), (4), (5), (6).

D. (3), (4), (6).

B. (2), (3), (4), (5), (6).

T
N

A. (1), (2), (3), (4), (5).

Nhng cp cht no tham gia phn ng este ho?

Cu 10. Hp cht thm X thuc loi este c cng thc phn t C8H8O2. X khng

th iu ch t phn ng ca axit v ancol tng ng v khng tham gia phn ng

trng gng. Cng thc cu to ca X l


B. CH3COOC6H5.

C. HCOOCH2C6H5.

D. HCOOC6H4CH3.

TP

.Q

A. C6H5COOCH3.

Cu 11. Cho cht X tc dng vi 1 lng va dung dch NaOH, sau c cn

dung dch thu c cht rn Y v cht hu c Z. Cho Z tc dng vi AgNO3/NH3

c cht hu c T. Cho cht T tc dng vi NaOH li thu c cht Y. Cht X c

th l

B. HCOOCH3.

TR

A. HCOOCH = CH2.

D. CH3COOCH = CHCH3.

0B

C. CH3COOCH = CH2.

10
0

Cu 12. Nhn nh khng ng l

2+
3

A. CH3CH2COOCH = CH2 cng dy ng ng vi CH2 = CHCOOCH3.

B. CH3CH2COOCH = CH2 tc dng vi dung dch NaOH thu c anehit

v mui.

C. CH3CH2COOCH = CH2 tc dng vi dung dch Br2.

D. CH3CH2COOCH = CH2 c th trng hp to polime.

-L

Cu 13. Thu phn este c cng thc phn t C4H8O2 (xc tc H+), thu c 2 sn

B
ID

TO

phm hu c X v Y. T X c th iu ch trc tip ra Y. Vy cht X l


A. metanol.

B. Etyl axetat.

C. Axit axetic.

D. Etanol.

Cu 14. Cho cc cht: etyl axetat, etanol, axit acrylic, phenol, phenylamoni clorua,

phenyl axetat. Trong cc cht ny, s cht tc dng c vi dung dch NaOH l
A. 3

B. 4

C. 5

D. 6

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Cu 15. Cho cc cht: axit propionic (X); axit axetic (Y); ancol etylic (Z) v metyl

axetat (T). Dy gm cc cht c sp xp theo chiu tng dn nhit si l


B. Z, T, Y, X

C. T, X, Y, Z

D. Y, T, X, Z

C. 4

T
N

B. 3

ln lt tc dng vi: Na, NaOH, NaHCO3. S phn ng xy ra l


A. 2

Cu 16. Cho tt c cc ng phn n chc, mch h, c cng thc phn t C2H4O2

A. T, Z, Y, X

D. 5

Cu 17. Cho dy chuyn ho:


0

+ H2O
+ H2
+ O2
1500
+X
CH 4
M
X
Y
Z
T

.Q

Cng thc cu to ca M l

B. CH2 = CHCOOCH3

C. CH3COOCH = CH2

D. CH3COOC2H5

Cu 18. ng dng no sau y khng phi ca este?

TP

A. CH3COOCH3

A. Dng lm dung mi (pha sn tng hp).

B. Dng trong cng nghip thc phm (ko, bnh, nc gii kht) v m

TR

phm (x phng, nc hoa).

0B

C. HCOOR trong thc t dng trng gng, phch.

2+
3

ancol) dng lm keo dn.

10
0

D. Poli(vinyl axetat) dng lm cht do hoc thu phn thnh poli(vinyl

Cu 19. Bin php dng nng cao hiu sut phn ng este ho l

A. Thc hin trong mi trng kim.

B. Dng H2SO4 c lm xc tc.

-L

C. Ly d 1 trong 2 cht u hoc lm gim nng cc sn phm ng thi


D. Thc hin trong mi trng axit ng thi h thp nhit .

TO

dng H2SO4 c xc tc.

B
ID

Cu 20. Cht X c cng thc phn t C4H6O3, X c cc tnh cht ho hc sau:

- Tc dng vi H2 (Ni, t0), Na, AgNO3/NH3.


- Tc dng vi NaOH thu c mui v anehit n chc.
Cng thc cu to ca X l
A. HCOOCH2CH2CHO.

B. CHO CH2 CH2 COOH.

C. HCOOCH(OH) CH = CH2. D. CH3 CO CH2 COOH.

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Cu 21. Cho cht X c cng thc phn t C4H6O2 bit:

X + NaOH Y + Z

Y + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + T

D. HCOOCH=CHCH3.

C. HCOOC(CH3)=CH2.

B. HCOOCH2CH=CH2.

A. CH3COOCH=CH2.

Z v T u c kh nng tham gia phn ng trng bc. Cng thc phn t ca X l

T
N

Cu 22. Cht X c cng thc phn t C4H8O2. Khi X tc dng vi dung dch NaOH

sinh ra 2 cht: Y c cng thc C2H3O2Na v cht Z c cng thc C2H6O. X thuc
C. Anehit
+

D. Axit hoc este

B. Este

A. Axit

loi:

Cu 23. Cho s sau: CH 3 C l X Y Z T M + N


P2 O 5

C 6 H 5 OH

NaOH d

,t

.Q

H 3O

KCN

TP

Cng thc cu to ca M v N ln lt l

B. CH3COONa v C6H5CH2OH.

C. CH3OH v C6H5COONa.

D. CH3COONa v C6H5COONa.

A. CH3COONa v C6H5ONa.

Cu 24. C cc cht mt nhn ring bit sau: etyl axetat, fomanehit, axit axetic v

etanol. phn bit chng dng b thuc th no sau y?

TR

A. AgNO3/NH3, dung dch Br2, NaOH.

0B

B. Qu tm, AgNO3/NH3, Na.

10
0

C. Qu tm, AgNO3/NH3, NaOH.

2+
3

D. Phenolphtalein, AgNO3/NH3, NaOH.

Cu 25. Hp cht X c cng thc phn t CnH2nO2 khng tc dng vi Na, khi un

nng X vi axit v c c 2 cht Y1 v Y2. Bit Y2 b oxi ho cho metanal cn Y1

tham gia phn ng trng gng. Vy gi tr ca n l


B. 2

C. 3

D. 4

-L

A. 1

B
ID

TO

Cu 26. Nhn nh no sau y khng ng?


A. Tn este RCOOR gm: tn gc hirocacbon R + tn anion gc axit (ui

at).
B. Khi thay nguyn t H nhm COOH ca axit cacboxylic bng gc

hirocacbon th c este.
C. Phn ng thu phn este trong mi trng kim l phn ng 1 chiu v

gi l phn ng x phng ho.

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D. Este c nhit si thp hn so vi axit v ancol c cng s ngt C v

este c khi lng phn t nh hn.

Cu 27. Cho s sau: C2 H 2


C2 H 4 Cl2
X
C2 H 4 O 2
CH 2 = CHOOCCH 3
D. HOCH2CHO

C. CH3CHO

B. C2H5OH

A. C2H4(OH)2

Cng thc cu to ca X l

T
N

Cu 28. C 4 l mt nhn ng cc dung dch ring bit sau: CH3COOH, HCOOH,

C2H5OH, HOCH2CHO, CH2 = CHCOOH. B thuc th theo th t c th dng

phn bit tng cht trn l

A. phenolphtalein, AgNO3/NH3, dung dch Br2.

.Q

B. qu tm, dung dch Br2, AgNO3/NH3.

TP

C. qu tm, dung dch Br2, Na.

D. phenolphtalein, dung dch Br2, Na.

Cu 29. Hai cht hu c X, Y c cng cng thc phn t C3H4O2. X phn ng vi

TR

A. C2H5COOH, CH3COOCH3.

Na. Cng thc cu to ca X, Y ln lt l

NaHCO3 v phn ng trng hp, Y phn ng vi NaOH nhng khng phn ng vi

0B

B. C2H5COOH, CH2 = CHCOOCH3.

10
0

C. CH2 = CHCOOH, HCOOCH = CH2.

2+
3

D.CH2=CHCH2COOH, HCOOCH = CH2.


C2 H5OH

Na OH

CH4

axit metacrylic

Poli(metyl metacrylat)

Cu 30. Cho s sau:

B
ID

TO

-L

Cng thc cu to ca X l
A. CH2 = C(CH3) COOC2H5.

B. CH2 = CHOOCC2H5.

C. CH2 = C(CH3)COOCH3.

D. CH2 = CHCOOC2H5

Cu 31: Khi t chy hon ton 4,4 gam cht hu c X n chc thu c sn

phm chy ch gm 4,48 lt CO2 ( ktc) v 3,6 gam nc. Nu cho 4,4 gam hp
cht X tc dng vi dung dch NaOH va n khi phn ng hon ton, thu c
4,8 gam mui ca axit hu c Y v cht hu c Z. Tn ca X l
A. etyl propionat.

B. metyl propionat.

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C. isopropyl axetat.

D. etyl axetat.

Cu 32: Cho hn hp X gm hai hp cht hu c no, n chc tc dng va vi

100 ml dung dch KOH 0,4M, thu c mt mui v 336 ml hi mt ancol ( ktc).

H
N

vo bnh ng dung dch Ca(OH)2 (d) th khi lng bnh tng 6,82 gam. Cng

Nu t chy hon ton lng hn hp X trn, sau hp th ht sn phm chy

T
N

thc ca hai hp cht hu c trong X l

A. CH3COOH v CH3COOC2H5.

B. C2H5COOH v C2H5COOCH3.

C. HCOOH v HCOOC3H7.

.Q

D. HCOOH v HCOOC2H5.

TP

Cu 33: Cho cht X tc dng vi mt lng va dung dch NaOH, sau c cn

dung dch thu c cht rn Y v cht hu c Z. Cho Z tc dng vi AgNO3 (hoc

dch NaOH li thu c cht Y. Cht X c th l

Ag2O) trong dung dch NH3 thu c cht hu c T. Cho cht T tc dng vi dung

A. HCOOCH=CH2.

D. CH3COOCH=CH-CH3.

TR

C. HCOOCH3.

B. CH3COOCH=CH2.

0B

Cu 34: Este X khng no, mch h, c t khi hi so vi oxi bng 3,125 v khi

10
0

tham gia phn ng x phng ho to ra mt anehit v mt mui ca axit hu c.

2+
3

C bao nhiu cng thc cu to ph hp

vi X?

A. 2.

B. 5.

C. 3.

D. 4.

Cu 35: un 15 gam axit axetic vi 13,8 gam etanol (c H2SO4 c lm xc tc)

n khi phn ng t ti trng thi cn bng, thu c 11 gam este. Hiu sut ca
A. 55%.

B. 50%.

C. 62,5%.

D. 75%.

TO

-L

phn ng este ho l

B
ID

Cu 36: X l mt este no n chc, c t khi hi i vi CH4 l 5,5. Nu em un

2,2 gam este X vi dung dch NaOH (d), thu c 2,05 gam mui. Cng thc cu
to thu gn ca X l
A. HCOOCH2CH2CH3.

B. C2H5COOCH3.

C. CH3COOC2H5.

D. HCOOCH(CH3)2.

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Cu 37: Este n chc X c t khi hi so vi O2 l 3,125. Cho 15 gam X tc dng

vi 300 ml dung dch KOH 1M (un nng). C cn dung dch sau phn ng thu

D. CH3-CH2-COO-CH=CH2.

C. CH3 -COO-CH=CH-CH3.

B. CH2=CH-COO-CH2-CH3.

A. CH2=CH-CH2-COO-CH3.

c 24,9 gam cht rn khan. Cng thc cu to ca X l

T
N

Cu 38: X phng ho hon ton 22,2 gam hn hp gm hai este HCOOC2H5 v

CH3COOCH3 bng dung dch NaOH 1M (un nng). Th tch dung dch NaOH ti
B. 300 ml.

C. 150 ml.

D. 200 ml.

A. 400 ml.

thiu cn dng l

.Q

Cu 39: Hai cht hu c X1 v X2 u c khi lng phn t bng 60 vC. X1 c

TP

kh nng phn ng vi: Na, NaOH, Na2CO3. X2 phn ng vi NaOH (un nng)

nhng khng phn ng Na. Cng thc cu to ca X1, X2 ln lt l:


B. (CH3)2CH-OH, H-COO-CH3.

C. H-COO-CH3, CH3-COOH.

D. CH3-COOH, H-COO-CH3.

A. CH3-COOH, CH3-COO-CH3.

Cu 40: Cht hu c X c cng thc phn t C4H6O4 tc dng vi dung dch NaOH

C4H6O4 + 2NaOH 2Z + Y.

TR

(un nng) theo phng trnh phn ng:

0B

oxi ho ht a mol Y th cn va 2a mol CuO (un nng), sau phn ng to

B. 58 vC.

C. 82 vC.

D. 118 vC.

A. 44 vC.

2+
3

10
0

thnh a mol cht T (bit Y, Z, T l cc hp cht hu c). Khi lng phn t ca T

Cu 41: S hp cht n chc, ng phn cu to ca nhau c cng cng thc phn

t C4H8O2, u tc dng c vi dung dch NaOH l


B. 3.

C. 6.

D. 4.

A. 5.

-L

Cu 42: Mt hn hp X gm hai cht hu c n chc. Cho X phn ng va

TO

vi 500 ml dung dch KOH 1M. Sau phn ng, thu c hn hp Y gm hai mui

B
ID

ca hai axit cacboxylic v mt ru (ancol). Cho ton b lng ru thu c

trn tc dng vi Na (d), sinh ra 3,36 lt H2 ( ktc). Hn hp X gm


A. mt axit v mt este.

B. mt este v mt ru.

C. hai este.

D. mt axit v mt ru.

Cu 43: un nng 6,0 gam CH3COOH vi 6,0 gam C2H5OH (c H2SO4 lm xc

tc, hiu sut phn


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ng este ho bng 50%). Khi lng este to thnh l


A. 6,0 gam.

B. 4,4 gam.

C. 8,8 gam.

D. 5,2 gam.

Cu 44: Cho 20 gam mt este X (c phn t khi l 100 vC) tc dng vi 300 ml

dung dch NaOH 1M. Sau phn ng, c cn dung dch thu c 23,2 gam cht rn

C. C2H5COOCH=CH2.

D. CH2=CHCOO C2H5

B. CH3COOCH=CHCH3.

T
N

A. CH2=CHCH2COOCH3.

khan. Cng thc cu to ca X l

Cu 45: Cho m gam hn hp gm hai cht hu c n chc, mch h tc dng va

vi dung dch cha 11,2 gam KOH, thu c mui ca mt axit cacboxylic v

.Q

mt ancol X. Cho ton b X tc dng ht vi Na thu c 3,36 lt kh H ( ktc).

TP

Hai cht hu c l

B. hai axit.

C. hai este.

D. mt este v mt ancol.

A. mt este v mt axit.

Cu 46: Hai hp cht hu c X, Y c cng cng thc phn t C3H6O2. C X v Y

TR

u tc dng vi Na; X tc dng c vi NaHCO cn Y c kh nng tham gia


3

0B

phn ng trng bc. Cng thc cu to ca X v Y ln lt l

10
0

A. C2H5COOH v HCOOC2H5.

2+
3

B. HCOOC2H5 v HOCH2COCH3.

C. HCOOC2H5 v HOCH2CH2CHO.

D. C2H5COOH v CH3CH(OH)CHO.

-L

Cu 47: Hn hp X gm axit HCOOH v axit CH3COOH (t l mol 1:1). Ly 5,3

gam hn hp X tc dng vi 5,75 gam C2H5OH (c xc tc H2SO4 c) thu c m

TO

gam hn hp este (hiu sut ca cc phn ng este ho u bng 80%). Gi tr ca

B
ID

m l
A. 6,48.

B. 8,10.

C. 16,20.

D. 10,12.

Cu 48: Mt este c cng thc phn t l C4H6O2, khi thu phn trong mi trng

axit thu c axetanehit. Cng thc cu to thu gn ca este l


A. CH2=CH-COO-CH3.

B. HCOO-CH=CH-CH3.

C. CH3COO-CH=CH2.

D. HCOO-C(CH3)=CH2.

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Cu 49: Khi thc hin phn ng este ho 1 mol CH3COOH v 1 mol C2H5OH,

lng este ln nht thu c l 2/3 mol. t hiu sut cc i l 90% (tnh theo

axit) khi tin hnh este ho 1 mol CH3COOH cn s mol C2H5OH l (bit cc phn

C. 0,456.

D. 2,925.

B. 0,342.

A. 2,412.

ng este ho thc hin cng nhit )

T
N

Cu 50: Hai este n chc X v Y l ng phn ca nhau. Khi ho hi 1,85 gam X,

thu c th tch hi ng bng th tch ca 0,7 gam N2 (o cng iu kin).

Cng thc cu to thu gn ca X v Y l

A. HCOOC2H5 v CH3COOCH3.

.Q

B. C2H3COOC2H5 v C2H5COOC2H3.

TP

C. C2H5COOCH3 v HCOOCH(CH3)2.

D. HCOOCH2CH2CH3 v CH3COOC2H5

Cu 51: Pht biu ng l:

A. Phn ng gia axit v ru khi c H2SO4 c l phn ng mt chiu.

B. Tt c cc este phn ng vi dung dch kim lun thu c sn phm cui

TR

cng l mui v ancol

0B

C. Khi thy phn cht bo lun thu c C2H4(OH)2.

10
0

D. Phn ng thy phn este trong mi trng axit l phn ng thun nghch.

2+
3

Cu 52: X phng ha hon ton 66,6 gam hn hp hai este HCOOC2H5 v

CH3COOCH3 bng dung dch NaOH, thu c hn hp X gm hai ancol. un nng

hn hp X vi H2SO4 c 140oC, sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c m

gam nc. Gi tr ca m l
B. 8,10.

C. 16,20.

D. 18,00.

-L

A. 4,05.

Cu 53: X phng ho mt hp cht c cng thc phn t C10H14O6 trong dung

TO

dch NaOH (d), thu c glixerol v hn hp gm ba mui (khng c ng phn

B
ID

hnh hc). Cng thc ca ba mui l:


A. CH2=CH-COONa, CH3-CH2-COONa v HCOONa.
B. CH3-COONa, HCOONa v CH3-CH=CH-COONa.
C. CH2=CH-COONa, HCOONa v CHC-COONa.
D. HCOONa, CHC-COONa v CH3-CH2-COONa.

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Cu 54: Cht hu c X c cng thc phn t C5H8O2. Cho 5 gam X tc dng va

ht vi dung dch NaOH, thu c mt hp cht hu c khng lm mt mu nc

D. HCOOC(CH3)=CHCH3.

C. HCOOCH=CHCH2CH3.

B. HCOOCH2CH=CHCH3.

A. CH3COOC(CH3)=CH2.

brom v 3,4 gam mt mui. Cng thc ca X l

T
N

Cu 55: Hn hp X gm hai este no, n chc, mch h. t chy hon ton mt

lng X cn dng va 3,976 lt kh O2 ( ktc), thu c 6,38 gam CO2. Mt

khc, X tc dng vi dung dch NaOH, thu c mt mui v hai ancol l ng

ng k tip. Cng thc phn t ca hai este trong X l

B. C2H4O2 v C5H10O2.

C. C2H4O2 v C3H6O2.

D. C3H4O2 v C4H6O2.

TP

.Q

A.C3H6O2 v C4H8O2.

Cu 56: Este X c to thnh t etylen glicol v hai axit cacboxylic n chc.

Trong phn t este, s nguyn t cacbon nhiu hn s nguyn t oxi l 1. Khi cho

m gam X tc dng vi dung dch NaOH (d) th lng NaOH phn ng l 10


B. 17,5.

C. 15,5.

D. 16,5.

TR

A. 14,5.

gam. Gi tr ca m l

0B

Cu 57: t chy hon ton 0,11 gam mt este X (to nn t mt axit cacboxylic
ng phn ca X l

B. 5.

C. 4.

D. 6.

A. 2.

2+
3

10
0

n chc v mt ancol n chc) thu c 0,22 gam CO2 v 0,09 gam H2O. S este

Cu 58: Cho dy cc cht: phenyl axetat, anlyl axetat, metyl axetat, etyl fomat,

tripanmitin. S cht trong dy khi thy phn trong dung dch NaOH (d), un nng

sinh ra ancol l:

-L

A. 4

B. 2

C. 5

D. 3

TO

Cu 59: t chy hon ton mt este n chc, mch h X (phn t c s lin kt

B
ID

nh hn 3), thu c th tch kh CO2 bng 6/7 th tch kh O2 phn ng (cc


th tch kh o cng iu kin). Cho m gam X tc dng hon ton vi 200 ml
dung dch KOH 0,7M thu c dung dch Y. C cn Y thu c 12,88 gam cht rn
khan. Gi tr ca m l
A. 7,20.

B. 6,66.

C. 8,88.

D. 10,56.

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Cu 60: Hn hp X gm vinyl axetat, metyl axetat v etyl fomat. t chy hon

ton 3,08 gam X, thu c 2,16 gam H2O. Phn trm s mol ca vinyl axetat trong
D. 75%

C. 72,08%

Cu 61: Cho m gam cht hu c n chc X tc dng va vi 50 gam dung dch

B. 27,92%

A. 25%

X l:

T
N

NaOH 8%, sau khi phn ng hon ton thu c 9,6 gam mui ca mt axit hu c
v 3,2 gam mt ancol. Cng thc ca X l:
B. C2H5COOCH3

C. CH2=CHCOOCH3

D. CH3COOCH=CH2

A. CH3COOC2H5

.Q

Cu 62: x phng ho hon ton 52,8 gam hn hp hai este no, n chc , mch

TP

h l ng phn ca nhau cn va 600 ml dung dch KOH 1M. Bit c hai este

ny u khng tham gia phn ng trng bc. Cng thc ca hai este l
B. C2H5COOC2H5 v C3H7COOCH3

C. HCOOC4H9 v CH3COOC3H7

D. C2H5COOCH3 v CH3COOC2H5

A. CH3COOC2H5 v HCOOC3H7

Cu 63: Este X no, n chc, mch h, khng c phn ng trng bc. t chy 0,1

TR

mol X ri cho sn phm chy hp th hon ton vo dung dch nc vi trong c

0B

cha 0,22 mol Ca(OH)2 th vn thu c kt ta. Thu phn X bng dung dch

10
0

NaOH thu c 2 cht hu c c s nguyn t cacbon trong phn t bng nhau.


B. 53,33%

C. 37,21%

D. 36,36%

B
ID

TO

-L

A. 43,24%

2+
3

Phn trm khi lng ca oxi trong X l:

Page:166

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

CHNG 3

THC NGHIM S PHM

3.1. MC CH THC NGHIM S PHM (TNSP)

- nh gi hiu qu ca cc hot ng t hc ca hc sinh thng qua nhng ni

H
N

tp nu ra, thng qua xy dng tin trnh lun gii nhm gip cho hc sinh c

dung v bin php mang tnh phng php lun xut, h thng cc dng bi

T
N

nng lc t hc m lun vn ra.

- i chiu kt qu ca lp thc nghim vi kt qu ca lp i chng nh

gi kh nng p dng nhng bin php xut vo qu trnh dy hc ha hc.

3.2. NHIM V TNSP

.Q

- S dng BTHH pht trin nng lc t hc cho hc sinh thng qua hot ng

TP

gii bi tp m c s l xy dng tin trnh lun gii, ph v chng ngi nhn

thc, thng hiu kin thc v nhn vn di nhiu gc khc nhau.

- Kim tra v nh gi nhng ni dung v bin php xut nhm pht trin

nng lc t hc t pht trin c t duy v rn tr thng minh, sng to cho hc

sinh.

TR

- X l, phn tch kt qu TNSP, rt ra kt lun cn thit.

0B

3.3. PHNG PHP THC NGHIM S PHM

10
0

3.3.1. K hoch

2+
3

Khi tin hnh thc nghim s phm, chng ti thc hin cc cng vic sau:

a) a bn v i tng thc nghim

*Trn 3 trng THPT Thanh Ha:

+ Trng THPT Qung Xng III- Huyn Qung Xng

+ Trng THPT o Duy T TP Thanh Ha.

-L

+ Trng THPT Lng c Bng Huyn Hong Ha

TO

Lp thc nghim v lp i chng :

B
ID

+ La chn cp lp i chng (C) v lp thc nghim (TN) theo cc yu cu


tng ng nhau v cc mt:
S lng hc sinh, t l nam, n v trnh v kh nng hc tp.
Trn c s cc yu cu trn, chng ti chn cc cp lp TN-C theo bng sau:

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Bng 3.1 Cc trng, lp thc nghim (TN) v lp i chng (C)

H
N
H

GV thc hin
L Th Thanh H

42

12A8

45

L Ngc Sng

44

12A11

41

Trn Th Ng

46

T
N

12A2

THPT
Qung
Xng III
THPT o Duy
12A3
T
THPT
Lng 12A10
c Bng

i chng
(C)
Lp S HS

Thc nghim
(TN)
Lp
S
HS
12A1
50

Trng

TP

.Q

b) Trao i vi GV dy thc nghim

Trc khi TNSP, chng ti gp GV dy thc nghim trao i mt s vn :

- Nhn xt ca GV v cc lp TN - C chn.

- Tm hiu tnh hnh hc tp v nng lc t hc, kh nng ch ng hc tp

ca cc HS trong lp TN.

TR

- Mc thng hiu kin thc c bn ca HS.

0B

- Tnh hnh hc bi, chun b bi v lm bi tp ca HS trc khi n lp.

10
0

- Suy ngh ca GV v vic dng BTHH cng c, vn dng kin thc v

2+
3

pht trin t duy ng thi nhm kch thch nng lc t hc cho HS.
3.3.2. Tin trnh TNSP

Chng ti tin hnh thc nghim s phm vo hc k I ca nm 2011 -

2012. cc lp i chng GV s dng cc bi tp nh SGK, SBT lp 12 theo cch

thng dng ca chnh mnh. Cn lp thc nghim GV s dng h thng bi tp

-L

v theo cch m chng ti yu cu.

B
ID

TO

a) La chn bi dy

1. Tit 5: Luyn tp: dn xut halogen n ancol, phenol


2. Tit 6: Luyn tp: anehit n este

b) Tin hnh kim tra

- nh gi kt qu TNSP, chng ti cho HS hai lp C v TN lm 2 bi


kim tra vit 45 pht.

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Ln 1 c thc hin sau gi thc nghim vi mc ch xc nh tnh trng


nm vng bi ca hai lp i chng v thc nghim.

Ln 2 c thc hin sau thi gian 1 tun vi mc ch thi gian cho cc

H
N

a ra cng c kin thc nhm pht trin nng lc t hc t bi p kin thc

em t hc thm nh da trn h thng bi tp m gio vin dy lp thc nghim

T
N

cho chnh mnh.

- bi kim tra nh nhau, cng p n v cng GV chm.

- Kt qu ca cc bi kim tra c x l theo l thuyt thng k ton hc.

3.4. KT QU THC NGHIM

TP

Bng 3.2: Kt qu cc bi kim tra

.Q

Kt qu ca cc bi kim tra c thng k bng sau:

tng

KT

Bi

2 3 4

0 0 3

15

6 0

14 11 8 3

THPT

12A3

(42)

Duy T

11A8

TN

11A10
(44)

THPT

-L

(45)

Ha I

TN

12A
(41)

0 0 3

1 1 3

14

4 0

1 2 6 12

3 0

0 0 5

10

4 1

0 0 3

12 6 3

0 2 6

12 13

2 0

0 1 4

10 10

4 1

0 1 2

12 10 6 0

0 0 2

11 10 4 1

1 2 2 13

10

1 0

1 1 5

2 1

B
ID

TO

Hong

(46)

III

12A2

TR

Xng

TN

0B

(50)

10
0

Qung

2+
3

12A1

THPT

Lp

S HS t im Xi

Trng

Page:169

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Bng 3.3: Bng tng hp im cc bi kim tra

10

136

0 0

10

25

23

37

23

16

132

0 0

11

28

29

37

13

TN

136

0 0

17

21

32

33

18

132

0 0

15

28

25

25

22

TN

272

0 0

18

42

44

69

56

264

0 0

26

56

54

62

H
N
B

34

16

35

TN

.Q

Tng

0 1

T
N

tng

S HS t im Xi

Tng HS

Bi KT

TP

3.5. X L KT QU THC NGHIM

3.5.1 X L KT QU TNSP

Kt qu kim tra TNSP c s l theo phng php thng k ton hc, th

t nh sau:

TR

1 - Lp cc bng phn phi: tn s, tn sut, tn sut ly tch.

0B

2 - V th ng ly tch t bng phn phi tn sut ly tch.

2+
3

a) th phn b s liu

10
0

3 - Tnh cc tham s c trng thng k.

c mt hnh nh trc quan v tnh hnh phn phi s liu, chng ti biu

din bng phn phi bng th tch ly. Nu ng tch ly ng vi n v no

cng pha bn phi (hay pha di) th n v c cht lng hn.

-L

b) Trung bnh cng

B
ID

TO

c trng cho s tp trung s liu:


k

n X + n 2 X 2 + ... + n k X k
X = 1 1
=
n1 + n2 + ... + n k

n X
i

i =1

(3.1)

ni: tn s ca cc gi tr xi.
n: S HS tham gia thc nghim.
c) Phng sai S2 v lch chun S

Page:170

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

L cc tham s o mc phn tn ca cc s liu quanh gi tr trung bnh

X )2

(3.2)

n 1

n (X
=

X )2

(3.3)

n 1

Gi tr lch chun S cng nh, chng t s liu cng t phn tn.

T
N

n (X

S=

cng.

.Q

(3.4)

TP

m=

d) Sai s tiu chun m

Gi tr x s dao ng trong khong X m .

G
N

(3.5)

100

V% =

e) H s bin thin V%

TR

- Khi 2 bng s liu c gi tr trung bnh cng bng nhau, th ta tnh lch

0B

chun S, nhm no c lch chun S b th nhm c cht lng tt hn.

10
0

- Nu 2 bng s liu cho gi tr trung bnh cng khc nhau, ngi ta so snh

2+
3

mc phn tn ca cc s liu bng h s bin thin V. Nhm no c V nh hn

th nhm c cht lng ng u hn, nhm no c x ln th c trnh cao

hn.

g) khng nh s khc nhau gia 2 gi tr x TN v x C l c ngha vi xc

-L

sut sai ca c hay mc ngha l

TO

Chng ti dng php th student:

B
ID

t = ( X TN X DC )

Trong :

(S

2
TN

n
2
+ S DC
)

(3.6)

n l s HS ca mi nhm thc nghim.

- Chn xc sut (t 0,001 0,05). Tra bng phn phi Student tm gi tr


t ,k vi:
t do k = 2n - 2.

Page:171

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

+ Nu t t ,k th s khc nhau gia x TN v x C l c ngha vi mc

ngha .

+ Nu t < t ,k th s khc nhau gia x TN v x C l cha ngha vi mc

ngha .

T
N

- Loi gii: HS t im t 9 n10.


- Loi kh : HS t im t 7 n 8.
- Loi trung bnh: HS t im t 5 n 6.

phn loi cht lng hc tp ca HS, chng ti lp bng phn loi:

- Loi yu km: HS t im t 4 tr xung

.Q

f) Lp bng phn phi tn sut, tn sut lu tch

TP

T bng 3.3 (bng tn s) ta tnh c phn trm s HS t im Xi,phn trm s

gii. Kt qu c biu din bng 3.4 ; 3.5; 3.6:

HS t im Xi tr xung v phn trm s HS t im yu-km, trung bnh, kh v

Bng 3.4: S % HS t im Xi

KT

tng

HS

TN

136

0,74

132

TN

136

132

10
0

2+
3

10

7,34

18,38 16,91

8,33

21,21

21,97 28,03 98,48

5,88

12,50

15,44 23,53 24,26 13,24 5,15

1,52 3,03 11,36 21,21

27,21 16,91 11,76 0,74

18,94 18,94 16,67

5,30

6,82

1,52

10

Tng

tng

HS

0 1

TN

136

0 0

132

0 0

1,52 5,30

TN

136

0 0

132

TO

KT

B
ID

S % HS t im Xi tr xung

Bi

Bng 3.5: S % HS t im Xi tr xung

-L

1,52 3,79
0

S % HS t im Xi

Tng

TR

0B

Bi

0,74 8,09

26,47

43,38

70,59 87,50 99,26 100

13,64 34,85 56,82

84,85 94,70

5,88

18,38 41,18

57,35 81,62

94,85 100

0 0 1,52 4,55 15,91 37,12 56,06

75,00 91,67

98,48 100

100

100

Page:172

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

5,30

5,88

27,94

47,80

15,90

40,15

35,61

T
N

37,88

43,18

13,64

Gii
(9 10)
12,50

Kh
(7 -8 )
44,12

Trung bnh
(5 -6 )
35,29

18,38
8,33

TP

.Q

Yu-km
(0 4)
8,09

TN

S % HS

Bi KT

i tng

Bng 3.6: S % HS t im yu-km,trung bnh,kh v gii

k) V th ng lu tch theo bng phn phi tn sut lu tch

T bng 3.5 ta v c th cc ng lu tch tng ng vi 2 bi kim tra:

th ng lu tch bi 1

TR

120

0B

100

10
0

80

40

10

th ng lu tch bi 2

B
ID

TO

-L

20
0

TN
DC

2+
3

60

Page:173

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

120

100

80

N
B

T
N

40

TN
DC

60

20
2

10

TP

.Q

T bng 3.6 ta c th biu din trnh HS qua biu hnh ct:

50

45

TR

40

0B

35

10
0

30
25

2+
3

20
15

10

Yu - km

Trung Bnh

Kh

Gii

Bi 1

B
ID

TO

-L

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

45

40

35

30

25

20

T
N

15
10

5
Kh

Gii

Trung Bnh

Yu - km

.Q

Bi 2

TP

l) Tnh cc tham s c trng thng k


T bng 1b, p dng cc cng thc tnh X ,S2,S,V nu trn ta tnh c cc
tham s c trng thng k theo tng bi dy ca hai i tng thc nghim v i
chng.Cc gi tr c th hin trong bng sau:

Bng 5: Bng thng k cc gi tr trung bnh cng, phng sai, lch chun

S2

6,64

2,28

1,51

22,71

6,08

2,43

1,56

25,63

7,08

2,58

1,61

22,67

6,20

2,87

1.69

27,34

TN

6,8

2,39

1,55

22,55

6,14

2,58

1,61

26,15

TN

2+
3

TN
1

0B

i tng

10
0

Bi

TR

v h s bin thin ca cc lp TN v C

-L

Tng

B
ID

TO

3.5.2 Phn tch kt qu thc nghim


 Sau khi x l kt qu ca cc bi kim tra bng phng php ton hc thng k

cho thy:
- Cc ng lu tch ca cc lp TN u nm bn phi v pha di cc ng
lu tch ca cc lp C, iu chng t cht lng hc tp ca HS cc lp TN
cao hn so vi cc lp C.
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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

- T l % HS yu km v trung bnh ca cc lp C cao hn lp TN, cn t l %


HS kh v gii ca lp TN cao hn ca cc lp C.

- H s bin thin V ca lp TN lun nh hn ca lp C chng t mc phn

tn im ca HS lp C rng hn ca lp TN, cht lng ca lp TN ng u

hn.

TN

v X C l c ngha,

tra cho thy c th khng nh s khc nhau gia X

T
N

- Vi mc ngha = 0,01 ta c cc i lng kim nh t > t,f qua tng bi kim

phng php mi c hiu qu hn phng php c.

Nhn xt

.Q

T kt qu TNSP v cc bin php khc nh: d gi xem xt cc hot ng

TP

ca GV v HS trn lp, trao i vi GV v HS, xem v bi tp, cho php chng

ti rt ra mt s nhn xt sau y:

+ S dng BTHH mt cch c hiu qu, gio vin thng qua vic a ra

phng php gii bi tp v la chn v t chc HS tm ra cch gii BT, s gip

HS thng hiu kin thc mt cch su sc hn, t kch thch hc sinh tm ti , t

0B

em li thnh cng cho cc em.

TR

chim lnh tri thc. Chnh s phn u ca bn thn hc sinh l yu t quan trng

10
0

+ HS khi lp TN khng ch pht trin c nng lc t duy nhanh nhy,

2+
3

sng to m cn rn c c cch ni v trnh by lp lun ca mnh mt cch

lgic, chnh xc; kh nng c lp suy ngh c nng cao dn bng mt chui cc

cu hi dn dt lgic t yu cu n iu kin.

+ Vi HS cc lp i chng gp kh khn trong vic xc nh nhanh hng

gii bi ton, bi cc em khng c c cung cp h thng phng php gii bi

-L

tp. Hu ht u s dng phng php truyn thng gii va mt thi gian m

TO

nhiu bi gp khng tm ra c phng hng gii, dn n nhiu khi b tc

B
ID

khng gii c.
+ Nng lc t duy ca HS khi lp TN cng khng rp khun my mc m

linh hot, mm do hn, c kh nng nhn nhn vn , bi ton di nhiu gc


v nhiu kha cnh khc nhau trn c s nm vng kin thc c bn.
+ Nh vy phng n TN nng cao c nng lc t duy ca hc sinh, kh
nng lm vic c lp v t lc, nng lc vn dng linh hot v sng to kin thc
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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

hc vo nhng bi ton l nhng tnh hung mi, bit nhn ra ci sai ca bi

ton v bc u xy dng nhng bi ton nh gp phn pht trin nng lc t duy

v bi dng tr thng minh, c tm ti sng to cho hc sinh, gy c khng kh

Theo kt qu ca phng n thc nghim, sau khi trao i vi cc GV tham

ho hng trong qu trnh nhn thc.

T
N

gia TNSP, tt c u khng nh s cn thit v hiu qu ca cch s dng

BTHH gp phn nng cao kh nng thng hiu kin thc, nng lc nhn

thc v t duy cho HS.

Bn cnh chnh gio vin phi c phng php dy hc khuyn khch s

.Q

pht trin ni lc ca hc sinh s kch thch qu trnh lnh hi tri thc v pht

TP

trin tr tu.

Tm li ngi gio vin gi vai tr quyt nh trong hot ng hc tp ca

hc sinh, v vy cn phi c nhng bin php dy hc thch hp hnh thnh

nng lc t hc cho cc em. Vi lng yu ngh v nhn cch v hc sinh,

cng vi s n lc, t gic ca HS cao hn na, th hiu qu dy hc chc

TR

chn s cao hn nhiu.

0B

TIU KT CHNG III

10
0

Trong chng ny chng ti trnh by qu trnh v kt qu TNSP. Chng

2+
3

ti tin hnh TN 3 trng, 6 lp, trong hc k I ca nm hc 2011 -2012,

x l kt qu 2 bi kim tra, cho thy kt qu khi lp TN lun cao hn khi lp

C, iu cho php khng nh: Vic s dng h thng bi tp ca lun vn

h tr c phng php t hc ca hc sinh. Nh vy cht lng ca hc sinh

c nng ln

-L

Tm li, cc kt qu thu c cn bn xc nhn gi thuyt khoa hc ca

B
ID

TO

ti.

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

KT LUN CHUNG V KIN NGH


1. Kt lun

gp phn nng cao cht lng dy v hc Hahc trng THPT th chungs

ta phi pht huy c vai tr tch cc, ch ng, sng to v kh nng t hc ca

cc. Lun vn ny ch mong mun gp phn nh vo vic nng cao cht lng

T
N

dy v hc nghin cu v a ra c nhng ni dung sau :

1.1. Nghin cu c s l lun v thc tin ca ti bao gm :

- Nghin cu l lun v hot ng t hc l : Khi nim t hc, cc hnh thc

t hc, vai tr ca t hc. Khi nim v nng lc t hc, mt s nng lc t hc

.Q

cn bi dng cho hc sinh THPT

TP

- Bi tp ha hc : Khi nim, phn loi v tc dng ca bi tp ha hc, tin

trnh gii bi tp ha hc.

- Mt vi nhn xt v vic s dng HTBT h tr hc sinh t hc hin nay.

1.2. Nghin cu c s khoa hc v vic xy dng v s dng h thng bi tp

cho hc sinh t hc bao gm :

TR

- Nguyn tc xy dng HTBT

0B

1.3. Xy dng v s dng HTBT h tr HS t hc phn dn xut halogen, ancol,

10
0

phenol,anehit, axit cacboxylic v este.

2+
3

- Xy dng c 89 bi tp c hng dn.

- Xy dng c 236 bi tp trc nghim ngh hc sinh t gii c p n

1.4. Thc nghim s phm nh gi kt qu ca ti.

Kt qu thc nghim s phm cho thy h thng bi tp h tr cho hc sinh t

hc t c nhng yu cu ra.

-L

2. Mt s ngh:

B
ID

TO

Qua qu trnh nghin cu ti cho php chng ti xin mt s kin ngh sau :
2.1. Cc trng THPT nn khuyn khch v to mi iu kin vin i mi

phng php dy hc c bit l khuyn khch GV t mnh xy dng h thng bi


tp c cht lng , cc bi tp c tnh hung nu vn to iu kin hc sinh
tranh lun, gii quyt cc chng ngi nhm pht trin t duy, kch thch nim
say m v hng th hc tp ng thi pht trin c nng lc t hoc.

Page:178

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

2.2. Gio vin nn khuyn khch hc sinh t hc trn ti liu, sch tham kho ...
rn luyn cho hc sinh bit phng php suy lun c lp v thc hin hnh ng

c lp... gip hc sinh nng cao nng lc t hc v bn lnh, ch tch cc sng to

B
ID

TO

-L

2+
3

10
0

0B

TR

TP

.Q

T
N

khi dy nng lc tim tng, to ra ng lc to ln cho hc sinh.

Page:179

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

TI LIU THAM KHO


---  ---

1.Cao Th Thin An. Phng php gii nhanh cc bi ton thc nghim ha hc.

2 Ng Ngc An. Ha hc 11 nng cao. NXBTP H Ch Minh.

3.Ng Ngc An. Bi tp trc nghim Ha hc THPT lp 12. NXBGD.

T
N

4. Nguyn Duy i Nguyn Tinh Dung - Trn Thnh Hu Trn Quc Sn -

Nguyn Vn Tng. Mt s vn chn lc ca ha hc tp 1, 2, 3. NXB Gio

dc, 2002.

5. Phm Vn Bng (ch bin) Ninh Quc Tnh 1000 bi trc nghim trng

.Q

tm v in hnh.

TP

6. Cao C Gic. Tuyn tp bi ging ha hu c-NXB HQG H Ni 2005.

7. Cao C Gic. Hng dn gii nhanh bi tp ha hc NXBHQGHN.

8. Nguyn Thanh Khuyn. Phng php gii nhanh cc bi ton thc nghim

ha hc hu c. NXBHQG.

9. L Vn Nm, Nguyn Th Su. Phng php ging dy cc chuyn mc quan

TR

trng ca chng trnh ha hc ph thng.

0B

10. L Vn Nm, nhng vn i cng v l lun dy hc ( Chuyn cao hc-

10
0

chuyn ngnh LL v PPDH ha hc).

Chuyn cao hc).

2+
3

11. L Vn Nm, phng php lun nghin cu khoa hc trong dy hc ha hc (

12. L Vn Nm, cc phng php dy hc hin i ( Chuyn cao hc).

13. Nguyn th Ng (ch bin)- V Anh Tun. Hp cht hu c cha oxi

hu c. NXBHQGHN.

-L

14. Nguyn Ngc Quang. Dy hc - Con ng hnh thnh nhn cch, Trng

TO

cn b qun l gio dc TW 1-1990.

B
ID

15. L Ngc Sng. Nng cao ha hc 11. NXBHN.


16. L Ngc Sng. Nng cao ha hc 12. NXBHN.
17. L Ngc Sng.Phng php gii nhanh cc bi ton thc nghim ha hc hu

c. NXBHQGHN.
18. L trng Tn (2006). Nhng phng php tch cc trong dy hc ha hc. Ti

liu bi dng thng xuyn gio vin THPT.


Page:180

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L Th Thanh H

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19. Nguyn Cnh Ton (Ch bin ), Nguyn K, V Vn To, Bi Tng . Qu

trnh dy t hc, NXB Gio dc.

20. Nguyn Cnh Ton, Tuyn tp tc phm t gio dc- T hc- T nghin cu ,

21. Quan Hn Thnh. n tp v h thng ha nhanh gio khoa ha hu c, S

Tp 1, Trng HSP H Ni.

T
N

phn ng ha hc. NXB HQG TPHCM, 2003.

cu trc nghim khch quan. Tp ch Ha hc v ng dng, s 2/ 2005.

22. Nguyn Xun Trng. Xy dng bi ton hu c c th gii nhanh lm

23. Nguyn Xun Trng. Bi tp khch quan ha hu c c ni dung thc

.Q

nghim. Tp ch Ha hc v ng dng, s 6/ 2005.

TP

24. Nguyn Xun Trng - Trn Trung Ninh - L Vn Nm - Quch Vn

Long - H Th Hng Tr. 1080 Cu hi trc nghim Ha hc. NXB HQG

TPHCM, 2007.

25. Nguyn Xun Trng. Cch bin son v tr li cu hi trc nghim mn

ho hc trng ph thng. NXB Gio dc, 2007.

TR

26. L Anh Xun. Phng php gii nhanh cc bi ton thc nghim ha hc hu

0B

c. NXB Thanh Ha.

10
0

27. Tuyn tp cc thi i hc t nm 1998 n nay.

2+
3

28. B Gio dc o to. Ha hc (12 nng cao). NXBGD-2008.

29. B Gio dc o to. Ha hc Nhng vn chung v i mi gio dc ph

thng mn Ha hc. NXBGD-2007.

30. B Gio dc o to. Ha hc. Ti liu bi dng gio vin thc hin chng

trnh sch gio khoa ha hc 11. NXBGD-2007.

-L

31. B Gio dc o to. Ha hc (11 nng cao). NXBGD-2007.

TO

32. Trung tm nghin cu v pht trin t hc (1998), t hc, t o to t

B
ID

tng chin lc ca pht trin gio dc Vit Nam, NXB Gio dc.

33. V Quc Chung- L Hi Yn, t hc t hiu qu. NXB HSPHN.


34. Bi bo :Nng cao nng lc t hoc (su tm).
35. Bi bo :K nng t hc (su tm).
36. http://www.giaoan.violet.vn
37. http://www.thuvien-ebook.com

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

PH LC
PH LC 1:

PHIU IU TRA

Trng i hc VINH

Lp cao hc LL & PPDH b mn ho hc

T
N

PHIU THAM KHO KIN

Knh cho qu thy c!

gp phn nng cao hiu qu s dng BTHH lp 11 v 12 trng THPT, xin

qu thy c cho kin v cc vn di y bng cch nh (x) vo cc la

.Q

chn. Xin trn trng cm n s gip ca thy c!

TP

I. THNG TIN C NHN

a bn iu tra: Trng THPTTnh

i tng tham gia:


Gio vin
H v tn: (ngi tham gia)

TR
Cha y

10
0

Rt y

0B

kin thc ca chng trnh cha?

II. THC TRNG V VIC S DNG H THNG BI TP


1. Theo thy c, BTHH trong SGK v sch bi tp y cc dng v bao qut

thm HTBT khng?

Cn thit

Bnh thng

Khng cn thit

Rt cn thit

2+
3

2. Theo thy c, nng cao kt qu hc tp ca hc sinh c cn thit phi s dng

3. Thy c s dng thm HTBT cha?

Rt thng xuyn

Thng xuyn

Thnh thong

Cha bao gi

-L

4. Nu thy c s dng thm HTBT th HTBT c ngun gc t

(C th nh du vo nhiu la chn)

B
ID

TO

Sch tham kho

Mng internet

T xy dng

5. HTBT m thy c s dng c thit k theo (C th nh du vo nhiu la


chn)

bi hc

Chng

chuyn

6. Cch thc m thy c s dng HTBT (C th nh du vo nhiu la chn)


HS t gii sau khi hc xong bi hc

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

GV gii bi mu, HS v nh lm bi tp tng t


GV gii bi mu, HS v nh lm bi tp tng t c km theo p s.

50%- 75%

trn 75%.

25%- 50%

di 25%

7. Vi mi bi tp trn lp, s HS lm c vo khong

8. Nhng kh khn m thy c gp phi trong khi dy BTHH (1 ng vi mc

Mc kh khn

Kh khn

T
N

thp nht, 5 ng vi mc cao nht)

- Khng thi gian

.Q

- Trnh HS khng u

TP

- Khng c HTBT cht lng h tr HS t

hc

- Khc ..

III. V VIC XY DNG V S DNG H THNG BI TP H TR T

HC
cn thit

0B

Rt cn thit

TR

1. Theo thy c, vic xy dng h thng BTHH h tr HS t hc l


bnh thng

khng cn thit

10
0

2. Theo thy c, h thng BTHH h tr HS t hc phi (1 ng vi mc thp

2+
3

nht, 5 ng vi mc cao nht)

Mc cn thit

Bin php

- Son theo tng bi hc

-L

- Phn dng

- C hng dn cch gii cho tng dng

TO

- C bi mu cho tng dng

B
ID

- C p s cho cc bi tp tng t
- Xp t d n kh
- c bi tp tng hp HS h thng v cng
c kin thc
- Khc.
Xin chn thnh cm n s gip ca qu thy c!
Page:183

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

PH LC 2:

Phiu tham kho kin HS

Trng i hc VINH

Lp cao hc LL & PPDH b mn ho hc

PHIU THAM KHO KIN

T
N

Cho cc em!

gp phn nng cao hiu qu s dng BTHH lp 11 v 12 phn ha hu c c

vo cc la chn. Cm n s ng gp kin nhit tnh ca cc em!

trng THPT, mong cc em cho kin v cc vn di y bng cch nh (x)

.Q

I. THNG TIN C NHN

TP

a bn iu tra :Trng : Tnh (thnh ph):

H v tn: (ngi tham gia) Lp:

bnh thng

thch

khng thch

rt thch

1. i vi gi BTHH, em cm thy

2. Thi gian em dnh lm BTHH trc khi n lp


Khong 30 pht

30 pht n 60 pht

trn 60 pht.

0B

TR

khng c nh

10
0

3. Em chun b cho tit bi tp nh th no?

2+
3

Lm trc nhng bi tp v nh

c, tm tt, ghi nhn nhng ch cha hiu

c lt qua cc bi tp

Khng chun b g c

4. Khi gp mt bi ton kh, em

-L

my m t tm cch gii

TO

xem k bi mu GV hng dn

B
ID

tham kho li gii trong sch bi tp


chn nn, khng lm

5. Vi bi tp v nh, s bi em lm c vo khong
di 25%

25%- 50%

50%- 75%

trn 75%.

6. Thi gian GV dnh gii bi mu lp


d theo di v ghi chp

va theo di v ghi chp

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L Th Thanh H

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theo di nhng cha kp ghi chp

khng theo di v ghi chp

7. Sau khi gii 1 bi tp trn lp, em tm bi tp tng t gii


Rt thng xuyn

Thng xuyn

Thnh thong

Cha bao gi

Khng

8. Em gp phi nhng kh khn no khi gii BTHH?

T
N

- thiu bi tp tng t

- Khng c bi gii mu

- Cc bi tp ln xn khng theo dng

- Cc bi tp khng c xp t d n kh

.Q

- Khng c p s cho bi tp tng t

TP

9. Theo em thnh tho 1 dng bi tp em cn

Khng

- GV gii k mt bi mu

- Em xem li bi tp gii

- Em t lm li bi tp gii

0B

- Em lm cc bi tp tng t

TR

- Em tng bc lm quen v nhn dng bi tp

10
0

10. Em cha thch bi tp nhng im no?

2+
3

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

......................................................................................................................................

III. V VIC T HC CA HC SINH

-L

11. hc tt mn ho, theo em


Khng

B
ID

TO

Ch cn hc trn lp l
Hc thm ( nh GV hoc trung tm)
Dnh nhiu thi gian t hc c s hng dn ca thy c.
12. Khi thi hoc kim tra, t kt qu cao th theo cc em, yu t t hc, t
nghin cu ca mnh l:
Rt cn thit

cn thit

bnh thng

khng cn

thit
Page:185

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13. L do cc em cn phi t hc l v:
C

Khng

Gip hc sinh hiu bi trn lp su sc hn

Gip HS nh bi lu hn

Phtn huy tnh tch cc ca HS

T
N

Kch thch hng th tm ti nng cao m rng kin thc

Tp thi quen t hc v t nghin cu sut i

Rn luyn thm kh nng suy lun logic

Ni dung ang hc thng cp trong cc k thi

.Q

L do khc.

TP

14. Em s dng thi gian t hc

Khng

Khng

Khng

Khng

c li bi trn lp

chun b bi trn lp theo hng dn

TR

0B

15. Cch thc t hc ca em l g?

c ti liu tham kho

10
0

Ch hc bi, lm bi khi cn thit

2+
3

Hc theo hng dn, c ni dung cu hi, bi tp ca GV

Ch hc phn no quan trng, cm thy thch th

16. Nhng kh khn m em gp phi trong qu trnh t hc l

-L

Thiu ti liu hc tp, tham kho

Thiu s hng dn c th cho vic hc tp


17. Theo em, nhng tc ng n hiu qu ca vic t hc l

B
ID

TO

Kin thc rng kh bao qut

Nim tin v s ch ng ca HS
S t chc, hng dn ca thy
Ti liu hng dn hc tp
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Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

PH LC 3

Mt s bi kim tra nh gi kt qu hc tp

Kim tra khi 12 . Sau tit 5( theo phn phi chng trnh). ( Bi s 1)

Thi gian lm bi : 45 pht .

I. Phn trc nghim:

D. 3-clopropen

C. Propyl clorua.

B. Vinyl clorua

A. Anlyl clorua.

T
N

Cu 1: CH2=CHCH2Cl c tn gc chc l

.Q

Cu 2 :Nhn xt no sau y ko ng ?

B.Vinyl clorua c th c /c t 1,2-icloetan

TP

A.Anlyl bromua d tham gia p th hn phenyl bromua

C.Etyl clorua thuc loi dx halogen bc II

D.ng vi CTPT C3H5Br c 4 ng phn cu to

0B

A. C2H4Br2 v 2 ng phn.

TR

vC. CTPT v s ng phn ca X l:

Cu 3: Mt hp cht hu c X c CTGN l CH2Br v phn t khi bng 188


C. C2H4Br2 v 3 ng phn.
D. C3H6Br3 v 4 ng phn

10
0

B. C2H4Br2 v 4 ng phn.

2+
3

Cu 4: Qu trnh no sau y khng to ra anehit axetic?


o

A. CH3CH2OH + CuO (t ).
o

B. CH2=CH2 + H2O (t , xc tc HgSO4).

C. CH3COOCH=CH2 + dung dch NaOH (t ).


o

-L

D. CH2=CH2 + O2 (t , xc tc).

A. 3

B. 4

B
ID

C. 5

D. 6

Cu 6: Cho s phn ng sau:

TO

Cu 5: ng vi CTPT C3H8Ox c bao nhiu cht l ancol?

CH4 X Y Z T C6H5-OH.
(X, Y, Z l cc cht hu c khc nhau). Ch ra Z.
A. C6H5-Cl

B. C6H5-NH2

C. C6H5-NO2

D. C6H5-ONa

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

Cu 7 (DH-07-A): Cho 15,6 gam hn hp hai ancol (ru) n chc, k tip nhau

trong dy ng ng tc dng ht vi 9,2 gam Na, thu c 24,5 gam cht rn. Hai

D. CH3OH v C2H5OH

C. C3H7OH v C4H9OH.

B. C2H5OH v C3H7OH.

A. C3H5OH v C4H7OH.

ancol l (cho H = 1, C = 12, O = 16, Na = 23)

T
N

Cu 8: t chy hon ton 1 anehit A mch h, no thu c CO2 v H2O theo t l

nA : nCO2 : nH2O = 1 : 3 : 2 . Vy A l

B. OHCCH2CHO.

C. HOCCH2CH2CHO.

D. CH3CH2CH2CH2CHO

A. CH3CH2CHO.

.Q

Cu 9: Cho 0,1 mol mt anehit X tc dng ht vi dung dch AgNO3/NH3 (d)

TP

c 43,2 gam Ag. Hiro ha hon ton X c Y. Bit 0,1 mol Y tc dng va
B. C2H2O2.

C. C4H6O.

A. CH2O.

vi Na va c 12 gam rn. X c cng thc phn t l

D. C3H4O2.

Cu 10: Hai hp cht hu c X v Y l ng ng k tip, u tc dng vi Na v

c phn ng trng bc. Bit phn trm khi lng oxi trong X, Y ln lt l 53,33%

TR

v 43,24%. Cng thc cu to ca X v Y tng ng l

0B

A. HOCH2CHO v HOCH2CH2CHO.

10
0

B. HOCH2CH2CHO v HOCH2CH2CH2CHO.

2+
3

C. HCOOCH3 v HCOOCH2CH3.

II. Phn t lun.

D. HOCH(CH3)CHO v HOOCCH2CHO.

1.Mt ankanol A c 60% cacbon theo khi lng trong phn t. Tnh th tch

-L

H2(ktc) thot ra khi cho 18 gam A tc dng ht vi Na.

2. Cho 7,25 gam 1 anehit mch h A tc dng vi dung dch AgNO3 trong NH3 d

TO

to ra m gam Ag kt ta. Ha tan lng Ag trn bng dung dch HNO3 d thy c
ca A so vi khng kh nh hn 4.

B
ID

5,6 lt kh mu nu thot ra ( ktc). Tm cng thc cu to ca A, bit ti khi hi

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Kim tra khi 12 . Sau tit 6( theo phn phi chng trnh). ( Bi s 2)

Thi gian lm bi : 45 pht .

I. Phn trc nghim:

Cu 1: t chy ht b mol mt axit hu c hai ln axit cn 0,5b mol oxi. Axit ny

l:
B. Axit cha no mt ni i

C. Axit oxalic

D . axit khng no, mt lin kt ba.

T
N

A. Axit no

Cu 2: Axit metacrylic c kh nng phn ng vi cc cht sau :

B. H2, Br2 , NaOH, CH3-COOH.

C. CH3-CH2-OH , Br2, Ag2O / NH3, t0.

D. Na, H2, Br2, HCl , NaOH.

.Q

A. Na, H2 , Br2, CH3-CHO

TP

Cu 3. Cho cc cht: etyl axetat, etanol, axit acrylic, phenol, phenylamoni clorua,
C. 5

D. 6

B. 4

A. 3

phenyl axetat. Trong cc cht ny, s cht tc dng c vi dung dch NaOH l

Cu 4. Cho cc cht: axit propionic (X); axit axetic (Y); ancol etylic (Z) v metyl

axetat (T). Dy gm cc cht c sp xp theo chiu tng dn nhit si l


B. Z, T, Y, X

TR

A. T, Z, Y, X

D. Y, T, X, Z

0B

C. T, X, Y, Z

10
0

Cu 5. Cho tt c cc ng phn n chc, mch h, c cng thc phn t C2H4O2

2+
3

ln lt tc dng vi: Na, NaOH, NaHCO3. S phn ng xy ra l


B. 3

C. 4

D. 5

A. 2

Cu 6: t chy ht m gam mt axit n chc no, mch h c (m + 2,8) gam


B. CH3COOH
D. C3H7COOH

A. HCOOH

CO2 v (m - 2,4) gam nc. Cng thc phn t ca axit l:

-L

C. C2H5COOH

TO

Cu 7. Thu phn este C4H6O2 trong mi trng axit thu c hn hp 2 cht u

B
ID

tham gia phn ng trng gng. Cng thc cu to ca este l


A. HCOOC(CH3)=CH2

B. HCOOCH2CH=CH2

C. CH2=CHCOOCH3

D. HCOOCH=CHCH3

Cu 8. Cht X c cng thc phn t C4H8O2. Khi X tc dng vi dung dch NaOH

sinh ra 2 cht: Y c cng thc C2H3O2Na v cht Z c cng thc C2H6O. X thuc
loi:
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A. Axit

B. Este

C. Anehit
+

D. Axit hoc este

Cu 9. Cho s sau: C H 3 C l X Y Z T M + N
,t

P2 O 5

NaOH d

C 6 H 5 OH

H3O

KCN

D. CH3COONa v C6H5COONa

C. CH3OH v C6H5COONa.

B. CH3COONa v C6H5CH2OH.

A. CH3COONa v C6H5ONa.

Cng thc cu to ca M v N ln lt l

T
N

Cu 10: un nng 6,0 gam CH3COOH vi 6,0 gam C2H5OH (c H2SO4 lm xc

tc, hiu sut phn

C. 8,8 gam.

D. 5,2 gam.

B. 4,4 gam.

A. 6,0 gam.

ng este ho bng 50%). Khi lng este to thnh l

.Q

II. Phn t lun

TP

Cu 1. Hon thnh s bin ha sau:

O 2 ,xt
NaOH
+ NaOH
+ NaOH
X(C 4 H 8O 2 )
Y
T
Z
C2H6
CaO,t o

Cu 2. t chy hon ton 1 lng hn hp 2 este no n chc cn 3,976 lit O2

(ktc) thu c 6,38 gam CO2 bay ln. Cho lng este ny tc dng va vi

KOH thu c hn hp hai ancol k tip nhau v 3,92 gam mui ca 1 axit hu c.

TR

Tm cng thc cu to v tnh khi lng mi este trong hn hp ban u.

10
0

0B

PH LC 4

p n phn bi tp trc nghim


2C

3A

11B

12B

13A

21A

22B

23C

4C

5D

6A

7D

8B

9C

10B

14A

15A

16B

17A

18A

19B

20C

24B

25A

26D

-L

1B

2+
3

Bi tp phn dn xut halogen ca hirocacbon

Bi tp phn ancol phenol


2D

3C

4C

5A

6B

7A

8D

9A

10A

11C

12C

13B

14C

15B

16A

17A

18C

19A

20D

21B

22A

23A

24D

25B

26D

27B

28B

29B

30B

32B

32C

33D

34A

35B

36B

37A

38B

39B

40C

41C

42C

43C

44A

45C

46B

47A

48B

49A

50D

B
ID

TO

1B

Page:190

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L Th Thanh H

Cao hc Ha hc K17 - H Vinh

52D

53C

54A

55B

56D

57C

61B

62B

63A

64D

65A

66D

67A

58D

59A

60B

51C

3D

4D

5A

6C

7B

8B

9C

10A

11B

12C

13A

14B

15C

16C

17B

18D

19A

20C

21A

22C

23C

24D

25A

26D

27C

28B

29B

31A

32A

33B

34C

35B

36A

37B

38A

39A

40D

41A

42A

43B

44B

45D

46C

47A

48A

49A

50C

7C

8B

9D

10D

17D

18C

19D

20B

T
N
N

N
Y

30A

TP

.Q

2C

1B

Bi tp phn anehit

Bi tp phn axit cacboxylic


2D

3B

4C

5B

6D

11B

12B

13B

14D

15D

16A

21C

22D

23C

24C

25A

26D

27C

28C

29C

30B

TR

1A

10
0

0B

Bi tp phn este
2B

3D

4A

5D

6C

7B

8B

9D

10B

11D

12A

13D

14C

15A

16C

17C

18C

19C

20C

21D

22B

23A

24B

25B

26D

27C

28B

29C

30A

31B

32A

33B

34D

35B

36C

37B

38B

39D

40B

41C

42A

43B

44C

45D

46A

47A

48C

49D

50A

52B

53A

54D

55A

56D

57C

58A

59C

60A

62D

63D

B
ID

TO

61B

-L

51D

2+
3

1D

Page:191

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